Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology
Spirit being who is unclean and immoral in nature and activities. When demons were created, how they came to be demonic, and their organizational structure are not given significant attention in Scripture because the focus throughout the Bible is on God and his work in Christ rather than on the demonic attempts to demean that work.
The Old Testament . References to demons in the Old Testament are relatively scarce. Their existence is never proven; it is simply assumed. The Old Testament focus is not on demons and their schemes but on God and his sovereignty. Demons are not depicted as free, independent agents, but operate under God's direct control. Though they are not revealed as the malicious beings seen in the New Testament, there are still definitive commands for God's people to avoid them. The Old Testament word for demons (sed [ Deuteronomy 32:17 ), and Israel is condemned by God for sacrificing to them (Psalm 106:37 ). They are also called evil spirits sent from God. After Abimelech treacherously killed Gideon's sons, God sent an evil spirit that divided him from the citizens of Shechem (Judges 9:23-24 ). God also sent an evil spirit to torment Saul. David's attempts to calm Saul by playing the harp (1 Samuel 16:15-16 ) are unsuccessful, as Saul, provoked by the spirit, tries to kill David (1 Samuel 16:14-23 ; 18:10-11 ; 19:9-10 ). A spirit from God's counsel volunteers to be a lying spirit in the mouths of Ahab's prophets (1 Kings 22:19-23 ; 2 Chronicles 18:18-22 ). The medium from Endor sees "gods" or "spirits" coming up from the ground (1 Samuel 28:13 ). An angel is delayed twenty-one days in bringing an answer to Daniel's prayer by a prince of Persia, giving an indication of some organizational structure or ranking among demons (Daniel 10:13 ). This also gives us one of the few glimpses behind the curtains of history into engagements between demons and angels. Other possible Old Testament references to demons include goat idols (Leviticus 17:7 ; 2 Chronicles 11:15 ; Isaiah 13:21 ; 34:14 ), night creatures (Isaiah 34:14 ), and idols (LXX of Psalm 96:5 ).
Demons during the Life of Christ . There is more recorded demonic activity during Jesus' life than any other time in biblical history. Though demonic confrontations are mentioned throughout the Gospels, we find only eight case studies of actual encounters. These include Jesus' temptation (Matthew 4:1-11 ; Mark 1:12-13 ; Luke 4:1-13 ); the blind man (Matthew 9:32-33 ); the blind and mute man (Matthew 12:22-23 ; Luke 11:14 ); the Canaanite woman's daughter (Matthew 15:22-28 ; Mark 7:24-30 ); the man in the synagogue (Mark 1:23-27 ; Luke 4:31-37 ); the Gerasene demoniac (Matthew 8:28-34 ; Mark 5:1-20 ; Luke 8:26-37 ); the boy with seizures (Matthew 17:14-20 ; Mark 9:14-29 ; Luke 9:37-43 ); and the silencing of demons (Matthew 8:16 ; Mark 1:32-35 ; Luke 4:40-41 ). Other possible examples include the seven demons expelled from Mary Magdalene (Luke 8:1-2 ), Jesus' rebuke of Satan's suggestion through Peter (Matthew 16:23 ; Mark 8:33 ), and his command to Judas after Satan had entered him (John 13:27 ). Additionally, we are told that the disciples (Luke 10:17-20 ) and even someone they did not know (Mark 9:38-40 ) saw demons submit to them, but we are not given any other details. There are three main terms for demons in the New Testament: daimonion [ Mark 8:31 ).
Throughout Jesus' life we see his work against the devastating work of demons in the lives of people. The vocabulary of demonic activities against human beings is rich and varied, though it all shows movement toward the ultimate destruction of people. Demons troubled or annoyed people (Luke 6:18 ). They robbed a young boy of his speech (Mark 9:17,25 ), rendered a man mute (Matthew 9:33 ; Luke 11:14 ), and froze the back of an elderly woman (Luke 13:11,16 ). They seized the Gerasene demoniac (Luke 8:29 ) and a young boy (Luke 9:39 ) in order to destructively overcome him.
Throughout the Gospel accounts, spirits evidenced control over human hosts. Several terms are used to describe this. Jesus warned in a parable of the possibility of multiple demons living in or indwelling a person (Matthew 12:43-45 ; Luke 11:24-26 ). Evil spirits were in the demoniac in the synagogue ( Mark 1:23 ); the Gerasene demoniac was a person who was with a spirit ( Mark 5:2 ; " [in the power] of an unclean spirit, " Amplified ) that drove or impelled him (Luke 8:29 ). Many were described as having (echo [ Matthew 11:18 ; Mark 3:30 ; 7:25 ; 9:17 ; Luke 4:33 ; 7:33 ; 8:27 ; John 7:20 ; 8:48,52 ; 10:20 ). Such a spirit entered the young boy (Mark 9:25 ; Luke 8:30 ) and then mauled and convulsed him.
People who have demons are demonized (daimonizomai [ Matthew 4:24 ; 8:16,28 , 33 ; 12:22 ; 15:22 ; Mark 1:32 ; 5:15,16 , 18 ; Luke 8:36 ; John 10:21 ). This term is generally translated as demon-possessed. However, daimonizomai [ Luke 13:16 ).
The New Testament describes physical, social, and spiritual symptoms of demonic control, though no exhaustive list is given. The physical symptoms include muteness (Matthew 9:32-33 ; Mark 9:17 ; Luke 11:14 ), blindness (Matthew 12:22 ), self-inflicted wounds (Mark 5:5 ; 9:22 ), crying (Mark 5:4 ), or screaming (Mark 1:26 ; 5:7 ; 9:26 ), convulsions (Mark 1:26 ), seizures (Matthew 17:15 ), falling to the ground, rolling around, foaming at the mouth, grinding of the teeth, and rigidity (Mark 9:18,20 ), inhuman strength (Mark 5:3-4 ), and staying active day and night (Mark 5:5 ). The social symptoms include dwelling in unclean places (Mark 5:3 ; Luke 8:27 ) and going around naked (Luke 8:27 ). The spiritual symptoms include supernatural abilities such as recognition of the person of Christ and reaction against him (Mark 1:23-24 ; 5:7 ; Luke 4:40-41 ) and the ability to tell the future (divination Acts 16:16 ). None of these symptoms by itself should be seen as proof of demonization. Rather, they are examples of the types of manifestations that come with demonic infestation.
Jesus came to set Satan's captives free (Matthew 12:22-29 ; Luke 4:18-21 ), and in all of his dealing with the demonized he demonstrated compassion for the people and authority over the spirits. He commanded the spirit in the Gerasene demoniac to come out (Luke 8:29 ) and ordered the demon out of the man in the synagogue (Mark 1:27 ) and the young boy (Mark 9:25 ). He did not have to be physically present to effect release, seen in the healing of the Canaanite woman's cruelly demonized daughter from a distance (Matthew 15:22-28 ). The people were amazed that he simply commanded the demons and they obeyed (Luke 4:36 ), as they were used to seeing elaborate exorcism rituals that were not always successful. The demons in the Gerasene demoniac needed Jesus' permission to enter the pigs (Mark 5:13 ; Luke 8:32 ) and he denied permission for demons to speak (Mark 1:34 ; Luke 4:41 ). He rebuked the demon in the young boy (Matthew 17:18 ; Mark 9:25 ; Luke 9:42 ) and the man in the synagogue (Mark 1:25 ; Luke 4:35 ).
The term most commonly used of the expulsion of demons in the New Testament is cast out (ekballo [ John 9:34-35 ; see also Mark 1:12 ). Demons were cast out by the spirit of God (Matthew 12:28 ; cf. Luke 11:20 , ; "by the finger of God" ), and this was done by verbal command rather than the elaborate rituals of the exorcists. Jesus' authority to cast out demons was given to the Twelve (Matthew 10:1,8 ) and others, who cast them out in Jesus' name (Mark 9:38-41 ; see also Acts 16:18 ). The disciples were successful in casting out demons, but needed a reminder to keep their priorities straight (Luke 10:17-20 ). With the young boy, however, they were unsuccessful because of lack of prayer (Mark 9:28-29 ).
There are several primary words employed in the Gospels to describe Jesus' healing ministry among the demonized. He released (luo [ Luke 13:16 ). He saved (sozo [ Luke 8:36 ). He healed (therapeuo [ Matthew 4:24 ; 10:22 ; 17:16 ; Luke 6:18 ; 7:21 ; 8:2 ; 13:14 ), a word used of healing the sick (lame, blind, mute, maimed, deaf) as well as the demonized and even of satanic healing. Its use implied that the restoration of demoniacs was on the same level of ministry as other types of healing, all of which showed Christ's mastery over Satan and sin. Jesus also healed (iaomai [ Luke 6:19 ; under the power of Satan ), including the Canaanite woman's daughter (Matthew 15:28 ) and the young boy (Luke 9:42 ).
Demons in Acts and the Epistles . In comparison with the Gospels, demonic encounters are relatively rare. Spirits are mentioned in only five instances in Acts. Those tormented by evil spirits were brought before the apostles in Jerusalem and healed (5:15-16). Philip, not an apostle, exercised Christ's authority over demons in Samaria (8:6-7). Paul released a slave girl who had a fortune-telling spirit by simply commanding the spirit to leave (16:16-18). God performed extraordinary miracles through Paul in Ephesus, including the expulsion of demons (19:11-12). The final instance was between Jewish exorcists and a demoniac in which the exorcists were soundly beaten (19:13-17). When the church heard what happened, those who had not fully come out of their magical practices repented and publicly burned their expensive scrolls (19:17-20). The failure of the non-Christian exorcists shows that in power encounters authority is the underlying issue. Interestingly, the term "exorcism" is not used of Jesus' ministry. An exorcism implies a particular ritual, and Jesus, as well as the early church, relied on authority rather than ritual. It is not surprising, then, that nowhere in the New Testament is a Christian ritual for exorcism seen.
The relative paucity of overt examples of demonic confrontation is one indication of a shift from a form of direct power encounter with demons to a focus on knowing and correctly applying the truth to thwart demonic influence. This is also seen in the emphasis on deception as a tool of Satan and his demons. They pretend to be friendly spirits to deceive people (2 Corinthians 11:15 ) and blind the minds of believers (2 Corinthians 4:3-4 ). They lead people astray from truth (2 Timothy 3:13 ; 1 John 2:26 ; 3:7 ). They also lead people astray through the pursuit of pleasure or sensual gratification (Ephesians 5:6 ; Colossians 2:8 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:3 ).
The emphasis on truth in the Epistles does not mean that power encounters are unimportant or no longer viable today. Rather, the implication is that our day-to-day struggle with demonic forces will focus on truth issues without overlooking power issues. Appropriate truth encounter metaphors for spiritual conflict in the Epistles include walking in the light (1 John 1:5-7 ), the stripping off of the old and joyful putting on the new (Ephesians 4:22-29 ), our participation in a kingdom transfer (Colossians 1:13 ), which involves a transformation of our nature as people (2 Corinthians 5:17 ), and our growth into the full measure of the stature of Christ (Ephesians 4:14-16 ).
Believers are not immune from demonic attack. Demons seek to influence Christians through false doctrines and teachings (1 Timothy 4:1 ; 1 John 4:1-4 ) as well as false miracles and wonders (2 Thessalonians 2:7-11 ; Revelation 16:14 ). Paul was buffeted (2Col 12:7; see Matthew 26:67 ; 1Col 4:11; 1 Peter 2:20 ; for the physical aspect ). Though there can be no certainty as to how this buffeting was manifested, we do know that an "angel of Satan" caused it and that Paul could not remove it through prayer. In the West evangelicals have been preoccupied with the question of whether a true Christian can be demon-possessed. Such a conclusion, however, can only be an inappropriate translation of daimonizomai [ John 12:31 ; Colossians 2:14-15 ; Hebrews 2:14-15 ), God's presence in (2 Corinthians 6:16 ) and protection of the believer (1 John 5:18 ), and our status as being seated with Christ (Ephesians 2:6 ). Evidence in favor of the demonization of believers includes the statements of our need to know Satan's schemes (2 Corinthians 2:11 ) so that he will not gain a foothold on us (Ephesians 4:26-27 ), the reality of demonic attack against believers (2Col 11:3; 12:7; Ephesians 6:10-12 ), and the commands to resist him (James 4:7 ; 1 Peter 5:8-9 ). No one should doubt that Satan and his demons are able to influence Christians; the question is whether that influence can result in demonization. Further evidence in favor of the possibility of believers being demonized are the instances of Saul's torment from an evil spirit (1 Samuel 16:14-23 ), the daughter of Abraham being bound by Satan for eighteen years (Luke 13:10-17 ), and Ananias and Sapphira having their hearts "filled by Satan" (Acts 5:3 ). None of these has been without dispute, but Scripture indicates that all were of the house of faith and all faced demonic attack. This parallels the experience of many people today. While experience is not the final arbiter of doctrinal formulation, our experience should be in accord with our doctrine. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that Christians may be demonized and that the warnings to stand against Satan are not just to stop his attacks against the church or his control over those who do not believe.
Whatever our conclusion on demonization of believers, Christians clearly have the identity (being in Christ), the authority (being seated with Christ), and the mandate to resist Satan and his demons. We do so not on the basis of our own goodness, but on the basis of Christ's finished work on the cross. Because the One who is in us is greater than the one who is in the world (1 John 4:4 ), we can successfully stand against demonic schemes. Our weapons in this ongoing struggle include our authority as seated with Christ at the right hand of God, far above every power (Ephesians 1:15-2:6 ), the name of Jesus (Philippians 2:10 ), our spiritual armor (Ephesians 6:18 ), prayer (a must in some cases, Mark 9:29 ), simple resistance (James 4:7 ), forgiveness (Ephesians 4:26-27 ), and exhibiting the fruit of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23 ; Ephesians 4:22-29 ; 6:10-18 ).
Conclusion . The testimony of the Scriptures regarding demons is clear and cohesive. They are angelic entities who oppose God's sovereign control. They seek to work out their unholy rebellion through influencing people to live in a way contrary to God's expressed intentions. At the same time, they remain under his sovereignty and can be used of him to effect the divine plan. As Christians we are to submit ourselves to God and resist the attacks of Satan and his hosts. To do so, we must be aware of the basic truths presented in Scripture concerning not just the ontology of demons but their methods as they attempt to influence our lives. Once aware, we are to take our stand in Christ and oppose the working of demons, whether personally, corporately, or in the structures and systems of society.
A. Scott Moreau
Bibliography.: C. Arnold, Powers of Darkness: W. Carr, Angels and Principalities (1981); C. F. Dickason, Angels: Elect and Evil: idem, Demon Possession and the Christian ; J. W. Montgomery, ed: Demon Possession ; H. Schier, Principalities and Powers in the New Testament (1961); M. Unger, Biblical Demonology ; idem, What Demons Can Do to Saints ; M. Wink, Naming the Powers ; idem, Unmasking the Powers ; idem, Engaging the Powers .
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