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Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Titus 3

Verse 1

To be in subjection to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient (αρχαις εχουσιαις υποτασσεσται πειταρχεινarchais exousiais hupotassesthai peitharchein). Remarkable double asyndeton, no καιkai (and) between the two substantives or the two verbs. ΠειταρχεινPeitharchein (to obey), old verb (from πειτομαι αρχηpeithomaiπρος παν εργον αγατον ετοιμους ειναιarchē), in N.T. only here and Acts 27:21.

To be ready unto every good work (ετοιμοςpros pan ergon agathon hetoimous einai). Pauline phrase (2 Corinthians 9:8; 2 Timothy 2:21; 2 Timothy 3:17), here adjective hetoimos (2 Corinthians 9:5), there verb.


Verse 2

To speak evil (βλασπημεινblasphēmein). See note on Colossians 3:8; 1 Timothy 6:4.

Not to be contentious (αμαχους ειναιamachous einai). “To be non-fighters” (1 Timothy 3:3), originally “invincible.”

Gentle (επιεικειςepieikeis). See note on 1 Timothy 3:3.

Meekness (πραυτηταprautēta). ΠραοτηταPraotēta See note on Colossians 3:12.


Verse 3

Aforetime (ποτεpote). “Once” in our unconverted state as in Ephesians 2:3.

Foolish (ανοητοιanoētoi). See Romans 1:14, Romans 1:21.

Disobedient (απειτειςapeitheis). See note on Romans 1:30.

Deceived (πλανωμενοιplanōmenoi). Present passive participle of πλαναωplanaō though the middle is possible.

Divers lusts (ηδοναις ποικιλαιςhēdonais poikilais). “Pleasures” (ηδοναιςhēdonais from ηδομαιhēdomai old word, in N.T. only here, Luke 8:14; James 4:1, James 4:3; 2 Peter 2:13). ΠοικιλαιςPoikilais (old word) is many-coloured as in Mark 1:34; James 1:2; 2 Timothy 3:6, etc.

Living (διαγοντεςdiagontes). See note on 1 Timothy 3:6 (supply βιονbion).

In malice (εν κακιαιen kakiāi). See note on Romans 1:29.

Envy (πτονωιphthonōi). See note on Romans 1:29.

Hateful (στυγητοιstugētoi). Late passive verbal from στυγεωstugeō to hate. In Philo, only here in N.T.

Hating one another (μισουντες αλληλουςmisountes allēlous). Active sense and natural result of being “hateful.”


Verse 4

The kindness (η χρηστοτηςhē chrēstotēs). See note on Romans 2:4 for this very word used of God as here.

His love toward man (η πιλαντρωπιαhē philanthrōpia). “The philanthrophy of God our Saviour.” Old word from πιλαντρωποςphilanthrōpos for love of mankind, in N.T. only here and Acts 28:2.

Appeared (επεπανηepephanē). See note on Acts 2:11 and here as there the Incarnation of Christ. See note on 1 Timothy 1:1 for σωτηρsōtēr with τεοςtheos (God).


Verse 5

Done (not in the Greek, only the article τωνtōn), “not as a result of works those in righteousness which we did.” Same idea as in Romans 3:20.

According to his mercy he saved us (κατα το αυτου ελεος εσωσενkata to autou eleos esōsen). See Psalm 109:26; 1 Peter 1:3; Ephesians 2:4. Effective aorist active indicative of σωζωsōzō

Through the washing of regeneration (δια λουτρου παλινγενεσιαςdia loutrou palingenesias). Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. (Matthew 19:28 with which compare αποκαταστασιαapokatastasia in Acts 3:21, and here in personal sense of new birth). For λουτρονloutron see note on Ephesians 5:26, here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in Romans 6:3-6, the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it.

And renewing of the Holy Spirit (και ανακαινωσεως πνευματος αγιουkai anakainōseōs pneumatos hagiou). “And renewal by the Holy Spirit” (subjective genitive). For the late word ανακαινωσιςanakainōsis see note on Romans 12:2. Here, as often, Paul has put the objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to picture it forth to men.


Verse 6

Which (ουhou). Genitive case by attraction from οho (grammatical gender) to the case of πνευματος αγιουpneumatos hagiou We do not have grammatical gender (only natural) in English. Hence here we should say “whom,” even if it does not go smoothly with εχεχεενexecheen (he poured out, second aorist active indicative of εκχεωekcheō). The reference is to the great Pentecost (Acts 2:33) as foretold by Joel (Joel 2:28).

Richly (πλουσιωςplousiōs). Then and to each one in his own experience. See note on Romans 10:12; 1 Timothy 6:17.


Verse 7

Being justified by his grace (δικαιωτεντες τηι εκεινου χαριτιdikaiōthentes tēi ekeinou chariti). First aorist passive participle of δικαιοωdikaioō and instrumental case of χαριςcharis as in Romans 3:24; Romans 5:1.

That we might be made heirs (ινα κληρονομοι γενητωμενhina klēronomoi genēthōmen). Purpose with ιναhina and first aorist passive of γινομαιginomai See note on Romans 4:13; Romans 8:17.


Verse 8

The saying (ο λογοςho logos). In Titus 3:4-7.

I will (βουλομαιboulomai). See note on 1 Timothy 2:8.

That thou affirm confidently (σε διαβεβαιουσταιse diabebaiousthai). Indirect command. For the verb see note on 1 Timothy 1:7.

That they may be careful (ινα προντιζωσινhina phrontizōsin). Sub-final use of ιναhina with present active subjunctive of προντιζωphrontizō old verb, only here in N.T.

To maintain good works (καλων εργων προστασταιkalōn ergōn pro). Present middle infinitive of προιστημιproistēmi intransitive use, to stand before, to take the lead in, to care for. Paul is anxious that “believers” may take the lead in good works.


Verse 9

Fightings about the law (μαχας νομικαςmachas nomikas). “Legal battles.” See note on 1 Timothy 6:4; 2 Timothy 2:23. Wordy fights about Mosaic and Pharisaic and Gnostic regulations.

Shun (περιιστασοperiistaso). Present middle imperative of περιιστημιperiistēmi intransitive, step around, stand aside (2 Timothy 2:16). Common in this sense in the literary Koiné.

Unprofitable (ανωπελειςanōpheleis). Old compound adjective (αa privative and οπελοςophelos), in N.T. only here and Hebrews 7:18.


Verse 10

Heretical (αιρετικονhairetikon). Old adjective from αιρεσιςhairesis (αιρεομαιhaireomai to choose), a choosing of a party (sect, Acts 5:17) or of teaching (2 Peter 2:1). Possibly a schism had been started here in Crete.

Refuse (παραιτουparaitou). Present middle imperative of παραιτεωparaiteō to ask from, to beg off from. See same form in 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 5:11. Possibly an allusion here to Christ‘s directions in Matthew 18:15-17.


Verse 11

Is perverted (εχεστραπταιexestraptai). Perfect passive indicative of εκστρεπωekstrephō old word to turn inside out, to twist, to pervert. Only here in N.T.

Self-condemned (αυτοκατακριτοςautokatakritos). Only known example of this double compound verbal adjective (αυτοσ κατα κρινωautoskatakrinō).


Verse 12

When I shall send (οταν πεμπσωhotan pempsō). Indefinite temporal clause with οτανhotan and the first aorist active subjunctive (or future indicative) of πεμπωpempō (same form).

Artemas (ΑρτεμανArtemān). Perhaps abbreviation of Artemidorus. Nothing more is known of him.

Or Tychicus (η Τυχικονē Tuchikon). Paul‘s well-known disciple (Colossians 4:7; Ephesians 6:21; 2 Timothy 4:12).

To Nicopolis (εις Νικοπολινeis Nikopolin). Probably in Epirus, a good place for work in Dalmatia (2 Timothy 4:10).

I have determined (κεκρικαkekrika). Perfect active indicative. I have decided.

To winter there (εκει παραχειμασαιekei paracheimasai). First aorist active infinitive of παραχειμαζωparacheimazō a literary Koiné{[28928]} word for which see note on Acts 27:12; note on 1 Corinthians 16:6.


Verse 13

Zenas the lawyer (ηναν τον νομικονZēnān ton nomikon). Possibly abbreviation of Zenodorus and may be one of the bearers of the Epistle with Apollos. Probably an expert in the Mosaic law as the word means in the Gospels. A converted Jewish lawyer. The Latin term is jurisconsultum for νομικονnomikon

Apollos (ΑπολλωνApollōn). Paul‘s friend (Acts 18:24-19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12.).

Set forward (προπεμπσονpropempson). First aorist active imperative of προπεμπωpropempō old verb, to send on ahead (1 Corinthians 16:6, 1 Corinthians 16:11; Romans 15:24).

That nothing be wanting unto them (ινα μηδεν αυτοις λειπηιhina mēden autois leipēi). Purpose with ιναhina and present (or second aorist λιπηιlipēi some MSS.) subjunctive of λειπωleipō old verb to leave, to remain, to lack. With dative case here (αυτοιςautois).


Verse 14

Our people (οι ημετεροιhoi hēmeteroi). “Our folks.” The Cretan converts, not just Paul‘s friends.

Let learn (μαντανετωσανmanthanetōsan). Present active imperative, keep on learning how.

To maintain (προστασταιpro). See Titus 3:8.

For necessary uses (εις αναγκαιας χρειαςeis anagkaias chreias). “For necessary wants.” No idlers wanted. See 1 Thessalonians 4:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:10.

Unfruitful (ακαρποιakarpoi). See note on 1 Corinthians 14:14; Ephesians 5:11.


Verse 15

That love us (τους πιλουντας ημαςtous philountas hēmās). Paul craved the love of his friends as opposed to Titus 2:8.

sa120


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Titus 3:2". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". "http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/view.cgi?book=tit&chapter=3&verse=2". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

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