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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
#86 - ᾅδης
- name Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower regions
- Orcus, the nether world, the realm of the dead
- later use of this word: the grave, death, hell
Ἅιδης or ᾅδης, ου, ὁ, Att.; Ἀΐδης, ao and εω; Dor. Αΐδας, α, used by Trag., in lyr.and anap.: gen. Αϊδος, dat. Αϊδι, Hom., Trag., v. infr.: (perh. ἀ- priv., ἰδεῖν): — in Hom. only as pr.n. Hades, Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δ' Αΐδης Il. 15.188, cf. Hes. Th. 455: — εἰν' Αΐδαο δόμοισι in the nether world, Od. 4.834; freq. εἰν, εἰς Αΐδαο (sc. δόμοις, δόμους), as Il. 22.389, 21.48; εἰν Ἄϊδος Il 24.593; Trag. and Att. ἐν Ἅιδου, εἰς Ἅιδου (sc. οἴκῳ, οἶκον), S. Aj. 865, Ar. Ra. 69, etc.; Ἄϊδόσδε, Adv. to the nether world, Il. 7.330, etc.; παρ' Ἅιδῃ, παρ' Ἅιδην, OT 972, OC 1552: — hence,
2. place of departed spirits, first in Il. 23.244 εἰσόκεν αὐτὸς.. Ἄϊδι κεύθωμαι; ἐπὶ τὸν ᾅδην Luc. Cat. 14; εἰς ἀΐδην AP 11.23; ἐν τῷ ᾅδῃ Luke 16:23. II after Hom., the grave, death, ἀΐδαν λαγχάνειν, δέξασθαι, Pi. P. 5.96, I. 6(5).15; ᾅδης πόντιος death by sea, A. Ag. 667, cf. E. Alc. 13, Hipp. 1047; ᾅδου πύλη, Astrol., region below the Horoscope, Vett.Val. 179.13.
2. gen. ᾅδου with nouns in adjectival sense, devilish, θύουσαν ᾅ. μητέρ' A. Ag. 1235; ᾅ. μάγειρος E. Cyc. 397; fatal, deadly, δίκτυον, ξίφη ᾅ., A. Ag. 1115, E. Or. 1399. [ ᾰ Hom. in all forms exc. ᾱῐδος before vowels; ᾱῐδης Semon. 7.117, prob. in S. OC 1689.]
ᾅδης , -ου , ὁ ,
1. in Hom., Hades (Pluto), the god of the underworld.
2. the abode of Hades, the underworld; in NT, the abode of departed spirits, Hades: ἐν τ . ᾅ ., Luke 16:23; εἰς ᾅ ., Acts 2:27; Acts 2:31; πύλαι ᾅδου , Matthew 16:18; κλεῖς τοῦ ᾅ ., Revelation 1:18; metaph., ἕως ᾅ ., Matthew 11:23, Luke 10:15; personified, Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13-14 (Cremer, 67, 610; MM, VGT, s.v.).†
Without suggesting that there is anything to be called a real parallel with Revelation 21:8, it may be worth while to quote P Oxy I. 33iv. 3 ff. (late ii/A.D.), an interesting papyrus describing an interview between M. Aurelius or Commodus and a rebel, τίς ἤδη τὸν δεύτερόν μου ᾅδην προσκυνοῦντα καὶ τοὺς πρὸ ἐμοῦ τελευτήσαντας. . . μετεκαλέσατο, i.e. ";facing death for the second time."; The word does not appear in the indices of any papyrus collection, so far as non-literary documents go : the magic papyrus, P Leid Vvii. 30 (οὗ ἡ γῆ ἀκούσασα ἐλεύσεται, ὁ ᾅδης ἀκούων ταράσσεται) will serve as exception to prove the rule. Except for its appropriation from the literary language to represent Sheol in the LXX, we should probably not find it in NT. It is significant that Paul substitutes θάνατε for ᾅδη when quoting Hosea 13:14 in 1 Corinthians 15:55. Prof. W. M. Calder tells us the word is common on tombstones in Asia Minor—doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion.
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