Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Servant (δουλος doulos). Precisely as James (James 1:1), only James added κυριου kuriou (Lord).Brother of James (αδελπος Ιακωβου adelphos Iakōbou). Thus Jude identifies himself. But not the “Judas of James” (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13). To them that are called (τοισκλητοις tois- κλητοις klētois). But this translation (treating τοις klētois as a substantive like Romans 1:6; 1 Corinthians 1:24) is by no means certain as two participles come in between κλητοις tois and Κλητοις klētois εν τεωι πατρι ηγαπημενοις Klētois may be in the predicate position (being called), not attributive. But see 1 Peter 1:1. Beloved in God the Father (αγαπαω en theōi patri ēgapēmenois). Perfect passive participle of εν agapaō but no precise parallel to this use of αγαπαω en with Ιησου Χριστωι τετηρημενοις agapaō for Jesus Christ (Iēsou Christōi tetērēmenois). Perfect passive participle again with dative, unless it is the instrumental, “kept by Jesus Christ,” a quite possible interpretation.
Be multiplied (πλητυντειη plēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative of πλητυνω plēthunō as in 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2.
Beloved (αγαπητοι agapētoi). As in 3 John 1:2.All diligence (πασαν σπουδην pāsan spoudēn). As in 2 Peter 1:5. Of our common salvation (περι της κοινης ημων σωτηριας peri tēs koinēs hēmōn sōtērias). See this use of κοινος koinos (common to all) in Titus 1:4 with πιστις pistis while in 2 Peter 1:1 we have ισοτιμον πιστιν isotimon pistin which see. I was constrained (αναγκην εσχον anagkēn eschon). “I had necessity” like Luke 14:18; Hebrews 7:27. To contend earnestly (επαγωνιζεσται epagōnizesthai). Late and rare (in Plutarch, inscriptions) compound, here only in N.T. A little additional (επι epi) striving to the already strong αγωνιζεσται agōnizesthai (αγων agōn contest). Cf. 1 Timothy 6:12 αγωνιζου τον καλον αγωνα agōnizou ton kalon agōna the faith (τηιπιστει tēi- απαχ παραδοτεισηι pistei). Dative of advantage. Here not in the original sense of trust, but rather of the thing believed as in Judges 1:20; Galatians 1:23; Galatians 3:23; Philemon 1:27. Once for all delivered (παραδιδωμι hapax paradotheisēi). First aorist passive participle feminine dative singular of paradidōmi for which see 2 Peter 2:21. See also 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Timothy 6:20.
Are crept in (παρεισεδυησαν pareiseduēsan). Second aorist passive indicative of παρεισδυω pareisduō (νω ̇nō), late (Hippocrates, Plutarch, etc.) compound of παρα para (beside) and εις eis (in) and δυω duō to sink or plunge, so to slip in secretly as if by a side door, here only in N.T.Set forth (προγεγραμμενοι progegrammenoi). Perfect passive participle of προγραπω prographō to write of beforehand, for which verb see Galatians 3:1; Romans 15:4. Unto this condemnation (εις τουτο το κριμα eis touto to krima). See 2 Peter 2:3 for κριμα krima and εκπαλαι ekpalai Παλαι Palai here apparently alludes to Judges 1:14, Judges 1:15 (Enoch). Ungodly men (ασεβεις asebeis). Keynote of the Epistle (Mayor), in Judges 1:15 again as in 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 3:7. Turning (μετατιτεντες metatithentes). Present active participle of μετατιτημι metatithēmi to change, for which verb see Galatians 1:6. For the change of “grace” (χαριτα charita) into “lasciviousness” (εις ασελγειαν eis aselgeian) see 1 Peter 2:16; 1 Peter 4:3; 2 Peter 2:19; 2 Peter 3:16. Our only Master and Lord (τον μονον δεσποτην και κυριον ημων ton monon despotēn kai kurion hēmōn). For the force of the one article for one person see note on 2 Peter 1:1. For δεσποτην despotēn of Christ see 2 Peter 2:1. Denying (αρνουμενοι arnoumenoi). So 2 Peter 2:1. See also Matthew 10:33; 1 Timothy 5:8; Titus 1:16; 1 John 2:22.
To put you in remembrance (υπομνησαι hupomnēsai). See 2 Peter 1:12 υπομιμνησκειν hupomimnēskein (present active infinitive there, first aorist active infinitive here).Though ye know all things once for all (ειδοτας απαχ παντα eidotas hapax panta). Concessive perfect (sense of present) active participle as in 2 Peter 1:12, but without καιπερ kaiper Lord (κυριος kurios). Some MSS. add Ιησους Iēsous The use of κυριος kurios here is usually understood to mean the Lord Jesus Christ, as Clement of Alex. (Adumbr. p. 133) explains, Exodus 23:20, by ο μυστικος εκεινος αγγελος Ιησους ho mustikos ekeinos aggelos Iēsous (that mystical angel Jesus). For the mystic reference to Christ see 1 Corinthians 10:4, 1 Corinthians 10:9; Hebrews 11:26. Some MSS. here add τεος theos instead of Ιησους Iēsous (το δευτερον to deuteron). Adverbial accusative, “the second time.” After having saved the people out of Egypt. Destroyed (απωλεσεν apōlesen). First aorist active indicative of απολλυμι apollumi old verb, to destroy. Them that believed not (τους μη πιστευσαντας tous mē pisteusantas). First aorist active articular participle of πιστευω pisteuō The reference is to Numbers 14:27-37, when all the people rescued from Egypt perished except Caleb and Joshua. This first example by Jude is not in 2 Peter, but is discussed in 1 Corinthians 10:5-11; Heb 3:18-4:2.
And angels (αγγελους δε aggelous de). The second example in Jude, the fallen angels, accusative case after τετηρηκεν tetērēken (perfect active indicative of τηρεω tēreō for which verb see 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:7) at the end of the verse (two emphatic positions, beginning and end of the clause).Kept not (μη τηρησαντας mē tērēsantas). First aorist active participle with negative μη mē with play on “kept not” and “he hath kept.” Principality (αρχην archēn). Literally, “beginning,” “rule,” (first place of power as in 1 Corinthians 15:24; Romans 8:38). In Acts 10:11 it is used for “corners” (beginnings) of the sheet. In Ephesians 6:12 the word is used for evil angels. See Deuteronomy 32:8. Both Enoch and Philo (and Milton) discuss the fallen angels. But left (αλλα απολιποντας alla apolipontas). Second aorist active participle of απολειπω apoleipō old verb, to leave behind (2 Timothy 4:13, 2 Timothy 4:20). Their own proper habitation (το ιδιον οικητηριον to idion oikētērion). Old word for dwelling-place (from οικητηρ oikētēr dweller at home, from οικος oikos), in N.T. only here and 2 Corinthians 5:2 (the body as the abode of the spirit). In everlasting bonds (δεσμοις αιδιοις desmois aidiois). Either locative (in) or instrumental (by, with). Αιδιος Aidios (from αει aei always), old adjective, in N.T. only here and Romans 1:20 (of God‘s power and deity). It is synonymous with αιωνιος aiōnios (Matthew 25:46). Mayor terms αιδιος aidios an Aristotelian word, while αιωνιος aiōnios is Platonic. Under darkness (υπο ζοπον hupo zophon). See 2 Peter 2:4 for ζοπος zophos In Wisdom 17:2 we find δεσμιοι σκοτους desmioi skotous (prisoners of darkness). Great (μεγαλης megalēs). Not in 2 Peter 2:9, which see note for discussion.
Even as (ως hōs). Just “as.” The third instance (Jude passes by the deluge) in Jude, the cities of the plain.The cities about them (αι περι αυτας πολεις hai peri autas poleis). These were also included, Admah and Zeboiim (Deuteronomy 29:23; Hosea 11:8). Zoar, the other city, was spared. In like manner (τον ομοιον τροπον ton homoion tropon). Adverbial accusative (cf. ως hōs). Like the fallen angels. Having given themselves over to fornication (εκπορνευσασαι ekporneusasai). First aorist active participle feminine plural of εκπορνευω ekporneuō late and rare compound (perfective use of εκ ek outside the moral law), only here in N.T., but in lxx (Gen 38:24; Exod 34:15f., etc.). Cf. ασελγειαν aselgeian in Judges 1:4. Strange flesh (σαρκος ετερας sarkos heteras). Horrible licentiousness, not simply with women not their wives or in other nations, but even unnatural uses (Romans 1:27) for which the very word “sodomy” is used (Genesis 19:4-11). The pronoun ετερας heteras (other, strange) is not in 2 Peter 2:10. Are set forth (προκεινται prokeintai). Present middle indicative of προκειμαι prokeimai old verb, to lie before, as in Hebrews 12:1. As an example (δειγμα deigma). Predicate nominative of δειγμα deigma old word (from δεικνυμι deiknumi to show), here only in N.T., sample, specimen. 2 Peter 2:6 has υποδειγμα hupodeigma (pattern). Suffering (υπεχουσαι hupechousai). Present active participle of υπεχω hupechō old compound, to hold under, often with δικην dikēn (right, justice, sentence 2 Thessalonians 1:9) to suffer sentence (punishment), here only in N.T. Of eternal fire (πυρος αιωνιου puros aiōniou). Like δεσμοις αιδιοις desmois aidiois in Judges 1:7. Cf. the hell of fire (Matthew 5:22) and also Matthew 25:46. Jude has no mention of Lot.
Yet (μεντοι mentoi). See John 4:27. In spite of these warnings.In like manner (ομοιως homoiōs). Like the cities of the plain. These also (και ουτοι kai houtoi). The false teachers of Judges 1:4. In their dreamings (ενυπνιαζομενοι enupniazomenoi). Present middle participle of ενυπνιαζω enupniazō to dream (from ενυπνιον enupnion dream, Acts 2:17, from εν en and υπνος hupnos in sleep), in Aristotle, Hippocrates, Plutarch, papyri, lxx (Joel 2:28), here only in N.T. Cf. Colossians 2:18. Defile (μιαινουσιν miainousin). Present active indicative of μιναινω minainō old verb, to stain, with sin (Titus 1:15) as here. 2 Peter 2:10 has μιασμου miasmou at nought (ατετουσιν athetousin). Present active indicative of ατετεω atheteō to annul. Both κυριοτης kuriotēs (dominion) and δοχαι doxai (dignities) occur in 2 Peter 2:10; see note for discussion.
Michael the archangel (ο Μιχαελ ο αρχαγγελος ho Michael ho archaggelos). Michael is mentioned also in Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1; Revelation 12:7. Αρχαγγελος Archaggelos in N.T. occurs only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:16, but in Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:20; Daniel 12:1.Contending with the devil (τωι διαβολωι διακρινομενος tōi diabolōi diakrinomenos). Present middle participle of διακρινω diakrinō to separate, to strive with as in Acts 11:2. Dative case διαβολωι diabolōi he disputed (οτε διελεγετο hote dielegeto). Imperfect middle of διαλεγομαι dialegomai as in Mark 9:34. Concerning the body of Moses (περι του Μωυσεως σωματος peri tou Mōuseōs sōmatos). Some refer this to Zechariah 3:1, others to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy 34:6. There is a similar reference to traditions in Acts 7:22; Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2; 2 Timothy 3:8. But this explanation hardly meets the facts. Durst not bring (ουκ ετολμησεν επενεγκειν ouk etolmēsen epenegkein). “Did not dare (first aorist active indicative of τολμαω tolmaō), to bring against him” (second aorist active infinitive of επιπερω epipherō). A railing accusation (κρισιν βλασπημιας krisin blasphēmias). “Charge of blasphemy” where 2 Peter 2:11 has “βλασπημον κρισιν blasphēmon krisin Peter also has παρα κυριωι para kuriōi (with the Lord), not in Jude. The Lord rebuke thee (επιτιμησαι σοι κυριος epitimēsai soi kurios). First aorist active optative of επιτιμαω epitimaō a wish about the future. These words occur in Zechariah 3:1-10 where the angel of the Lord replies to the charges of Satan. Clement of Alex. (Adumb. in Ep. Judae) says that Jude quoted here the Assumption of Moses, one of the apocryphal books. Origen says the same thing. Mayor thinks that the author of the Assumption of Moses took these words from Zechariah and put them in the mouth of the Archangel Michael. There is a Latin version of the Assumption. Some date it as early as b.c. 2, others after a.d. 44.
Whatsoever things they know not (οσα ουκ οιδασιν hosa ouk oidasin). Here 2 Peter 2:12 has εν οις αγνοουσιν en hois agnoousin The rest of the sentence is smoother than 2 Peter 2:12.Naturally (πυσικως phusikōs). Here only in N.T. 2 Peter 2:12 has γεγεννημενα πυσικα gegennēmena phusika Jude has the article τα ta with αλογα ζωα aloga zōa and the present passive πτειρονται phtheirontai instead of the future passive πταρησονται phtharēsontai f0).
Woe to them (ουαι αυτοις ouai autois). Interjection with the dative as is common in the Gospels (Matthew 11:21).Went (επορευτησαν eporeuthēsan). First aorist passive (deponent) indicative of πορευομαι poreuomai the way of Cain (τηι οδωι του Καιν tēi hodōi tou Kain). Locative case οδωι hodōi Cain is Jude‘s fourth example. Not in 2 Peter, but in Hebrews 11:4; 1 John 3:11. From Genesis 4:7. Ran riotously (εχεχυτησαν exechuthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of εκχεω ekcheō to pour out, “they were poured out,” vigorous metaphor for excessive indulgence. But it is used also of God‘s love for us (Romans 5:5). In the error of Balaam (τηι πλανηι του αλααμ tēi planēi tou Balaam). The fifth example in Jude. In 2 Peter also (2 Peter 2:15). Either locative case (in) or instrumental (by). Πλανη Planē (in Peter also) is the common word for such wandering (Matthew 24:4., etc.). Perished (απωλοντο apōlonto). Second aorist middle (intransitive) of απολλυμι apollumi the gainsaying of Korah (τηι αντιλογιαι του Κορε tēi antilogiāi tou Kore). Again either locative or instrumental. The word αντιλογια antilogia is originally answering back (Hebrews 6:16), but it may be by act also (Romans 10:21) as here. This is the sixth example in Jude, not in 2 Peter.
Hidden rocks (σπιλαδες spilades). Old word for rocks in the sea (covered by the water), as in Homer, here only in N.T. 2 Peter 2:13 has σπιλοι spiloi (αγαπαις agapais). Undoubtedly the correct text here, though A C have απαταις apatais as in 2 Peter 2:14. For disorder at the Lord‘s Supper (and love-feasts?) see 1 Cor 11:17-34. The Gnostics made it worse, so that the love-feasts were discontinued.When they feast with you (συνευωχουμενοι suneuōchoumenoi). See 2 Peter 2:13 for this very word and form. Masculine gender with ουτοι οι houtoi hoi rather than with the feminine σπιλαδες spilades Cf. Revelation 11:4. Construction according to sense. Shepherds that feed themselves (εαυτους ποιμαινοντες heautous poimainontes). “Shepherding themselves.” Cf. Revelation 7:17 for this use of ποιμαινω poimainō Clouds without water (νεπελαι ανυδροι nephelai anudroi). Νεπελη Nephelē common word for cloud (Matthew 24:30). 2 Peter 2:17 has πηγαι ανυδροι pēgai anudroi (springs without water) and then ομιχλαι homichlai (mists) and ελαυνομεναι elaunomenai (driven) rather than περιπερομεναι peripheromenai here (borne around, whirled around, present passive participle of περιπερω peripherō to bear around), a powerful picture of disappointed hopes. Autumn trees (δενδρα πτινοπωρινα dendra phthinopōrina). Late adjective (Aristotle, Polybius, Strabo) from πτινω phthinō to waste away, and οπωρα opōra autumn, here only in N.T. For ακαρπα akarpa (without fruit) see 2 Peter 1:8. Twice dead (δις αποτανοντα dis apothanonta). Second aorist active participle of αποτνησκω apothnēskō Fruitless and having died. Having died and also “uprooted” (εκριζωτεντα ekrizōthenta). First aorist passive participle of εκριζοω ekrizoō late compound, to root out, to pluck up by the roots, as in Matthew 13:29.
Wild waves (κυματα αγρια kumata agria). Waves (Matthew 8:24, from κυεω kueō to swell) wild (from αγρος agros field, wild honey Matthew 3:4) like untamed animals of the forest or the sea.Foaming out (επαπριζοντα epaphrizonta). Late and rare present active participle of επαπριζω epaphrizō used in Moschus for the foaming waves as here. Cf. Isaiah 57:20. Shame (αισχυνας aischunas). Plural “shames” (disgraces). Cf. Philemon 3:19. Wandering stars (αστερες πλανηται asteres planētai). “Stars wanderers.” Πλανητης Planētēs old word (from πλαναω planaō), here alone in N.T. Some refer this to comets or shooting stars. See Isaiah 14:12 for an allusion to Babylon as the day-star who fell through pride. For ever (εις αιωνα eis aiōna). The rest of the relative clause exactly as in 2 Peter 2:17.
And to these also (δε και τουτοις de kai toutois). Dative case, for these false teachers as well as for his contemporaries.Enoch the seventh from Adam (εβδομος απο Αδαμ ενωχ hebdomos apo Adam Henōch). The genealogical order occurs in Gen 5:4-20, with Enoch as seventh. He is so termed in Enoch 60:8; 93:3. Prophesied (επροπητευσεν eprophēteusen). First aorist active indicative of προπητευω prophēteuō If the word is given its ordinary meaning as in 1 Peter 1:10, then Jude terms the Book of Enoch an inspired book. The words quoted are “a combination of passages from Enoch” (Bigg), chiefly from Enoch 1:9. With ten thousand of his holy ones (εν αγιαις μυριασιν αυτου en hagiais muriasin autou). “With (εν en of accompaniment, Luke 14:31) his holy ten thousands” (μυριας murias regular word, feminine gender, for ten thousand, Acts 19:19, there an unlimited number like our myriads, Luke 12:1).
To execute judgment (ποιησαι κρισιν poiēsai krisin). “To do justice.”To convict (ελεγχαι elegxai). First aorist (effective) active infinitive like ποιησαι poiēsai before it. Ungodly (ασεβεις asebeis). See Judges 1:4 and end of this verse. Of ungodliness (ασεβειας asebeias). Old word as in Romans 1:18, plural in Judges 1:18 as in Romans 11:26. Which (ων hōn). Genitive by attraction from α ha (cognate accusative with ησεβησαν ēsebēsan old verb, to act impiously, here alone in N.T. save some MSS. in 2 Peter 2:6) to agree with the antecedent εργων ergōn (deeds). Hard things (σκληρων sklērōn). Harsh, rough things as in John 6:60. Which (ων hōn). Genitive by attraction from α ha (object of ελαλησαν elalēsan first aorist active indicative of λαλεω laleō) to the case of the antecedent σκληρων sklērōn Four times in this verse as a sort of refrain ασεβεις asebeis (twice), ασεβειασ ησεβησαν asebeiasēsebēsan f0).
Murmurers (γογγυσται goggustai). Late onomatopoetic word for agent, from γογγυζω gogguzō (Matthew 20:11; 1 Corinthians 10:10) in the lxx (Exod 16:8; Num 11:1, 14-29).Complainers (μεμπσιμοιροι mempsimoiroi). Rare word (Isocrates, Aristotle, Plutarch) from μεμπομαι memphomai to complain and μοιρα moira lot or fate. Here alone in N.T. Lusts (επιτυμιας epithumias). As in 2 Peter 3:3. Swelling (υπερογκα huperogka). So in 2 Peter 2:18 (big words). Showing respect of persons (ταυμαζοντες προσωπα thaumazontes prosōpa). Present active participle of ταυμαζω thaumazō to admire, to wonder at. Nowhere else in N.T. with προσωπα prosōpa but a Hebraism (in Leviticus 19:15; Job 13:10) like λαμβανειν προσωπον lambanein prosōpon (Luke 20:21) and βλεπειν προσωπον blepein prosōpon (Matthew 22:16) and προσοπωλεμπτεω prosopōlempteō (James 2:9). Cf. James 2:1. For the sake of advantage (ωπελειας χαριν ōpheleias charin). To themselves. See also Judges 1:11. The covetousness of these Gnostic leaders is plainly shown in 2 Peter 2:3, 2 Peter 2:14. For χαριν charin as preposition with genitive see Ephesians 3:1, Ephesians 3:14.
Remember ye (υμεις μνηστητε humeis mnēsthēte). First aorist passive (deponent) imperative of μιμνησκω mimnēskō with genitive ρηματων rēmatōn (words). In 2 Peter 3:2 we have the indirect form (infinitive μνηστηναι mnēsthēnai). The rest as in 2 Peter, but in simpler and more exact structure and with the absence of των αγιων προπητων tōn hagiōn prophētōn (the holy prophets).
How that (οτι hoti). Declarative οτι hoti as in Judges 1:5. See note on 2 Peter 3:3 for differences, no εν εμπαιγμονηι en empaigmonēi here and no των ασεβειων tōn asebeiōn there.
They who make separations (οι αποδιοριζοντες hoi apodiorizontes). Present active articular participle of the double compound αποδιοριζω apodiorizō (from απο δια οριζω ορος apoΔιοριζω diaαποριζω horizōαιρεσεις horos boundary, to make a horizon), rare word, in Aristotle for making logical distinctions, here only in N.T. πσυχικοι Diorizō occurs in Leviticus 20:24 and πσυχη aphorizō in Matthew 25:32, etc. See πνευματικος haireseis in 2 Peter 2:1.Sensual (πνευμα μη εχοντες psuchikoi). Old adjective from μη psuchē as in 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 15:44; James 3:15. Opposed to εχω pneumatikos Not used by Peter. Having not the Spirit (πνευμα pneuma mē echontes). Usual negative mē with the participle (present active of echō). Probably pneuma here means the Holy Spirit, as is plain in Judges 1:20. Cf. Romans 8:9.
Building up (εποικοδομουντες epoikodomountes). Present active participle of εποικοδομεω epoikodomeō old compound with metaphor of a house (οικος oikos), common in Paul (1 Corinthians 3:9-17; Colossians 2:7; Ephesians 2:20).On your most holy faith (τηι αγιωτατηι υμων πιστει tēi hagiōtatēi humōn pistei). For the spiritual temple see also 1 Peter 2:3-5. See πιστις pistis (faith) in this sense (cf. Hebrews 11:1) in 2 Peter 1:5 with the list of graces added. A true superlative here αγιωτατηι hagiōtatēi not elative. Praying in the Holy Spirit (εν πνευματι αγιωι προσευχομενοι en pneumati hagiōi proseuchomenoi). This is the way to build themselves up on their faith.
Keep yourselves (εαυτους τηρησατε heautous tērēsate). First aorist active imperative (of urgency) of τηρεω tēreō In Judges 1:1 they are said to be kept, but note the warning in Judges 1:5 from the angels who did not keep their dominion. See also James 1:27. In Philemon 2:12 both sides (human responsibility and divine sovereignty are presented side by side).Looking for (προσδεχομενοι prosdechomenoi). Present middle participle of προσδεχομαι prosdechomai the very form in Titus 2:13. The same idea in προσδοκωντες prosdokōntes in 2 Peter 3:14.
And on some (και ους μεν kai hous men). Demonstrative plural of ος μενος δε hos men- ους δε hos de (ους hous de below), not the relative μεν δε hous but by contrast (ελεατε menελεαω de). So Matthew 13:8.Have mercy (ελεεω eleāte). Present active imperative of ελεγχετε eleaō (rare form in Romans 9:16 also for the usual ελεατε eleeō Matthew 9:27). But A C read διακρινομενους elegchete refute, in place of διακρινω eleate The text of this verse is in much confusion. Who are in doubt (ους μεν diakrinomenous). Present middle participle of ελεατε diakrinō in the accusative case agreeing with ελεγχετε hous men though K L P have the nominative. If the accusative and eleate is read, see James 1:6 for the idea (doubters). If elegchete is read, see Judges 1:9 for the idea (disputers).
And some save (ους δε σωζετε hous de sōzete). B omits ους δε hous de them out of the fire (εκ πυρος αρπαζοντες ek puros harpazontes). Present active participle of αρπαζω harpazō old verb, to seize. Quotation from Amos 4:11 and Zechariah 3:3. Cf. Psalm 106:18. Firemen today literally do this rescue work. Do Christians?And on some have mercy with fear (ους δε ελεατε εν ποβωι hous de eleāte en phobōi). In fear “of the contagion of sin while we are rescuing them” (Vincent). For this idea see 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philemon 2:12. Spotted (εσπιλωμενον espilōmenon). Perfect passive participle of σπιλοω spiloō late and common verb (from σπιλος spilos spot, 2 Peter 2:13), in N.T. only here and James 3:6.
From stumbling (απταιστους aptaistous). Verbal from πταιω ptaiō to stumble (James 3:2; 2 Peter 1:10), sure-footed as of a horse that does not stumble (Xenophon), and so of a good man (Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus).Before the presence of his glory (κατενωπιον της δοχης αυτου katenōpion tēs doxēs autou). Late compound preposition (κατα εν ωπς kataπαραστησαι enστησαι ōps), right down before the eye of his glory as in Ephesians 1:4. Cf. Matthew 25:31-33; Colossians 1:22, where Paul has αμωμους parastēsai like αμωμητος stēsai here (first aorist active infinitive) and also εν αγαλλιασει amōmous as here, but amōmētos in 2 Peter 3:14. In exceeding joy (en agalliasei). See Luke 1:14.
To the only God our Saviour (μονωι τεωι σωτηρι ημων monōi theōi sōtēri hēmōn). Dative in the noble doxology. See Romans 16:27, μονωι σοπωι τεωι monōi sophōi theōi (to the alone wise God), where also we have δια Ιησου Χριστου dia Iēsou Christou but without του κυριου ημων tou kuriou hēmōn (our Lord) as here. Σωτηρ Sōtēr is used of God eight times in the N.T., six of them in the Pastoral Epistles. Δοχα Doxa (glory) to God or Christ in all the doxologies except 1 Timothy 6:16. Μεγαλοσυνη Megalosunē (Majesty) is a late lxx word, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1.Before all time (προ παντος του αιωνος pro pantos tou aiōnos). Eternity behind us. See same idea in 1 Corinthians 2:7 προ των αιωνων pro tōn aiōnōn (νυν nun). The present. For ever more (εις παντας τους αιωνας eis pantas tous aiōnas). “Unto all the ages.” All the future. As complete a statement of eternity as can be made in human language.
Saturday, March 25th, 2017
the Third Week of Lent
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