, a conjunction, which according to its composition, and (equivalent to ), is properly a particle of affirmation and conclusion, denoting truly therefore, verily as the case stands,
"the thing is first affirmed by the particle , and then is referred to what precedes by the force of the particle ( Klotz ad Devar.
ii. 1, p. 232; cf. Kühner, ii., p. 724; ( Jelf
, § 786; Winer
s Grammar, 445f (415f))). Now since by a new affirmation not infrequently the reason and nature of something previously mentioned are set forth, it comes to pass that, by the use of this particle, either the reason and cause of a foregoing statement is added, whence arises the causal or argumentative force of the particle, for (Latinnam
; German denn
); or some previous declaration is explained, whence takes on an explicative force: for, the fact Isaiah , namely
, German nämlich
). Thus the force of the particle is either conclusive, or demonstrative, or explicative and declaratory; cf. Rost in Passow
's Lexicon, i., p. 535ff; Kühner, ii., pp. 724ff, 852ff; (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word). The use of the particle in the N. T. does not differ from that in the classics.
I. Its primary and original Conclusive force is seen in questions (in Greek writings also in exclamations) and answers expressed with emotion; where, according to the connexion, it may be freely represented by assuredly, verily, forsooth, why, then, etc.: etc. ye profess not to know whence he is; herein then is assuredly a marvellous thing, why, herein etc. John 9:30; , etc. by no means in this state of things, nay verily, but etc. Acts 16:37; certainly, if that is the case, 1 Corinthians 8:11 L T Tr WH. It is joined to interrogative particles and pronouns: etc. John 7:41 (do ye then suppose that the Christ comes out of Galilee? What, doth the Christ, etc.?); ... , 1 Corinthians 11:22 ("what! since ye are so eager to eat and drink, have ye not," etc.?); , : Matthew 27:23 ( , ye demand that he be crucified like a malefactor, Why, what evil hath he done?); Matthew 9:5 (your thoughts are evil; which then do ye suppose to be the easier, etc.?); Matthew 16:26; Matthew 23:17,19; Luke 9:25; Acts 19:35; ; for , what then? i. e. what, under these circumstances, ought to be the conclusion? Philippians 1:18 (cf. Ellicott at the passage); , Acts 8:31; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 245ff; Kühner, ii., p. 726; ( Jelf, ii., p. 608); Winer's Grammar, 447 (416). Here belongs also the vexed passage Luke 18:14 (so G T Tr marginal reading, but L WH Tr text ) or do ye suppose then that that man went down approved of God? cf. Winer's Grammar, 241 (226).
II. It adduces the Cause or gives the Reason of a preceding statement or opinion;
1. universally: Matthew 2:5; Matthew 6:24; Mark 1:22; Mark 9:6; Luke 1:15,18; Luke 21:4; John 2:25; Acts 2:25; Romans 1:9,11; 1 Corinthians 11:5; Hebrews 2:8; 1 John 2:19; Revelation 1:3, and very often. In John 4:44 assigns the reason why now at length Jesus betook himself into Galilee; for the authority denied to a prophet in his own country (Galilee), he had previously to seek and obtain among strangers; cf. John 4:45; Meyer (yet see edition 6 (Weiss)) at the passage; Strauss, Leben Jesu, i. 725 edition 3; Neander, Leben Jesu, p. 385f edition 1 (American translation, pp. 100,168); Ewald, Jahrbb. d. Biblical Wissensch. x., p. 108ff.
2. Often the sentences are connected in such a way that either some particular statement is established by a general proposition (`the particular by the universal'), as in Matthew 7:8; Matthew 13:12; Matthew 22:14; Mark 4:22,25; John 3:20; 1 Corinthians 12:12; Hebrews 5:13, etc.; or what has been stated generally, is proved to be correctly stated by a particular instance (`the universal by the particular'): Mark 7:10; Luke 12:52,58; Romans 7:2; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 12:8.
3. To sentences in which something is commanded or forbidden, annexes the reason why the thing must either be done or avoided: Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:20; Matthew 3:9; Matthew 7:2; Romans 13:11; Colossians 3:3; 1 Thessalonians 4:3; Hebrews 2:2, and very often. In Philippians 2:13 connects the verse with Philippians 2:12 thus: work out your salvation with most intense earnestness, for nothing short of this accords with God's saving efficiency within your souls, to whom you owe both the good desire and the power to execute that desire.
4. To questions, annexes the reason why the question is asked: Matthew 2:2 (we ask this with good reason, for we have seen the star which announces his birth); Matthew 22:28; Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 14:9; Galatians 1:10.
5. Frequently the statement which contains the cause is interrogative; , : Luke 22:27; Romans 4:3; Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 7:16; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 12:7; for , Romans 3:3 (cf. Fritzsche at the passage; (Ellicott on Philippians 1:18)); , 1 Corinthians 10:29; , James 4:14 ( WH text omits; Tr brackets ).
6. Sometimes in answers it is so used to make good the substance of a preceding question that it can be rendered yea, assuredly: 1 Corinthians 9:10; 1 Thessalonians 2:20; cf. Kühner, ii., p. 724.
7. Sometimes it confirms, not a single statement, but the point of an entire discussion: Romans 2:25 (it is no advantage to a wicked Jew, for etc.). On the other hand, it may so confirm but a single thought as to involve the force of asseveration and be rendered assuredly, yea: Romans 15:27 ( ); so also , Philippians 2:27.
8. It is often said that the sentence of which introduces the cause, or renders the reason, is not expressed, but must be gathered from the context and supplied in thought. But that this ellipsis is wholly imaginary is clearly shown by Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 236f, cf. Winer's Grammar, 446f (415f). The particle is everywhere used in reference to something expressly stated. Suffice it to append a very few examples; the true nature of many others is shown under the remaining heads of this article: In Matthew 5:12 before some supply 'nor does this happen to you alone'; but the reason is added why a great reward in heaven is reserved for those who suffer persecution, which reason consists in this, that the prophets also suffered persecution, and that their reward is great no one can doubt. In Romans 8:18 some have supplied 'do not shrink from this suffering with Christ'; but on the use of here, see III.
a. below. On Mark 7:28 ( T Tr WH omit; L brackets ), where before some supply 'but help me,' or 'yet we do not suffer even the dogs to perish with hunger,' see 10b. below. In Acts 9:11 before many supply 'he will listen to thee'; but it introduces the reason for the preceding command.
9. When in successive statements is repeated twice or thrice, or even four or five times, either a. one and the same thought is confirmed by as many arguments, each having its own force, as there are repetitions of the particle (Meyer denies the coordinate use of in the N. T., asserting that the first is argumentative, the second explicative, see his commentaries on the passage to follow, also on Romans 8:6): Matthew 6:32; Romans 16:18f; or b. every succeeding statement contains the reason for its immediate predecessor, so that the statements are subordinate one to another: Mark 6:52; Matthew 16:25-27; John 3:19; John 5:21; Acts 2:15; Romans 4:13-15; Romans 8:2f, 5; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 1 Corinthians 9:15-17 (where five times in G L T Tr WH); 1 Corinthians 16:7; James 2:10, etc.; or c. it is repeated in a different sense: Mark 9:39-41; Romans 5:6f (where cf. Winer's Grammar, 453 (422)); Romans 10:2-5 (four times); James 4:14 ( WH text omits; Tr brackets the first , L WH marginal reading omit the second).
10. (on which cf. Kühner, ii., p. 854 f; Winer's Grammar, 448 (417); (Ellicott on 2 Thessalonians 3:10)) is a. for, and truly ( etenim, namque, (the simple rendering for is regarded as inexact by many; cf. Meyer on 2 Corinthians 13:4 and see Hartung, Partikeln, i. 137f; Krüger, § 69,32, 21)): Mark 14:70; Luke 22:37 ( L Tr brackets ); 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Corinthians 11:9; 1 Corinthians 12:13.
b. for also, for even ( nam etiam): Matthew 8:9; Mark 10:45; Luke 6:32; John 4:45; 1 Corinthians 12:14, etc. In Mark 7:28 ( R G L brackets) etc. the woman, by adducing an example, confirms what Christ had said, but the example is of such a sort as also to prove that her request ought to be granted. for indeed (German denn ja): Romans 7:7; cf. Fritzsche at the passage; Winer's Grammar, 448 (417). , see under .
III. It serves to explain, make clear, illustrate, a preceding thought or word: for equivalent to that Isaiah , namely;
a. so that it begins an exposition of the thing just announced (cf. Winer's Grammar, 454 f (423 f)): Matthew 1:18 ( R G); Matthew 19:12>; Luke 11:30; Luke 18:32. In Romans 8:18 introduces a statement setting forth the nature of the just mentioned.
b. so that the explanation is intercalated into the discourse, or even added by way of appendix: Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16; Mark 2:15; Mark 5:42; Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 16:5. In Mark 16:4 the information is added to throw light on all that has been previously said (in Mark 16:3 f) about the stone.
IV. As respects position: never occupies the first place in a sentence, but the second, or third, or even the fourth ( , 2 Corinthians 1:19 — according to true text). Moreover, not the number but the nature of the word after which it stands is the point to be noticed, Hermann on Sophocles Philippians 1437.