Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Entry for Strong's #2316 - θεός
a deity, especially (with 3588
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very: - X exceeding, God, god [-ly, -ward].
God, usually refers to the one true God; in a very few contexts it refers to a (pagan) god or goddess. The Son of God as a title of Jesus emphasizes his unique relationship to the Father. The god of this age refers to the devil
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 47 ‑ אַבִּיר (ab‑beer'); 136 ‑ אֲדֹנָי (ad‑o‑noy'); 136 ‑ אֲדֹנָי (ad‑o‑noy'); 410 ‑ אֵל (ale); 430 ‑ אֱלֹהִים (el‑o‑heem'); 430 ‑ אֱלֹהִים (el‑o‑heem'); 433 ‑ אֱלֹהַּ (el‑o'‑ah, el‑o'‑ah); 457 ‑ אֱלִיל (el‑eel'); 3068 ‑ יהוה (yeh‑ho‑vaw'); 5943 ‑ עִלָּי (il‑lah'ee); 6091 ‑ עָצָב (aw‑tsawb'); 6697 ‑ צֻר (tsoor, tsoor); 6944 ‑ קֹדֶשׁ (ko'‑desh); 7706 ‑ שַׁדַּי (shad‑dah'ee);
Frequency Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Thayer's Expanded Definition
Θεός, Θεοῦ, ὁ and ἡ, vocative θῇ, once in the N. T., Matthew 27:46; besides in Deuteronomy 3:24; Judges 16:28; Judges 21:3; ( 2 Samuel 7:25; Isaiah 38:20); Sirach 23:4; Wisdom of Solomon 9:1; 3 Maccabees 6:3; 4 Maccabees 6:27; Act. Thom. 44f, 57; Eus. h. e. 2,23, 16; (5,20, 7; vit. Const. 2,55, 1. 59); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 8,2c.; (Buttmann, 12 (11)); ((on the eight or more proposed derivations see Vanicek, p. 386, who follows Curtius, (after Döderlein), p. 513ff in connecting it with a root meaning to supplicate, implore; hence, the implored; per contra cf. Max Müller, Chips etc. 4:227f; Liddell and Scott, under the word, at the end)); (from Homer down); the Sept. for אֵל, אֶלֹהִים and יְהוָה; a god, a goddess;
1. a general appellation of deities or divinities: Acts 28:6; 1 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; once ἡ Θεός, Acts 19:37 G L T Tr WH; Θεοῦ φωνή καί οὐκ ἀνθρώπου, Acts 12:22; ἄνθρωπος ὤν ποιεῖς σεαυτόν Θεόν, John 10:33; plural, of the gods of the Gentiles: Acts 14:11; Acts 19:26; λεγόμενοι θεοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5a; οἱ φύσει μή ὄντες θεοί, Galatians 4:8; τοῦ Θεοῦ Ρ᾽εφαν (which see), Acts 7:43; of angels: εἰσί θεοί πολλοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5b (on which cf. Philo de somn. i. § 39 ὁ μέν ἀλήθεια Θεός εἰς ἐστιν, οἱ δ' ἐν καταχρησει λεγόμενοι πλείους). (On the use of the singular Θεός (and Latin deus) as a generic term by (later) heathen writers, see Norton, Genuineness of the Gospels, 2nd edition iii. addit. note D; cf. Dr. Ezra Abbot in Chris. Exam. for Nov. 1848, p. 389ff; Huidekoper, Judaism at Rome, chapter i. § ii.; see Bib. Sacr. for July 1856, p. 666f, and for addit. examples Nagelsbach, Homer. Theol., p. 129; also his Nachhomerische Theol., p. 139f; Stephanus' Thesaurus, under the word; and references (by Prof. Abbot) in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis, i., p. 120 note.)
2. Whether Christ is called God must be determined from John 1:1; John 20:28; 1 John 5:20; Romans 9:5; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:8f, etc.; the matter is still in dispute among theologians cf. Grimm, Institutio theologiae dogmaticae, edition 2, p. 228ff (and the discussion (on Romans 9:5) by Professors Dwight and Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature, etc. as above, especially, pp. 42ff, 113ff).
3. spoken of the only and true God: with the article, Matthew 3:9; Mark 13:19; Luke 2:13; Acts 2:11, and very often; with prepositions: ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 8:42,47 and often in John's writings; ὑπό τοῦ Θεοῦ Luke 1:26 ( T Tr WH ἀπό); Acts 26:6; παρά τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 8:40; John 9:16 ( L T Tr WH here omit the article); παρά τῷ Θεοῦ, Romans 2:13 ( Tr text omits, and L WH Tr marginal reading brackets the article); d. Brief a. d. Galat., p. 10ff ὁ Θεός with the genitive of the thing of which God is the author (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30,1): τῆς ὑπομονῆς καί τῆς παρακλήσεως, Romans 15:5; τῆς ἐπλιδος, Romans 15:13; τῆς εἰρήνης, Romans 15:33; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; τῆς παρακλήσεως, 2 Corinthians 1:3. τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, the things of God, i. e. α. his counsels, 1 Corinthians 2:1 L β. his interests, Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. γ. things due to God, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25. τά πρός τόν Θεόν, things respecting, pertaining to, God — contextually equivalent to the sacrificial business of the priest, Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; cf. Xenophon, rep. Lac. 13,11; Fritzsche on Romans , iii., p. 262 f Nom. ὁ Θεός for the vocative: Mark 15:34; Luke 18:11,13; John 20:28; Acts 4:24 ( R G; Hebrews 1:8 ?); 4. Θεός is used of whatever can in any respect be likened to God, or resembles him in any way: Hebraistically, equivalent to God's representative or vicegerent, of magistrates and Judges , John 10:34 f after Psalm 81:6
d. Brief a. d. Galat., p. 10ff ὁ Θεός with the genitive of the thing of which God is the author (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30,1): τῆς ὑπομονῆς καί τῆς παρακλήσεως, Romans 15:5; τῆς ἐπλιδος, Romans 15:13; τῆς εἰρήνης, Romans 15:33; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; τῆς παρακλήσεως, 2 Corinthians 1:3. τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, the things of God, i. e. α. his counsels, 1 Corinthians 2:1 L β. his interests, Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. γ. things due to God, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25. τά πρός τόν Θεόν, things respecting, pertaining to, God — contextually equivalent to the sacrificial business of the priest, Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; cf. Xenophon, rep. Lac. 13,11; Fritzsche on Romans , iii., p. 262 f Nom. ὁ Θεός for the vocative: Mark 15:34; Luke 18:11,13; John 20:28; Acts 4:24 ( R G; Hebrews 1:8 ?); 4. Θεός is used of whatever can in any respect be likened to God, or resembles him in any way: Hebraistically, equivalent to God's representative or vicegerent, of magistrates and Judges , John 10:34 f after Psalm 81:6
4. Θεός is used of whatever can in any respect be likened to God, or resembles him in any way: Hebraistically, equivalent to God's representative or vicegerent, of magistrates and Judges , John 10:34 f after Psalm 81:6
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
θεός , -οῦ , ὁ , ἡ
(Acts 19:37 only; v. M, Pr., 60, 244), late voc., θεέ (Matthew 27:46; cf. Deuteronomy 3:24, al.),
a god or deity, God.
1. In polytheistic sense, a god or deity: Acts 28:6, 1 Corinthians 8:4, 2 Thessalonians 2:4, al.; pl., Acts 14:11; Acts 19:26, Galatians 4:8, al.
2. Of the one true God;
(a) anarthrous: Matthew 6:24, Luke 20:38, al.; esp. c. prep. (Kühner3, iii, 605), ἀπὸ θ ., John 3:2; ἐκ , Acts 5:39, 2 Corinthians 5:1, Philippians 3:9; ὑπό , Romans 13:1; παρὰ θεοῦ , John 1:6; παρὰ θεῴ , 2 Thessalonians 1:6, 1 Peter 2:4; παρὰ θεόν , Romans 8:27, 2 Corinthians 7:9-10; also when in gen. dependent on an anarth. noun (Bl., § 46, 6), Matthew 27:43, Luke 3:2, Romans 1:17, 1 Thessalonians 2:13; as pred., Luke 20:38, John 1:1, and when the nature and character rather than the person of God is meant, Acts 5:29, Galatians 2:6, al. (M, Th., 14);
(b) more freq., c. art.: Matthew 1:23, Mark 2:7, al. mult.; c. prep., ἀπὸ τ . θ ., Luke 1:26; ἐκ , John 8:42, al.; παρά τοῦ θ ., John 8:40; Papyri τῴ θ ., Romans 9:14; ἐν , Colossians 3:3; ἐπὶ τῷ θ ., Luke 1:47; ἐπὶ τὸν θ ., Acts 15:19; εἰς τ . θ ., Acts 24:15; πρὸς τ . θ ., John 1:2; c. gen. pers., Matthew 22:32, Mark 12:26-27, Luke 20:37, John 20:17, al.; ὁ θ . μου , Romans 1:8, Philippians 1:3, al.; ὁ θ . καὶ πατήρ κ . τ . λ ., Romans 15:6, Ephesians 1:3, Philippians 4:20, al.; c. gen. rei, Romans 15:5; Romans 15:13; Romans 15:33, 2 Corinthians 1:3, 1 Thessalonians 5:23; τὰ τ . θεοῦ , Matthew 16:23, Mark 12:17, 1 Corinthians 2:11; τὰ πρὸς τὸν θ ., Romans 15:17, Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; τ . θεῷ , as a superl. (LXX, Joshua 3:3), Acts 7:20, 2 Corinthians 10:4; Hebraistical]y, of judges (Psalms 82:6), John 10:34 (LXX), John 10:36
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
For the application of the title θεός to the Ptolemaic kings it is sufficient to recall Brit. Mus. Inscrr. IV. 1 No. 906.3 (B.C. 284–273) where a votive offering is dedicated in honour of Πτολεμαίον τοῦ σωτῆρος καὶ θεοῦ, and the description of Ptolemy V. (Epiphanes) on the Rosetta stone—OGIS 90.10 (B.C. 196) ὑπάρχων θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ θεᾶς : cf. Deissmann LAE, p. 348 and the full discussion by E. Kornemann ";Zur Geschichte der antiken Herrscherkulte"; in Beiträge zur alten Geschichte [Klio] i., p. 51 ff. (Leipzig, 1902).
The same practice is still more strikingly illustrated in the Imperial period, as when in an inscr. from the Fayûm district, dated March 17th, B.C. 24, Augustus is described as θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ (OGIS 655.2), or as when a votive inscr. is addressed to Nero—ἀγαθῶ (ι) θεῶ (ι) (Cos 92.7) : see Deissmann ut s. p. 349. With this may be compared the frequent use for Augustus of the title υἱὸς θεοῦ, corresponding to the divi filius of the Latin inscrr., e.g. BGU I. 174.1 (A.D . 7) ἔτους ἕ [κ ]του καὶ τριακοστοῦ [τῆς ] Καίσαρος κρατήσεως θεοῦ υἱ [ὸ ]ν (l. υἱοῦ), and, interesting as coming from the Emperor himself, the letter, IMAe III. 174 (A.D. 5), which begins—Καῖσαρ θεοῦ υἱὸς Σεβαστός. Other examples will be found in Deissmann BS, p. 166 f., LAE, p. 350 f., where the bearing of this usage upon the early Christian title of Christ is discussed : cf. also Harnack History of Dogma i. p. 118 ff. Mention should also be made of the Imperial oath, in which, following Ptolemaic practice, the person of the Emperor is directly invoked. A very early example is BGU II. 543.1 (B.C. 27) ὄμνυμι Καίσαρα Αὐτοκράτορα θεοῦ υἱόν : cf. Chrest. I. III.2 (A.D. 6) ὄμνυ ̣[μι ] [Καίσαρα ] Αὐτοκράτορα θεοῦ ν [ἱὸν ] Δία Ἐλευθέριον [Σεβαστόν ] with Wilcken’s important note. It gives one a thrill to find the very combination of John 20:28 applied in BGU IV. 1197.1 (B.C. 4) to Asclepiades, apparently a high official—τῷ θεῶι καὶ κυρίωι : the same designation recurs in ib. 1201.1 (A.D. 2) with reference to a priest, but the editor knows of no other exx. of this use of θεός.
From pagan letters we may cite a few instances of constantly recurring expressions—P Hib I. 79.6 (c. B.C. 260) τοῖς θεοῖς πολλὴ χά [ρι ]ς, P Giss I. 17.6 (time of Hadrian) (= Chrest. I. p. 566) χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς πᾶσι ὅτι σε διαφυλάσσουσι ἀπρόσκοπον, P Lond 42.3 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 9) ὡς τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχομένη διατελῶ, BGU I. 248.11 (ii/A.D.) θεῶν δὲ βουλομένων, ib. I. 27.11 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 101) ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἤθελεν, ib. II. 451.10 (i/ii A.D.) θεῶν ἐπιτρεπόν [τ ]ων, and P Oxy VI. 935.3 (iii/A.D.) θεῶν συνλαμβανόντων, Cf. .10 συνλαμβ [ά ]νο [υσι ] γὰρ ἡμεῖν ἀεὶ ο [ἱ ] π [άτ ]ριοι θεοὶ ἡμῶν δ ̣[ιδό ]ντες ἡμεῖν ὑγία [ν καὶ ] σω [τ ]ηρίαν. With this last may be compared the soldier’s letter to his sister, BGU II. 632.6 (ii/A.D.), in which he assures her that he is μνι ̣αν σου ποιούμενος (cf. Romans 1:9 al.) παρὰ τοῖς [ἐν ]θάδε θεοῖς, showing that for the time being he has transferred his allegiance to the gods of the place where he is garrisoned (cf. Deissmann LAE, p. 173).
For prepositional phrases see P Petr II. 13(19).7 (mid. iii/ B.C.) (= Witkowski .2, p. 19) καὶ ζῶντός σου καὶ εἰς θεοὺς ἀπελθόντος, P Tebt I. 58 recto .35 (B.C. III) σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς, ";by the grace of the gods,"; P Ryl II. 243.8 (ii/A.D.) ἐλπίζοντες σὺν θεῷ τὸ πεδείον σπαρῆναι, ";hoping that with God’s help the field will be sown,"; where, as the editors point out, the use of θεῷ alone does not imply that the writer was a Christian (cf. Archiv i. p. 436), and, for an undoubtedly Christian ex., the letter of the presbyter Psenosiris, P Grenf II. 73.16 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 118) ὅταν ἔλθῃ σὺν Θεῷ, with the corresponding use of ἐν Θ (ε)ῷ in .6. In P Iand 11.2 (iii/A.D.) ἐλπίδω γὰρ εἰς θεόν, the writer may well be a Christian (or a Jew), cf. Acts 24:15,1 Peter 3:5; and the same may perhaps be said regarding BGU I. 246.13 (ii/iii A.D.) νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας ἐντυνχάνω τῷ θεᾦ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, cf. 1 Thessalonians 3:10. A iv/A.D. letter of a Christian servant to his master, which abounds in echoes of NT language, has—ὡς ἐν ἄλ ]λ ̣οις πλείστοις νῦν ἔτι μᾶλλον ἡ πρὸς σὲ [τοῦ δεσπό ]τ ̣ον θεοῦ γνῶσις ἀνεφάνη (cf. Luke 19:11 ἅπασιν ἡμῖν, ";as on many other occasions so now still more plainly the favour of the Lord God towards you has been revealed to all of us"; (P Oxy VI. 939.4 = Selections, p. 128) : cf. also P Oxy I. 120.16 (iv/ A.D.) μὴ ἆρα παρέλκομαι ἢ καὶ εἴργομαι ἔστ᾽ ἂν ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς αἰλαιήσῃ (l. ἐλεήσῃ), ";am I to be distracted and oppressed until Heaven takes pity on me?"; For the voc. θεἑ, which is found in Matthew 27:46, cf. the magical P Lond 121.529 (iii/ A.D.) (= I. p. 101) κύριε θεὲ μέγιστε, which is reinforced by a Pisidian inscr., unfortunately undated, JHS 1902, p. 355, θέ. See also s.vv. ἄγνωστος, ἄξιος, κύριος, παντοκράτωρ, σωτήρ, ὕψιστος, and for the Pauline usage Slaten Qualitative Nouns, p. 64 ff.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
Θεε Θεέ Θεοι Θεοί θεοὶ θεοις θεοίς θεοῖς θεόις θεον θεόν θεὸν θεος θεός θεὸς θεου θεού θεοῦ θεόυ θεους θεούς θεοὺς ΘΕΩ θεώ θεῷ θεων θεών και κύριος κυρίου κυρίω οἴκῳ kuriou kyriou kyríou oiko oikō oíkoi oíkōi Thee Theé THEo THEŌ Theoi Theoí theoì theôi theō̂i theois theoîs theon theón theòn theos theós theòs theou theoû theous theoùs