Old & New Testament Greek
a primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence action or motion proceeds), from, out (of place, time, or cause
Parts of Speech:
literal or figurative
Word Definition [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
before a vowel ἐξ, also ἐξ τῳ ϝοίκῳ Inscr.Cypr. 135.5 H., in Att. Inscrr. before ς ξ ζ ρ and less freq. λ; ἐγ- in Inscrr. before β γ δ λ μ ν ; Cret. and Boeot. ἐς Leg.Gort. 2.49, Corinn. Supp. 2.67; ἐχ freq. in Att. Inscrr. before χ φ θ (and in early Inscrr. before ς, IG 12.304.20); also ἐ Ναυπάκτω ib.9(1).334.8 (Locr.); (ἐτ is for ἐπὶ in ib 9(2).517.14 (Thess.)): — Pr governing GEN. only (exc. in Cypr. and Arc., c. dat., Inscr.Cypr. 135.5 H. (Idalium), (in form ἐς) IG 5(2).6.49 (Tegea, iv B.C.)): — radical sense, from out of, freq. also simply, from.
I OF PLACE, the most freq. usage, variously modified:
1 of Motion, out of, forth from, ἐκ Πύλου ἐλθὼν τηλόθεν ἐξ ἀπίης γαίης Il. 1.269, cf. Pl. Prt. 321c, etc.; μάχης ἔκ Il. 17.207; ἂψ ἐκ δυσμενέων ἀνδρῶν 24.288; ἐξ ὀχέων, ἐξ ἕδρης, 3.29, 19.77; φεύγειν ἐκ πολέμοιο 7.119; ἐκ τῶν πολεμίων ἐλθεῖν X. Cyr. 6.2.9; ἐκ χειρῶν γέρας εἵλετο Il. 9.344, cf. S. Ph. 1287 (but ἐκ χειρὸς βάλλειν or παίειν to strike with a spear in the hand, opp. ἀντιτοξεύειν or ἀκοντίζειν, X. An. 3.3.15, Cyr. 4.3.16; ἐκ χειρὸς τὴν μάχην ποιεῖσθαι ib. 6.2.16, cf. 6.3.24, etc.); ἐκ χρυσῶν φιαλῶν πίνειν ib. 5.3.3; ἐξ ἀγορᾶς ὠνεῖσθαι Pl.Com. 190.
2. ἐκ θυμοῦ φίλεον I loved her from my heart, with all my heart, Il. 9.343; ἐκ τῆς ψυχῆς ἀσπάσασθαι X. Oec. 10.4; μέγαν ἐκ θυμοῦ κλάζοντες Ἄρη A. Ag. 48 (anap.); δακρυχέων ἐκ φρενός Id. Th. 919 (anap.); οὐδὲν ἐκ σαυτῆς λέγεις S. El. 344; ἐξ εὐμενῶν στέρνων δέχεσθαι receive with kindly heart, Id. OC 486; ἐξ ὀμμάτων ὀρθῶν δὲ κἀξ ὀρθῆς φρενός Id. OT 528; ὀρθὸς ἐξ ὀρθῶν δίφρων with chariot still upright, Id. El. 742; ἐξ ἀκινήτου ποδός Id. Tr. 875; ἐξ ἑνὸς ποδός Id. Ph. 91.
3. to denote change or succession, freq. with an antithetic repetition of the same word, δέχεται κακὸν ἐκ κακοῦ one evil comes from (or after) another, Il. 19.290; ἐκ φόβου φόβον τρέφω S. Tr. 28; πόλιν ἐκ πόλεως ἀμείβειν, ἀλλάττειν, Pl. Sph. 224b, Plt. 289e; λόγον ἐκ λόγου λέγειν D. 18.313; πόρους ἐκ πόρων ὑπισχνούμενοι Alciphr. 1.8; ἀπαλλάττειν τινὰ ἐκ γόων S. El. 291; ἐκ κακῶν πεφευγέναι Id. Ant. 437: hence, instead of, τυφλὸς ἐκ δεδορκότος Id. OT 454; λευκὴν..ἐκ μελαίνης ἀμφιβάλλομαι τρίχα Id. Ant. 1093; ἐλεύθερος ἐκ δούλου καὶ πλούσιος ἐκ πτωχοῦ γεγονώς D. 18.131, cf. X. An. 7.7.28, etc.
4. to express separation or distinction from a number, ἐκ πολέων πίσυρες four out of many, Il. 15.680; μοῦνος ἐξ ἁπάντων σωθῆναι Hdt. 5.87; εἶναι ἐκ τῶν δυναμένων to be one of the wealthy, Pl. Grg. 525e; ἐμοὶ ἐκ πασέων Ζεὺς ἄλγε' ἔδωκεν to me out of (i.e. above) all, Il. 18.431, cf. 432; ἐκ πάντων μάλιστα 4.96, cf. S. Ant. 1137 (lyr.), etc.; redundant, εἷς τῶν ἐκ τῶν φίλων σου LXX Jd. 15.2.
5. of Position, outside of, beyond, chiefly in early writers, ἐκ βελέων out of shot, Il. 14.130, etc.; ἐκ καπνοῦ out of the smoke, Od. 19.7; ἐκ πατρίδος banished from one's country, 15.272; ἐκ μεσου κατῆστο sate down apart from the company, Hdt. 3.83; ἐξ ἠθέων τὸν ἥλιον ἀνατεῖλαι out of its accustomed quarters, Id. 2.142; ἐξ ὀφθαλμῶν out of sight, Id. 5.24; ἐξ ὁδοῦ out of the road, S. OC 113.
6. with Verbs of Rest, where previous motion is implied, on, in, δαῖέ οἱ ἐκ κόρυθος..πῦρ lighted a fire from (i.e. on) his helmet, Il. 5.4; ἐκ ποταμοῦ χρόα ϝίζετο washed his body in the river (with water from the river), Od. 6.224: freq. with Verbs signifying hang or fasten, σειρήν..ἐξ οὐρανόθεν κρεμάσαντες having hung a chain from heaven, Il. 8.19; ἐκ πασσαλόφι κρέμασεν φόρμιγγα he hung his lyre from (i.e. on) the peg, Od. 8.67; ἀνάπτεσθαι ἔκ τινος fasten from i.e. upon) a thing, 12.51; μαχαίρας εἶχον ἐξ ἀργυρέων τελαμώνων Il. 18.598; πρισθεὶς ἐξ ἀντύγων gripped to the chariot-rail, S. Aj. 1030, etc.; ἐκ τοῦ βραχίονος ἵππον ἐπέλκουσα leading it [by a rein] upon her arm, Hdt. 5.12: with Verbs signifying hold, lead, ἐξ ἐκείνων ἔχειν τὰς ἐλπίδας to have their hopes dependent upon them, Th. 1.84; ἐκ χειρὸς ἄγειν lead by the hand, Bion Fr. 7.2; ἐκ ποδὸς ἕπεσθαι ib. 6.2; ἐκ τῆς οὐρᾶς λαμβάνεσθαι Luc. Asin. 23: with the Art. indicating the place of origin, οἱ ἐκ τῶν νήσων κακοῦργοι the robbers of the islands, Th. 1.8, cf. 2.5, 13; τοὺς ἐκ τῆς ναυμαχίας those in the sea-fight, Pl. Ap. 32b; τοὺς ἐκ τῶν σκηνῶν those in the tents, D. 18.169; ἁρπασόμενοι τὰ ἐκ τῶν οἰκιῶν X. Cyr. 7.2.5; οἱ ἐκ τοῦ πεδίου ἔθεον Id. An. 4.6.25: even with Verbs of sitting or standing, εἰσεῖδε στᾶσ' ἐξ Οὐλύμποιο from Olympus where she stood, Il. 14.154; καθῆσθαι ἐκ πάγων to sit on the heights and look from them, S. Ant. 411; στὰς ἐξ ἐπάλξεων ἄκρων E. Ph. 1009; ἐκ βυθοῦ at the bottom, Theoc. 22.40: phrases, ἐκ δεξιᾶς, ἐξ ἀριστερᾶς, on the right, left, X. Cyr. 8.3.10, etc.; οἱ ἐξ ἐναντίας, οἱ ἐκ πλαγίοὐ ib. 7.1.20; ἐκ θαλάσσης, opp. ἐκ τῆς μεσογείας, D. 18.301.
7. νικᾶν ἔκ τινος win a victory over.., Revelation 15:2.
II OF TIME,
1. elliptic with Pron. relat. and demonstr., ἐξ οὗ [ χρόνου ] since, Il. 1.6, Od. 2.27, etc.; in apod., ἐκ τοῦ from that time, Il. 8.296; ἐκ τούτου X. An. 5.8.15, etc. (but ἐκ τοῖο there after, Il. 1.493, and ἐκ τούτων or ἐκ τῶνδε usu. after this, X. Mem. 2.9.4, S. OT 235); ἐξ ἐκείνου Th. 2.15; ἐκ πολλοῦ (sc. χρόνου) for a long time, Id. 1.68, etc.; ἐκ πλέονος χρόνου Id. 8.45; ἐκ πλείστου ib. 68; ἐξ ὀλίγου at short notice, Id. 2.11 (but also a short time since, Plu. Caes. 28); ἐκ παλαιοῦ X. Mem. 3.5.8; ἐκ παλαιτάτου Th. 1.18.
2. of particular points of time, ἐκ νεότητος..ἐς γῆρας Il. 14.86; ἐκ γενετῆς 24.535; ἐκ νέου, ἐκ παιδός, from boyhood, Pl. Grg. 510d, R. 374c, etc.; ἐκ μικροῦ παιδαρίου D. 53.19; ἐξ ἀρχῆς A. Eu. 284, etc.; καύματος ἔξ after hot weather, Il. 5.865; νέφος ἔρχεται οὐρανὸν εἴσω αἰθέρος ἐκ δίης after clear weather, 16.365; ἐκ δὲ αἰθρίης καὶ νηνεμίης συνδραμεῖν ἐξαπίνης νέφεα Hdt. 1.87; so (like ἀπό II) ἐκ τῆς θυσίης γενέσθαι to have just finished sacrifice, ib. 50, etc.; ἐκ τοῦ ἀρίστου after breakfast, X. An. 4.6.21; ἐξ εἰρήνης πολεμεῖν to go to war after peace, Th. 1.120; γελάσαι ἐκ τῶν ἔμπροσθεν δακρύων X. Cyr. 1.4.28; κάλλιστον ἦμαρ εἰσιδεῖν ἐκ χείματος A. Ag. 900; τὴν θάλασσαν ἐκ Διονυσίων πλόϊμον εἶναι Thphr. Char. 3.3; ἐκ χειμῶνος at the end of winter, Plu. Nic. 20.
3. at, in, ἐκ νυκτῶν Od. 12.286; ἐκ νυκτός X. Cyr. 1.4.2, etc.; ἐξ ἡμέρας S. El. 780; ἐκ μέσω ἄματος Theoc. 10.5; ἐκ τοῦ λοιποῦ or ἐκ τῶν λοιπῶν for the future, X. Smp. 4.56, Pl. Lg. 709e.
III OF ORIGIN,
1 of Material, out of or of which things are made, γίγνεταί τι ἔκ τινος Parm. 8.12; ποιέεσθαι ἐκ ξύλων τὰ πλοῖα Hdt. 1.194; πίνοντας ἐκ κριθῶν μέθυ A. Supp. 953; εἶναι ἐξ ἀδάμαντος Pl. R. 616c; ἐκ λευκῶ ἐλέφαντος αἰετοί Theoc. 15.123; στράτευμα ἀλκιμώτατον ἂν γένοιτο ἐκ παιδικῶν X. Smp. 8.32; συνετάττετο ἐκ τῶν ἔτι προσιόντων formed line of battle from the troops as they marched up, Id. An. 1.8.14.
2. of Parentage, ἔκ τινος εἶναι, γενέσθαι, etc., Il. 20.106, 6.206, etc.; ἐκ γὰρ ἐμεῦ γένος ἐσσί (where γένος is acc. abs.) 5.896; σῆς ἐξ αἵματός εἰσι γενέθλης 19.111; ὦ παῖ πατρὸς ἐξ Ἀχιλλέως S. Ph. 260; πίρωμις ἐκ πιρώμιος Hdt. 2.143; ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθῶν Pl. Phdr. 246a; τὸν ἐξ ἐμῆς μητρός S. Ant. 466, etc.
3. of Place of Origin or Birth, ἐκ Σιδῶνος..εὔχομαι εἶναι Od. 15.425, cf. Th. 1.25, etc.; ἐκ τῶν ἄνω εἰμί John 8:23; ἡ ἐξ Ἀρείου πάγου βουλή the Areopagus, Arist. Ath. 4.4, etc.; οἱ ἐκ τῆς διατριβῆς ταύτης Aeschin. 1.54; οἱ ἐκ τοῦ Περιπάτου the Peripatetics, Luc. Pisc. 43; ὁ ἐξ Ἀκαδημείας the Academic, Ath. 1.34b; οἱ ἐκ πίστεως Galatians 3:7; οἱ ἐξ ἐριθείας Romans 2:8.
4. of the Author or Occasion of a thing, ὄναρ, τιμὴ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν, Il. 1.63, 2.197, cf. Od. 1.33, A. Pers. 707, etc.; θάνατος ἐκ μνηστήρων death by the hand of the suitors, Od. 16.447; τὰ ἐξ Ἑλλήνων τείχεα walls built by them, Hdt. 2.148; κίνημα ἐξ αὑτοῦ spontaneous motion, Plot. 6.1.21; ὕμνος ἐξ Ἐρινύων A. Eu. 331 (lyr.); ἡ ἐξ ἐμοῦ δυσβουλία S. Ant. 95; ὁ ἐξ ἐμοῦ πόθος Id. Tr. 631.
5. with the agent after Pass. Verbs, by, Poet. and early Prose, ἐφίληθεν ἐκ Διός they were beloved of (i.e. by) Zeus, Il. 2.669; κήδε' ἐφῆπται ἐκ Διός ib. 70; προδεδόσθαι ἐκ Πρηξάσπεος Hdt. 3.62; τὰ λεχθέντα ἐξ Ἀλεξάνδρου Id. 7.175, cf. S. El. 124 (lyr.), Ant. 93, Th. 3.69, Pl. Ti. 47b; ἐξ ἁπάντων ἀμφισβητήσεται Id. Tht. 171b; ὁμολογουμένους ἐκ πάντων X. An. 2.6.1; τὰς ἐκ θεῶν τύχας δοθείσας S. Ph. 1316, cf. Pl. Ly. 204c: with neut. Verbs, ἐκ..πατρὸς κακὰ πείσομαι Od. 2.134, cf. A. Pr. 759; τλῆναί τι ἔκ τινος Il. 5.384; θνήσκειν ἔκ τινος S. El. 579, OT 854, etc.; τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων Hdt. 1.1.
6. of Cause, Instrument, or Means by which a thing is done, ἐκ πατέρων φιλότητος in consequence of our fathers' friendship, Od. 15.197; μήνιος ἐξ ὀλοῆς 3.135; ἐξ ἔριδος Il. 7.111; τελευτῆσαι ἐκ τοῦ τρώματος Hdt. 3.29; ἐκ τίνος λόγου; E. Andr. 548; ἐκ τοῦ; wherefore? Id. Hel. 93; λέξον ἐκ τίνος ἐπλήγης X. An. 5.8.4; ποιεῖτε ὑμῖν φίλους ἐκ τοῦ Μαμωνᾶ τῆς ἀδικίας make yourselves friends of (i.e. by means of).., Luke 16:9; ζῆν ἔκ τινος X. HG 3.2.11 codd.; ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων τρέφειν ἐμαυτόν Isoc. 15.152; ἐκ τόξων ἀνύσαι γαστρὶ φορβάν S. Ph. 710 (lyr.).
7. in accordance with, ἐκ τῶν λογίων Hdt. 1.64; ὁ ἐκ τῶν νόμων χρόνος D. 24.28; ἐκ κελεύματος A. Pers. 397, cf. Sophr. 25; ἐκ τῶν ξυγκειμένων Th. 5.25; ἐκ τῶν παρόντων ib. 40, etc.; ἐκ τῶν ἔργων κρινόμενοι X. Cyr. 2.2.21, cf. A. Pr. 485.
8. freq. as periphr. for Adv., ἐκ προνοίας IG 12.115.11; ἐκ βίας by force, S. Ph. 563; ἐκ δόλου Id. El. 279; ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου ζητεῖν Pl. R. 499a: esp. with neut. Adjs., ἐξ ἀγχιμόλοιο, = ἀγχίμολον, Il. 24.352; ἐκ τοῦ ἐμφανέος Hdt. 3.150; ἐκ τοῦ φανεροῦ, ἐκ τοῦ προφανοῦς, Th. 4.106, 6.73; ἐκ προδήλου S. El. 1429; ἐξ ἴσου, ἐκ τοῦ ἴσου, Id. Tr. 485, Th. 2.3; ἐξ ἀέλπτου Hdt. 1.111, etc.: with fem. Adj., ἐκ τῆς ἰθέης Id. 3.127; ἐκ νέης Id. 5.116; ἐξ ὑστέρης Id. 6.85; ἐκ τῆς ἀντίης Id. 8.6; ἐκ καινῆς Th. 3.92; ἐξ ἑκουσίας S. Tr. 727; ἐκ ταχείας ib. 395.
9. of Number or Measurement, with numerals, ἐκ τρίτων in the third place, E. Or. 1178, Pl. Grg. 500a, Smp. 213b; distributively, apiece, Ath. 15.671b. of Price, ἐξ ὀκτὼ ὀβολῶν SIG 2587.206; ἐκ τριῶν δραχμῶν ib.283; συμφωνήσας ἐκ δηναρίου Matthew 20:2. of Weight, ἐπιπέμματα ἐξ ἡμιχοινικίου Inscr.Prien. 362 (iv B.C.). of Space, θινώδης ὢν ὁ τόπος ἐξ εἴκοσι σταδίων by the space of twenty stades, Str. 8.3.19. ἐκ is freq. separated from its CASE, Il. 11.109, etc. — It takes an accent in anastrophe, 14.472, Od. 17.518. — use it with Advbs. in -θεν, ἐξ οὐρανόθεν, ἐξ ἁλόθεν, ἐξ Αἰσύμηθεν, Il. 17.548, 21.335, 8.304; ἐκ Διόθεν Hes. Op. 765; ἐκ πρῴρηθεν Theoc. 22.11. — It is combined with other Preps. to make the sense more definite, as διέκ, παρέκ, ὑπέκ.
IN COMPO S.
1. the sense of removal prevails; out, away, off.
2. to express completion, like our utterly, ἐκπέρθω, ἐξαλαπάζω, ἐκβαρβαρόω, ἐκδιδάσκω, ἐκδιψάω, ἐκδωριεύομαι, ἐξοπλίζω, ἐξομματόω, ἔκλευκος, ἔκπικρος.
As ADVERB, therefrom, Il. 18.480.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, before a vowel , a preposition governing the genitive. Also, it denotes exit or emission out of, as separation from, something with which there has been close connection; opposed to the prepositions into and in: from out of, out from, forth from, from,
(Latin e, ex
) (cf. Winer
s Grammar, 364,366f (343 f); Buttmann
, 326f (281)). It is used
I. of place, and
1. universally, of the place from which; from a surrounding or enclosing place, from the interior of: , , , John 6:31; Acts 9:3 (here R G ); Galatians 1:8; , , Luke 1:78; Luke 24:49; especially after verbs of going, fleeing, leading, calling, freeing, removing, releasing, etc.: , John 4:47; out of the body of one (spoken of demons), Mark 1:25; Mark 5:8 (here L marginal reading ); Mark 7:29>; of power emanating from the body, Mark 5:30 (cf. Buttmann, 301 (258); Winer's Grammar, 346 (324); Meyer edition Weiss at the passage); , Matthew 8:28; Matthew 27:53; , Matthew 15:11,18f; , Matthew 28:2; John 1:32; John 3:13; John 6:33; , Acts 12:17; , Acts 27:30; , Matthew 2:15; metaphorically, , 1 Peter 2:9; , Matthew 7:(4 ( R G )), 5; Luke 6:42 (opposed to ); , Matthew 12:35 (but see under II:9 below); Matthew 13:52>; , out of the body of one, Mark 7:26; ( L Tr text ; cf. Winer's Grammar, 364 (342) note) , Mark 16:3; , John 20:1 f; , Revelation 6:14; , Jude 1:5; , Acts 28:4. Metaph, , out of the power of one (cf. Buttmann, 182 (158)): after , John 10:39; after , Acts 24:7 ( Rec.); after , John 10:28f; after , Acts 12:11; after , Luke 1:74; after , Luke 1:71. after , of the thing out of which one drinks (differently in II:9 below): , Matthew 26:27; Mark 14:23; 1 Corinthians 11:28; , 1 Corinthians 10:4; , John 4:12; after , of the place whence the food is derived, , 1 Corinthians 9:13 (but T Tr WH read .). of the place forth from which one does something: , Luke 5:3 (here Tdf. etc.). It is joined also to nouns designating not a place, but what is done in a place: , John 13:4; , Luke 12:36.
2. from the midst (of a group, number, company, community) of many;
a. after verbs of going, leading, choosing, removing, etc.
a. before collective nouns, as , Acts 3:23; or , Acts 19:33; , John 15:19. , Matthew 13:49; , Acts 17:33; , Acts 23:10; , 1 Corinthians 5:13; , Revelation 5:9; , Matthew 13:47. . before plurals: , Acts 3:22; , Acts 17:31; , Acts 10:41; Acts 17:3; , John 12:1,9, 17; Acts 3:15; Acts 4:10; Acts 13:30; Hebrews 11:19, etc.; , Luke 20:35; 1 Peter 1:3; , Romans 10:7; , Acts 1:24; Acts 15:22; , Romans 9:24; etc. John 3:25 (but cf. II:1b.; Winer s Grammar, 368 (345)).
b. before words signifying quantity: after , as Matthew 10:29; Matthew 26:21; Luke 17:15, and often; , John 11:19,45, etc.; (), 1 Corinthians 15:6; , John 7:19; John 16:5, and elsewhere; , Revelation 7:4; after the indefinite , Luke 11:15; Luke 12:13; John 6:64; John 7:48; , Luke 11:27; with to be added mentally (cf. Winer s Grammar, 203 (191); Buttmann, 158 (138)): John 9:40 ((?) better, John 7:40>); John 16:17>; Revelation 11:9, (1Esdr. 5:45 (44)); : Matthew 23:34; Luke 11:49; Luke 21:16; 2 John 1:4; Revelation 2:10; cf. Fritzsche, Conjectanea in N. T., p. 36 note; after the intertog. , who? Matthew 6:27; Luke 11:5, etc.; , Luke 11:11 ( L T Tr WH); preceded by a generic noun: etc. John 3:1.
c. , to be of the number, company, fellowship, etc., of; see , V:3a.
3. from a local surfacc, as sometimes the Latin ex for de; down from: ( Homer II:13,17; Xenophon, an. 7,4, 12; the Sept. Exodus 19:14; Exodus 32:1; Deuteronomy 9:15; Deuteronomy 10:5; Joshua 2:23), Matthew 17:9 (for the more common of Rec. and the parallel passage Mark 9:9 (here L WH text Tr marginal reading ); Luke 9:37; (cf. Matthew 8:1)); (unless we prefer to regard as prompted here by the conception of the hair as fixed in the skin), Luke 21:18; Acts 27:34 (here L T Tr WH ; cf. Winer's Grammar, 364 (342) note); , of the chains with which the hands had been bound, Acts 12:7; , Acts 28:4, ( 1 Maccabees 1:61; 2 Maccabees 6:10; so the Greeks from Homer down); , the things laid upon the altar, Hebrews 13:10. Akin to this is , from an abode with God (for the more usual ), John 8:42.
4. of the direction whence; , Latin a dextra, literally, from i. e. (German zu) on the right, see ; so , , namely, (or which is sometimes expressed; Winer s Grammar, 592cf. 591; Buttmann, 82 (72)) (also in Greek writ, as Xenophon, Cyril 8,5, 15); , over against, Mark 15:39 ( Herodotus 8,6; Sirach 37:9; 1 Maccabees 4:34; Wisdom of Solomon 4:20); metaphorically ( Winer's Grammar, § 51,1d.) ( A. V. he that is of the contrary part), our opponent, adversary," Titus 2:8; , from the roots, i. e. utterly, Mark 11:20 ( Job 28:9; Job 31:12).
5. of the conditon or state out of which one comes or is brought: Hebrews 5:7; James 5:20; (Lachmann ) , Revelation 7:14; , John 5:24; 1 John 3:14; , Romans 13:11 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 366 (344) note); , alive from being dead (i. e. who had been dead and were alive again), Romans 6:13; , i. e. of those that had been , Romans 11:15 ( , Demosthenes, p. 270 at the end , Xenophon, an. 7,7, 28; dedorkotos, Sophocles O. T. 454; , Palaeph. 3,2; add, Lysias, adv. Ergocl. at the beginning; Tacitus, ann. 1,74 ex pauperibus divites, ex contemtis metuendi). Also of the state out of the midst of which one does something: , 2 Corinthians 2:4.
6. of any kind of separation or dissolution of connection with a thing or person (cf. Buttmann, 157 (138)): (released from) , Revelation 14:13; (set free from) , 2 Timothy 2:26; etc. Revelation 2:21; Revelation 9:20; Revelation 16:11; ( L T Tr WH ) (( L ), by severing their connection with) , 2 Peter 2:21; etc. to keep one at a distance from etc. (cf. Buttmann, 327 (281)), John 17:15; Revelation 3:10; also , Acts 15:29 , by conquest to free oneself from the power of one (cf. Buttmann, 147 (128); Winer's Grammar, 367 (344)), Revelation 15:2; , to be so lifted up as to dissolve present relations to the earth (`taken out of the sphere of earthly action' Westcott), John 12:32; (elsewhere always ), 1 Corinthians 9:19.
7. Hebraistically: (מִיָּד דָּם נִקַּם, 2 Kings 9:7), to avenge the blood (murder) of one at the hand of (on) the slayer, Revelation 19:2 ( Buttmann, 182 (158)); , to judge one's judgment on one, vindicate by vengeance on (cf. Buttmann, as above), Revelation 18:20 (cf. the Sept. Psalm 118:84<10> (Psalm 119:84>).
II. of the origin, source, cause;
1. of generation, birth, race, lineage, nativity;
a. after verbs of begetting, being born, etc.: , Matthew 1:18, cf. Matthew 1:20; , Romans 9:10; with the genitive of the woman, Matthew 1:3,5f, 16; to be born of a woman, Galatians 4:4 cf. Galatians 4:22 f; , , John 1:13; , John 3:6; , John 8:41; , Matthew 3:9; Luke 3:8; () , Acts 2:30 ( Psalm 131:11<10> (Psalm 132:11>)); , Romans 2:27. In a supernatural sense: SC. , from the divine nature (cf. Winer's Grammar, 193 (182)), 1 Corinthians 2:12 cf. Revelation 2:11; men are said , John 3:5f, 8; (see 2d.), and to the same purport , 1 John 4:4,6; 1 John 5:19 (see , V:3d. (and cf. 7 below)). 10>
b. , , , etc., with the name of the city, race, people, tribe, family, etc., to spring or originate from, come from: , John 1:46 (47); , John 1:44 (45); , namely, (?), Romans 9:5; , Luke 1:27; Luke 2:4; , Philippians 3:5; Acts 4:6; , Philippians 3:5; , Luke 2:36; Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; , Hebrews 7:14; , John 7:42; Romans 1:3; Romans 11:1; without a verb: , sinners of Gentile birth, Galatians 2:15; of the country to which anyone belongs: , Luke 23:7; , Acts 23:34; , John 3:31.
2. of any other kind of origin: , Revelation 15:8; , comes from the Jews, John 4:22; , to proceed from anyone as the author, Matthew 5:37; John 7:17,22; Romans 2:29; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 1 John 2:16,21, etc.; with to be mentally supplied: Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 8:6 (see , B. II:3c. a.) 1 Corinthians 11:12; 2 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 5:18; Galatians 5:8; , works of which my father is the author, i. e. which I, endued with my father's power, have wrought, John 10:32; , whose author is God, 2 Corinthians 5:1; , 1 Corinthians 7:7; , John 6:65; add, John 18:3; 1 Corinthians 7:7. , that comes from God, i. e. is adjudged by him, Philippians 3:9; ( WH text , love preceding from you and taking up its abode in us, i. e. your love the influence of which we feel ( Winer s Grammar, 193 (181 f); Buttmann, 157 (137)), 2 Corinthians 8:7; , your zeal, 2 Corinthians 9:2 ( R G; cf. Winer s Grammar, as above note; Buttmann, as above); , calumny from, i. e. disseminated by, Revelation 2:9 (not Rec.); , see , V:3c.; with the suggested idea of a nature and disposition derived from one's origin: , is not of earthly origin nor of earthly nature, John 18:36; , is of an earthly nature, John 3:31; , to speak as an earthly origin prompts, ibid.; human virtues are said to be from God, as having their prototype in God and being wrought in the soul by his power, , 1 John 4:7.
3. of the material out of which a thing is made, etc.: , from one of his ribs, 1 Corinthians 11:12; , Matthew 27:29; John 19:2; add, John 2:15; John 9:6; Romans 9:21; 1 Corinthians 15:47; Revelation 18:12; Revelation 21:21.
4. Its use to note the price is related, because the money is as it were, changed into that which is bought (the simple genitive of price is more common, cf. Winer s Grammar, 206 (194); (Buttmann, § 132,13)): , Matthew 27:7 ( Baruch 6 (i. e., epistle of Jeremiah); Matthew 27:24); , Acts 1:18 ( , Palaeph. 46,3 f); (because the agreement comes from the promised denary (cf. Winer s Grammar, 368 (345); Buttmann, as above)), Matthew 20:2. Cognate to this is the phrase Luke 16:9.
5. especially after neuter and passive verbs, is used of the cause (whether thing or person) by which the act expressed by the accompanying verb is aided, sustained, effected: , Matthew 15:5; Mark 7:11; , 2 Corinthians 7:9; , 2 Corinthians 2:2; especially in the Apocalypse: , Revelation 2:11; , Revelation 8:11; (), Revelation 9:18; , Revelation 18:1; ( L T WH ), Revelation 9:2; , Revelation 3:18; Revelation 15:8 (cf. Isaiah 6:4); John 6:13; , Matthew 23:25 (where L omits; Tr brackets ); , John 12:3 ( Treg. margin ); , Revelation 19:21; , Revelation 18:3,19; , Revelation 17:2,6 (not Treg. margin); , Romans 1:17; 1 Corinthians 9:14; Galatians 3:11; , Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 2:19; , James 2:22; , John 4:6 ( Aelian v. h. 3,23 ). Also after active verbs: , John 6:13; Revelation 8:5; , Revelation 14:8; (on with the genitive after verbs of fullness, cf. Buttmann, 163 (142 f); Winer's Grammar, 201 (189)).
6. of that on which a thing depends, or from which it results: , does not depend upon possessions, i. e. possessions cannot secure life, Luke 12:15; , Acts 19:25; , as far as depends on you, Romans 12:18; in the Pauline phrases , , , , see (the several words, especially), p. 150; 10>
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
It is unnecessary to illustrate at length the commoner uses of this preposition, but for the sense ";out of"; a place see P Par 26.29 (B.C. 163–2) (= Selections, p. 16) τοῦ δὲ τοῦ Ψινταέους υἱοῦ ἐκ τῆς Μέμφεως χωρισθέντος, ";but no sooner had the son of Psintaes departed from Memphis,"; followed a few lines further down by.32 f. ἄλλοι τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Σαραπιείου καὶ ἕτεροι τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Ἀσκληπιείου, where the meaning is somewhat weakened, ";connected with,"; ";belonging to"; the Serapeum and Asclepieum respectively. With this last usage cf. P Tebt I. 40.11 (B.C. 117) (= Sections, p. 28) αὐτὸς προθυμούμενος εἶναι ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας, ";being myself eager to be a member of your house,"; ib. 59.5 (B.C. 99) Σοκονώφεως καὶ Ὤιπεως τῶν ἐξ ὑμῶν, ";Sokonophis and Opis, members of your body"; (Edd.). For ἐκ used instead of the more common ἀπό to denote the inhabitants of a village or community cf. P Tebt I. 40.19 (B.C. 117) (= Selections, p. 28) ἐπαναγκάσαι τοὺς ἐκ τῆς κώμης κατακολουθεῖν τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐθισμοῖς, ";to compel the inhabitants of the village to follow the ancient customs"; : see also ib. 26.15 (B.C. 114) τοὺς ἐκ τῆς κώμης [β ]ασιλικοὺς γεωργούς, ib. 56.2 (late ii/B.C.) Πετεσοῦχος. . γ ̣[εωρ ]γ ̣ὸ ̣ς ̣ τῶν ἐκ Κερκεσήφεως.
Other miscellaneous exx. of a somewhat similar use of the preposition are—P Vat A.7 (B.C. 168) (= Witkowski.2, p. 65) διασεσῶσθαι ἐγ μεγάλων κινδύνων (cf. Acts 28:4, Hebrews 5:7), P Lond 42.14 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, P. 10) ἐκ τοῦ το [ιού ]του καιροῦ ἐμαυτὴ [ν ] . . . διακεκυβερνηκυῖα, ";having piloted myself out of such a crisis,"; ib..27 ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπολελύσθαι σε ἐκ τῆς κατοχῆς, ";concerning your having been released from your retreat,"; P Tebt I. 5.77 (B.C. 118) τὰ εἰς τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ Ἄπιος. . ζ ̣ητεῖν ἐκ τοῦ βα (σιλικοῦ), and BGU III. 975.11, .15 (A.D. 45) (= Selections, p. 42 f.) οὐλὴ καστροκνημίῳ κξ ἀριστερο (ν) (l. γαστροκνημίῳ ἐξ ἀριστερῶ (ν)) . . . οὐλὴ κασ [τ ]ροκ [νη ]μιο ἐκ δεξιο (ν), ";a scar on the calf of the leg on the left side"; and ";a scar on the calf of the leg on the right side";; cf. a sinistra, a dextra.
The thought of origin comes out very clearly in the early marriage-contract P Eleph 1.9 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 3) where it is laid down—μὴ ἐξέστω δὲ Ἡρακλείδηι. . . τεκνοποιεῖσθαι ἐξ ἄλλης γυναικός : cf. also the notice of birth P Fay 28.9 (A.D. 150–1) (= Selections, p. 82) ἀπογραφόμεθα τὸν γεννηθέντα ἡμεῖν ἐξ ἀλλήλων υἱὸν Ἰσχυρᾶ [ν, and such passages as BGU II. 447.7 (A.D. 173–4) τὴν ἐξ ἀμφοτ (έρων) ἡμῶν θυγατέρα Οὐεττί [αν, P Gen I. 10.1 (A.D. 323) Δίδυμος οὐετρανὸς ἐκ πατρὸς Ἰσχυρίωνος, Michel 1001 iii. 32 (c. B.C. 200) τὰ ἐκ ταυτᾶν τέκνα, and OGIS 90.10 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) where Ptolemy Epiphanes is described as ὑπάρχων θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ θεᾶς : cf. Philippians 3:5 and the language of the Nicene Creed, of which the oldest copy, belonging to vi/A.D., has been published in P Ryl I. 6. See also the Christian amulet BGU III. 954.28 (vi/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 134) ὁ φῶς ἐκ φωτός, θ (εὸ)ς ἀληθινὸς χάρισον ἐμὲ τὸν δοῦλόν σου τὸ φῶς.
Origin leads easily to cause, as in P Oxy VII. 1020.5 (A.D. 198–201) τὴν ἐκ τῆς ἡλικίας. . β ̣[οήθιαν, ";the assistance due to immature age"; (Ed.); cf. P Grenf II. 76.3 (A.D. 305–6) where a wedded couple agree to a formal divorce, having separated ἐκ τινὸς πονηροῦ δαίμονος, ";owing to some evil deity";. The phrase ἐκ τούτου, as in John 6:66; John 19:12, is naturally common, e.g. BGU II. 423.17 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 91) ἐκ τούτου ἐλπίζω ταχὺ προκόσαι (l. προκόψαι) τῶν θε [ῶ ]ν θελόντων, ";on this account (viz. my having been brought up well) I hope to be quickly promoted, if the gods will"; : cf. OGIS 139.10 (ii/B.C.) ἐκ τοῦ τοιούτου συμβαίνει ἐλαττοῦσθαι τὸ ἱερόν. See also such passages as P Tebt I. 23.8 (c. B.C. 119 or 114) οὐκ ὀρθῶς κρίνομεν πέπρακταί σοι μὴ ἐκ τῆς ἡμῶν προεδρίας πεφροντικέναι ἀπροσδέητον ἑτέρων γενέσθαι, ";I consider that you have acted badly in not having been careful that he should be independent of others owing to my superior rank"; (Edd.), ib. 24.39 (B.C. 117) ἔκ τε τῆς πλείστης προσεδρείας, ";on account of the prolonged attendance"; (Edd.), and P Fay 12.15 (c. B.C. 103) ἐκ κοινολογ [ί ]α [ς ] τ [ῆ ]ς συνσταθείσης πρὸς αὐτούς, ";as the result of the colloquy which took place between us"; (Edd.).
From this it is an easy transition to the meaning ";according to"; or ";in accordance with,"; as in the common legal phrase καθάπερ ἐγ δίκης, ";as if in accordance with a legal decision,"; i.e. ";as if a formal decree of the court had been obtained,"; as in P Eleph 1.12 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 3), P Ryl II. 154.35 (A.D. 66) : cf. P Petr III. 26.9 ἐκ κρίσεως, OGIS 48.12 (iii/B.C.) κολάζοντ ]ε [ς τοῖς ] ἐκ τῶν νόμων ἐπιτίμοις. So in the land-survey P Tebt I. 60.85 (B.C. 118) we hear of land let at a certain sum—ἐκ τῆς ἀξίας, ";in proportion to its value"; : cf. the similar document ib. 61 (b ).80 (B.C. 118) ἐξ ἐπισκέψεως, ";as the result of inspection."; In the interesting report of a lawsuit, which resembles so much the judgment of Solomon, the parentage of the child is decided—ἐκ τῆς ὄψεως, ";from its features"; (P Oxy I. 37ii. 3—A.D. 49 = Selections, p. 51) : cf. John 7:24 μὴ κρίνετε κατ᾽ ὄψιν. See also P Tebt II. 284.10 (i/B.C.) ἐ ̣ξ εὐτυχι ̣α ̣ς ̤ ";by good fortune,"; ib. 298.45 (A.D. 107–8) ἀπὸ τῶν ἐξ εὐ [σεβ (είας) δι ]δομέν [ω ]ν ̣ ἡ [μῖν ], ";from pious gifts to us"; (Edd.).
The preposition is used of material, as in Matthew 27:29, Revelation 18:12, in P Magd 42.5 (B.C. 221) περιτραχηλίδιον ἐκ καθορμίων λιθινῶν, ";a necklace made of strings of stones,"; P Oxy IV. 707.28 (c. A.D. 136) τροχὸν ἐκ καινῆς ἐξ ὀ [πτῆς ] πλίνθου, ";a new wheel of baked brick,"; and OGIS 194.28 (B.C. 42) where reference is made to a statue ἐκ σκληροῦ λίθου.
For measure see P Oxy I. 43iii. 27 (A.D. 295) ἔσχον παρὰ σοῦ κοφίνους δέκα δύο ἐκ λιτρῶν τεσσαράκοντα.
A certain instrumental force underlies the use of ἐκ in such a passage as P Oxy III. 486.28 (A.D. 131) ἐγὼ δὲ ἔκτοτε ἐκ τῆς τοῦ ἐπιστρατήγου ἐπιστολῆ [ς ] . . ἐνθάδε κατήντησα, ";I thereupon in consequence of the letter of the epistrategus presented myself here,"; and ib..32 τὰ ἐμὰ πάν [τα ] ἐκ τῆς ὑπερβαροῦς ἀνα [βάσ ]ε ̣ως τοῦ ἱερωτάτου Νίλου ἀπολωλένα [ι, ";that all my property has been lost through the excessive rise of the most sacred Nile"; (Edd.). See also Rossberg’s exx. (p. 25 f.) of the preposition with verbs of buying and selling, as P Tebt I. 5.80 (B.C. 118) τὰς ἠγορασμένας προφητείας. . εἰς τὰ ἱερὰ ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν προσόδων ̣ = ";with money from the temple revenues"; : cf. Luke 16:9.
For ἐκ to denote price, as in Matthew 20:2 (cf. the simple gen. in .13), Acts 1:18, we may cite P Oxy IV. 745.2 (c. A.D. 1) τ [ὸ ]ν ̣ δὲ οἶνον ἠγόρασας ἐκ (δραχμῶν) ἕξ, ";you bought the wine at six drachmae,"; P Fay 111.16 (A.D. 95–6) λέγουσι εἶναι τὼ λώτινον ἐν τῇ Διονυσιά [δι ] ἐγ (δραχμῶν) ι ̄η ̄, so ib. 119.5 (c. A.D. 100), ib. 131.5 (iii/iv A.D.) ποίησον αὐτὰς πραθῆναι ἐκ (δραχμῶν) ι ̄δ ̄, and BGU III. 916.19 (i/A.D.) τὸν φόρον ἀπὸ μὲν μην [ὸς ] Φαῶφι ἕω [ς μηνὸς Μεχεὶρ μηνῶν ] πέντε ἐγ δραχμῶν τριάκοντα. See also P Petr II. II (2).4 where Polycrates informs his father that he has just had his garden valued at 17½, instead of 30, drachmae, in order that he may pay the 5 per cent. tax (due to the State) on the smaller valuation—ἵνα ἐκ τοσούτου φέρωμεν τὴν εἰκοστήν, and P Lond 277.9 (A.D. 23) (= II. p. 217) the record of a loan on which interest is charged at the rate of a drachma per mina per month—το ̣κου ὡς ἐκ δραχμῆ (l. —ῆς) μιᾶς τῇ μνᾷ τὸν μῆνα ἕκαστον, and P Gen I. 42.28 (A.D. 224) ἐ ]πὶ τοῦ πάντες διδόντος (l. διδόναι) ἕκαστος ἐκ δραχμῶν εἴκοσι τοῖς [γ ]εναμένοις πραισβοίτεροι (l. πρεσβυτέροις), where the editor notes that ἐκ δραχμῶν is distributive.
Partitive ἐκ may be illustrated from P Tor I. 1iv. 20 (B.C. 117–6) μέρος ἐγ νόμου, and P Oxy I. 117.15 (ii/iii A.D.) ῥάκη δύο. . . ἐξ ὧν δώσεις τοῖς παιδίοις σου ἓν ἐξ αὐτῶν, ";two strips of cloth, one of which please give to your children"; (Edd.). Cf. also P Grenf II. 73.13 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 118) καὶ [τ ]αύτην παραδέδωκα τοῖς καλοῖς καὶ πιστοῖς ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν νεκροτάφων εἰς τήρησιν.
For the preposition in connexion with time, see PSI IV. 403.20 (iii/B.C.) παρέσομαι δὲ κἀγὼ εὐθὺς ἐξ ἑορτῆς, where the editor renders the last words ";subito finita che sia la festa.";
The preposition is common in adverbial phrases of time, as P Tebt I. 40.20 (B.C. 117) κατακολουθεῖν τοῖς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐθισμοῖς, ";to follow the ancient customs."; With 2 Peter 2:8 ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας (cf. LXX Psa. 96꞉2 [MT Psalms 97:2] cf. P Oxy I. 86.15 (A.D. 338) οὗτο ]ς δὲ μίαν ἐκ μιᾶς ὑπερτιθέμεν [ο ]ς, putting it off ";day after day."; For other adverbial phrases with ἐκ see P Grenf II. 36.12 (B.C. 95) οὐθὲν ἡμῖν κακὸν ἐποίησεν ἀλλ᾽ ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων ἐπιμεμέληται, where ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων equals ἐναντίον, ";contra,"; P Ryl II.233.6 (ii/A.D.) τὰ μέλαθρα τῶν θυρίδων. . ἐκ μέρους. . ἡρμολόγηται, ";the beams of the windows have been partly fixed"; (Edd.), cf. 1 Corinthians 12:27; 1 Corinthians 13:9, P Hib I. 73.14 (B.C. 243–2) ἐγ μέσου ἀ ̣[φήιρηκεν αὐτόν, ";has removed it (sc. a donkey) from my reach"; (Edd.), P Lond 1178.43 (A.D. 194) (= III. p. 217, Selections, p. 100) ἐν ]τάγιον πᾶν ἐκ πλήρους δηνάρια ἑκατόν, ";a fee amounting altogether to a hundred denarii,"; CPR I 11.14 (A.D. 108) καθὼς ἐκ συμφώνου (as in 1 Corinthians 7:5) ὑπηγόρευον, P Hib I. 54.3 (c. B.C. 245) ἀπό [σ ]τειλον ἡμῖν ἐκ παντὸς τρόπου τὸν αὐλητήν, ";make every effort to send me the flute-player,"; P Tebt I. 27.60 (B.C. 113) ὅπως καὶ τἆλ [λα γέν ]ηται κατὰ θερείαν ἐξ ὑγιοῦς, ";that all else is rightly done in the summer"; (Edd.), P Hib I. 52.10 (c. B.C. 245) ὅπως μηθὲν δι [ά ]πτωμα ἐξ ὑστέρου γίνη [ται, ";in order that there may be no subsequent loss"; (Edd.), and P Oxy IV. 707.27 (c. A.D. 136) ἐκ καινῆς (sc. ἀρχῆς).
In MGr ἐκ has been supplanted by ἀπό and ἔξω, though it lives an obscure life as a prefix in such words as βγαίνω, γδέρνω, ξεγράφω, ξέσκεπος.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (921)||NAS (61)||HCS (844)
|KJV (921)||NAS (61)||HCS (844)
List of Word Forms
εκ ἐκ εν εξ ἐξ παρὰ ek ex para parà
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