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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #302 - ἄν

Word Origin
a primary particle
Parts of Speech
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. has no exact English equivalent, see definitions under the translated words.
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (191) NAS (63) HCS (142)
Matthew 38
Mark 20
Luke 26
John 25
Acts 19
Romans 5
1 Corinthians 11
2 Corinthians 3
Galatians 5
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 6
James 3
1 John 5
Revelation 3
Matthew 16
Mark 11
Luke 12
John 8
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 2
2 Corinthians 3
1 John 2
Revelation 1
Matthew 39
Mark 19
Luke 26
John 23
Acts 10
Romans 8
1 Corinthians 6
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 2
Philippians 1
Hebrews 3
1 John 2
Revelation 1
PRT 181
PRT 164
PRT 191
PRT 162
V-YAI-3P 1
PRT 200

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἄν (1), a particle indicating that something can or could occur on certain conditions, or by the combination of certain fortuitous causes. In Latin it has no equivalent; nor do the English haply, perchance, German wohl (wol), etwa, exactly and everywhere correspond to it. The use of this particle in the N. T., illustrated by copious examples from Greek writers, is shown by Winer s Grammar, § 42; (cf. Buttmann, 216ff (186ff). Its use in classic Greek is fully exhibited (by Prof. Goodwin) in Liddell and Scott, under the word). It is joined:

I. in the apodoses of hypothetical sentences

1. with the imperfect, where the Latin uses the imperfect subjunctive, e. g. Luke 7:39 (ἐγίνωσκεν ἄν, sciret, he would know); Luke 17:6 (ἐλέγετε ἄν ye would say); Matthew 23:30 (non essemus, we should not have been); John 5:46; John 8:42; John 9:41; John 15:19; John 18:36; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Galatians 1:10; Galatians 3:21 (but WH marginal reading brackets); Hebrews 4:8; Hebrews 8:4,7.

2. with the indicative aorist (where the Latin uses the pluperfect subjunctive like the future perfect subjunctive, I would have done it), to express what would have been, if this or that either were (εἰ with the imperfect in the protasis preceding), or had been (εἰ with the aorist or pluperfect preceding): Matthew 11:21 and Luke 10:13 (ἄν μετενόησαν they would have repented; Matthew 11:23; Matthew 12:7 ( ye would not have condemned); Matthew 24:43 ( he would have watched), 22and Mark 13:20 ( no one would have been saved, i. e. all even now would have to be regarded as those who had perished; cf. Winer's Grammar, 304 (286)); John 4:10 ( thou wouldst have asked); John 14:2 (εἶπον ἄν I would have said so); John 14:28 ( ye would have rejoiced); Romans 9:29 ( we should have become); 1 Corinthians 2:8; Galatians 4:15 ( R G); Acts 18:14. Sometimes the condition is not expressly stated, but is easily gathered from what is said: Luke 19:23 and Matthew 25:27 ( I should have received it back with interest, namely, if thou hadst given it to the bankers).

3. with the pluperfect: John 11:21 ( R Tr marginal reading) (οὐκ ἄν ἐτεθνήκει ( L T Tr text WH ἀπέθανεν) would not have died, for which, in John 11:32, the aorist οὐκ ἄν ἀπέθανε); John 14:7 (not Tdf.) (εἰ with the pluperfect preceding); 1 John 2:19 ( they would have remained with us). Sometimes (as in Greek writings, especially the later) ἄν is omitted, in order to intimate that the thing wanted but little (imperfect) or had wanted but little (pluperfect or aorist) of being done, which yet was not done because the condition was not fulfilled (cf. Alex. Alexander Buttmann (1873) in the Studien und Kritiken for 1858, p. 489ff; (N. T. Gram., p. 225 (194)); Fritzsche on Romans , vol. ii., 33; Winer's Grammar, § 42,2, p. 305 (286)), e. g. John 8:39 (where the ἄν is spurious); John 15:22,24; John 19:11; Acts 26:32; Romans 7:7; Galatians 4:15 (ἄν before ἐδώκατέ has been correctly expunged by L T Tr WH).

II. Joined to relative pronouns, relative adverbs, and adverbs of time and quality, it has the same force as the Latin cumque or cunque, -ever, -soever (German irgend, etwa).

1. followed by a past tense of the indicative, when some matter of fact, something certain, is spoken of; where, "when the thing itself which is said to have been done is certain, the notion of uncertainty involved in ἄν belongs rather to the relative, whether pronoun or particle" (Klotz ad Der., p. 145) (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 42,3a.); ὅσοι ἄν as many as: Mark 6:56 (ὅσοι ἄν ἥπτοντο (ἥψαντο L text T Tr text WH) αὐτοῦ as many as touched him (cf. Buttmann, 216 (187))); Mark 11:24 (ὅσα ἄν προσευχόμενοι αἰτεῖσθε (Griesbach omits ἄν), but L text T Tr WH have rightly restored ὅσα προσεύχεσθε καί αἰτεῖσθε). καθότι ἄν in so far or so often as, according as (German je nachdem gerade): Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35. ὡς ἄν: 1 Corinthians 12:2 (in whatever manner ye were led (cf. Buttmann, § 139,13; 383 (329f))).

2. followed by a subjunctive,

a. the present, concerning that which may have been done, or is usually or constantly done (where the German uses mögen); ἡνίκα ἄν whensoever, as often as": 2 Corinthians 3:15 L T Tr WH; ὅς ἄν whoever, be he who he may: Matthew 16:25 ( L T Tr WH ἐάν); ( Mark 8:35 (where T Tr WH future indicative; see WH's Appendix, p. 172)); Luke 10:5 ( L T Tr WH aorist); Luke 10:8; Galatians 5:17 ( T Tr WH ἐάν, L brackets ἐάν); 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:17; Romans 9:15 ( Exodus 33:19); Romans 16:2; 1 Corinthians 11:27 etc. ὅστις ἄν: 1 Corinthians 16:2 ( Tr WH ἐάν; WH marginal reading aorist); Colossians 3:17 ( L text Tr WH ἐάν). ὅσοι ἄν: Matthew 7:12 ( T WH ἐάν); Matthew 22:9> ( L T Tr WH ἐάν). ὅπου ἄν whithersoever: Luke 9:57 ( L Tr ἐάν); Revelation 14:4 ( L Tr ( T edition 7 not 8, WH) have adopted ὑπάγει, defended also by Buttmann, 228 (196)); James 3:4 ( R G L Tr marginal reading in brackets). ὁσάκις ἄν how often soever: 1 Corinthians 11:25f (where L T Tr WH ἐάν). ὡς ἄν in what way soever: 1 Thessalonians 2:7 ((cf. Ellicott at the passage; Buttmann, 232 (201))), L T Tr WH ἐάν).

b. the aorist, where the Latin uses the future perfect; ὅς ἄν: Matthew 5:21,22 (εἴπῃ whoever, if ever anyone shall have said); Matthew 5:31 f (in Matthew 5:32 L T Tr WH read πᾶς ἀπολύων); Matthew 10:11; Matthew 26:48 ( Tdf. ἐάν); Mark 3:29,35; Mark 9:41, etc. ὅστις ἄν: Matthew 10:33 ( L Tr WH text omit ἄν); Matthew 12:50>; John 14:13 ( Tr marginal reading WH present); Acts 3:23 ( Tdf. ἐάν), etc. ὅσοι ἄν: Matthew 21:22 ( Treg. ἐάν); Matthew 23:3 ( T WH ἐάν); Mark 3:28 ( Tr WH ἐάν); Luke 9:5 ( L T Tr WH present); John 11:22; Acts 2:39 (Lachmann οὕς); Acts 3:22>. ὅπου ἄν: Mark 14:9 ( T WH ἐάν); Mark 9:18> ( L T Tr WH ἐάν). ἄχρις οὗ ἄν until ( donec): 1 Corinthians 15:25 Rec.; Revelation 2:25. ἕως ἄν until ( usque dum): Matthew 2:13; Matthew 10:11; Matthew 22:44; Mark 6:10; Luke 21:32; 1 Corinthians 4:5, etc. ἡνίκα ἄν, of future time, not until then, when ... or then at length, when ...: 2 Corinthians 3:16 ( T WH text ἐάν) (cf. Kühner, 2:951; Jelf, 2:565). ὡς ἄν as soon as ( Buttmann, 232 (200)): 1 Corinthians 11:34; Philippians 2:23. ἀφ' οὗ ἄν ἐγερθῇ, Luke 13:25 (from the time, whatever the time Isaiah , when he shall have risen up). But ἐάν (which see) is also joined to the pronouns and adverbs mentioned, instead of ἄν; and in many places the manuscripts and editions fluctuate between ἄν and ἐάν (examples of which have already been adduced); (cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 96; WH's Appendix, p. 173 "predominantly ἄν is found after consonants, and ἐάν after vowels"). Finally, to this head must be referred ὅταν (equivalent to ὅτε ἄν) with the indicative and much more often with the subjunctive (see ὅταν), and ὅπως ἄν, although this last came to be used as a final conjunction in the sense, that, if it be possible: Luke 2:35); Acts 3:20 (Acts 3:19>); Acts 15:17>; Romans 3:4; see ὅπως, IL 1b. (Cf. Winer s Grammar, 309 (290f); Buttmann, 234 (201).)

III. ἄν is joined to the optative ( Winer s Grammar, 303 (284); Buttmann, 217 (188)); when a certain condition is laid down, as in wishes, I would that etc.: Acts 26:29 (εὐξαίμην ( Tdf. εὐξάμην) ἄν, I could pray, namely, did it depend on me); in direct questions ( Winer s Grammar, the passage cited; Buttmann, 254 (219)): Acts 8:31 (πῶς ἄν δυναίμην; i. e. on what condition, by what possibility, could I? cf. Xenophon, oec. 11,5); Acts 17:18 (τί ἄν θέλοι ... λέγειν what would he say? it being assumed that he wishes to utter some definite notion or other); Acts 2:12 R G; independent sentences and indirect questions in which the narrator introduces another's thought ( Winer s Grammar, § 42,4; Buttmann, the passage cited]: Luke 1:62; Luke 6:11; Luke 9:46; ( Luke 15:26 L brackets Tr WH; cf. Luke 18:36 Lbr. Trbr. WH marginal reading); Acts 5:24; Acts 10:17; Acts 17:20 R G.

IV. ἄν is found without a mood in 1 Corinthians 7:5 (εἰ μή τί ἄν ( WH brackets ἄν), except perhaps, namely, γένοιτο (but cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) as below)). ὡς ἄν, adverbially, tanquam (so already the Vulg.), as if: 2 Corinthians 10:9 (like ὥσπερ ἄν in Greek writings; cf. Kühner, 2:210 (sec. 398 Anm. 4; Jelf, § 430); Buttmann, 219 (189); (Liddell and Scott, under the word, D. III.)).

ἄν (2), contracted from ἐάν, if; followed by the subjunctive: John 20:23 (Lachmann ἐάν. Also by the (present) indicative in 1 John 5:15 Lachmann; see Buttmann, 223 (192); Winer s Grammar, 295 (277)). Further, L T Tr WH have received ἄν in John 13:20; John 16:23; (so WH John 12:32; cf. Winer s Grammar, 291 (274); Buttmann, 72 (63)).

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission.
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἄν ,

conditional particle, which cannot usually be separately translated in English, its force depending on the constructions which contain it (see further, LS, s.v.; WM, § xlii; M, Pr., 165 ff.; MM, VGT, s.v.).

1. In apodosis,

(i) c. indic. impf. or aor., expressing what would be or would have been if (εἰ c. impf., aor. or plpf.) some condition were or had been fulfilled: Luke 7:39; Luke 17:6, John 5:46, Galatians 1:10, Matthew 12:7; Matthew 24:43, 1 Corinthians 2:8, Acts 18:14, 1 John 2:19, al. The protasis is sometimes understood (as also in cl.): Matthew 25:27, Luke 19:23. In hypothetical sentences, expressing unreality, ἄν (as often in late writers, more rarely in cl.) is omitted: John 8:39; John 15:24; John 19:11 Romans 7:7, Galatians 4:15;

(ii) c. opt., inf., ptcp. (cl.; v. LS, s.v.; M, Int., § 275; M, Pr., 167-4).

2. In combination with conditional, relative, temporal, and final words;

(i) as in cl., c. subj.,

(a) in protasis with εἰ , in Attic contr. ἐάν , q.v.;

(b) in conditional, relative, and temporal clauses (coalescing with ὅτε , ἐπεί , etc.; see ὅταν , ἐπάν , etc.), ever, soever;

(α ) c. Pres., ἡνίϗα ἄν , 2 Corinthians 3:15; ὃς ἄν , Romans 9:15 (LXX) Romans 16:2, al.; ὅσοι ἄν , Luke 9:5; ὡς ἄν , Romans 15:24 (M, Pr., 167);

(β ) c. aor., ὃς ἄν , Matthew 5:21-22; Matthew 5:31; ἕως ἄν , until, Matthew 2:13; Matthew 6:10, al; ὡς ἄν ' as soon as (M, Pr., 167), 1 Corinthians 11:34, Philippians 2:23. On the freq. use of ἐάν for ἄν with the foregoing words, see ἐάν ;

(ii) in late Gk., when some actual fact is spoken of, c. indic.: ὅταν (q.v.); ὅπου ἄν , Mark 6:56 (M, Pr., 168); καθοτι ἄν Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35; ὡς ἄν , 1 Corinthians 12:2.

3. In iterative construction, c. impf. and aor. indic. (M, Pr., 167): Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35, 1 Corinthians 12:2.

4. c. optat., giving a potential sense to a question or wish: Acts 8:31; Acts 26:29.

5. Elliptical constructions: εἰ μή τι ἄν (M, Pr., 169), 1 Corinthians 7:5; ὡς ἄν , c. inf., as it were (op. cit. 167), 2 Corinthians 10:9.

άν , contr. from ἐάν , q.v.

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For the rapid decay of this particle in Hellenistic vernacular, reference may be made to Proleg. pp. 165–9, 197–201 : a few additional points may be brought in. First comes the use with relatives and conjunctions, normally but by no means universally taking the subjunctive. Here in i/ and ii/A.D. ἐάν greatly predominated over ἄν, except with ὅπως, ὡς and ἕως. Thackeray (Gr. p. 68), collecting statistics from more extensive material than had been available in Proleg. p. 43, sums up the results to the same purpose : about B.C. 133 ";ὃς [etc.] ἐάν begins to come to the front, and from i/B.C. onwards the latter is always the predominant form : the figures in both columns decrease in iii/–iv/A.D., when the use of the indefinite relative in any form was going out of use."; The ultimate result of this process is seen in MGr, where the only traces left of ἄν are in the compounds σάν ";as,"; ";as soon as,"; and ἄν ";if,"; with κάν ( = κἄν) ";even."; Σάν is from ὡς ἄν, which in papyri is used in the same senses : thus BGU IV. 1098.44 (end of i/B.C.) ὡς ἂν ἐπὶ το [ῦ κα ]ιροῦ κοινῶς κρίνωσι (according as), ib. 1209.13 (B.C. 23) ὡς ἂν λάβῃς τὸ γράμμα (as soon as), P Hib I. 66.4 (B.C. 228–7), [ς δ᾽ ἂν παραγένωμαι (do.). Several instances are collected by Witkowski (.2 p. 87), and Philippians 2:23, 1 Corinthians 11:34, Romans 15:24 noted as parallel, as in Proleg. p. 167. The MGr ἄν inherits the uses of ἐάν. The latter in vernacular Hellenistic is stable, or even reverts to εἰάν by re-composition; but the form ἄν is found in many illiterate documents of the Κοινή (as for instance in the boy’s letter, P Oxy I. 119 (ii/iii A.D.)), and may be the direct ancestor of the MGr. See Proleg. p. 43 n..2. On ἄν with opt., or ind. irrealis, see Proleg. pp. 197–201. A reference should be added to Goodspeed’s convincing suggestion (Exp T xx. 471 f.) that in Mark 7:11 we should read ὃ ἂν (so D) ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφελήθης, indic., ";what you would have gained from me."; Two or three additional instances of ἄν in ";unreal"; clauses may be given from the papyri : —P Tor I. 1viii. 35 ff. (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 39), καὶ εἴπερ γε δὴ ἐνόμιζεν ἔχειν τι δίκαιον κτλ., οὐκ ἄν ποτε προαχθῆναι (depending on ὥστ᾽ εὔδηλον εἶναι in l. .31), P. Giss I. 4717 (early ii/A.D.) τὸ ὀνάριον τὸ χαλκοῦν εἰ ἐπωλεῖτο δραχμῶν κ ̄δ ̄, ε ̣͗κτοτε ἂν ἔπεμψά σοι, ib. 79ii. 6 (same period) εἰ δυνατόν μ [οι ] η ̣͂̔ν κτλ., οὐκ ἂν ὠ [κ ]νήκειν, BGU IV. 114127 f. (end of i/B.C.) (l. εἰ) ἦν δάκρυά σοι γράφειν, γεγραφήκειν ἂν ἀπ ̣ο ̣, τῶν δακρύων, CP Herm I. 77f. εἰ μἐν δὴ χορηγία τις [ ]ν κτλ. (a gap of 21 letters included), οὐδὲν ἂν ἡμᾶ [ς ἔδει πε ]ρὶ τού [τ ]ων δεῖσθαι. To the papyrus exx. of ἄν dropped Proleg.3 p. 200 n.1), add PSI 719 f. (vi/A.D.) εἰ μὴ ἡ θεία πρόνοια ἐβοήθησεν κτλ., εἶχαν ἀλ ̣λ ̣η ̣λ ̣[ους ] ἀναιλῖν (l. ἀνελεῖν). The fewness of our exx. shows that the NT omissions of ἄν, practically confined to Jn, are not normal Κοινή grammar, except in clauses where omission was classical : the construction itself was dying out, but the ἄν was preserved while the locution lasted. MGr uses a periphrastic conditional mood (Thumb Handbook, p. 195).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
αν άν ἄν ἂν εαν ἐὰν καὶ καν οὗ an án àn ean eàn hou hoû kai kaì ou

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