Old & New Testament Greek
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
‑ אֱמֶת (eh'‑meth)
‑ זָכוּ (zaw‑koo')
‑ חֶסֶד (kheh'‑sed)
‑ טוֹב (tobe)
‑ מָדוֹן (maw‑dohn')
‑ מֵישָׁרִים (may‑shawr')
‑ מִשְׁפָּט (mish‑pawt')
‑ נִקָּיֹן (nik‑kaw‑yone', nik‑kaw‑yone')
‑ פְּתָאִי (peth‑ee', peh'‑thee, peth‑aw‑ee')
‑ צַדִּיק (tsad‑deek')
‑ צֶדֶק (tseh'‑dek)
‑ שָׂכַל (saw‑kal')
1. righteousness, justice, Thgn. 147, Hdt. 1.96, al., Pl. R. 433a, LXX Genesis 15:6, etc.; δ. δικαστική legal justice, Arist. Pol. 1291a27; opp. ἐπιείκεια, Id. EN 1137a32.
2. fulfilment of the Law, LXX Isaiah 26:2, al.,.Matthew 3:15, al.
II justice, the business of a judge, Pl. Grg. 464b, 464c (v.l. δικαστική), Clit. 408b.
III Δ., personified, AP 9.164; Ἶσις Δ. SIG 1131 (Delos), IG 3.203. Pythag. name for four, Theol.Ar. 23. δικαιοσύνη· ἡ χοῖνιξ, μυστικῶς, Hsch.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, , (); most frequently in the Sept.
, rarely for חֶסֶד
; "the virtue or quality or state of one who is ;"
1. in the broad sense, the state of him who is such as he ought to be, righteousness (German Rechtbeschaffenheit); the condition acceptable to God (German Gottwohlgefalligkeit);
a. universally: (like , ), the doctrine concerning the way in which man may attain to a state approved of God, Hebrews 5:13; , the king who himself has the approbation of God, and who renders his subjects acceptable to God, Hebrews 7:2; cf. Bleek at the passage b. "integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, correctness in thinking, feeling, and acting: Matthew 3:15; Matthew 5:6,10, 20; Matthew 6:1 G L T Tr, WH; Acts 13:10; Acts 24:25; Romans 6:13,16, 18-20 (opposed to , , and ); Romans 8:10 (opposed to ); Romans 14:17 (? (see c.)); 2 Corinthians 6:7,14 (opposed to , as in Xenophon, mem. 1,2, 24); 2 Corinthians 11:15; Ephesians 5:9; Ephesians 6:14; Philippians 1:11; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 4:8; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 12:11; James 3:18; 1 Peter 3:14; 2 Peter 2:5,21; 2 Peter 3:13, and very often in the O. T.; , walking in the way of righteousness equivalent to an upright, righteous, Prayer of Manasseh , Matthew 21:32; , the righteousness which God demands, Matthew 6:33; James 1:20; of righteousness which manifests itself in "beneficence: 2 Corinthians 9:9f (cf. Tobit 14:11; Gesenius, Thesaurus iii., p. 1151; so Chaldean צִדְקָה, Daniel 4:24, and in the Talmud and rabbinical writings (Buxtorf. Colossians 1891 (p. 941, Fischer edition); cf. Winer's Grammar, 32)); where are connected — Luke 1:75; Ephesians 4:24, ( Wisdom of Solomon 9:3; Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 48,4 [ET] and occasionally in secular writings) — the former denotes right conduct toward men, the latter piety toward God (cf. Plato, Gorgias, p. 507b.; Grimm on Sap., p. 181 f; (cf. Trench, § 88, p. 328f; for additional examples see Wetstein (1752) on Ephesians , the passage cited; cf. ); , Diodorus 1,2); , to do righteousness, to live uprightly: 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7; 1 John 3:10 (not Lachmann); and in Revelation 22:11 according to the text now accepted; in like manner , Acts 10:35; Hebrews 11:33; , to live, devote the life, to righteousness, 1 Peter 2:24; , to perform completely whatever is right, Matthew 3:15. When affirmed of Christ, denotes his perfect moral purity, integrity, sinlessness: John 16:8,10; when used of God, his holiness: Romans 3:5,25f.
c. in the writings of Paul has a peculiar meaning, opposed to the views of the Jews and Judaizing Christians. To understand this meaning, the following facts especially must be kept in view: the Jews as a people, and very many who had become converts from among them to Christianity, supposed that they secured the favor of God by works conformed to the requirements of the Mosaic law, as though by way of merit; and that they would thus attain to eternal salvation. But this law demands perfect obedience to all its precepts, and threatens condemnation to those who do not render such obedience ( Galatians 3:10,12). Obedience of this kind no one has rendered ( Romans 3:10), neither Jews nor Gentiles ( Romans 1:24-2:1) — for with the latter the natural law of right written on their souls takes the place of the Mosaic law ( Romans 2:14 f). On this account Paul proclaims the love of God, in that by giving up Christ, his Song of Solomon , to die as an expiatory sacrifice for the sins of men he has attested his grace and good-will to mankind, so that they can hope for salvation as if they had not sinned. But the way to obtain this hope, he teaches, is only through faith (see (especially 1b. and d.)), by which a man appropriates that grace of God revealed and pledged in Christ; and this faith is reckoned by God to the man as ; that is to say, denotes "the state acceptable to God which becomes a sinner's possession through that faith by which he embraces the grace of God offered him in the expiatory death of Jesus Christ (see , 3b.). In this sense is used without an adjunct in Romans 4:5f, 11; Romans 5:17,21; Romans 9:30; Romans 14:11 (? (see b.)); 1 Corinthians 1:30; Galatians 5:5; , , the righteousness which God ascribes, what God declares to be righteousness ( Winer's Grammar, 186 (175)), Romans 1:17; Romans 3:21; Romans 10:3; by a pregnant use, equivalent to that divine arrangement by which God leads men to a state acceptable to him, Romans 10:4; as abstract for concrete, equivalent to those whom God accounts righteous, 2 Corinthians 5:21; , Romans 3:22; , which is acquired by faith, or seen in faith, Romans 4:11,13; which comes from God, i. e. is adjudged, imputed, Philippians 3:9 (wbere the addition depends on , having ... founded upon faith (cf. Winer's Grammar, 137 (130); 392 (367); yet cf. Ellicott, at the passage)); which comes from faith, Romans 9:30; Romans 10:6; , Philippians 3:9; according to, appropriate to, faith, Hebrews 11:7 (but it should be kept in mind that the conception of 'faith' in the Epistle to the Hebrews is broader than in Paul's writings (cf. e. g. Kurtz, at the passage)); Christ is called , as being the one without whom there is no righteousness, as the author of righteousness, 1 Corinthians 1:30; , unto righteousness as the result, to obtain righteousness, Romans 10:4,10; , faith is reckoned to one for righteousness, i. e. is so taken into account, that righteousness is ascribed to it or recognized in it: Romans 4:3,6, 9,22; Galatians 3:6; James 2:23; (see , 2b.), 2 Corinthians 3:9. Opposed to this , arising from faith, is , a state acceptable to God which is supposed to result from obedience to the law, Romans 10:5f; relying on the law, i. e. on imaginary obedience to it, Philippians 3:6; and , such as one supposes that he has acquired for himself by his own works, Romans 10:3 Philippians 3:9, cf. Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:21.
2. in a closer sense, justice, or the virtue which gives each one his due; it is said to belong to God and Christ, as bestowing upon all Christians impartially, 2 Peter 1:1; of judicial justice, Romans 9:28 R G Tr marginal reading in brackets; , Acts 17:31; Revelation 19:11. (See references under the word at the end.)<1> 1>
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
δικαιοσύνη , -ης , ἡ
(< δίκαιος ),
[in LXX chiefly for H6664, and cognates, Genesis 15:6, al., rarely for H2617, Genesis 19:19;]
the character of ὁ δίκαιος (q.v.);
1. in broad sense, righteousness, conformity to the Divine will in purpose, thought and action: Matthew 5:6, John 16:8, Acts 13:10, Romans 4:3; λόγος δικαιοσύνης , teaching of r., Hebrews 5:13; βασιλεὺς δ . (cf. FlJ, BJ, vi, 10, β . δίκαιος ), Hebrews 7:2; ὅπλα δ ., Romans 6:13; ὁδὸς δ ., Matthew 21:32; θώραξ τῆς δ ., Ephesians 6:14; διὰκονοι δ ., 2 Corinthians 11:15; ὁσιότης καὶ δ ., Luke 1:75, cf. Ephesians 4:24; ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δ ., Ephesians 5:9; δ . κ . εἰρήνη κ . χαρά , Romans 14:17; δ . κ . ἁγιασμός , 1 Corinthians 1:30; opp. to ἁμαρτία , Romans 8:10; ἀνομία , 2 Corinthians 6:14; άδικία , Romans 3:5; ποιεῖν τὴν δ ., 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7; id. as an inclusive term for the active duties of the religious life (ICC, in l; Abbott, Essays, 73 ff), Matthew 6:1; ἐργάζεσθαι δ ., Acts 10:35; διώκειν δ ., 1 Timothy 6:11; πληροῦν πᾶσαν δ ., Matthew 3:15; ζῆν τῇ δ ., 1 Peter 2:24; δ . θεοῦ , a righteousness divine in its character and origin, Matthew 6:33, James 1:20, (where it also includes the idea of God's personal r.; v. ICC, on Romans 1:17) Romans 1:17; Romans 3:5; Romans 3:21-26; Romans 10:3, 2 Corinthians 5:21, Philippians 3:9; ἡ δ . τ . πίσιεως , Romans 4:11; ἡ ἐκ Papyri δ ., Romans 9:30; ἡ κατὰ Papyri δ ., Hebrews 11:7; opp. to this is ἡ ἐκ νόμου δ ., Romans 10:5; ἡ δ . ἐν ν ., Philippians 3:6; ἡ ἰδία δ ., Romans 10:3, cf. Philippians 3:9.
2. In narrower sense (cf. δίκαιος ), justice: Acts 17:31, 2 Peter 1:1, Revelation 19:11 (DCG, ii, 529 ff.; Cremer, 190, 690).
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
So far as we have noticed, this word is rare in the papyri, though it occurs very frequently in the inscriptions. From the papyri we can quote P Rein 10.9 (B.C. 111), where it is used as a name or title of Cleopatra : cf. Syll 763 Ἲσιδι Δικαιοσύνηι with the editor’s note, BGU IV. 1138.4 (B.C. 19), in a cancelled line, ἐπὶ τὸ (ν) τῆς δικ ̣α ̣ι ̣ο ̣σ ̣υ ̣νη (ς) σ ̣ο ̣υ ̣ [χ ]ρηματισ (μόν), in a petition to an epistrategus. P Leid Wxvii. 89 (ii/iii A.D.) is addressed to a deity οὗ ἡ δικ (αι)οσύνη οὐκ ἀποκινῖται, οὗ αἱ μοῦσαι ὑμνοῦσι τὸ ἔνδοξον (ὄνομα). In the magic P Lond 46.403 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 78) it is found in a hymn addressed to Hermes. In P Thead 23.9 (A.D. 342) a man petitions Flavius Abinnaeus with reference to his neighbour who has attacked his sheep ληστρικῷ τρόπ [ῳ ] . . . παρὰ τὴν [δικα ]ι ̣ο ̣σύνην, ";after the manner of a brigand, contrary to justice."; From the inscrr. it is sufficient to add OGIS 339.43 (c. B.C. 120) διὰ τὴν τῶν ἀνδρῶν δικαιοσύνην τε καὶ φιλοτιμίαν, ib. 438.8 (i/B.C.) ἄνδρα ἀγαθὸν γενόμενον καὶ διενένκαντα πίστει καὶ ἀρετῇ καὶ δ [ικ ]αιοσύνῃ καὶ εὐσεβείαι (cf. 2 Peter 1:5 ff.), Cagnat IV. 247.5 (c. B.C. 150), where the Demos of Assos, having been asked by that of Stratonicea to appoint an arbitrator for them, gives itself a testimonial as διὰ παντὸς πρόνοιαν ποιούμενος περὶ δικαιοσύνης. The Index in Syll III. contains about thirty references for the word.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
List of Word Forms
δικαιοσύναι δικαιοσύναις δικαιοσύνας δικαιοσυνη δικαιοσύνη δικαιοσύνῃ δικαιοσυνην δικαιοσύνην δικαιοσυνης δικαιοσύνης δικαιοσυνών dikaiosune dikaiosunē dikaiosunen dikaiosunēn dikaiosunes dikaiosunēs dikaiosyne dikaiosynē dikaiosýne dikaiosýnē dikaiosýnei dikaiosýnēi dikaiosynen dikaiosynēn dikaiosýnen dikaiosýnēn dikaiosynes dikaiosynēs dikaiosýnes dikaiosýnēs
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