Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
Coming down out of heaven (καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου katabainonta ek tou ouranou). Present active predicate participle. Not the angel of Revelation 17:1, Revelation 17:7, Revelation 17:15 (John‘s guide), but one announcing the doom of Babylon (Rome). As in Revelation 10:1; Revelation 20:1.Was lightened (επωτιστη ephōtisthē). First aorist passive of πωτιζω phōtizō old causative verb (from πως phōs light), common in N.T. as in Revelation 18:1; Revelation 21:23; Revelation 22:5. With his glory (εκ της δοχης αυτου ek tēs doxēs autou). “By reason of (εκ ek as in Revelation 8:13; Revelation 16:10) his glory.” “So recently has he come from the Presence that in passing he flings a broad belt of light across the dark earth” (Swete).
Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great (επεσεν επεσεν αβυλων η μεγαλη epesenπιπτω epesen Babulōn hē megalē). The very words of Revelation 14:8: “Did fall, did fall Babylon the great.” Prophetic aorists of εγενετο piptō repeated like a solemn dirge of the damned.Is become (κατοικητηριον egeneto). Prophetic aorist middle. A habitation of devils (κατοικεω katoikētērion). Late word (from πυλακη παντος πνευματος ακαταρτου katoikeō to dwell), in N.T. only here and Ephesians 2:22. Devils should be demons, of course. So Isaiah prophesied of Babylon (Isaiah 13:21-22) and also Jeremiah (Jeremiah 50:39) and Zephaniah of Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). Both Babylon and Nineveh are ruins. A hold of every unclean spirit (Πυλακη phulakē pantos pneumatos akathartou). πυλακη παντος ορνεου ακαταρτου και μεμισημενου Phulakē is garrison or watch-tower as in Habakkuk 2:1, rather than a prison (Revelation 20:7). A hold of every unclean and hateful bird (Ορνεου phulakē pantos orneou akathartou kai memisēmenou). Orneou is old word for bird, in N.T. only Revelation 18:2; Revelation 19:17, Revelation 19:21. “The evil spirits, watching over fallen Rome like night-birds or harpies that wait for their prey, build their eyries in the broken towers which rise from the ashes of the city” (Swete). Long ago true of Babylon and Nineveh, some day to be true of Rome.
By (εκ ek). “As a result of.” Some MSS. omit “of the wine” (του οινου tou oinou). Cf. Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:10.Have fallen (πεπτωκαν peptōkan). Perfect active third personal of πιπτω piptō for usual πεπτωκασι peptōkasi Some MSS. read πεπωκαν pepōkan (have drunk), from πινω pinō like the metaphor in Revelation 14:8, Revelation 14:10; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:2. See Revelation 17:2 for the same charge about the kings of the earth. The merchants of the earth (οι εμποροι της γης hoi emporoi tēs gēs). Old word for one on a journey for trade (from εν πορος enεμποριον poros), like drummers, in N.T. only Matthew 13:45; Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:11, Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:23. Like εμπορευομαι emporion (John 2:16) and επλουτησαν emporeuomai (James 4:13). Waxed rich (πλουτεω eploutēsan). First ingressive aorist active indicative of του στρηνους αυτης plouteō to be rich (cf. Revelation 3:17). Here alone in the N.T. do we catch a glimpse of the vast traffic between east and west that made Rome rich. Of her wantonness (στρηνιαω tou strēnous autēs). Late word for arrogance, luxury, here alone in N.T. See strēniaō in Revelation 18:7, Revelation 18:9, to live wantonly.
Come forth, my people, out of her (εχελτατε ο λαος μου εχ αυτης exelthateα ho laos mouεχερχομαι ex autēs). Second aorist (urgency) active imperative (ο λαος ̇a form) of ινα μη συνκοινωνησητε ταις αμαρταις αυτης exerchomai Like Isaiah 48:20; Isaiah 52:11; Jeremiah 50:8; Jeremiah 51:6, (about Babylon). See also the call of Abram (Genesis 12:1). the rescue of Lot (Genesis 19:12.). In the N.T. see Mark 13:4; 2 Corinthians 6:14; Ephesians 5:11; 1 Timothy 5:11. ινα μη Hosea laos is vocative with the form of the nominative.That ye have no fellowship with her sins (συνκοινωνεω hina mē sunkoinōnēsēte tais hamartais autēs). Purpose clause with συν hina mē and the first aorist active subjunctive of κοινωνος sunkoinōneō old compound (αμαρτιαις sun together, και εκ των πληγων αυτης ινα μη λαβητε koinōnos partner), in N.T. only here, Philemon 4:14; Ephesians 5:11. With associative instrumental case ινα μη hamartiais that ye receive not of her plagues (λαμβανω kai ek tōn plēgōn autēs hina mē labēte). Another purpose clause dependent on the preceding, with εκ των πληγων αυτης hina mē and the second aorist active subjunctive of ινα μη lambanō and with proleptic emphatic position of ek tōn plēgōn autēs before hina mē f0).
Have reached (εκολλητησαν ekollēthēsan). First aorist passive (deponent) indicative of κολλαω kollaō old verb (from κολλα kolla gluten, glue), to cleave to, to join one another in a mass “up to heaven” (αχρι του ουρανου achri tou ouranou). Cf. Jeremiah 51:9; Zechariah 14:5.Hath remembered (εμνημονευσεν emnēmoneusen). First aorist (prophetic) active indicative of μνημονευω mnēmoneuō here with the accusative (αδικηματα adikēmata iniquities) instead of the genitive (Colossians 4:18).
Render as she rendered (αποδοτε ως απεδωκεν apodote hōs apedōken). Second aorist (effective) active imperative and first aorist (effective) active of αποδιδωμι apodidōmi old and common verb for requital, to give back, the lex talionis which is in the O.T. (Jeremiah 50:15, Jeremiah 50:29; Jeremiah 51:24, Jeremiah 51:56; Psalm 137:8), and in the N.T. also (Matthew 7:2). Here the reference is to persecutions by Rome, particularly the martyrdom of the saints (Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2).Double the double (διπλωσατε τα διπλα diplōsate ta dipla). First aorist imperative of διπλοω diploō old verb (from διπλοος diploos double, Matthew 23:15), here only in N.T. Διπλα Diplā is simply the neuter plural accusative (cognate) contract form for διπλοα diploa (not διπλω diplō). Requite here in double measure, a full requital (Exodus 22:4, Exodus 22:7, Exodus 22:9; Isaiah 40:2; Jeremiah 16:18; Jeremiah 17:18; Zechariah 9:12). The double recompense was according to the Levitical law. Which she mingled (ωι εκερασεν hōi ekerasen). First aorist active indicative of κεραννυμι kerannumi The relative ωι hōi is attracted to the locative case of its antecedent ποτηριωι potēriōi (cup), for which see Revelation 14:8, Revelation 14:10; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:3. Mingle unto her double (κερασατε αυτηι διπλουν kerasate autēi diploun). First aorist active imperative of the same verb κεραννυμι kerannumi with the same idea of double punishment.
How much soever (οσα hosa). Indefinite quantitative relative pronoun οσος hosos in the accusative (cognate) neuter plural object of εδοχασεν edoxasen (first aorist active indicative of δοχαζω doxazō).Herself (αυτην hautēn). Reflexive pronoun, accusative also with εδοχασεν edoxasen wanton (εστρηνιασεν estrēniasen). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of στρηνιαω strēniaō (to live luxuriously), verb in late comedy instead of τρυπαω truphaō (James 5:5), from στρηνος strēnos (Revelation 18:3), only here in N.T. So much give her of torment and mourning (τοσουτον δοτε αυτηι βασανισμον και πεντος tosouton dote autēi basanismon kai penthos). Second aorist active imperative of διδωμι didōmi to give. The correlative pronoun τοσουτον tosouton is masculine singular accusative, agreeing with βασανισμον basanismon for which see Revelation 9:5; Revelation 14:11, and is understood with the neuter word πεντος penthos (mourning), in N.T. only in James 4:9; Revelation 18:7.; Revelation 21:4 (kin to πατοσ πενομαι pathosκατημαι βασιλισσα penomai). I sit a queen (βασιλεια kathēmai basilissa). Predicate nominative for the old form βασιλις basileia (και χηρα ουκ ειμι basilis), as in Matthew 12:42. Babylon and Tyre had preceded Rome in such boasting (Isaiah 47:7-9; Ezekiel 27:3; Ezekiel 28:2; Zephaniah 2:15). And am no widow (χηρος kai chēra ouk eimi). Feminine of the adjective πεντος ου μη ιδω chēros (barren), old word (Mark 12:40). Shall in no wise see mourning (πεντος penthos ou mē idō). Confident boast of security with emphatic position of ου μη penthos (see above) and double negative οραω ou mē with the second aorist active subjunctive of horaō (defective verb).
Therefore (δια τουτο dia touto). Because of her presumption added to her crimes.In one day (εν μιαι ημεραι en miāi hēmerāi). Symbolical term for suddenness like μιαι ωραι miāi hōrāi in one hour (Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19). John has in mind still Isaiah 47:7-9. Shall come (ηχουσιν hēxousin). Future active of ηκω hēkō Her plagues are named (death, mourning, famine). She shall be utterly burned (κατακαυτησεται katakauthēsetai). Future passive of κατακαιω katakaiō (perfective use of κατα kata). With fire (εν πυρι en puri). “In fire,” as in Revelation 17:16. Which judged her (ο κρινας αυτην ho krinas autēn). Articular first aorist active participle of κρινω krinō referring to κυριος ο τεος kurios ho theos (the Lord God). The doom of Babylon is certain because of the power of God.
Shall weep (κλαυσουσιν klausousin). Future active of κλαιω klaiō middle κλαυσονται klausontai in Attic, as in John 16:20.And wail over her (και κοπσονται επ αυτην kai kopsontai ep' autēn). Future direct middle of κοπτω koptō old verb, to beat, to cut, middle to beat oneself (Revelation 1:7). For combination with κλαιω klaiō as here see Luke 8:52. See Revelation 17:2; Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:7 for οι πορνευσαντες και στρηνιασαντες hoi porneusantes kai strēniasantes). When they look upon (οταν βλεπωσιν hotan blepōsin). Indefinite temporal clause with οταν hotan and the present active subjunctive of βλεπω blepō smoke of her burning (τον καπνον της πυρωσεως αυτης ton kapnon tēs purōseōs autēs). Πυρωσις Purōsis is an old word (from πυροω puroō to burn), in N.T. only 1 Peter 4:12; Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:18. See Revelation 18:8 for other plagues on Rome, but fire seems to be the worst (Revelation 17:16; Revelation 18:8, Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:17; Revelation 19:3).
Standing afar off (απο μακροτεν εστηκοτες apo makrothen hestēkotes). Perfect active (intransitive) participle of ιστημι histēmi Vivid picture of the terrible scene, fascinated by the lurid blaze (cf. Nero‘s delight in the burning of Rome in a.d. 64), and yet afraid to draw near. On απο μακροτεν apo makrothen see Mark 5:6. There is a weird charm in a burning city. They feared the same fate (cf. Revelation 18:7 for βασανισμου basanismou torment).Woe, woe, the great city (ουαι ουαι η πολις η μεγαλη ouaiουαι ouaiη ισχυρα hē polis hē megalē). Only example in the Apocalypse of the nominative with μιαι ωραι ouai except Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19, though in Luke 6:25 and common in lxx (Isa 5:7, 11, etc.). For the dative see Revelation 8:13, once so “strong” (μιαι ημεραι hē ischura)! In one hour (μιαν ωραν miāi hōrāi). Repeated in Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19, and like ποιαν ωραν miāi hēmerāi (in one day) in Revelation 18:8. Some MSS. have here ο κρινας mian hōran like η κρισις σου poian hōran (accusative of extent of time) in Revelation 3:3. See Revelation 18:8 (ho krinas) for hē krisis sou (thy judgment). This is the dirge of the kings.
The merchants (οι εμποροι hoi emporoi). As in Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:23. The dirge of the merchants follows the wail of the kings.Weep and mourn (κλαιουσιν και πεντουσιν klaiousin kai penthousin). Present active indicatives of κλαιω klaiō and πεντεω pentheō as in Revelation 18:9 (for κλαιω klaiō), Revelation 18:15, and Revelation 18:19. For no man buyeth their merchandise any more (οτι τον γομον αυτων ουδεις αγοραζει ουκετι hoti ton gomon autōn oudeis agorazei ouketi). Reason enough for their sorrow over Rome‘s fall. Γομος Gomos is old word (from γεμω gemō to be full) for a ship‘s cargo (Acts 21:3) and then any merchandise (Revelation 18:11.). Galen, Pliny, Aristides tell of the vastness of the commerce and luxury of Rome, the world‘s chief market. Many of the items here are like those in the picture of the destruction of Tyre in Ezek 26; 27. There are twenty-nine items singled out in Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:13 of this merchandise or cargo (γομον gomon), imports into the port of Rome. Only a few need any comment.
Of fine linen (βυσσινου bussinou). Genitive case after γομον gomon as are all the items to κοκκινου kokkinou Old adjective from βυσσος bussos (linen, Luke 16:19), here a garment of linen, in N.T. only Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14.Purple (πορπυρας porphuras). Fabric colored with purple dye (πορπυρεος porphureos Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16), as in Mark 15:17, Mark 15:20; Luke 16:19. Silk (σιρικου sirikou). So the uncials here. Το σηρικον To sērikon (the silken fabric) occurs in Plutarch, Strabo, Arrian, Lucian, only here in N.T. Probably from the name of the Indian or Chinese people (οι Σηρες hoi Sēres) from whom the fabric came after Alexander invaded India. Silk was a costly article among the Romans, and for women as a rule. Scarlet (κοκκινου kokkinou). See Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16. All thyine wood (παν χυλον τυινον pan xulon thuinon). Now accusative again without γομον gomon dependence. An odoriferous North African citrus tree, prized for the colouring of the wood for dining-tables, like a peacock‘s tail or the stripes of a tiger or panther. Here only in N.T. Of ivory (ελεπαντινον elephantinon). Old adjective (from ελεπας elephas elephant) agreeing with σκευος skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T. Cf. Ahab‘s ivory palace (1 Kings 22:39). Of marble (μαρμαρου marmarou). Old word (from μαρμαιρω marmairō to glisten), genitive after σκευος skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T.
Cinnamon (κινναμωμον kinnamōmon). Old word transliterated into English, here only in N.T. Of Phoenician origin (Herodotus) as to name and possibly from South China.Spice (αμωμον amōmon). A fragrant plant of India, αμομυμ amomum for perfume. Incense (τυμιαματα thumiamata). See Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3. Ointment (μυρον muron). See Matthew 26:7. Frankincense (λιβανον libanon). See Revelation 8:3. Fine flour (σεμιδαλιν semidalin). Old word for finest wheaten flour, here only in N.T. Of horses (ιππων hippōn). Here then is a return to the construction of the genitive after γομον gomon in Revelation 18:12, though not used here, an anomalous genitive construction (Charles). Of chariots (ρεδων redōn). A Gallic word for a vehicle with four wheels, here only in N.T. Of slaves (σοματων somatōn). “Of bodies,” treated as animals or implements, like the horses and the chariots (cf. rickshaw men in China). This use of σωμα sōma for slave occurs in Genesis 34:29; Tob 10:11 (σωματα και κτηνη sōmata kai ktēnē slaves and cattle); 2 Macc. 8:11. Souls of men (πσυχας αντρωπων psuchas anthrōpōn). Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 160) finds this use of σωμα sōma for slave in the Egyptian Delta. Return to the accusative πσυχας psuchas From Numbers 31:35; 1 Chronicles 5:21; Ezekiel 27:13. This addition is an explanation of the use of σωματα sōmata for slaves, “human live stock” (Swete), but slaves all the same. Perhaps και kai here should be rendered “even,” not “and”: “bodies even souls of men.” The slave merchant was called σωματεμπορος sōmatemporos (body merchant).
The fruits (η οπωρα hē opōra). The ripe autumn fruit (Jeremiah 40:10, Jeremiah 40:12). Here only in N.T. Of uncertain etymology (possibly οπος opos sap, ωρα hōra hour, time for juicy sap). See Judges 1:12 for δενδρα πτινοπωρινος dendra phthinopōrinos (autumn trees).Which thy soul lusteth after (σου της επιτυμιας της πσυχης sou tēs epithumias tēs psuchēs). “Of the lusting of thy soul.” Are gone from thee (απηλτεν απο σου apēlthen apo sou). Prophetic aorist active indicative of απερχομαι aperchomai with repetition of απο apo things that were dainty and sumptuous (παντα τα λιπαρα και τα λαμπρα panta ta lipara kai ta lampra). “All the dainty and the gorgeous things.” Λιπαρος Liparos is from λιπος lipos (grease) and so fat, about food (here only in N.T.), while λαμπρος lampros is bright and shining (James 2:2.), about clothing. Are perished from thee (απωλετο απο σου apōleto apo sou). Prophetic second aorist middle indicative of απολλυμι apollumi (intransitive). Shall find them no more at all (ουκετι ου μη αυτα ευρησουσιν ouketi ou mē auta heurēsousin). Doubled double negative with future active, as emphatic a negation as the Greek can make.
Of these things (τουτων toutōn). Listed above in Revelation 18:12-14.Who were made rich by her (οι πλουτησαντες απ αυτης hoi ploutēsantes ap' autēs). “Those who grew rich (ingressive aorist active participle of πλουτεω plouteō for which see Revelation 18:3, Revelation 18:13) from her.” Shall stand afar off (απο μακροτεν στησονται apo makrothen stēsontai). Future middle of ιστημι histēmi Repeating the picture in Revelation 18:10. Again in Revelation 18:17. See Revelation 18:11 for the two participles κλαιοντες και πεντουντες klaiontes kai penthountes f0).
For the Woe see Revelation 18:10, and Revelation 18:19. For the next clause see Revelation 17:4 with the addition here of βυσσινον bussinon (Revelation 18:12).For in one hour so great riches is made desolate (οτι μιαι ωραι ηρημωτη ο τοσουτος πλουτος hoti miāi hōrāi ērēmōthē ho tosoutos ploutos). The reason (οτι hoti) for the “woe.” First aorist passive indicative of ερημοω erēmoō for which verb see Revelation 17:16; Revelation 18:19. This is the dirge of the merchants.
Shipmaster (κυβερνητης kubernētēs). Old word (from κυβερναω kubernaō to steer), helmsman, sailing-master, in N.T. only here and Acts 27:11. Subordinate to the ναυκληρος nauklēros (supreme commander).That saileth any whither (ο επι τοπον πλεων ho epi topon pleōn). “The one sailing to a place.” See Acts 27:2, τους κατα την Ασιαν πλεοντας tous kata tēn Asian pleontas (those sailing down along Asia). Nestle suggests ποντον ponton (sea) here for τοπον topon (place), but it makes sense as it is. Mariners (ναυται nautai). Old word (from ναυς naus ship), in N.T. only here and Acts 27:27, Acts 27:30. Gain their living by the sea (την ταλασσαν εργαζονται tēn thalassan ergazontai). “Work the sea.” This idiom is as old as Hesiod for sailors, fishermen, etc. See Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:15.
As they looked (βλεποντες blepontes). Present active participle of βλεπω blepō See οταν βλεπωσιν hotan blepōsin in Revelation 18:10.What city is like the great city? (τις ομοια τηι πολει τηι μεγαληι tis homoia tēi polei tēi megalēi̱). No πολις polis with τις tis but implied. Associative instrumental case, as usual, with ομοια homoia “The eternal city” is eternal no longer.
They cast dust (εβαλον χουν ebalon choun). Second aorist active of βαλλω ballō Χους Chous is old word (from χεω cheō to pour) for heap of earth, dust, in N.T. only here and Mark 6:11. Cf. Ezekiel 27:30; Luke 10:13. This is the dirge of the sea-folk (cf. Revelation 18:10, and Revelation 18:16).By reason of her costliness (εκ της τιμιοτητος αυτης ek tēs timiotētos autēs). Occasionally in later literary Greek, though here only in N.T. and not in lxx. The same use of τιμη timē appears in 1 Peter 2:7. Common in the papyri as a title like “Your Honor” (Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary).
Rejoice over her (Ευπραινου επ αυτηι Euphrainou ep' autēi). Present middle imperative of ευπραινω euphrainō for which verb see Revelation 11:10, used there of the joy of the wicked over the death of the two witnesses, just the opposite picture to this. “The song of doom” (Charles) here seems to be voiced by John himself.God hath judged your judgment (εκρινεν ο τεος το κριμα ekrinen ho theos to krima). First aorist (prophetic) active of κρινω krinō and cognate accusative κριμα krima here a case for trial (Exodus 18:22; 1 Corinthians 6:7), not a sentence as in Revelation 17:1. God has approved the case of heaven.
A strong angel (εις αγγελος ισχυρος heis aggelos ischuros). Here εις heis = a, just an indefinite article, not “one” as a numeral.Took up (ηρεν ēren). First aorist active indicative of αιρω airō it were a great millstone (ως μυλινον μεγαν hōs mulinon megan). Late adjective, in inscriptions, here only in N.T., made of millstone (μυλος mulos Matthew 18:6; Revelation 18:22), while μυλικος mulikos (Luke 17:2) means belonging to a mill. This is not a small millstone turned by women (Matthew 24:41), but one requiring an ass to turn it (Mark 9:42), and so “a great” one. Cast (εβαλεν ebalen). Second aorist active of βαλλω ballō to hurl. With a mighty fall (ορμηματι hormēmati). Instrumental case (manner) of ορμημα hormēma a rush, old word from ορμαω hormaō to rush (Matthew 8:32), here only in N.T. Shall be cast down (βλετησεται blethēsetai). Future (first) passive of βαλλω ballō the same verb (εβαλεν ebalen), effective punctiliar future. Like a boulder hurled into the sea. Shall be found no more at all (ου μη ευρετηι ετι ou mē heurethēi eti). Double negative with first aorist passive subjunctive of ευρισκω heuriskō See Revelation 9:6 for ου μη ou mē with the active voice of ευρισκω heuriskō Already the old Babylon was a desert waste (Strabo, XVI. 1073).
The voice (πωνη phōnē). Cf. Ezekiel 26:13. Or “sound” as in 1 Corinthians 14:8 with σαλπιγχ salpigx (trumpet). For this song of judgment see Jeremiah 25:10.Of harpers (κιταρωιδων kitharōidōn). Old word (from κιταρα kithara harp, and ωιδος ōidos singer) as in Revelation 14:2. Of minstrels (μουσικων mousikōn). Old word (from μουσα mousa music), here only in N.T., one playing on musical instruments. Of flute-players (αυλητων aulētōn). Old word (from αυλεω auleō to play on a flute, Matthew 11:17, αυλος aulos flute, 1 Corinthians 14:7), in N.T. only here and Matthew 9:23. Of trumpeters (σαλπιστων salpistōn). Late form for the earlier σαλπιγκτης salpigktēs (from σαλπιζω salpizō), here only in N.T. Shall be heard no more at all (ου μη ακουστηι ou mē akousthēi). First aorist passive subjunctive of ακουω akouō with the double negative as below, with πωνη μυλου phōnē mulou (sound of the millstone), and as in Revelation 18:21 with ου με ευρετηι ou me heurethēi and again with πας τεχνιτης pās technitēs (craftsman). This old word is from τεχνη technē art, as here in some MSS. (“of whatsoever craft,” πασης τεχνης pasēs technēs). Τεχνιτης Technitēs occurs also in this sense in Acts 19:24, Acts 19:38; and in Hebrews 11:10 of God as the Architect. There is power in this four-fold sonorous repetition of ου μη ou mē and the subjunctive with two more examples in Revelation 18:23.
Of a lamp (λυχνου luchnou). Old word (Matthew 5:15), again in Revelation 22:5.Shall shine no more at all (ου μη πανηι ou mē phanēi). Fifth instance in these verses of ου μη ou mē with the aorist subjunctive, here the active of παινω phainō as in Revelation 8:12. It is not known whether Rome had street lights or not. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride (πωνη νυμπιου και νυμπης phōnē numphiou kai numphēs). See John 3:29; Jeremiah 7:34; Jeremiah 16:9. “Even the occasional flash of the torches carried by bridal processions (Matthew 25:1.) is seen no more” (Swete). The sixth instance of ου μη ou mē in Revelation 18:21-23, occurs with ακουστηι akousthēi (third instance of ακουστηι akousthēi two in Revelation 18:22). Were the princes of the earth (ησαν οι μεγιστανες της γης ēsan hoi megistānes tēs gēs). For μεγισταν megistān see Revelation 6:15; Mark 6:21. “Thy merchants were the grandees” once, but now these merchant princes are gone. With thy sorcery (εν τηι παρμακιαι σου en tēi pharmakiāi sou). Εν En (instrumental use) and the locative case of παρμακια pharmakia old word (from παρμακευω pharmakeuō to prepare drugs, from παρμακον pharmakon sorcery, Revelation 9:21), in N.T. only here and Galatians 5:20 for sorcery and magical arts. If one is puzzled over the connection between medicine and sorcery as illustrated by this word (our pharmacy), he has only to recall quackery today in medicine (patent medicines and cure-alls), witch-doctors, professional faith-healers, medicine-men in Africa. True medical science has had a hard fight to shake off chicanery and charlatanry. Were deceived (επλανητησαν eplanēthēsan). First aorist passive indicative of πλαναω planaō These charlatans always find plenty of victims. See Mark 12:24.
In her (εν αυτηι en autēi). In Rome.Was found (ευρετη heurethē). First aorist passive indicative of ευρισκω heuriskō See Revelation 16:6; Revelation 17:6 for the blood already shed by Rome. Rome “butchered to make a Roman holiday” (Dill, Roman Society, p. 242) not merely gladiators, but prophets and saints from Nero‘s massacre a.d. 64 to Domitian and beyond. Of all that have been slain (παντων των εσπαγμενων pantōn tōn esphagmenōn). Perfect passive articular participle genitive plural of σπαζω sphazō the verb used of the Lamb slain (Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 13:8). Cf. Matthew 23:35 about Jerusalem.
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