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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #1909 - ἐπί

Word Origin:
a root
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. upon, on, at, by, before
  2. of position, on, at, by, over, against
  3. to, over, on, at, across, against
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


δ' οὔατ' ἀλεῖψαι ἑταίρων Od. 12.47; ἐπ' οὔατα πᾶσιν ἄλειψα ib. 177; κηρὸν.. ὅν σφιν ἐπ' ὠσὶν ἄλειψ' ib. 200; ὁπόταν.. λεαίνῃ ἐπαλείφουσα τὰ τραχυνθέντα Pl. Ti. 66c; ἐ. χρόαν ἐτέραν ἐφ' ἑτέραν Arist. Sens. 440a9: prov., τοὺς τοίχους τοὺς δύο ἐ. 'run with the hare and hunt with the hounds', Paus. 6.3.15:

1. Pass., τὸ ἐπαλειφθέν Pl. Ly. 217c; ἐπαλήλιπται ὁ κύτταρος Arist. HA 555a6; χρυσὸς ἐπαληλιμμένος J. AJ 17.10.2.

2. metaph., from anointing athletes, prepare for contest, stir up, irritate, τινὰ ἐπί τινα Plb. 2.51.2; ἐ. τινάς τινι set them upon him, D.L. 2.38; μέθυσμα ἐ. θυμούς Ph. 1.680; so perh. in physical sense, irritate, Hp. Mul. 1.99, Epid. 5.20.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 ἐπί (before a rough breathing ἐφ' (occasionally in manuscripts ἐπ'; see e. g. Psalm 145:3 (Psalm 146:3>)), and also in some instances before a smooth breathing (as ἐφ' ἐλπίδι, Acts 2:26 L; Romans 8:20-21 Tdf.); see ἀφειδον. It neglects elision before proper names beginning with a vowel (except Αἴγυπτον Acts 7:10,18) and (at least in Tdf. s text) before some other words, see the Proleg., p. 94 f; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5,1a.; Buttmann, p. 10), a preposition (from the Sanskrit local prefix ἀρι; Curtius, § 335), joined to the genitive, the dative, and the accusative; its primary signification is upon (Latin super; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 374 (350) note)).

A. with the genitive (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 47, g.; Buttmann, 336 (289));

I. of place; and

1. of the place on which;

a. upon the surface of (Latin in or super with the abl., German auf with the dative); after verbs of a biding, remaining, standing, going, coming, etc.; of doing anything: ἐπί κλίνης, Matthew 9:2; Luke 17:34; ἐπί τοῦ δώματος, Matthew 24:17; Luke 17:31; ἐπ' ἐρημίας (cf. on a desert), Mark 8:4; ἐπί τῶν νεφελῶν, Matthew 24:30; Matthew 26:64; ἐπί (τῆς) γῆς, Matthew 6:10; Matthew 9:6; Matthew 23:9; Matthew 28:18; Luke 21:25; Acts 2:19, and very often; ἐπί τῆς θαλάσσης, on (the surface of) the sea, Matthew 14:25 R G; 26 L T Tr WH; Mark 6:48 (49); Revelation 5:13, and, according to the interpretations of many, John 6:19; but cf. Baumg.-Crusius at the passage (per contra, cf. Lücke at the passage; Meyer on Matthew , the passage cited) ( Job 9:8; βαδίζειν ἐφ' ὕδατος, Lcian. philops. 13; ἐπί τοῦ πελαγους διαθεοντες, v. h. 2,4; ( Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 3,16); on a different sense of the phrase ἐπί γῆς θαλάσσης see 2a. below ( Winer's Grammar, 374 (351))); ποιεῖν σημεῖα ἐπί τῶν ἀσθενούντων, to be seen upon the bodies of men, externally, ( on the sick (cf. Winer's Grammar, 375 (351))), John 6:2; ἐκάθισα and κάθημαι (καθέζομαι) ἐπί, Matthew 19:28; Matthew 23:2; Matthew 24:3; Matthew 25:31; Matthew 27:19; John 19:13; Acts 20:9; Revelation 9:17, etc.; ἔστην, ἕστηκα ἐπί, Luke 6:17; Acts 21:40; Revelation 10:5,8; where parts of the body are spoken of: ἐπί χειρῶν, Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:11; ἐπί τῆς κεφαλῆς, John 20:7; 1 Corinthians 11:10; Revelation 10:1 R G (others, accusative); Revelation 12:1>; σινδόνα ἐπί γυμνοῦ, Mark 14:51; ἐπί τοῦ μετώπου (or μετώπων), Revelation 7:3; Revelation 9:4; Revelation 13:16 ( Rec., others, accusative); Revelation 14:9.

b. Like the preposition ἐν (see the exposition under the word ἐν, I:7, p. 212{a}), so also ἐπί with the genitive is used after verbs expressing motion to indicate the rest following the motion; thus after βάλλειν, Mark 4:26; Matthew 26:12; σπείρειν, Mark 4:31; τιθέναι, John 19:19; Acts 5:15; ( Luke 8:16 L T Tr WH); ἐπιτιθεναι, Luke 8:16 ( R G); καθιεναι, Acts 10:11; πίπτειν, Mark 9:20; Mark 14:35; ἐπιγράφειν, Hebrews 10:16 R G; ἑλκύειν, John 21:11 R G; ἔρχεσθαι, Hebrews 6:7; Revelation 3:10; (anatellein], Luke 12:54 T Tr marginal reading WH); γενόμενος ἐπί τοῦ τόπου (cf. our having arrived on the spot), Luke 22:40 (cf. Winer's Grammar, p. 376 (352) and see below, C. I:1b. at the end). κρεμαν τινα ἐπί (Hebrew עַל תָּלָה, Genesis 40:19; Deuteronomy 21:22, etc.), for which the Latin has suspendere ex, de, a, and alicui, Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; Galatians 3:13.

c. figuratively used of that upon which anything rests (like our upon) (cf. Winer s Grammar, 375 (351); Buttmann, 336 (289); Ellicott on 1Timothy as below): ἵνα σταθῇ ἐπί στόματος etc. (עַל־פִּי יָקוּם, Deuteronomy 19:15), resting on the declaration, etc., Matthew 18:16; 2 Corinthians 13:1; more simply ἐπί μαρτύρων, 1 Timothy 5:19; in the adverb phrase ἐπ' ἀληθείας (on the ground of truth), see ἀλήθεια, I:1. (c. akin is its use (with a personal or a reflexive pronoun) to denote dependence, as in λογιζέσθω ἐφ' (others ἀφ' which see II:2d. aa.) ἑαυτοῦ, 2 Corinthians 10:7 T Tr WH ( for himself, i. e. apart from and independently of others; R. V. with himself); cf. Kühner, 2:432; Liddell and Scott, under the word A. I:1d.)

d. figuratively used of things, affairs, persons, which one is set over, over which he exercises power; Latin supra, our over (cf. below, B. 2b. and C. I:2e.): ἐπί πάντων, Romans 9:5; Ephesians 4:6 (where ἐπί, διά and ἐν are distinguished); καθίστημι τινα ἐπί τίνος, Matthew 24:45; Matthew 25:21,23; Luke 12:42; Acts 6:3 ( Genesis 39:4,5; 1 Maccabees 6:14 1 Maccabees 10:37, etc.; Plato, rep. 5, p. 460b., etc.); δίδωμι τίνι ἐξουσίαν ἐπί τίνος, Revelation 2:26; ἔχω ἐξουσίαν ἐπί τίνος, Revelation 20:6; βασιλεύειν ἐπί τίνος, Matthew 2:22 R G Tr brackets; Revelation 5:10; ἔχειν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ βασιλέα, Revelation 9:11; ἔχειν βασιλείαν ἐπί τῶν βασιλέων, Revelation 17:18; ὅς ἦν ἐπ' τῆς γάζης, who was over the treasury, Acts 8:27; ἐπί τοῦ κοιτῶνος, he who presided over the bedchamber, the chamberlain, Acts 12:20 ( Passow, i., 2, p. 1035a gives many examples from Greek authors (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word A. III:1; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 474; Sophocles Lexicon, under the word); for examples from the O. T. Apocrypha see Wahl, Clavis Apocr., p. 218a).

e. of that to which the mental act looks or refers: λέγειν ἐπί τίνος, to speak upon (of) a thing, Galatians 3:16 ( Plato, Charm., p. 155d.; legg. 2, p. 662d.; Aelian v. h. 1,30; scribere super re, Cicero, ad Att. 16,6; disserere super, Tacitus, ann. 6,28; cf. Winer s Grammar, 375 (351); (Buttmann, 336 (289))).

f. of one on whom an obligation has been laid: εὐχήν ἔχειν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ, have (taken) on themselves a vow, have bound themselves by a vow, Acts 21:23 ( WH text ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν (see ἀπό, II:2d. aa.)).

2. used of vicinity, i. e. of the place at, near, hard by, which (German bei, an);

a. properly, κόλπος ἐπί ποσιδηιου, Herodotus 7,115; ἐπί τῶν θυρῶν ( Acts 5:23 L T Tr WH) ( 1 Maccabees 1:55; ( Plutarch, G. Gracch. 14,3, p. 841c.)); cf. Matthiae, ii., p. 1366 § 584; Passow, under the word, p. 1034 b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, I:1a., at the end). But the examples of this signification adduced from the N. T. (with the exception of Acts , the passage cited) (and most of those from Greek authors also) are such as to allow the rendering of ἐπί by super also, over or above (so Winer's Grammar, 374 f (351)): ἐπί τῆς θαλάσσης at the sea, upon the shore, or above the sea, for the shore overhung the sea, John 6:19 (?(cf. 1a. above)); John 21:1> ( Exodus 14:2; Deuteronomy 1:40; 1 Maccabees 14:34 1 Maccabees 15:11; Polybius 1,44, 4; cf. the French Boulogne sur mer, Chalons sur Marne (English Stratford on Avon), etc.; ἐπί τοῦ ποταμοῦ Ezekiel 1:1; ( Xenophon, an. 4,3, 28); ἐπί τοῦ Ιορδάνου, 2 Kings 2:7); ἐσθίειν ἐπί τῆς τραπέζης τίνος (German über Jemands Tische essen (cf. English over one's food, over one's cups, etc.)), food and drink placed upon the table, Luke 22:30 cf. Luke 22:21; συκῆν ἐπί τῆς ὁδοῦ, a fig tree above (i. e. higher than) the way, Matthew 21:19.

b. before, with the genitive of a person, in the presence of one as spectator, or auditor ( Winer s Grammar, 375 (351); Buttmann, 336 (289)): Matthew 28:14 ( L Tr WH marginal reading ὑπό); Mark 13:9; Acts 24:19,20; Acts 25:9; Acts 26:2; 1 Corinthians 6:1,6; 2 Corinthians 7:14; 1 Timothy 6:13 (some bring this under II. below; see μαρτυρέω); ἐπί τοῦ βήματος Καίσαρος, Acts 25:10.

c. ἐπί τοῦ ( Rec. τῆς) βάτου at the bush, i. e. at the place in the sacred volume where the bush is spoken of, Mark 12:26 (see ἐν, I:1d.).

II. of Time when; with the genitive of a person in the time or age of a man ( in the days of); at the time when an office was held by one; under the administration of (cf. Winer s Grammar, 375 (352); Buttmann, 336 (289)): Mark 2:26; Luke 3:2; Luke 4:2; Acts 11:28; ( 1 Maccabees 13:42 1 Maccabees 14:27 (for other examples in which this phrase is equivalent to in or of the reign etc. of, and is preceded by a specification of the year etc., see B. D. American edition, p. 651note{b}); 2 Maccabees 8:19 2 Maccabees 15:22; for numerous examples from Greek writings see Passow, i., 2, p. 1035, floss fully in Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II.)). with the genitive of a tiring, at the time of any occurrence: ἐπί τῆς μετοικεσίας Βαβυλῶνος, at the time of the deportation to Babylon, Matthew 1:11; (on Luke 12:54 T Tr marginal reading WH see δυσμή); of the time when any occupation is (or was) carried on: ἐπί τῶν προσευχῶν μου, Latin in precibus meis, at my prayers, when I am praying, Romans 1:10 (9); Ephesians 1:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:2; Philemon 1:4. of time itself, ἐπ' ἐσχάτων and (according to another reading) ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν (literally, at the end of the days): 2 Peter 3:3; Hebrews 1:2 (1) (for the Hebrew הַיָמִים בְּאַחֲרִית, Genesis 49:1; Numbers 24:14; Jeremiah 37:24 (Jeremiah 30:24>); Micah 4:1; Daniel 10:14); ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τοῦ χρόνου, Jude 1:18 L T Tr WH; (τῶν χρόνων, 1 Peter 1:20 L T Tr WH).

B. with the dative, used of place ( Winer s Grammar, 392 f (366f); Buttmann, 336f (289f)); and

1. properly;

a. of the place where or in which (Latin in with the abl., German auf with the dative) (English on, etc.), where continuance, position, situation, etc., are spoken of: ἐφ' ( L text T Tr WH ὅπου) κατέκειτο, Mark 2:4; λίθος ἐπί λίθῳ (λίθον T Tr WH), Mark 13:2; ἐπί πίνακι, Matthew 14:8,11; Mark 6:25; ἐπί τοῦ κραββάτοις, Mark 6:55; ἀνακλῖναι πάντας ἐπί τῷ χόρτῳ, Mark 6:39; ἐπέκειτο ἐπ' αὐτῷ, lay upon it, John 11:38; ἐφ' ἵπποις, Revelation 19:14.

b. of the place in which (Latin in with the abl., German auf with the accusative), after verbs expressing motion toward a place, to denote a remaining in the place after the motion (English upon, at, etc.): βάλλειν λίθον ἐπιτινι, the dative of person, John 8:7 Rec.; οἰκοδομεῖν, Matthew 16:18; ἐποικοδόμειν, Ephesians 2:20; ἐπιβάλλειν, Matthew 9:16 ( Luke 5:36 ἐπιβάλλειν ἐπί τί); ἐπιρράπτειν, Mark 2:21 (where L T Tr WH have ἐπί with the accusative); ἐπιπίπτειν, Acts 8:16.

c. of the place above which (Latin super, German über (English over)): ἐπ' αὐτῷ, over his head, Luke 23:38 (for which Matthew 27:37 ἐπάνω τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ).

d. of the place at, or by, or near which: ἐπί θύραις and ἐπί τῇ θύρα, Matthew 24:33; Mark 13:29; Acts 5:9 (and often in Greek writings; cf. Passow, under the word, p. 1037a; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I:1a.; cf. A. I:2a. above)); ἐπί τῇ προβατικῇ, John 5:2; ἐπί τῷ ποταμῷ, Revelation 9:14; ἐπί τῇ στοά, Acts 3:11; ἐπ' ( L T Tr WH παῥ) αὐτοῖς ἐπιμεῖναι, Acts 28:14.

2. Metaphorically;

a. of that upon which any action, effect, condition, rests as a basis or support; properly, upon the ground of; and α. of that upon which anything is sustained or upheld: ζῆν ἐπί τίνι, to sustain life on (by) a thing, Matthew 4:4 (where L Tr, the second time, ἐν; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 389 (364) note)); Luke 4:4 ( Deuteronomy 8:3 for עַל חָיָה; Plato, Alcib. 1, p. 105c.; Plutarch, de cup. divit. 7, p. 526d.; Alciphron, epistles 3,7, etc.); συνιέναι ἐπί τοῖς ἄρτοις, to understand by reasoning built upon the loaves, Mark 6:52 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 392 (367); Buttmann, 337 (290)). β. of that upon which anything rests (our upon): ἐπ' ἐλπίδι (see in ἐλπίς, 2), supported by hope, in hope (cf; Winer's Grammar, § 51,2f.), Acts 2:26; Romans 4:18; 1 Corinthians 9:10 (differently in ε. below); to do anything ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι τίνος, relying upon the name i. e. the authority of anyone (cf. Winer's Grammar, 393 (367)): ἐλεύσονται ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι μου, appropriating to themselves the name of Messiah, which belongs to me, Matthew 24:5; Mark 13:6; Luke 21:8 (in which passage λέγοντες, ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμί Χριστός is added by way of explanation); βαπτίζεσθαι ἐπί ( L Tr WH ἐν) τῷ ὀνόματι Χριστοῦ, so as to repose your hope and confidence in his Messianic authority, Acts 2:38; δέχεσθαι τινα ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι μου, to receive one because he bears my name, is devoted to my authority and instruction, Matthew 18:5; Mark 9:37; Luke 9:48. to do anything upon the name of Christ, his name being introduced, appeal being made to his authority and command: as κηρύσσειν, διδάσκειν, etc., Luke 24:47; Acts 4:17,18; Acts 5:28,40; δύναμιν ποιεῖν, δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλειν, using his name as a formula of exorcism (cf. Winer's Grammar, 393 (367)), Mark 9:39; Luke 9:49 ( WH Tr marginal reading ἐν). γ. of that upon which as a foundation any superstructure is reared: νομοθετεῖσθαι, Hebrews 7:11 (ἐπ' αὐτῇ, for which L T Tr WH have ἐπ' αὐτῆς); Hebrews 8:6>; after verbs of trusting, believing, hoping, etc.: ἀρκεῖσθαι ἐπί τίνι, 3 John 1:10; παρρησιάζεσθαι, Acts 14:3; πεποιθέναι, Matthew 27:43 L text WH marginal reading; Luke 11:22; Luke 18:9; Mark 10:24 ( T WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause); 2 Corinthians 1:9; Hebrews 2:13; πιστεύειν, Luke 24:25; Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11, etc.; ἐλπίζειν (see ἐλπίζω) (cf. C. I:2g. α. below). δ. of the reason or motive underlying words and deeds, so that ἐπί is equivalent to for, on account of ( Winer s Grammar, 394 (368); Buttmann, 337 (290)): Matthew 19:9 R G T Tr WH text; Luke 5:5 (ἐπί τῷ ῤήματι σου, at thy word, German auf; (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 48, c. d.; in reliance on)); Acts 3:16 ( WH omit); Acts 4:9; 11:19> ( L Tr marginal reading have the genitive); Acts 21:24>; 1 Corinthians 8:11 (ἀπολλυσθαι ἐπί τίνι, German zu Grunde gehenüber etc. (cf. Winer s Grammar, 394 (368) note, but L T Tr WH read ἐν)); Philippians 3:9; after αἰνεῖν, Luke 2:20; δοξάζειν, Acts 4:21; 2 Corinthians 9:13 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); μαρτυρεῖν, Hebrews 11:4; εὐχαριστεῖν etc. to give thanks for, 1 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 9:15; Philippians 1:5; 1 Thessalonians 3:9. ἐφ' (equivalent to ἐπί τούτῳ, ὅτι for that, on the ground of this, that) because that, because, Romans 5:12 (on the various interpretations of this passage see Dietzsch, Adam und Christus. Bonn 1871, p. 50ff); 2 Corinthians 5:4 ( ἐπειδή); Philippians 3:12 (ἐφ' σατανᾶςοὐκ ἴσχυσε θανατῶσαι αὐτούς, Theophilus of Antioch ad Antol. 2,29, p. 138, Otto edition; ἐφ' Γενναδιον ἔγραψεν, for the reason that he had accused Gennadius, Synes. epistle 73; cf. Hermann ad Vig., p. 710; the better Greeks commonly used ἐφ' οἷς in the same sense, cf. Winer s Grammar, 394 (368); (Fritzsche or Meyer on Romans , the passage cited; Ellicott on Philippians , the passage cited)). Used especially after verbs signifying a mental affection or emotion, where we also often say over (for examples from Greek writings see Passow, i. 2, p. 1039b; Krüger, § 68,41, 6; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 393 (368)

c.)): as ἀγαλλιαν, Luke 1:47; χαίρειν, Matthew 18:13; Luke 1:14; Luke 13:17; Romans 16:19, etc.; χαρά ἔσται, Luke 15:7; χαράν ( Rec. χάριν) ἔχω, Philemon 1:7; παρακαλεῖν, παρακαλεῖσθαι, 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 7:13; 1 Thessalonians 3:7; κλαίειν, Luke 19:41 R G; κοπετόν ποιεῖν, Acts 8:2; κόπτεσθαι, Revelation 18:9 ( T Tr WH text the accusative); ὀδύνασθαι, Acts 20:38; ὀλολύζειν, James 5:1; στυγνάζειν, Mark 10:22; συλλυπεῖσθαι, Mark 3:5; μετανοεῖν ἐπί, to grieve over, repent of, 2 Corinthians 12:21; σπλαγχνίζεσθαι, Matthew 14:14 G L T Tr WH; Mark 6:34 R G; Luke 7:13 ( Tdf. the accusative); μακροθύμειν, Matthew 18:26 ( Tr the accusative), 29 ( L Tr the accusative); Luke 18:7 (see μακροθυμέω, 2); James 5:7; ὀργίζεσθαι, Revelation 12:17 (Lachmann omits ἐπἰ; ἐκπλήσσεσθαι, Matthew 7:28; Mark 1:22; Luke 4:32; Acts 13:12; διαταράσσεσθαι, Luke 1:29; ἐξίστασθαι, Luke 2:47; θαμβεῖσθαι, Mark 10:24; θάμβος, Luke 5:9; Acts 3:10; θαυμάζειν, Mark 12:17; Luke 2:33; Luke 4:22; Luke 9:43; Luke 20:26; Acts 3:12; καυχᾶσθαι, Romans 5:2; ἐπαισχύνεσθαι, Romans 6:21; παραζηλουν and παροργίζειν τινα ἐπί τίνι, Romans 10:19. ε. of the rule, or condition ( Winer s Grammar, 394 (368)

d.): ἐπ' ἐλπίδι, a hope being held out or given, Romans 8:20; Titus 1:2 (differently in β. above); ἐπί δυσίν ... μάρτυσιν, on condition that two witnesses testify to the matter in question (at (the mouth of) two etc.; cf. Winer's Grammar, 392 (367)), Hebrews 10:28; ἐπί νεκροῖς, equivalent to ὄντων νεκρῶν ( in the case of the dead), if anyone has died, Hebrews 9:17. ζ. of the purpose and end ( unto, for; Winer s Grammar, 394 (368)

e.): ἐπ' ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ, to worship and profess his name, Acts 15:14 Rec.; καλεῖν τινα ἐπί τίνι, Latin ad aliquid, Galatians 5:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:7 (ἐπί ξένια, Xenophon, an. 7,6, 3; cf. Winer's Grammar, as above); κτισθεντε ἐπί ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς, Ephesians 2:10; φρονεῖν ἐπί τίνι to take thought for a thing, Philippians 4:10; ἐφ' (by a later Greek impropriety for ἐπί τίνι, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 24,4; (Buttmann, § 139,59; but on the extreme doubtfulness of this alleged use of ὅς in direct questions, see present T. D. Woolsey in the Bibliotheca Sacra for Apr. 1874, p. 314ff)) πάρει; for what purpose art thou come? Vulg. ad quid (others, quod) venisti? Matthew 26:50 R (but G L T Tr WH ἐφ' , see C. I:2g. γ. αα. below) (Theoph. ἐπί ποιῶ σκόπω; cf. Herodotus 7,146 πυθόμενος,

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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

The uses of ἐπί in Hellenistic Greek are hardly less varied than those of ἐν. From one point of view, indeed, they are even more varied, as ἐπί is the only preposition which continues to be largely represented with all three cases. According to Moulton (Proleg. p. 107) the figures in the NT are—gen. 216, dat. 176, acc. 464. In accordance with the general development of the use of the acc., the instances with this case are far the most numerous, and often occur where we might have expected the gen. or dat., while the constructions with these two cases are frequently interchanged, as will be seen from some of the exx. cited below. It will be kept in view that, as with the other prepositions, the treatment of ἐπί here makes no attempt at being exhaustive, but must be supplemented by the special dissertations of Kuhring and Ross berg. It is hoped, however, that sufficient evidence has been adduced to throw light on the main usages of the preposition in the NT.

(1) c. gen.—For the common local sense ";at,"; ";on,"; ";upon,"; see P Par 47.16 (c. B.C. 153) (= Selections, p. 23) ̣[πὶ τ ]ῶν τόπων ἶναι, P Tebt I. 33.7 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) ἐπὶ τῶν καθηκόντων τόπων, ib. II. 397.25 (A.D. 198) ἐπὶ ξένης εἶναι, and P Giss I. 21.13 μένε ἐπὶ ἑαυτοῦ, ";stay at home."; The sense of ";near,"; ";in the vicinity of"; appears in P Ryl II. 127.9 (A.D. 29) κοιμωμένου μου ἐπὶ τῆς θύρας : cf. Acts 5:23 and see John 6:19; John 21:1 ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης, where the rendering ";near the sea,"; or, as we should say, ";on the shore,"; is to be preferred (cf. Abbott Joh. Gr. p. 261). In P Lond 1168.5 (A.D. 18) (= III. p. 136) ἐν τοῖς ἀπὸ λίβος μέρεσι ἐπὶ ταῖς οὔσαις γειτνίαις, ἐπί is almost = ";with."; The local force still underlies the meaning of such a phrase as ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας (cf. Mark 12:14) in the census paper P Oxy II. 255.16 (A.D. 48) (= Selections, p. 47), where it is stated that the return is ";sound"; and rests ";on a true basis";— ]ξ [ ]γιοῦς καὶ ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας. Cf. also P Lille I. 26.4 (iii/B.C.) τὴν δὲ λοιπὴν γ [ῆν ἑτο ]ι ̣μάζω, εἰ μὴ ἀκολουθεῖς ἅπαντα καθὼς ἐπὶ τῆς διαγραφῆς τ [ο ] [εἰς τὸ ] ι ̄ε ̄ ἔτος σπόρου μεμισθῶσθαι τοῖς γεωγοῖς, where ἐπὶ τῆς διαγραφῆς refers to the conditions laid down in the agreement, and P Grenf II. 77.29 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 121) (γίνεται) ἐπὶ του ̣ͅ λ ̣[όγο ]υ τῆς ὅλης δα [πά ]νης = ";total of the account for the whole outlay."; An even more elliptical usage is found in Mark 12:26 ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου, ";in the place concerning the Bush"; (RV).

The preposition is used of ";oversight,"; ";authority,"; as in Matthew 24:45, Acts 8:27, Romans 9:5, in such passages as P Tebt I. 5.88 (B.C. 118) ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν προ (σόδων), BGU IV. 1120.1 (B.C. 5) πρωτάρχωι ἐπὶ τοῦ κριτηρίου, P Oxy I. 99.14 (A.D. 55) τραπέζης ἐφ᾽ ἧς Σαρα [πί ]ων καὶ μέτοχοι, P Lond 1159.49 (A.D. 145–47) (= III. p. 113) ἐπὶ οἴνου καὶ ὄξου οἱ πρόοντες, and the libellus BGU I. 287.1 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 115) where the magistrates who presided over the sacrifices are referred to—τοῖς ἐπὶ [τ ]ῶν θυσιῶν ᾑρημένοις. In P Leid Wv. 39 (ii/iii A.D.) ἔσεθε (l. ἔσεσθε) ἀμφότεροι ἐπὶ πάσης ἀνάγκης, the editor translates ";supra omnem necessitatem,";

From this we may pass to the judicial reference, as in Matthew 28:14 (ὑπό BD), in P Par 46.15 (B.C. 153) διὸ καὶ ἡγούμενος δεῖν ἐπ᾽ ἄλλου μὲν μηθενὸς αὐτῶι διακριθῆναι, ἐπὶ σοῦ δ᾽ αὐτοῦ, γέγραφά σοι κτλ., P Oxy I. 38.11 (A.D. 49–50) (= Selections, p. 53) καθὰ π ̣[α ]ρῆλθον ἐπὶ τοῦ γενομένου τοῦ νομοῦ στρατηγοῦ Πασίωνος, ";I accordingly brought an action before Pasion, who was ex-strategus of the nome,"; and BGU III. 909.23 (A.D. 359) ἀξιῶ ἀχθῆναι ἐπὶ σοῦ τ [οὺ ]ς προειρημένους Ἄριον καὶ. . Ἀγάμμωνα. See also P Oxy I. 37i. 3 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 48) ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος, [Π ]εσοῦρι [ς ] πρὸς Σαραεῦν, ";in court, P. versus S."; : cf. Acts 25:10. Akin to this is the usage in an oath, as P Petr III. 56(d).12 (iii/B.C.) ὤμοσά σοι τὸν πάτριον ὅρκον ἐπὶ τοῦ ποταμο ̣υ ̣ͅ. In P Par 63.39 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 20) ]ρκους παρ᾽ ὑμῶν λ ̣αβεῖν μὴ μόνον ἐπὶ τῶ [ν ] θεῶν ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ ̣ τῶν βασιλέων, Mahaffy is unable (p. 38 f.) to discover any distinction between the prepositions, and translates ";to exact oaths from you not only by the gods, but also by the kings."; In BGU I. 153.27 (A.D. 152) ἀπογράψασθαι ἐν τῇ τῶν καμήλων ἀπογραφῇ. . . ἐπ᾽ ὀνόματος αὐτῶν, the reference is to ";the entering on the list of a camel under the name of its new owner"; (Deissmann BS, p. 197 n..2).

A good parallel to ἐπί = ";concerning,"; ";in the case of,"; as in Galatians 3:16, is afforded by P Tebt I. 5.78 (B.C. 118) προστε ]τάχασι δὲ καὶ τὰ εἰς τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ Ἄπιος καὶ Μνήσ ̣ιος ζ ̣ητεῖν ἐκ τοῦ βα (σιλικοῦ) [ ]ς ̣ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀποτεθεωμένων, ";and they have decreed that the expenses for the burial of Apis and Mnesis should be demanded from the Crown revenues, as in the case of the deified personages"; (Edd.) : cf. ib. 7.6 (B.C. 114) τὰ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐνεστηκότα, ";the state of the matter concerning them"; (Edd.), and Menander Fragm. p. 188 οὐδεὶς ἐφ᾽ αὑτοῦ τὰ κακὰ συνορᾷ, Πάμφιλε, | σαφῶς, ἑτέρου δ᾽ ἀσχημονοῦντος ὄψεται, ";no one clearly sees evil in his own case, but when another misbehaves, he’ll see it."; See also such phrases as P Tebt I. 27.54 (B.C. 113) ἐπὶ τοῦ βελτίστου, ";in the best possible manner"; (but cf. ἐπ᾽ ἀληθείας above), P Strass I. 70.16 (A.D. 138) ̣ς ἐπὶ τ ̣ω ̣ν ̣ ̣μοίω ̣[ν, ";as in similar cases,"; and BGU IV. 1098.44 (c. B.C. 20) ὡς ἂν ἐπὶ το [ῦ κα ]ιροῦ κοινῶς κρίνωσι, ";under the circumstances.";

This last ex. leads naturally to the temporal use of ἐπί : cf. e.g. P Meyer 6.14 (A.D. 125) ἐπὶ τῆς τριακάδ [ο ]ς ̣ το [ ] Παῦνι μην ̣ός : also P Petr II. 11(1).2 (iii/B.C.) (=Selections, p. 7) ὅπως τῆς ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος σχολῆς ἀπολυθῶ, ";that I may be relieved from my present occupation,"; where ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος is practically = ἐν τῷ παρόντι. With such passages as Mark 2:26, Acts 11:28, where ἐπί = ";in the time of"; cf. P Amh II. 43.2 (B.C. 173) ἔτους ὀγ ̣δ ̣ο ̣ο ̣υ ἐφ᾽ ἱερέως Ἡρακλείδου, P Tebt I. 61(b).70 (B.C. 118–7) ἐν τῶι κ ̄θ ̄ (ἔτει) ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀ [δε ]λφοῦ, P Tor I. 1v. 5 (B.C. 116) τοῦ κ ̄η ̄ (ἔτους) Παχὼν ἐπὶ τοῦ Φιλομήτορος, and OGIS 90.16 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) προσέταξεν δὲ [Ptolemy V. Epiphanes] καὶ περὶ τῶν ἱερέων, ὅπως μηθὲν πλεῖον διδῶσιν εἰς τὸ τελεστικὸν οὗ ἐτάσσοντο ἕως τοῦ πρώτου ἔτους ἐπὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ [Ptolemy IV. Philo-pator], where, as against Dittenberger ad l., Wilcken (Archiv iii. p. 320 f.) has shown that this use of ἐπί c. gen. carries back the dating to the beginning of the previous reign, i.e. ";until the first year of his father’s reign."; On the importance of this in connexion with the chronological statement in the Prologue to Ecclesiasticus, see Wilcken ut s. and Deissmann BS, p. 339 ff. For the temporal use of ἐπί with an abstract noun, as in Romans 1:10, etc., see P Tebt I. 58.31 (B.C. 111) μή ποτε ἐπὶ τοῦ διαλόγου χειμασθω ̣̑μεν, ";in order that we may not come to grief at the audit"; (Edd.).

(2) c. dat.—The idea of ";in"; or ";at"; (as in Mt 24.88) and ";on"; or ";upon"; (as in Mark 6:25; Mark 6:28) may be illustrated by P Tebt I. 6.27 (B.C. 140–39) ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείαι καὶ ἐπὶ χώραι, ";at Alexandria and in the country,"; P Petr III. 1 ii. 3 (B.C. 235) οὐλὴ. . ἐπ᾽ ὀφρύι δεξιαῖ. See also P Oxy I. 115.3 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) ἔκλαυσα ἐπὶ τῶι εὐμοίρωι ὡς ἐπὶ Διδυμᾶτος ἔκλαυσα, where the dat. and gen. are interchanged in the same sentence. Ἐπί is common with the dat. = ";with a view to,"; as in Galatians 5:18, e.g. P Tebt I. 44.6 (B.C. 114) ὄντος μου ἐπὶ θεραπείαι ἐν τῷ αὐτόθι μεγάλωι Ἰσιείωι, ";while I was in the great temple of Isis here for medical treatment"; (see the editor’s note), P Oxy IX. 1203.23 (late i/A.D.) πάντα τὰ. . ἐπὶ τῇ ἡμῶν ἀδικίᾳ πραχθέντα, ";all the things done to our hurt,"; P Oxy I. 71 i. 10 (A.D. 303) κακουργίαν ἐπὶ ἀποστερέσι τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ, ";a fraud to my detriment.";

Similarly with abstract nouns denoting manner, as in Romans 4:18—P Tor I. 1 v. 1 (B.C. 116) περιεσπακέναι. . ἐπὶ τῆι πάσηι συκοφαντίαι καὶ διασεισμῶι, ib. I. vi. 3 κακοτρόπως καὶ ἐπὶ ῥαιδιουργίαι, P Oxy II. 237 vi. 21 (A.D. 186) ἐπὶ φθόνῳ δὲ μόνον λοιδορούμενος. In P Eleph 1.6, .8 (B.C. 311–0) (= Selections, p. 2f.) the irregularity in elision between ἐπὶ αἰσχύνηι and ἐφ᾽ ὕβρει may be noted, its avoidance in the first instance being due to the tendency in the Κοινή to isolate words for the sake of greater clearness : see Helbing Gramm. p. 12 f., and cf. Mayser Gr. p. 155 ff. In P Oxy III. 531.6 (ii/A.D.) ἕως ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ πρὸς σὲ παραγένομαι (l. -ωμαι), the meaning is ";until I come to you auspiciously,"; much like the Latin ";quod bonum faustumque sit."; See also ἐφ᾽ ἡμισείᾳ = ";equally,"; cited s.v. ἥμισυς.

The thought of ";on account of"; underlies such passages as BGU I. 260.3 (A.D. 90) ἀπέχωι παρά σου ἃς ὤφιλές μοι ἐπ᾽ ἐνυκήσι (l. ἐνοικήσει) κατὰ δημόσ [ιον ] χρη [μ ]α ̣[τ ]ισμὸν ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς ἑχακοσίας, Wilcken Ostr 1131 (A.D. 212) ἔλαβον ἐπὶ προ [χρείᾳ ] πυροῦ ἀρτ (άβην) μίαν ὑπ (ὲρ) μηνὸς Χύακ. An interesting ex. occurs in the letter of the Emperor Claudius in which he acknowledges the gift of a ";golden crown";—ἐπὶ τῇ κατὰ Βρετάννων νείκῃ, ";on the occasion of his victory over the Britons"; (P Lond 1178.12 = III. p. 216, Selections, p. 99) : cf. Luke 5:5. This construction is common after verbs of feeling, as in P Eleph 13.3 (B.C. 223–2) ἣν (sc. ἐπιστολὴν) ἀναγνοὺς ἐχάρην ἐπὶ τῶι με αἰσθέσθαι τὰ κατὰ σέ, and P Lond 42.10 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 10) ἐπὶ μὲν τῶι ἐρρῶσθα [ ] σε εὐθέως τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχαρίστουν.

Another usage which deserves notice is afforded by such a passage as P Meyer 6.22 (A.D. 125) μετηλλαχότος δὲ τοῦ Φιλίππου ἐπὶ κληρονόμωι υἱῷ Ἀφροδεισίῳ, where the meaning is that when Philip died he left as heir his son Aphrodisius : cf. P Ryl II. 76.3 (late ii/A.D.) Ἑρμιόνης. . τελευτησάσης. . ἐπί τε ἐμοὶ καὶ τοῖς ὁμομητρίοις ἀδελφοῖς κληρονόμοις, ib. 121.7 (ii/A.D.) ἐτελεύτησεν Ἡρᾶς. . ἐπ᾽ ἀφήλικι υἱῷ, ";leaving his son a minor.";

For ἐφ᾽ ᾧ = ";on condition that"; see P Tebt I, 108.4 (B.C. 93 or 60) where the owner leases certain arourae—ἐφ᾽ ᾧ δώ (σει) σπέρμα (ἀρτάβας) ι ̄ε ̄, ";on condition that he (the owner) shall supply 15 artabae for seed,"; and P Tebt II. 381.16 (A.D. 123) where a mother bequeaths her property to her daughter—ἐφ᾽ ὧι. . ποιήσεται τὴν τῆς μητρὸς κηδίαν καὶ περιστολὴν ὡς καθήκει, ";on condition that she shall perform the obsequies and laying out of her mother as is fitting."; In P Hib I. 77.6 (B.C. 249) the meaning is rather ";to the effect that";—συντετάγμεθα γὰρ περὶ τ ̣ῶν τ ̣ελωνικῶν ἐφ᾽ ὧ ̣ι [τοῖς θε ]ο ̣ ̣ς ̣ [τὰ ] ἱερὰ σωθήσεσθαι καθὰ καὶ πρότερον, ";for we have received instructions with regard to the collection of taxes that the sacred revenues (?) are to be preserved for the gods as in former times"; (Edd.).

Examples of ἐπί construed with the inf. are P Ryl II. 153.21 (A.D. 138–61) where a father in his will nominates certain guardians—ἐπὶ τῷ αὐτ [ο ]υ ̣̀ς ̣ τρέφειν κ [αὶ ] ἱματίζειν τὸν προγεγραμμένον μου υἱὸν καὶ κληρονόμον, ";on condition that they shall provide my aforesaid son and heir with food and clothing,"; and P Lond 932.19 (A.D. 211) (= III. p. 149) ἐπὶ τῷ καὶ αὐτοὺς ὅσα ὀφείλει ὁ πατὴρ δάνεια. . ἀποδιδόναι : and with reference to time P Oxy II. 294.3 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 34) ἐπὶ τῷ γεγονέναι ἐν Ἀλεξανδρίᾳ, ";on my arrival in Alexandria.";

Ἐπί c. dat. marks a point of time in P Tebt I. 5.66 (B.C. 118) πρὸς τὰς ἐπὶ ἐνίοις καιροῖς ἀπῃτημέν [α ]ς ̣ [καρ ]πείας, ";for the emoluments demanded on certain occasions,"; P Oxy II. 275.20 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 56) ἐπὶ συνκλεισμῷ τοῦ ὅλου χρόνου, ";at the expiry of the whole period,"; P Lond III. 954.18 (A.D. 260) (= III. p. 154) ἐπὶ τέλει δ [ ] τοῦ πενταετοῦς χρόνου παραδ [ώσω ] σο [ι, and the late P Amh II. 157 (A.D. 612) τοῦ χρυσίου τῆς καταβολῆς ἐπὶ μη (νὶ) Φαῶφι. Cf. also P Tebt I.69.27 (B.C. 114) ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτῳ. The idea of ";in addition to,"; as in Luke 3:20, 2 Corinthians 7:13, Colossians 3:14, appears in such a construction as P Eleph 5.17 (B.C. 284–3) μη (νὸς) Τῦβι τρίτηι ἐπ᾽ εἰκάδι.

The manner in which the gen. and dat. alternate is seen in P Lond 171 (b).18 (iii/A.D.) (= II. p. 176) ἀξιῶ λυθῆναι ἐπί σου κατὰ τὸ ἔθος, a request by a widow that the will of her late husband may be opened ";in your presence according to custom,"; as compared with P Ryl II. 109.10 (A.D. 235) ἐπὶ παρόντι σοι διὰ βοηθοῦ, ";you being represented by an assistant,"; and in ἐπὶ παρόντων ὑμῶν of the libellus P Meyer 15.6 (A.D. 250), which appears as ἐπὶ παροῦσιν ὑμεῖν in the similar document BGU I. 287.8 (A.D. 250) (= Selections, p. 115).

(3) c. acc.—The usage after verbs of motion hardly needs illustration, but see OGIS 90.20 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) προενοήθη δὲ καὶ ὅπως ἐξαποσταλῶσιν δυνάμεις. . . ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐπελθόντας ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατά τε τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ τὴν ἤπειρον, where, as the editor points out, the use of ἐπί, not εἰς, Αἴγυπτον shows that the invading army had not yet entered the country. For other exx. of ἐπί followed by the acc. of a person see P Par 26.41 (B.C. 163-2) (= Selections, p. 17) δεόμεθα οὖν ὑμῶν. . . ἀποστεῖλαι ἡμῶν τὴν ἔντευξιν ἐπὶ Διονύσιον τῶν φίλων καὶ στρατηγόν, P Oxy IV. 743.25 (B.C. 2) παραγενομ (ένου) γὰρ Δαμᾶτος εἰς Ἀλεξάνδρειαν ἤλθαμεν ἐπὶ Ἐπαφρόδειτον, and P Meyer 3.16 (A.D. 148) ἵν᾽ οὖν τὸ κελευσθ (ὲν) εἰδῇς καὶ εὐθέως ἐπὶ τὸν κρά (τιστον) ἐπίτροπ (ον) καταντήσῃς [ ]πέστειλά σοι.

This last ex. brings us to the more distinctively judicial usage, as BGU I. 22.36 (A.D. 114) (= Selections, p. 76) διὸ ἀξιῶ ἀκθῆναι (l. ἀχθῆναι, and cf. Matthew 10:18, Acts 18:12) τοὺς ἐνκαλουμένους ἐπὶ σὲ πρὸς δέουσ (αν) ἐπέξοδον, ";I beg therefore that you will cause the accused to be brought before you for fitting punishment,"; and, before an abstract noun, P Oxy II. 294.18 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 35) εἵνα σὺν αὐτῷ ἐπὶ διαλογισμὸν ε ̣̀λ ̣[θ ]ω, ";in order that I may come along with him to the inquiry"; : cf. Matthew 3:7, Luke 23:48.

The phrase ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό, as in Acts 1:15; Acts 2:47, is perpetually recurring, especially in accounts, where it represents an addition sum, ";together,"; ";in all,"; e.g. P Tebt I. 14.20 (B.C. 114) ἀξίας ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ χα (λκοῦ) (ταλάντου) α ̄, ";of which the total value is one talent of copper"; (Edd.), P Fay 102.6 (c. A.D. 105) γί (νονται) ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ (ὀβολοὶ) τ ̄π ̄α ̄, and P Oxy IV. 716.14 (A.D. 186) where one-sixth of a slave owned by one man and a half owned by two others are reckoned as τὸ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ δίμοι [ρ ]ον μέρος, ";together two-thirds"; : also the Messenian inscr. Syll 653.66 (B.C. 91) ἐγδιδόντες ἄν τε δοκεῖ συνφέρον εἶμεν ἐ [πὶ ] τὸ αὐτὸ πάντα τὰ θύματα. For the possibility that in Acts 2:47 the phrase = ";greatly"; in accordance with another meaning of the Aramaic word which lay behind Luke’s translation, see Torrey’s Harvard study on The Composition and Date of Acts (Milford, 1916), p. 10 ff.

The thought of degree attained, as in 2 Timothy 2:16, may be seen in P Par 63.124 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 28) τοῖς μὲν ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον ̣ διαλαμβάνουσι, ";to those who put a less favourable interpretation upon it,"; P Tebt I. 27.80 (B.C. 113) αἰεὶ δέ τινος ἐπὶ τὸ βελτίον προσεπινοουμένου, ";by the continual invention of further improvements"; (Edd.), Cagnat IV. 247.35 (c. B.C. 150) ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὔξειν. In P Tebt I. 33.6 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) we find purpose implied—ἀνάπλουν. . . ἐπὶ θεωρίαν ποιούμενος, ";making the voyage to see the sights"; (cf. Luke 23:48), and similarly with the inf. construction in BGU IV. 1124.21 (B.C. 18) the apprenticeship of a boy— ̣π ̣ι ̣, τ ̣ο ̣, μανθάνειν τὴν ἡλοκοπικὴ (ν) τέχνην. Cf. P Petr II. 11(2).3 (mid. iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski.2, p. 6) ἀπογέγραμμαι δὲ ἐπὶ τελώνιον, ";I am enrolled for the purpose of taxation"; in certain particulars which are stated—contrast Matthew 9:9 ἐπὶ τὸ τελώνιον of place.

The temporal use = ";for,"; ";during,"; as in Luke 4:25, Acts 13:31, 1 Corinthians 7:39, may be seen in BGU IV. 1058.9 (B.C. 13) ἐπὶ χρόνον ἔτη δύο ἀπὸ Φαρμοῦθι [τοῦ ἐνεσ ]τῶτος ι ̄ε ̄ (ἔτους) Καίσαρος, P Oxy II. 275.9 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 55) ἐπὶ χρόνον ἐνιαυτὸν ἕνα ἀπὸ τῆς ἐνεστώσης ἡμέρας, ib. .15 ἐπὶ τὸν ὅλον χρόνον, P Tebt II. 381.19 (A.D. 123) (= Selections, p. 79) ἐφ᾽ ὃν δὲ χρόνον περίεστιν ἡ μήτηρ Θαῆσις, ";as long as her mother Thaesis lives,"; and P Heid 6.27 (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 127) ἐπὶ μέγιστον χρόνον.

On the survival of ἐπί in MGr in adverbial expressions, see Thumb Handbook, p. 98.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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