Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
1 Peter 5
Who am a fellow-elder (ο συνπρεσβυτερος ho sunpresbuteros). Earliest use of this compound in an inscription of b.c. 120 for fellow-elders (alderman) in a town, here only in N.T., in eccles. writers. For the word πρεσβυτερος presbuteros in the technical sense of officers in a Christian church (like elder in the local synagogues of the Jews) see Acts 11:30; Acts 20:17. It is noteworthy that here Peter the Apostle (1 Peter 1:1) calls himself an elder along with (συν sun) the other “elders.”A witness (μαρτυς martus). This is what Jesus had said they must be (Acts 1:8) and what Peter claimed to be (Acts 3:15; Acts 10:39). So Paul was to be a μαρτυς martus (Acts 22:15). Who am also a partaker (ο και κοινωνος ho kai koinōnos). “The partner also,” “the partaker also.” See Luke 5:10; 2 Corinthians 1:7; 2 Peter 1:4. See same idea in Romans 8:17. In Galatians 3:23; Romans 8:18 we have almost this about the glory about to be revealed to us where μελλω mellō as here is used with the infinitive.
Tend (ποιμανατε poimanate). First aorist active imperative of ποιμαινω poimainō old verb, from ποιμην poimēn (shepherd) as in Luke 17:7. Jesus used this very word to Peter in the interview by the Sea of Galilee (John 21:16) and Peter doubtless has this fact in mind here. Paul used the word to the elders at Miletus (Acts 20:28). See 1 Peter 2:25 for the metaphor.Flock (ποιμνιον poimnion). Old word, likewise from ποιμην poimēn contraction of ποιμενιον poimenion (Luke 12:32). Exercising the oversight (επισκοπουντες episkopountes). Present active participle of επισκοπεω episkopeō old word (in Hebrews 12:15 alone in N.T.), omitted here by Aleph B. Not by constraint (μη αναγκαστως mē anagkastōs). Negative μη mē because of the imperative. Old adverb from verbal adjective αναγκαστος anagkastos here alone in N.T. But willingly (αλλα εκουσιως alla hekousiōs). By contrast. Old adverb, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 10:26. Nor yet for filthy lucre (μηδε αισχροκερδως mēde aischrokerdōs). A compound adverb not found elsewhere, but the old adjective αισχροκερδης aischrokerdēs is in 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:7. See also Titus 1:11 “for the sake of filthy lucre” (αισχρου κερδους χαριν aischrou kerdous charin). Clearly the elders received stipends, else there could be no such temptation. But of a ready mind (αλλα προτυμως alla prothumōs). Old adverb from προτυμος prothumos (Matthew 26:41), here only in N.T.
Lording it over (κατακυριευοντες katakurieuontes). Present active participle of κατακυριευω katakurieuō late compound (κατα κυριος kataτων κληρων kurios) as in Matthew 20:25.The charge allotted to you (κληρικος tōn klērōn). “The charges,” “the lots” or “the allotments.” See it in Acts 1:17, Acts 1:25 in this sense. The old word meant a die (Matthew 27:25), a portion (Colossians 1:12; 1 Peter 1:4), here the charges assigned (cf. Acts 17:4). From the adjective τυποι γινομενοι klērikos come our cleric, clerical, clerk. Wycliff translated it here “neither as having lordship in the clergie.” Making yourselves ensamples (γινομαι tupoi ginomenoi). Present active participle of τυποι ginomai and predicate nominative υπογραμμος tupoi (types, models) for which phrase see 1 Thessalonians 1:7. Continually becoming. See 1 Peter 2:21 for του ποιμνιου hupogrammos (writing-copy). To the flock (tou poimniou). Objective genitive.
When the chief Shepherd shall be manifested (πανερωτεντος του αρχιποιμενος phanerōthentos tou archipoimenos). Genitive absolute with first aorist passive participle of πανεροω phaneroō to manifest, and genitive of αρχιποιμην archipoimēn a compound (αρχι ποιμην archiαρχιερευς poimēn) after analogy of ο ποιμην ο μεγας archiereus here only in N.T., but in Testam. of Twelve Patrs. (Judges 8) and on a piece of wood around an Egyptian mummy and also on a papyrus a.d. 338 (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 100). See Hebrews 13:20 for κομιειστε ho poimēn ho megas (the Shepherd the great).Ye shall receive (κομιζω komieisthe). Future of τον αμαραντινον της δοχης στεπανον komizō (1 Peter 1:9, which see). The crown of glory that fadeth not away (στεπανος ton amarantinon tēs doxēs stephanon). For “crown” (αμαραντος stephanos) see James 1:12; 1 Corinthians 9:25; 2 Timothy 4:8; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 3:10; Revelation 4:4. In the Gospels it is used only of the crown of thorns, but Jesus is crowned with glory and honor (Hebrews 2:9). In all these passages it is the crown of victory as it is here. See 1 Peter 1:4 for Αμαραντινος amarantos unfading. αμαραντ Amarantinos is made from that word as the name of a flower amaranth (so called because it never withers and revives if moistened with water and so used as a symbol of immortality), “composed of amaranth” or “amarantine,” “the amarantine (unfading) crown of glory.”
Be subject (οποταγητε hopotagēte). Second aorist passive imperative of υποτασσω hupotassō the elder (πρεσβυτεροις presbuterois). Dative case. Here the antithesis between younger and elder shows that the word refers to age, not to office as in 1 Peter 5:1. See a like change in meaning in 1 Timothy 5:1, 1 Timothy 5:17.All (παντες pantes). All ages, sexes, classes. Gird yourselves with humility (την ταπεινοπροσυνην εγκομβωσαστε tēn tapeinophrosunēn egkombōsasthe). First aorist middle imperative of εγκομβοομαι egkomboomai late and rare verb (in Apollodorus, fourth cent. b.c.), here only in N.T., from εν en and κομβος kombos (knot, like the knot of a girdle). Εγκομβωμα Egkombōma was the white scarf or apron of slaves. It is quite probable that Peter here is thinking of what Jesus did (John 13:4.) when he girded himself with a towel and taught the disciples, Peter in particular (John 13:9.), the lesson of humility (John 13:15). Peter had at last learned the lesson (John 21:15-19). The proud (υπερηπανοις huperēphanois). Dative plural of υπερηπανος huperēphanos (James 4:6; Romans 1:30) after αντιτασσεται antitassetai (present middle indicative of αντιτασσω antitassō as in James 4:6 (quoted there as here from Proverbs 3:34).
Humble yourselves therefore (ταπεινωτητε ουν tapeinōthēte oun). First aorist passive imperative of ταπεινοω tapeinoō old verb, for which see Matthew 18:4. Peter is here in the role of a preacher of humility. “Be humbled.”Under the mighty hand of God (υπο την κραταιαν χειρα του τεου hupo tēn krataian cheira tou theou). Common O.T. picture (Exodus 3:19; Ezekiel 20:33, etc.). That he may exalt you (ινα υπσωσηι hina hupsōsēi). Purpose clause with ινα hina and first aorist active subjunctive of υπσοω hupsoō Cf. Luke 14:11; Philemon 2:9. In due time (εν καιρωι en kairōi). Same phrase in Matthew 24:45.
Casting (επιριπσαντες epiripsantes). First aorist active participle of επιριπτω epiriptō old verb, to throw upon, in N.T. only here and Luke 19:35 (casting their clothes on the colt), here from Psalm 55:22. For μεριμνα merimna see Matthew 6:25, Matthew 6:31, Matthew 6:34.He careth (αυτωι μελει autōi melei). Impersonal verb μελει melei (present active indicative) with dative αυτωι autōi “it is a care to him.” God does care (Luke 21:18).
Be watchful (γρηγορησατε grēgorēsate). First aorist active imperative of γρηγορεω grēgoreō late present imperative from perfect εγρηγορα egrēgora (to be awake) from εγειρω egeirō (to arouse), as in Matthew 24:42. For νηπσατε nēpsate see 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 4:7.Your adversary (ο αντιδικος υμων ho antidikos humōn). Old word for opponent in a lawsuit (Matthew 5:25). The devil (διαβολος diabolos). Slanderer. See note on Matthew 4:1. As a roaring lion (hōs ōruomenos leōn). But Jesus is also pictured as the Lion of the tribe of Judah (Revelation 5:5). But Satan roars at the saints. Present middle participle ōruomai old verb, here only in N.T., to howl like a wolf, dog, or lion, of men to sing loud (Pindar). See Psalm 22:13. Whom he may devour (ως ωρυομενος λεων katapiein). Second aorist active infinitive of ωρυομαι katapinō to drink down. B does not have καταπιειν tina Aleph has καταπινω tina (somebody), “to devour some one,” while A has interrogative τινα tina “whom he may devour” (very rare idiom). But the devil‘s purpose is the ruin of men. He is a “peripatetic” (τινα peripatei) like the peripatetic philosophers who walked as they talked. Satan wants all of us and sifts us all (Luke 22:31).
Whom withstand (ωι αντιστητε hōi antistēte). Imperative second aorist active (intransitive) of αντιστημι anthistēmi same form in James 4:7, which see. Dative case of relative (ωι hōi). For the imperative in a subordinate clause see 1 Peter 5:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:10; 2 Timothy 4:15; Hebrews 13:7. Cowardice never wins against the devil (2 Timothy 1:7), but only courage.Steadfast in your faith (στερεοι τηι πιστει stereoi tēi pistei). Locative case πιστει pistei Στερεος Stereos is old adjective for solid like a foundation (2 Timothy 2:19). The same sufferings (τα αυτα των πατηματων ta auta tōn pathēmatōn). An unusual construction with the genitive rather than the usual τα αυτα πατηματα ta auta pathēmata perhaps as Hofmann suggests, “the same tax of sufferings” (“the same things in sufferings”). Probably this is correct and is like Xenophon‘s phrase in the Memorabilia (IV. 8. 8), τα του γηρως επιτελεισται ta tou gērōs epiteleisthai (to pay the tax of old age). Are accomplished (επιτελεισται epiteleisthai). Present (and so process) middle (you are paying) or passive (is paid) infinitive of επιτελεω epiteleō old verb, to accomplish (2 Corinthians 7:1). In your brethren who are in the world (τηι εν τωι κοσμωι υμων αδελποτητι tēi en tōi kosmōi humōn adelphotēti). Associate-instrumental case αδελποτητι adelphotēti (in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 2:17, which see) after τα αυτα ta auta (like 1 Corinthians 11:5) or dative after επιτελεισται epiteleisthai Even so ειδοτες eidotes (second perfect active participle of οιδα oida) with an infinitive usually means “knowing how to” (object infinitive) as in Luke 12:56; Philemon 3:18 rather than “knowing that” (indirect assertion) as taken above.
The God of all grace (ο τεος της χαριτος ho theos tēs charitos). See 1 Peter 4:10 for ποικιλης χαριτος τεου poikilēs charitos theou (of the variegated grace of God).In Christ (εν Χριστωι en Christōi). A Pauline phrase (2 Corinthians 5:17-19), but Petrine also. For God‘s “calling” us (καλεσας kalesas) see 1 Thessalonians 5:23.; 1 Corinthians 1:8.; Romans 8:29. After that ye have suffered a little while (ολιγον πατοντας oligon pathontas). Second aorist active participle of πασχω paschō antecedent to the principal verbs which are future active (καταρτισει katartisei to mend, Mark 1:19; Galatians 6:1, στηριχει stērixei for which see Luke 9:51; Luke 22:32, στενωσει sthenōsei from στενος sthenos and so far a απαχ λεγομενον hapax legomenon like ενισχυω enischuō according to Hesychius). For ολιγον oligon see 1 Peter 1:6.
To him (αυτωι autōi). To God (dative case). Note κρατος kratos in the doxology as in 1 Timothy 6:16 and briefer than the doxology in 1 Peter 4:11, to Christ.
By Silvanus (δια Σιλουανου dia Silouanou). Probably this postscript (1 Peter 5:12-14) is in Peter‘s own handwriting, as Paul did (2 Thessalonians 3:17.; Galatians 6:11-18). If so, Silvanus (Silas) was the amanuensis and the bearer of the Epistle.As I account him (ως λογιζομαι hōs logizomai). Peter uses Paul‘s phrase (1 Corinthians 4:1; Romans 8:18) in giving approval to Paul‘s former companion (Acts 15:40). I have written (εγραπσα egrapsa). Epistolary aorist applying to this Epistle as in 1 Corinthians 5:11 (not 1 Corinthians 5:9); 1 Corinthians 9:15; Galatians 6:11; Romans 15:15; Philemon 1:19, Philemon 1:21. Briefly (δι ολιγων di' oligōn). “By few words,” as Peter looked at it, certainly not a long letter in fact. Cf. Hebrews 13:22. Testifying (επιμαρτυρων epimarturōn). Present active participle of επιμαρτυρεω epimartureō to bear witness to, old compound, here alone in N.T., though the double compound συνεπιμαρτυρεω sunepimartureō in Hebrews 2:4. That this is the true grace of God (ταυτην ειναι αλητη χαριν του τεου tautēn einai alēthē charin tou theou). Infinitive ειναι einai in indirect assertion and accusative of general reference (ταυτην tautēn) and predicate accusative χαριν charin Peter includes the whole of the Epistle by God‘s grace (1 Peter 1:10) and obedience to the truth (John 1:17; Galatians 2:5; Colossians 1:6). Stand ye fast therein (εις ην στητε eis hēn stēte). “In which (grace) take your stand” (ingressive aorist active imperative of ιστημι histēmi).
She that is in Babylon, elect together with you (η εν αβυλωνι συνεκλεκτη hē en Babulōni suneklektē). Either actual Babylon or, as most likely, mystical Babylon (Rome) as in the Apocalypse. If Peter is in Rome about a.d. 65, there is every reason why he should not make that fact plain to the world at large and least of all to Nero. It is also uncertain whether η συνεκλεκτη hē suneklektē (found here alone), “the co-elect woman,” means Peter‘s wife (1 Corinthians 9:5) or the church in “Babylon.” The natural way to take it is for Peter‘s wife. Cf. εκλεκτηι κυριαι eklektēi kuriāi in 2 John 1:1 (also verse 2 John 1:13).Mark my son (Μαρκος ο υιος μου Markos ho huios mou). So this fact agrees with the numerous statements by the early Christian writers that Mark, after leaving Barnabas, became Peter‘s “interpreter” and under his influence wrote his Gospel. We know that Mark was with Paul in Rome some years before this time (Colossians 4:10).
With a kiss of love (εν πιληματι αγαπης en philēmati agapēs). As in 1 Corinthians 16:20. The abuse of this custom led to its confinement to men with men and women with women and to its final abandonment (Apost. Const. ii. 57, 12).That are in Christ (τοις εν Χριστωι tois en Christōi). This is the greatest of all secret orders and ties, one that is open to all who take Christ as Lord and Saviour.
Monday, February 27th, 2017
the Last Week after Epiphany
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