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Bible Lexicons

Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #302 - ἄν

Word Origin
a primary particle
Parts of Speech
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. has no exact English equivalent, see definitions under the translated words.
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (191) NAS (63) HCS (142)
Matthew 38
Mark 20
Luke 26
John 25
Acts 19
Romans 5
1 Corinthians 11
2 Corinthians 3
Galatians 5
Philippians 1
Colossians 1
1 Thessalonians 1
Hebrews 6
James 3
1 John 5
Revelation 3
Matthew 16
Mark 11
Luke 12
John 8
Romans 1
1 Corinthians 2
2 Corinthians 3
1 John 2
Revelation 1
Matthew 39
Mark 19
Luke 26
John 23
Acts 10
Romans 8
1 Corinthians 6
2 Corinthians 2
Galatians 2
Philippians 1
Hebrews 3
1 John 2
Revelation 1
PRT 181
PRT 164
PRT 191
PRT 162
V-YAI-3P 1
PRT 200

Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἄν (A), [],

, Lyr., Ion., Arc., Att.; also κεν) , Aeol., Thess., κᾱ Dor., Boeot., El.; the two combined in (infr. D. 11.2) and Arc., εἰκ ἄν IG 5(2).6.2, 15 (iv B. C.): modal Particle used with Verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. In Hom. κε is four times as common as ἄν, in Lyr. about equally common. No clear distinction can be traced, but κε as an enclitic is somewhat less emphatic; ἄν is preferred by Hom. in negative clauses, κε (ν) with the relative. In Simple Sentences, and in the Apodosis of Compound Sentences; here ἄν belongs to the Verb, and denotes that the assertion made by the Verb is dependent on a condition, expressed or implied: thus ἦλθεν he came, ἦλθεν ἄν he would have come (under conditions, which may or may not be defined), and so he might have come; ἔλθοι may he come, ἔλθοι ἄν he would come (under certain conditions), and so he might come.


1 with historical tenses, generally impf. and aor., less freq. plpf., never pf., v. infr., most freq. in apodosis of conditional sentences, with protasis implying nonfulfilment of a past or present condition, and apod. expressing what would be or would have been the case if the condition were or had been fulfilled. The impf. with ἄν refers to continued action, in Hom. always in past time, exc. perh. καί κε θάμ' ἐνθάδ' ἐόντες ἐμισγόμεθ' Od. 4. 178; later also in pres. time, first in Thgn. 905; πολὺ ἂν θαυμαστότερον ἦν, εἰ ἐτιμῶντο it would be far more strange if they were honoured, Pl. R. 489a; οὐκ ἂν νήσων ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν he would not have been master of islands if he had not had also some naval power, Th. 1.9. The aor. strictly refers only to past time, Pi. N. 11.24, etc.; εἰ τότε ταύτην ἔσχε τὴν γνώμην, οὐδὲν ἂν ὧν νυνὶ πεποίηκεν ἔπραξεν if he had then come to this opinion, he would have accomplished nothing of what he has now done, D. 4.5, al., but is used idiomatically with Verbs of saying, answering, etc., as we say I should have said, εἰ μὴ πατὴρ ἦσθ', εἶπον ἄν σ' οὐκ εὖ φρονεῖν S. Ant. 755, cf. Pl. Smp. 199d, Euthphr. 12d, etc.: the plpf. refers to completed actions, as ὃ εἰ ἀπεκρίνω, ἱκανῶς ἂν ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ τὴν ὁσιότητα ἐμεμαθήκη I should have already learnt.., ib. 14c; εἰ ὁ ἀνὴρ ἀπέθανεν, δικαίως ἂν ἐτεθνήκει Antipho 4.2.3. the protasis is freq. understood: ὑπό κεν ταλασίφρονά περ δέος εἷλεν fear would have seized even the stout-hearted (had he heard the sound), Il. 4.421; τὸ γὰρ ἔρυμα τῷ στρατοπέδῳ οὐκ ἂν ἐτειχίσαντο they would not have built the wall (if they had not won a battle), Th. 1.11; πολλοῦ γὰρ ἂν ἦν ἄξια for (if that were so) they would be worth much, Pl. R. 374d; οὐ γὰρ ἦν ὅ τι ἂν ἐποιεῖτε for there was nothing which you could have done, i. e. would have done (if you had tried), D. 18.43. with no definite protasis understood, to express what would have been likely to happen, or might have happened in past time: ἢ γάρ μιν ζωόν γε κιχήσεαι, ἤ κεν Ὀρέστης κτεῖνεν ὑποφθάμενος for either you will find him alive, or else Orestes may already have killed him before you, Od. 4.546; ὃ θεασάμενος πᾶς ἄν τις ἀνὴρ ἠράσθη δάϊος εἶναι every man who saw this (the 'Seven against Thebes') would have longed to be a warrior, Ar. Ra. 1022; esp. with τάχα, q. v., ἀλλ' ἦλθε μὲν δὴ τοῦτο τοὔνειδος τάχ' ἂν ὀργῇ βιασθὲν μᾶλλον ἢ γνώμῃ φρενῶν, i. e. it might perhaps have come, S. OT 523; τάχα ἂν δὲ καὶ ἄλλως πως ἐσπλεύσαντες (sc. διέβησαν) and they might also perhaps have crossed by sea (to Sicily) in some other way, Th. 6.2, cf. Pl. Phdr. 265b. ἄν is freq. omitted in apodosi with Verbs expressing obligation, propriety, or possibility, as ἔδει, ἐχρῆν, εἰκὸς ἦν, etc., and sts. for rhetorical effect, εἰ μὴ.. ᾖσμεν, φόβον παρέσχεν it had caused (for it would have caused) fear, E. Hec. 1113. This use becomes more common in later Gk.

2. with fut. ind.: frequently in , usu. with κεν, rarely ἄν, Il. 9.167, 22.66, indicating a limitation or condition, ὁ δέ κεν κεχολώσεται ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι and he will likely be angry to whom- soever I shall come, ib. 1.139; καί κέ τις ὧδ' ἐρέει and in that case men will say, 4.176; ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι καταλέξω Od. 3.80; so in Lyr., μαθὼν δέ τις ἂν ἐρεῖ Pi. N. 7.68, cf. I. 6(5).59. rarely in codd. of Att. Prose writers, σαφὲς ἂν καταστήσετε Th. 1.140; οὐχ ἥκει, οὐδ' ἂν ἥξει δεῦρο Pl. R. 615d, cf. Ap. 29c, X. An. 2.5.13; dub. in Hp. Mul. 2.174: in later Prose, Philostr. V A 2.21, S E. M. 9.225: also in Poetry, E. El. 484, Ar. Av. 1313; οὐκ ἂν προδώσω Herod. 6.36 (corr. -δοίην): for ἄν with fut. inf. and part. v. infr.

II WITH SUBJUNCTIVE, only in , the meaning being the same as with the fut. ind. (1.2a), freq. with 1st pers., as εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώῃσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι in that case I will take her myself, Il. 1.324; πείθευ, ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι εἰδέω χάριν obey and if so I will be grateful, 14.235 (the subj. is always introduced by δέ in this usage); also with other persons, giving emphasis to the future, οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίσμῃ κίθαρις 3.54, al.

III WITH OPTATIVE (never fut., rarely pf. πῶς ἂν λελήθοι [με ]; X. Smp. 3.6): in apodosis of conditional sentences, after protasis in opt. with εἰ or some other conditional or relative word, expressing a fut. condition: ἀλλ' εἴ μοί τι πίθοιο, τό κεν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴη Il. 7.28; οὐ πολλὴ ἂν ἀλογία εἴη, εἰ φοβοῖτο τὸν θάνατον; Pl. Phd. 68b: in Hom. pres. and aor. opt. with κε or ἄν are sts. used like impf. and aor. ind. with ἄν in Attic, with either regular ind. or another opt. in the protasis: καί νύ κεν ἔνθ' ἀπόλοιτο.. εἰ μὴ.. νόησε κτλ., i. e. he would have perished, had she not perceived, etc., Il. 5.311, cf. 5.388, 17.70; εἰ νῦν ἐπὶ ἄλλῳ ἀεθλεύοιμεν, ἦ τ' ἂν ἐγὼ.. κλισίηνδε φεροίμην if we were now contending in another's honour, I should now carry.., ib. 23.274: so rarely in Trag., οὐδ' ἂν σὺ φαίης, εἴ σε μὴ κνίζοι λέχος (for εἰ μὴ ἔκνιζε) E. Med. 568. with protasis in pres. or fut., the opt. with ἄν in apodosi takes a simply future sense: φρούριον δ' εἰ ποιήσονται, τῆς μὲν γῆς βλάπτοιεν ἄν τι μέρος they might perhaps damage, Th. 1.142, cf. 2.60, Pl. Ap. 25b, R. 333e; ἢν οὖν μάθῃς.. οὐκ ἂν ἀποδοίην Ar. Nu. 116, cf. D. 1.26, al. with protasis understood: φεύγωμεν· ἔτι γάρ κεν ἀλύξαιμεν κακὸν ἦμαρ Od. 10.269; οὔτε ἐσθίουσι πλείω ἢ δύνανται φέρειν· διαρραγεῖεν γὰρ ἄν for (if they should do so) they would burst, X. Cyr. 8.2.21; τὸν δ' οὔ κε δύ' ἀνέρε.. ἀπ' οὔδεος ὀχλίσσειαν two men could not heave the stone from the ground, i. e. would not, if they should try, Il. 12.447; οὐδ' ἂν δικαίως ἐς κακὸν πέσοιμί τι S. Ant. 240, cf. D. 2.8: in Hom. sts. with ref. to past time, Τυδεΐδην οὐκ ἂν γνοίης ποτέροισι μετείη Il. 5.85. with no definite protasis implied, in potential sense: ἡδέως δ' ἂν ἐροίμην Λεπτίνην but I would gladly ask Leptines, D. 20.129; βουλοίμην ἄν I should like, Lat. velim (but ἐβουλόμην ἄν I should wish, if it were of any avail, vellem); ποῖ οὖν τραποίμεθ' ἄν; which way then can we turn? Pl. Euthd. 290a; οὐκ ἂν μεθείμην τοῦ θρόνου I will not give up the throne, Ar. Ra. 830; idiomatically, referring to the past, αὗται δὲ οὐκ ἂν πολλαὶ εἶεν but these would not (on investigation) prove to be many, Th. 1.9; εἴησαν δ' ἂν οὗτοι Κρῆτες these would be (i. e. would have been) Cretans, Hdt. 1.2: used in order to soften assertions by giving them a less positive form, as οὐκ ἂν οὖν πάνυ γέ τι σπουδαῖον εἴη ἡ δικαιοσύνη, i.e. it would not prove to be, etc. (for, it is not, etc.), Pl. R. 333e. in questions, expressing a wish: τίς ἂν θεῶν.. δοίη; S. OC 1100, cf. A. Ag. 1448; πῶς ἂν θάνοιμι; S. Aj. 389: hence (with no question) as a mild command, exhortation, or entreaty, τλαίης κεν Μενελάῳ ἐπιπροέμεν ταχὺν ἰόν Il. 4.94; σὺ μὲν κομίζοις ἂν σεαυτὸν ᾗ θέλεις you may take yourself off (milder than κόμιζε σεαυτόν), S. Ant. 444; χωροῖς ἂν εἴσω you may go in, El. 1491; κλύοις ἂν ἤδη, Φοῖβε hear me now, Phoebus, ib. 637; φράζοις ἄν, λέγοις ἄν, Pl. Phlb. 23c, 48b. in a protasis which is also an apodosis: εἴπερ ἄλλῳ τῳ ἀνθρώπων πειθοίμην ἄν, καὶ σοὶ πείθομαι if I would trust any (other) man (if he gave me his word), I trust you, Id. Prt. 329b; εἰ μὴ ποιήσαιτ' ἂν τοῦτο if you would not do this (if you could), D. 4.18, cf. X. Mem. 1.5.3, Plot. 6.4.16. rarely omitted with opt. in apodosis: ῥεῖα θεός γ' ἐθέλων καὶ τηλόθεν ἄνδρα σαώσαι Od. 3.231, cf. 14.123, Il. 5.303; also in Trag., θᾶσσον ἢ λέγοι τις E. Hipp. 1186; τεὰν δύνασιν τίς.. κατάσχοι; S. Ant. 605. ἄν c. fut. opt. is prob. always corrupt (cf. 1.2b), as τὸν αὐτὸν ἂν ἐπαινέσοι (ἐπαινέσαι Bekk.) Pl. Lg. 719e; εἰδὼς ὅτι οὐδέν' ἂν καταλήψοιτο (οὐδένα Bekk.) Lys. 1.22.

WITH INF. and PART. (sts. AD J. equivalent to part., τῶν δυνατῶν ἂν κρῖναι Pl. R. 577b) representing ind. or opt.:

1 pres. inf. or part.: representing impf. ind., οἴεσθε τὸν πατέρα.. οὐκ ἂν φυλάττειν; do you think he would not have kept them safe? (οὐκ ἂν ἐφύλαττεν), D. 49.35; ἀδυνάτων ἂν ὄντων [ὑμῶν] ἐπιβοηθεῖν when you would have been unable, Th. 1.73, cf. 4.40. representing pres. opt., πόλλ' ἂν ἔχων (representing ἔχοιμ' ἄν) ἕτερ' εἰπεῖν παραλείπω D. 18.258, cf. X. An. 2.3.18: with Art., τὸ ἐθέλειν ἂν ἰέναι ἄκλητος ἐπὶ δεῖπνον Pl. Smp. 174b.

2. aor. inf. or part.: representing aor. ind., οὐκ ἂν ἡγεῖσθ' αὐτὸν κἂν ἐπιδραμεῖν; do you not think he would even have run thither? (καὶ ἐπέδραμεν ἄν), D. 27.56; ἴσμεν ὑμᾶς ἀναγκασθέντας ἄν we know you would have been compelled, Th. 1.76, cf. 3.89; ῥᾳδίως ἂν ἀφεθείς when he might easily have been acquitted, X. Mem. 4.4.4. representing aor. opt., οὐδ' ἂν κρατῆσαι αὐτοὺς τῆς γῆς ἡγοῦμαι I think they would not even be masters of the land (οὐδ' ἂν κρατήσειαν), Th. 6.37, cf. 2.20; ὁρῶν ῥᾳδίως ἂν αὐτὸ ληφθέν (ληφθείη ἄν) Id. 7.42; οὔτε ὄντα οὔτε ἂν γενόμενα, i.e. things which are not and never could happen (ἃ οὔτε ἂν γένοιτο), Id. 6.38.

3. pf. inf. or part. representing: plpf. ind., πάντα ταῦθ' ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἂν ἑαλωκέναι (φήσειεν ἄν) he would say that all these would have been destroyed by the barbarians (ἑαλώκη ἄν), D. 19.312. pf. opt., οὐκ ἂν ἡγοῦμαι αὐτοὺς δίκην ἀξίαν δεδωκέναι, εἰ.. καταψηφίσαισθε I do not believe they would (then) have suffered (δεδωκότες ἂν εἶεν) punishment enough, etc., Lys. 27.9.

4. fut. inf. or part., never in , and prob. always corrupt in Att., νομίζων μέγιστον ἂν σφᾶς ὠφελήσειν (leg. -ῆσαι) Th. 5.82, cf. 6.66, 8.25, 71; part. is still more exceptional, ὡς ἐμοῦ οὐκ ἂν ποιήσοντος ἄλλα Pl. Ap. 30c (codd.), cf. D. 19.342 (v. l.); both are found in later Gk., νομίσαντες ἂν οἰκήσειν οὕτως ἄριστα Plb. 8.30.8, cf. Plu. Mark 15:1-47, Arr. An. 2.2.3; with part., Epicur. Nat. 14.1, Luc. Asin. 26, Lib. Or. 62.21, dub. l. in Arr. An. 6.6.5.



1. In the protasis of conditional sentences with εἰ, regularly with the subjunctive. In Attic εἰ ἄν is contracted into ἐάν, ἤν, or ἄν () (q. v.): Hom. has generally εἴ κε (or αἴ κε), sts. ἤν, once εἰ δ' ἄν Il. 3.288, twice εἴπερ ἄν 5.224, 232. The protasis expresses either future condition (with apod. of fut. time) or general condition (with apod. of repeated action): εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἔρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοί, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ' ὅς.. if thus thou shalt do.., ib. 2.364; ἢν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death (ever) come near.., E. Alc. 671.

2. in relative or temporal clauses with a conditional force; here ἄν coalesces with ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, cf. ὅταν, ὁπόταν, ἐπήν or ἐπάν (Ion. ἐπεάν), ἐπειδάν: Hom. has ὅτε κε (sts. ὅτ' ἄν), ὁππότε κε (sts. ὁπότ' ἄν or ὁππότ' ἄν), ἐπεί κε (ἐπεὶ ἄν Il. 6.412), ἐπήν, εὖτ' ἄν; v. also εἰσόκε (εἰς ὅ κε): — τάων ἥν κ' ἐθέλωμι φίλην ποιήσομ' ἄκοιτιν whomsoever of these I may wish.., Il. 9.397; ὅταν δὴ μὴ σθένω, πεπαύσομαι when I shall have no strength.., S. Ant. 91; ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος.. ὅς χ' ἕτερον μὲν κεύθῃ ἐνὶ φρεσίν, ἄλλο δὲ εἴπῃ who ever conceals one thing in his mind and speaks another, Il. 9.312, cf. D. 4.6, Th. 1.21. Hom. uses subj. in both the above constructions (1 and 2) without ἄν; also Trag. and Com., S. Aj. 496, Ar. Eq. 805; μέχρι and πρίν occasionally take subj. without ἄν in prose, e.g. Th. 1.137, 4.16 (μέχρι οὗ), Pl. Phd. 62c, Aeschin. 3.60.

3. in final clauses introduced by relative Advbs., as ὡς, ὅπως (of Manner), ἵνα (of Place), ὄφρα, ἕως, etc. (of Time), freq. in , σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι Il. 1.32; ὄφρα κεν εὕδῃ Od. 3.359; ὅπως ἂν εἰδῇ.. φράσω A. Pr. 824; ὅπως ἂν φαίνηται κάλλιστος Pl. Smp. 198e; μηχανητέον ὅπως ἂν διαφύγῃ Grg. 481a (where ὅπως with fut. ind. is the regular constr.); also after ὡς in Hdt., Trag., X. An. 2.5.16, al., once in Th. 6.91 (but fut. ind. is regular in Att.); ἵνα final does not take ἄν or κε exc. ἵνα εἰδότες ἤ κε θάνωμεν ἤ κεν.. φύγοιμεν Od. 12.156 (ἵνα = where in S. OC 405). μή, = lest, takes ἄν only with opt. in apodosis, as S. Tr. 631, Th. 2.93.


1. in sts. with OPTATIVE as with subj. (always κε (ν), exc. εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν Il. 2.597), εἴ κεν Ἄρης οἴχοιτο Od. 8.353; ὥς κε.. δοίη ᾧ κ' ἐθέλοι that he might give her to whomsoever he might please, ib. 2.54: so in Hdt. in final clauses, 1.75, 99: in Od. 23.135 ὥς κέν τις φαίη, κέν belongs to Verb in apod., as in ὡς δ' ἂν ἥδιστα ταῦτα φαίνοιτο X. Cyr. 7.5.81.

2. rarely in oratio obliqua, where a relat. or temp. word retains an ἄν which it would have with subj. in direct form, S. Tr. 687, X. Mem. 1.2.6, Isoc. 17.15; ἐπειδὰν δοκιμασθείην D. 30.6: similarly after a preceding opt., οὐκ ἀποκρίναιο ἕως ἂν.. σκέψαιο Pl. Phd. 101d.

III rarely with εἰ and INDICATIVE in protasis, only in :

1 with fut. ind. as with subj.: αἴ κεν Ἰλίου πεφιδήσεται Il. 15.213: so with relat., οἵ κέ με τιμήσουσι 1.175.

2. with εἰ and a past tense of ind., once in Hom., εἰ δέ κ' ἔτι προτέρω γένετο δρόμος Il. 23.526; so Ζεὺς γάρ κ' ἔθηκε νῆσον εἴ κ' ἐβούλετο Orac. ap. Hdt. 1.174, cf. Ar. Lys. 1099 (cod. R), A.R.

ἄν (B), [], Att., = ἐάν, ἤν, Th. 4.46 codd., al.; freq. in Pl., ἂν σωφρονῇ Phd. 61b; ἂν θεὸς θέλῃ ib. 80d, cf. D. 4.50; ἄν τ'.. ἄν τε Arist. Ath. 48.4: not common in earlier Att. Inscrr., IG 1.2a5, 2.179b49, al.: but freq. later, SIG 1044.27 (iv/iii B. C.), PPetr. 2p.47 (iii B. C.), PPar. 32.19 (ii B. C.), PTeb. 110.8 (i B. C.), John 20:23, etc.

ἄν (C) or ἀν, Epic form of ἀνά, q. v.

ἄν (D), shortened from ἄνα, v. sub ἀνά G.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἄν (1), a particle indicating that something can or could occur on certain conditions, or by the combination of certain fortuitous causes. In Latin it has no equivalent; nor do the English haply, perchance, German wohl (wol), etwa, exactly and everywhere correspond to it. The use of this particle in the N. T., illustrated by copious examples from Greek writers, is shown by Winer s Grammar, § 42; (cf. Buttmann, 216ff (186ff). Its use in classic Greek is fully exhibited (by Prof. Goodwin) in Liddell and Scott, under the word). It is joined:

I. in the apodoses of hypothetical sentences

1. with the imperfect, where the Latin uses the imperfect subjunctive, e. g. Luke 7:39 (ἐγίνωσκεν ἄν, sciret, he would know); Luke 17:6 (ἐλέγετε ἄν ye would say); Matthew 23:30 (non essemus, we should not have been); John 5:46; John 8:42; John 9:41; John 15:19; John 18:36; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Galatians 1:10; Galatians 3:21 (but WH marginal reading brackets); Hebrews 4:8; Hebrews 8:4,7.

2. with the indicative aorist (where the Latin uses the pluperfect subjunctive like the future perfect subjunctive, I would have done it), to express what would have been, if this or that either were (εἰ with the imperfect in the protasis preceding), or had been (εἰ with the aorist or pluperfect preceding): Matthew 11:21 and Luke 10:13 (ἄν μετενόησαν they would have repented; Matthew 11:23; Matthew 12:7 ( ye would not have condemned); Matthew 24:43 ( he would have watched), 22and Mark 13:20 ( no one would have been saved, i. e. all even now would have to be regarded as those who had perished; cf. Winer's Grammar, 304 (286)); John 4:10 ( thou wouldst have asked); John 14:2 (εἶπον ἄν I would have said so); John 14:28 ( ye would have rejoiced); Romans 9:29 ( we should have become); 1 Corinthians 2:8; Galatians 4:15 ( R G); Acts 18:14. Sometimes the condition is not expressly stated, but is easily gathered from what is said: Luke 19:23 and Matthew 25:27 ( I should have received it back with interest, namely, if thou hadst given it to the bankers).

3. with the pluperfect: John 11:21 ( R Tr marginal reading) (οὐκ ἄν ἐτεθνήκει ( L T Tr text WH ἀπέθανεν) would not have died, for which, in John 11:32, the aorist οὐκ ἄν ἀπέθανε); John 14:7 (not Tdf.) (εἰ with the pluperfect preceding); 1 John 2:19 ( they would have remained with us). Sometimes (as in Greek writings, especially the later) ἄν is omitted, in order to intimate that the thing wanted but little (imperfect) or had wanted but little (pluperfect or aorist) of being done, which yet was not done because the condition was not fulfilled (cf. Alex. Alexander Buttmann (1873) in the Studien und Kritiken for 1858, p. 489ff; (N. T. Gram., p. 225 (194)); Fritzsche on Romans , vol. ii., 33; Winer's Grammar, § 42,2, p. 305 (286)), e. g. John 8:39 (where the ἄν is spurious); John 15:22,24; John 19:11; Acts 26:32; Romans 7:7; Galatians 4:15 (ἄν before ἐδώκατέ has been correctly expunged by L T Tr WH).

II. Joined to relative pronouns, relative adverbs, and adverbs of time and quality, it has the same force as the Latin cumque or cunque, -ever, -soever (German irgend, etwa).

1. followed by a past tense of the indicative, when some matter of fact, something certain, is spoken of; where, "when the thing itself which is said to have been done is certain, the notion of uncertainty involved in ἄν belongs rather to the relative, whether pronoun or particle" (Klotz ad Der., p. 145) (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 42,3a.); ὅσοι ἄν as many as: Mark 6:56 (ὅσοι ἄν ἥπτοντο (ἥψαντο L text T Tr text WH) αὐτοῦ as many as touched him (cf. Buttmann, 216 (187))); Mark 11:24 (ὅσα ἄν προσευχόμενοι αἰτεῖσθε (Griesbach omits ἄν), but L text T Tr WH have rightly restored ὅσα προσεύχεσθε καί αἰτεῖσθε). καθότι ἄν in so far or so often as, according as (German je nachdem gerade): Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35. ὡς ἄν: 1 Corinthians 12:2 (in whatever manner ye were led (cf. Buttmann, § 139,13; 383 (329f))).

2. followed by a subjunctive,

a. the present, concerning that which may have been done, or is usually or constantly done (where the German uses mögen); ἡνίκα ἄν whensoever, as often as": 2 Corinthians 3:15 L T Tr WH; ὅς ἄν whoever, be he who he may: Matthew 16:25 ( L T Tr WH ἐάν); ( Mark 8:35 (where T Tr WH future indicative; see WH's Appendix, p. 172)); Luke 10:5 ( L T Tr WH aorist); Luke 10:8; Galatians 5:17 ( T Tr WH ἐάν, L brackets ἐάν); 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:17; Romans 9:15 ( Exodus 33:19); Romans 16:2; 1 Corinthians 11:27 etc. ὅστις ἄν: 1 Corinthians 16:2 ( Tr WH ἐάν; WH marginal reading aorist); Colossians 3:17 ( L text Tr WH ἐάν). ὅσοι ἄν: Matthew 7:12 ( T WH ἐάν); Matthew 22:9> ( L T Tr WH ἐάν). ὅπου ἄν whithersoever: Luke 9:57 ( L Tr ἐάν); Revelation 14:4 ( L Tr ( T edition 7 not 8, WH) have adopted ὑπάγει, defended also by Buttmann, 228 (196)); James 3:4 ( R G L Tr marginal reading in brackets). ὁσάκις ἄν how often soever: 1 Corinthians 11:25f (where L T Tr WH ἐάν). ὡς ἄν in what way soever: 1 Thessalonians 2:7 ((cf. Ellicott at the passage; Buttmann, 232 (201))), L T Tr WH ἐάν).

b. the aorist, where the Latin uses the future perfect; ὅς ἄν: Matthew 5:21,22 (εἴπῃ whoever, if ever anyone shall have said); Matthew 5:31 f (in Matthew 5:32 L T Tr WH read πᾶς ἀπολύων); Matthew 10:11; Matthew 26:48 ( Tdf. ἐάν); Mark 3:29,35; Mark 9:41, etc. ὅστις ἄν: Matthew 10:33 ( L Tr WH text omit ἄν); Matthew 12:50>; John 14:13 ( Tr marginal reading WH present); Acts 3:23 ( Tdf. ἐάν), etc. ὅσοι ἄν: Matthew 21:22 ( Treg. ἐάν); Matthew 23:3 ( T WH ἐάν); Mark 3:28 ( Tr WH ἐάν); Luke 9:5 ( L T Tr WH present); John 11:22; Acts 2:39 (Lachmann οὕς); Acts 3:22>. ὅπου ἄν: Mark 14:9 ( T WH ἐάν); Mark 9:18> ( L T Tr WH ἐάν). ἄχρις οὗ ἄν until ( donec): 1 Corinthians 15:25 Rec.; Revelation 2:25. ἕως ἄν until ( usque dum): Matthew 2:13; Matthew 10:11; Matthew 22:44; Mark 6:10; Luke 21:32; 1 Corinthians 4:5, etc. ἡνίκα ἄν, of future time, not until then, when ... or then at length, when ...: 2 Corinthians 3:16 ( T WH text ἐάν) (cf. Kühner, 2:951; Jelf, 2:565). ὡς ἄν as soon as ( Buttmann, 232 (200)): 1 Corinthians 11:34; Philippians 2:23. ἀφ' οὗ ἄν ἐγερθῇ, Luke 13:25 (from the time, whatever the time Isaiah , when he shall have risen up). But ἐάν (which see) is also joined to the pronouns and adverbs mentioned, instead of ἄν; and in many places the manuscripts and editions fluctuate between ἄν and ἐάν (examples of which have already been adduced); (cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 96; WH's Appendix, p. 173 "predominantly ἄν is found after consonants, and ἐάν after vowels"). Finally, to this head must be referred ὅταν (equivalent to ὅτε ἄν) with the indicative and much more often with the subjunctive (see ὅταν), and ὅπως ἄν, although this last came to be used as a final conjunction in the sense, that, if it be possible: Luke 2:35); Acts 3:20 (Acts 3:19>); Acts 15:17>; Romans 3:4; see ὅπως, IL 1b. (Cf. Winer s Grammar, 309 (290f); Buttmann, 234 (201).)

III. ἄν is joined to the optative ( Winer s Grammar, 303 (284); Buttmann, 217 (188)); when a certain condition is laid down, as in wishes, I would that etc.: Acts 26:29 (εὐξαίμην ( Tdf. εὐξάμην) ἄν, I could pray, namely, did it depend on me); in direct questions ( Winer s Grammar, the passage cited; Buttmann, 254 (219)): Acts 8:31 (πῶς ἄν δυναίμην; i. e. on what condition, by what possibility, could I? cf. Xenophon, oec. 11,5); Acts 17:18 (τί ἄν θέλοι ... λέγειν what would he say? it being assumed that he wishes to utter some definite notion or other); Acts 2:12 R G; independent sentences and indirect questions in which the narrator introduces another's thought ( Winer s Grammar, § 42,4; Buttmann, the passage cited]: Luke 1:62; Luke 6:11; Luke 9:46; ( Luke 15:26 L brackets Tr WH; cf. Luke 18:36 Lbr. Trbr. WH marginal reading); Acts 5:24; Acts 10:17; Acts 17:20 R G.

IV. ἄν is found without a mood in 1 Corinthians 7:5 (εἰ μή τί ἄν ( WH brackets ἄν), except perhaps, namely, γένοιτο (but cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) as below)). ὡς ἄν, adverbially, tanquam (so already the Vulg.), as if: 2 Corinthians 10:9 (like ὥσπερ ἄν in Greek writings; cf. Kühner, 2:210 (sec. 398 Anm. 4; Jelf, § 430); Buttmann, 219 (189); (Liddell and Scott, under the word, D. III.)).

ἄν (2), contracted from ἐάν, if; followed by the subjunctive: John 20:23 (Lachmann ἐάν. Also by the (present) indicative in 1 John 5:15 Lachmann; see Buttmann, 223 (192); Winer s Grammar, 295 (277)). Further, L T Tr WH have received ἄν in John 13:20; John 16:23; (so WH John 12:32; cf. Winer s Grammar, 291 (274); Buttmann, 72 (63)).

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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἄν ,

conditional particle, which cannot usually be separately translated in English, its force depending on the constructions which contain it (see further, LS, s.v.; WM, § xlii; M, Pr., 165 ff.; MM, VGT, s.v.).

1. In apodosis,

(i) c. indic. impf. or aor., expressing what would be or would have been if (εἰ c. impf., aor. or plpf.) some condition were or had been fulfilled: Luke 7:39; Luke 17:6, John 5:46, Galatians 1:10, Matthew 12:7; Matthew 24:43, 1 Corinthians 2:8, Acts 18:14, 1 John 2:19, al. The protasis is sometimes understood (as also in cl.): Matthew 25:27, Luke 19:23. In hypothetical sentences, expressing unreality, ἄν (as often in late writers, more rarely in cl.) is omitted: John 8:39; John 15:24; John 19:11 Romans 7:7, Galatians 4:15;

(ii) c. opt., inf., ptcp. (cl.; v. LS, s.v.; M, Int., § 275; M, Pr., 167-4).

2. In combination with conditional, relative, temporal, and final words;

(i) as in cl., c. subj.,

(a) in protasis with εἰ , in Attic contr. ἐάν , q.v.;

(b) in conditional, relative, and temporal clauses (coalescing with ὅτε , ἐπεί , etc.; see ὅταν , ἐπάν , etc.), ever, soever;

(α ) c. Pres., ἡνίϗα ἄν , 2 Corinthians 3:15; ὃς ἄν , Romans 9:15 (LXX) Romans 16:2, al.; ὅσοι ἄν , Luke 9:5; ὡς ἄν , Romans 15:24 (M, Pr., 167);

(β ) c. aor., ὃς ἄν , Matthew 5:21-22; Matthew 5:31; ἕως ἄν , until, Matthew 2:13; Matthew 6:10, al; ὡς ἄν ' as soon as (M, Pr., 167), 1 Corinthians 11:34, Philippians 2:23. On the freq. use of ἐάν for ἄν with the foregoing words, see ἐάν ;

(ii) in late Gk., when some actual fact is spoken of, c. indic.: ὅταν (q.v.); ὅπου ἄν , Mark 6:56 (M, Pr., 168); καθοτι ἄν Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35; ὡς ἄν , 1 Corinthians 12:2.

3. In iterative construction, c. impf. and aor. indic. (M, Pr., 167): Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35, 1 Corinthians 12:2.

4. c. optat., giving a potential sense to a question or wish: Acts 8:31; Acts 26:29.

5. Elliptical constructions: εἰ μή τι ἄν (M, Pr., 169), 1 Corinthians 7:5; ὡς ἄν , c. inf., as it were (op. cit. 167), 2 Corinthians 10:9.

άν , contr. from ἐάν , q.v.

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For the rapid decay of this particle in Hellenistic vernacular, reference may be made to Proleg. pp. 165–9, 197–201 : a few additional points may be brought in. First comes the use with relatives and conjunctions, normally but by no means universally taking the subjunctive. Here in i/ and ii/A.D. ἐάν greatly predominated over ἄν, except with ὅπως, ὡς and ἕως. Thackeray (Gr. p. 68), collecting statistics from more extensive material than had been available in Proleg. p. 43, sums up the results to the same purpose : about B.C. 133 ";ὃς [etc.] ἐάν begins to come to the front, and from i/B.C. onwards the latter is always the predominant form : the figures in both columns decrease in iii/–iv/A.D., when the use of the indefinite relative in any form was going out of use."; The ultimate result of this process is seen in MGr, where the only traces left of ἄν are in the compounds σάν ";as,"; ";as soon as,"; and ἄν ";if,"; with κάν ( = κἄν) ";even."; Σάν is from ὡς ἄν, which in papyri is used in the same senses : thus BGU IV. 1098.44 (end of i/B.C.) ὡς ἂν ἐπὶ το [ῦ κα ]ιροῦ κοινῶς κρίνωσι (according as), ib. 1209.13 (B.C. 23) ὡς ἂν λάβῃς τὸ γράμμα (as soon as), P Hib I. 66.4 (B.C. 228–7), [ς δ᾽ ἂν παραγένωμαι (do.). Several instances are collected by Witkowski (.2 p. 87), and Philippians 2:23, 1 Corinthians 11:34, Romans 15:24 noted as parallel, as in Proleg. p. 167. The MGr ἄν inherits the uses of ἐάν. The latter in vernacular Hellenistic is stable, or even reverts to εἰάν by re-composition; but the form ἄν is found in many illiterate documents of the Κοινή (as for instance in the boy’s letter, P Oxy I. 119 (ii/iii A.D.)), and may be the direct ancestor of the MGr. See Proleg. p. 43 n..2. On ἄν with opt., or ind. irrealis, see Proleg. pp. 197–201. A reference should be added to Goodspeed’s convincing suggestion (Exp T xx. 471 f.) that in Mark 7:11 we should read ὃ ἂν (so D) ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφελήθης, indic., ";what you would have gained from me."; Two or three additional instances of ἄν in ";unreal"; clauses may be given from the papyri : —P Tor I. 1viii. 35 ff. (B.C. 116) (= Chrest. II. p. 39), καὶ εἴπερ γε δὴ ἐνόμιζεν ἔχειν τι δίκαιον κτλ., οὐκ ἄν ποτε προαχθῆναι (depending on ὥστ᾽ εὔδηλον εἶναι in l. .31), P. Giss I. 4717 (early ii/A.D.) τὸ ὀνάριον τὸ χαλκοῦν εἰ ἐπωλεῖτο δραχμῶν κ ̄δ ̄, ε ̣͗κτοτε ἂν ἔπεμψά σοι, ib. 79ii. 6 (same period) εἰ δυνατόν μ [οι ] η ̣͂̔ν κτλ., οὐκ ἂν ὠ [κ ]νήκειν, BGU IV. 114127 f. (end of i/B.C.) (l. εἰ) ἦν δάκρυά σοι γράφειν, γεγραφήκειν ἂν ἀπ ̣ο ̣, τῶν δακρύων, CP Herm I. 77f. εἰ μἐν δὴ χορηγία τις [ ]ν κτλ. (a gap of 21 letters included), οὐδὲν ἂν ἡμᾶ [ς ἔδει πε ]ρὶ τού [τ ]ων δεῖσθαι. To the papyrus exx. of ἄν dropped Proleg.3 p. 200 n.1), add PSI 719 f. (vi/A.D.) εἰ μὴ ἡ θεία πρόνοια ἐβοήθησεν κτλ., εἶχαν ἀλ ̣λ ̣η ̣λ ̣[ους ] ἀναιλῖν (l. ἀνελεῖν). The fewness of our exx. shows that the NT omissions of ἄν, practically confined to Jn, are not normal Κοινή grammar, except in clauses where omission was classical : the construction itself was dying out, but the ἄν was preserved while the locution lasted. MGr uses a periphrastic conditional mood (Thumb Handbook, p. 195).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
αν άν ἄν ἂν εαν ἐὰν καὶ καν οὗ an án àn ean eàn hou hoû kai kaì ou

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