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Girdlestone's Synonyms of the Old Testament


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The general word for Law is Torah (תורה , Ass. toretu, the law of the gods). by this word the Pentateuch is universally described among the Jews to the present day. The verb (ירה ) whence it is derived signifies to project, and hence to point out or teach. The law of God is that which points out or indicates his will to man. It is not an arbitrary rule, still less is it a subjective impulse; it is rather to be regarded as A course of guidance from above. The verb and noun are found together in Exodus 24:12, 'I will give thee a law, and commandments which I have written, that thou mayest teach them.' It is generally, though imperfectly, represented in the LXX by the word νόμος.

Torah has been rendered law in all places but one, namely, 2 Samuel 7:19, 'The manner of man,' literally, 'The law of the man.' in the parallel passage (1 Chronicles 17:17), t or (תור ), which is evidently the same word, is rendered 'estate.'

Torah is first found in Genesis 26:5, in connection with Abraham's loyalty to God. It frequently signifies ritual, custom, or prescriptive right. It is applied to specific ordinances, to groups of regulations and instructions, and to the books which contain them.

The word Dath (דת ), an edict, usually a late word, is used as part of a compound word in Deuteronomy 33:2, 'From his right h and went a fiery-law for them.' this term is frequently adopted in Ezra, Esther, and Daniel. Chok (חק ), a statute or decree, is frequently used, either in its masculine or feminine form, for the Divine statutes. It is rendered law in the following passages: - Genesis 47:26, 'Joseph made it a law over the l and of Egypt unto this day.' Genesis 49:10, 'The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come.' Numbers 21:18, 'The princes digged the well, the nobles of the people digged it, by (the direction of) the law-giver.' Deuteronomy 33:21, 'He provided the first part for himself, because there, in a portion of the law-giver, was he seated.' 1 Chronicles 16:17, Psalms 105:10, 'He confirmed the same to Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant.' Psalms 60:7; Psalms 108:8, 'Judah is my law-giver' (a passage interesting in connection with Genesis 49:10, cited above). Psalms 94:20, 'Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law?' Proverbs 31:5, 'It is not for kings to drink wine . lest they forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.' Isaiah 33:22, 'The Lord is our judge, the Lord is our lawgiver, the Lord is our king; he will save us.'

The most usual renderings of Chokin the LXX are δικαίωμα, πρόσταγμα, and νόμιμον.

In Isaiah 49:24, 'the lawful captive' is literally 'the captivity of the righteous;' in Jeremiah 32:11 a word is used which signifies 'commandment;' in Ezra 7:24, 'lawful' means 'permissible;' whilst 'judgment' is the literal rendering in Leviticus 24:22; Psalms 81:4; Ezekiel 18:5; Ezekiel 18:19; Ezekiel 18:21; Ezekiel 18:27; Ezekiel 33:14; Ezekiel 33:16; Ezekiel 33:19 ('lawful and right').

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Bibliography Information
Girdlestone, Robert Baker. Entry for 'Law'. Synonyms of the Old Testament.

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Tuesday, July 23rd, 2019
the Week of Proper 11 / Ordinary 16
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