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Girdlestone's Synonyms of the Old Testament

Kings, rulers

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The Hebrew words translated king and kingdom in the A. V. are connected with the root Malac (מלך , Ass. malaku), which appears in various proper names, suc has Ebed-Melech and Milcom. The verb is generally rendered reign (in Ezekiel 20:33, rule).

Another word largely used in the same sense is Mashal (משׁל , Ass. masalu), which refers not so much to the office as to the government which that office implies. It is generally rendered rule, sometimes reign or dominion, and occasionally govern, as in Genesis 1:18, where the heavenly bodies are described as governing the day and the night.

Shalath (שׁלט , Ass. saladhu), to get the mastery, is used with much force in Psalms 119:133, 'Let not any iniquity have dominion over me' It is also rendered 'dominion' nine times in Daniel, and 'rule' fourteen times in the same book. this word is used of Joseph when he is described as 'the govern or of Egypt' (Genesis 42:6). Sheleth, which is derived from it, signifies a shield, and is rendered ruler in Hosea 4:18; and Sholtan (Ass. sildhannu), which reminds us of the modern word Sultan, is rendered dominion in Daniel 4:3, &c.

Nagid (נגיד ), a leader or guide, is generally translated prince or captain, and is used of a ruler several times, especially in the Books of Chronicles. See Isaiah 55:4; Daniel 9:26; Daniel 11:22.

Pechah (פחה , Ass. pikhu), a satrap or pasha, is used for a govern or chiefly in the later historical books, also in Haggai 1:1; Haggai 1:14; Haggai 2:2; Haggai 2:21, and Malachi 1:8.

Sar (שׂר , Ass. sarru, 'king'), a 'chief captain' in the army, is the title given to the 'captain of the Lord's hosts' in Joshua 5:14-15. It is applied to judges or rulers of the tribes (Exodus 18:21), who are usually called princes in the A. V in the later hooks. It is used of government in Psalms 68:27; Isaiah 1:23; Isaiah 32:1; Jeremiah 1:18; Jeremiah 52:10; also in Isaiah 9:6-7, where the Messiah is called 'the prince of peace,' end 'the government shall be up on his shoulders . and of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end.' The Messiah is also called the prince (Sar) in Daniel 8:11; Daniel 8:25; Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1.

Baal (בעל , Ass. bilu), to be lord, husband, or master, is used of having dominion in 1 Chronicles 4:22 and Isaiah 26:13 ('Other lords beside thee have had dominion over us'). this word is found in the remarkable declaration in Isaiah 54:5, 'Thy Maker is thy husband.' See Hosea 2:16.

Yad (יד Ass. idu), the hand, or instrument of power, is used of lordship in 1 Chronicles 18:3 and 2 Chronicles 21:8 in Genesis 27:40 ('When thou shalt have the dominion') a word (רוד ) is used the meaning of which is uncertain, but the cognate word Radah (רדה , Ass. radu) is frequently used for rule. It also occurs in Jeremiah 2:31 and Hosea 11:12.

In Job 38:33 ('Canst thou set the dominion there of in the earth ?') the word used is supposed to signify rule or empire, and to be connected with the name of the officer or overseer, Shoter (שׁטר , Ass. sadhir: 'writer'), of whom we read in Exodus 5:6; Deuteronomy 1:15; Deuteronomy 16:18; 1 Chronicles 26:29; and Proverbs 6:7.

Nashak (נשׁק ), to kiss, whether as a mark of respect (Psalms 2:12) or otherwise, is rendered rule in Genesis 41:40, where the margin has 'be armed or kiss' (see R. V.). The word is sometimes applied to armour because it fits closely and is folded together, it is also applied to the wings of the living creatures which touched one another (Ezekiel 3:13).

In Proverbs 25:28 ('He that hath no rule over his own spirit') the word (מעצר ) signifies self-restraint in 2 Kings 25:22 and 1 Chronicles 26:32 we find the word pakad (פקד , Ass. paqadu), to visit or superintend; in Deuteronomy 1:13, rosh (ראשׁ , Ass. risu), the head; in Isaiah 1:10; Isaiah 3:6-7; Isaiah 22:3, Kats in (קצין ), a captain; in Judges 5:3, Psalms 2:2, and four other passages, the rulers or princes arc described by a word which perhaps answers to august (רזן ). Alaph (אלף ), to lead or teach, is used in Zechariah 9:7; Zechariah 12:5-6; and Chavash (חבשׁ ), to bind (usually for the purpose of hearing), in Job 34:17. Nachah (נחה ), to lead, occurs in Psalms 67:4; and Chakak (חקק ), to decree (lit. to engrave, as in Job 19:24, Isaiah 22:16; Isaiah 49:16), is rendered govern or in Judges 5:9; Judges 5:14. Compare Genesis 49:10 (lawgiver). Nasi (נשׂיא ), a captain or prince (lit. one who bears responsibility, or who holds aloft an ensign), is often used of God's leading his people, and is rendered ruler or govern or a few times in the Pentateuch and in 2 Chronicles 1:2.

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Bibliography Information
Girdlestone, Robert Baker. Entry for 'Kings, rulers'. Synonyms of the Old Testament.

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Tuesday, October 15th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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