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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #2316 - θεός

Word Origin:
of uncertain affinity
Parts of Speech:
a deity, especially (with 3588
Word Definition  [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities
  2. the Godhead, trinity
    1. God the Father, the first person in the trinity
    2. Christ, the second person of the trinity
    3. Holy Spirit, the third person in the trinity
  3. spoken of the only and true God
    1. refers to the things of God
    2. his counsels, interests, things due to him
  4. whatever can in any respect be likened unto God, or resemble him in any way
    1. God's representative or viceregent
      1. of magistrates and judges
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 47 ‑ אַבִּיר (ab‑beer');   136 ‑ אֲדֹנָי (ad‑o‑noy');   136 ‑ אֲדֹנָי (ad‑o‑noy');   410 ‑ אֵל (ale);   430 ‑ אֱלֹהִים (el‑o‑heem');   430 ‑ אֱלֹהִים (el‑o‑heem');   433 ‑ אֱלֹהַּ (el‑o'‑ah, el‑o'‑ah);   457 ‑ אֱלִיל (el‑eel');   3068 ‑ יהוה (yeh‑ho‑vaw');   5943 ‑ עִלָּי (il‑lah'ee);   6091 ‑ עָצָב (aw‑tsawb');   6697 ‑ צֻר (tsoor, tsoor);   6944 ‑ קֹדֶשׁ (ko'‑desh);   7706 ‑ שַׁדַּי (shad‑dah'ee);  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

θεός, ὁ,

Boeot. θιός, Lacon. σιός (v. infr.), Cypr., Cret. θιός Inscr.Cypr. 135.27 H., Leg.Gort. 1.1, Dor. also θεύς Call. Cer. 58; acc. θεῦν v.l. ib. 130; voc. (only late) θεός, also θεέ LXX Deuteronomy 3:24, Matthew 27:46, PMag.Lond. 121.529, etc.; but classical in compd. names, Ἀμφίθεε, Τιμόθεε: —


1. God, the Deity, in general sense, both sg. and pl. (εἰ καὶ ἐπὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐπὶ θεὸν ἁρμόζει μεταφέρειν Plot. 6.8.1), θ. δὲ τὸ μὲν δώσει τὸ δ' ἐάσει God will grant.., Od. 14.444; οὐδέ κεν ἄλλως οὐδὲ θ. τεύξειε 8.177, cf. 3.231, Il. 13.730 (also θεὸς Ζεύς Od. 4.236, 14.327); θ. καὶ ἀγαθὴ τύχη Pl. Lg. 757e, cf. Timocl. 3 D.; σὺν θεῷ Il. 9.49, S. Aj. 765, etc. (less freq. ξὺν τῷ θ. ib. 383); σὺν θ. εἰρημ[] νον Hdt. 1.86, cf. 3.153; σὺν θ. εἰπεῖν Pl. Prt. 317b: so in pl., σύν γε θεοῖσιν Il. 24.430; οὔ τοι ἄνευ θεοῦ Od. 2.372; οὐ θεῶν ἄτερ pi. P. 5.76; ἐκ θεόφι Il. 17.101; ὑπὲρ θεόν against his will, 17.327; ἂν θ. θέλῃ Alex. 231; θ. θέλοντος Men. Mon. 671: in pl., ἂν θεοὶ θέλωσιν Alex. 247; θεῶν συνεθελόντων, βουλομένων, X. Eq.Mag. 9.8, Luc. Macr. 29; εἰ ὀρθῶς ἢ μή, θ. οἶδε Pl. Phdr. 266b, cf. R. 517b, etc.; in oaths, θ. ἴστω S. OC 522 (lyr.), etc.; πρὸς θεῶν Hdt. 5.49, D. 1.15, etc.: τοὺς θεούς σοι bless you! good heavens! for heaven's sake! M.Ant. 7.17, Arr. Epict. 2.19.15, al.; τὸν θ. σοι ib. 3.7.19, al.: qualified by τις, Od. 9.142, etc.; οὐκ ἄνευ θεῶν τινος A. Pers. 164 (troch.), E. Ba. 764; κατὰ θεόν τινα Id. IA 411, Pl. Euthd. 272e; κατὰ θεόν πως εἰρημένα Id. Lg. 682a: doubled in poets, θεὸν θεόν τις ἀγλαϊζέτω B. 3.21, cf. Diagor. 1; θεοὶ θεοὶ τῶν ἀδίκων μέλουσι E. HF 772, cf. Paus.Gr. Fr. 203; θεοί (Cret. θιοί) as an opening formula in Inscrr. (sc. τύχην ἀγαθὴν διδοῖεν), Leg.Gort. 1.1, IG 12.52, etc.: sg., θ. τύχη ib.5(2).1, etc.: in Prose also with the Art., ὁ θ. πάντων ἂν εἴη αἴτιος Pl. R. 379c, cf. Lg. 716c, etc.; τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θ., τὰ παρὰ τῶν θ., X. Mem. 1.3.1, 2.6.8. θεοί, opp. ἄνδρες, πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Il. 1.544; ὃν Ξάνθον καλέουσι θ., ἄνδρες δὲ Σκάμανδρον 20.74: in Comparisons, θεοῖσιν ἶσ' ἔθελε φρονέειν 5.440; θεοῖς ἐναλίγκια μήδεα Od. 13.89; also in sg., θεῷ ἐναλίγκιος αὐδήν Il. 19.250; θεὸς ὥς 5.78; ὥς τε θεός 3.381: prov., θεὸς πρὸς ἀνθρώπους, of an 'angel's visit', Herod. 1.9. of special divinities, νέρτεροι θ. A. Pers. 622, S. Ant. 602 (lyr.); ἐνέρτεροι θ. Il. 15.225; οἱ κάτωθεν θ. S. Ant. 1070; θ. οὐράνιοι h.Cer. 55, A. Ag. 90 (anap.); οἱ δώδεκα θ. Ar. Eq. 235, X. Eq.Mag. 3.2, IG 22.30, etc.; μὰ τοὺς δώδεκα θ. Men. Sam. 91; in dual, τὼ σιώ (Lacon.), of Castor and Pollux, ναὶ τὼ ς. X. An. 6.6.34, HG 4.4.10, Ar. Lys. 81: so in Boeot., of Amphion and Zethus, νεὶ τὼ σιώ (leg. θιώ) Id. Ach. 905. ὁ θ., of natural phenomena, ὁ θ. ὕει (sc. Ζεύς) Hdt. 2.13; ὁ θ. ἐνέσκηψε βέλος Id. 4.79; ἔσεισεν ὁ θ. (sc. Ποσειδῶν) X. HG 4.7.4; of the sun, Hdt. 2.24, A. Pers. 502, E. Alc. 722; δύνοντος τοῦ θ. App. BC 4.79; the weather, τί δοκεῖ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ; Thphr. Char. 25.2. Astrol., θεοί,= ἀστέρες, Jul. Cat.Cod.Astr. 8(4).252. θεός (sc. Ἥλιος), name of the 9th τόπος, Rhetor.ib.163, etc.

2. metaph., of abstract things, τὸ δ' εὐτυχεῖν τόδ' ἐν βροτοῖς θεός τε καὶ θεοῦ πλέον A. Ch. 60; ἡ φρόνησις ἁγαθὴ θ. μέγας S. Fr. 922; θ. γὰρ καὶ τὸ γιγνώσκειν φίλους E. Hel. [*] 60; ὁ πλοῦτος τοῖς σοφοῖς θ. Id. Cyc. 316; φθόνος κάκιστος θ. Hippothoon 2.

3. as title of rulers, θεῶν ἀδελφῶν (sc. Ptolemy Il and Arsinoe), Herod. 1.30, etc.; Πτολεμαῖος ὑπάρχων θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ θεᾶς OGI 90.10 (Rosetta, ii B.C.); Ἀντίοχος ὅτῳ θεὸς ἐπώνυμον γίγνεται App. Syr. 65; θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ, of Augustus, OGI 655.2 (Egypt, 24 B.C.); θ. ἡμῶν καὶ δεσπότης IPE 4.71 (Cherson., ii A.D.). = Lat. Divus, Mon.Anc.Gr. 10.4, Str. 4.1.1, etc.; οἱ ἐν θεοῖς αὐτοκράτορες,= divi Imperatores, IG 12(1).786 (Rhodes). generally of the dead, καὶ ζῶντός σου καὶ εἰς θεοὺς ἀπελθόντος PPetr. 2p.45 (iii B.C.); θεοῖς χθονίοις,= Lat. Dis Manibus, IG 14.30,al.

4. one set in authority, judge, τὸ κριτήριον τοῦ θ., ἐνώπιον τοῦ θ., LXX Exodus 21:6, LXX Exodus 22:8; θεοὺς οὐ κακολογήσεις ib. 22.28(27).

II θεός fem., goddess, μήτε θήλεια θεός, μήτε τις ἄρσην Il. 8.7, cf. Hdt. 2.35, al.; τοῖς θεοῖς εὔχομαι πᾶσι καὶ πάσαις D. 18.1, cf. 141, Orac.ib. 21.52; esp. at Athens, of Athena, Decr. ap. And. 1.77, Pl. Ti. 21a, etc.; ἁ Διὸς θεός, Ζηνὸς ἡ θ., S. Aj. 401 (lyr.), 952 (ἡ Διὸς θεά ib. 450); of other goddesses, ποντία θεός Pi. I. 8(7).36; ἡ νερτέρα θ.,= Περσεφόνη, S. OC 1548, etc.; of Thetis, Pl. Ap. 28c; of Niobe, S. El. 150 (lyr.), Ant. 834 (anap.): in dual, of Demeter and Persephone, τὰ τοῖν θεοῖν ψηφίσματα Ar. V. 378 (lyr.); οὐδ' ἔδεισε τὼ θεώ And. 1.125; freq. in oaths, νὴ τὼ θεώ Ar. Lys. 112; μὰ τὼ θεώ Id. Ec. 155, 532.

III as Adj. in Comp. θεώτερος, divine, θύραι θ., opp. καταιβαταὶ ἀνθρώποισιν, Od. 13.111; χορὸς θ. Call. Ap. 93, cf. Dian. 249, D.P. 257. (Derived by Hdt. 2.52 fr. τίθημι (κόσμῳ θέντες τὰ πρήγματα), by Pl. Cra. 397d fr. θεῖν. Etym. dub.) [In (twice in Hom.) and Trag. (E. Ba. 47, 1347, al., not in Com.), as monosyll. by synizesis, θεοί Il. 1.18, Thgn. 142; θεῶν h.Cer. 55, 259; θεοῖς Thgn. 171; θεοῖσιν Od. 14.251; θεούς h.Cer. 325: even in nom. θεός before a vowel, E. Or. 399 (cf. Pors. ad loc.), HF 347; in Pi. P. 1.56 apptly. a short monosyll.]

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 Θεός, Θεοῦ, and , vocative θῇ, once in the N. T., Matthew 27:46; besides in Deuteronomy 3:24; Judges 16:28; Judges 21:3; ( 2 Samuel 7:25; Isaiah 38:20); Sirach 23:4; Wisdom of Solomon 9:1; 3 Maccabees 6:3; 4 Maccabees 6:27; Act. Thom. 44f, 57; Eus. h. e. 2,23, 16; (5,20, 7; vit. Const. 2,55, 1. 59); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 8,2c.; (Buttmann, 12 (11)); ((on the eight or more proposed derivations see Vanicek, p. 386, who follows Curtius, (after Döderlein), p. 513ff in connecting it with a root meaning to supplicate, implore; hence, the implored; per contra cf. Max Müller, Chips etc. 4:227f; Liddell and Scott, under the word, at the end)); (from Homer down); the Sept. for אֵל, אֶלֹהִים and יְהוָה; a god, a goddess;

1. a general appellation of deities or divinities: Acts 28:6; 1 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; once Θεός, Acts 19:37 G L T Tr WH; Θεοῦ φωνή καί οὐκ ἀνθρώπου, Acts 12:22; ἄνθρωπος ὤν ποιεῖς σεαυτόν Θεόν, John 10:33; plural, of the gods of the Gentiles: Acts 14:11; Acts 19:26; λεγόμενοι θεοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5a; οἱ φύσει μή ὄντες θεοί, Galatians 4:8; τοῦ Θεοῦ Ρ᾽εφαν (which see), Acts 7:43; of angels: εἰσί θεοί πολλοί, 1 Corinthians 8:5b (on which cf. Philo de somn. i. § 39 μέν ἀλήθεια Θεός εἰς ἐστιν, οἱ δ' ἐν καταχρησει λεγόμενοι πλείους). (On the use of the singular Θεός (and Latin deus) as a generic term by (later) heathen writers, see Norton, Genuineness of the Gospels, 2nd edition iii. addit. note D; cf. Dr. Ezra Abbot in Chris. Exam. for Nov. 1848, p. 389ff; Huidekoper, Judaism at Rome, chapter i. § ii.; see Bib. Sacr. for July 1856, p. 666f, and for addit. examples Nagelsbach, Homer. Theol., p. 129; also his Nachhomerische Theol., p. 139f; Stephanus' Thesaurus, under the word; and references (by Prof. Abbot) in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis, i., p. 120 note.)

2. Whether Christ is called God must be determined from John 1:1; John 20:28; 1 John 5:20; Romans 9:5; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:8f, etc.; the matter is still in dispute among theologians cf. Grimm, Institutio theologiae dogmaticae, edition 2, p. 228ff (and the discussion (on Romans 9:5) by Professors Dwight and Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature, etc. as above, especially, pp. 42ff, 113ff).

3. spoken of the only and true God: with the article, Matthew 3:9; Mark 13:19; Luke 2:13; Acts 2:11, and very often; with prepositions: ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 8:42,47 and often in John's writings; ὑπό τοῦ Θεοῦ Luke 1:26 ( T Tr WH ἀπό); Acts 26:6; παρά τοῦ Θεοῦ, John 8:40; John 9:16 ( L T Tr WH here omit the article); παρά τῷ Θεοῦ, Romans 2:13 ( Tr text omits, and L WH Tr marginal reading brackets the article); Romans 9:14>; ἐν τῷ Θεοῦ, Colossians 3:3; ἐπί τῷ Θεῷ, Luke 1:47; εἰς τόν Θεόν, Acts 24:15 ( Tdf. πρός); ἐπί τόν Θεόν, Acts 15:19; Acts 26:18,20; πρός τόν Θεόν, John 1:2; Acts 24:(15 Tdf.),16, and many other examples without the article: Matthew 6:24; Luke 3:2; Luke 20:38; Romans 8:8,33; 2 Corinthians 1:21; 2 Corinthians 5:19; 2 Corinthians 6:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:5, etc.; with prepositions: ἀπό Θεοῦ, John 3:2; John 16:30; Romans 13:1 ( L T Tr WH ὑπό) παρά Θεοῦ, John 1:6; ἐκ Θεοῦ, Acts 5:39; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Philippians 3:9; παρά Θεῷ, 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Peter 2:4; κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27; 2 Corinthians 7:9f; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 19, under the word Θεός τίνος (genitive of person), the (guardian) God of anyone, blessing and protecting him: Matthew 22:32; Mark 12:26f ( Mark 12:29 WH marginal reading (see below)); Luke 20:37; John 20:17; Acts 3:13; Acts 13:17; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Hebrews 11:16; Revelation 21:3 (without ; but G T Tr WH text omit the phrase); Θεός μου, equivalent to οὗ εἰμί, καί λατρεύω ( Acts 27:23): Romans 1:8; 1 Corinthians 1:4 ( Tr marginal reading brackets the genitive); 2 Corinthians 12:21; Philippians 1:3; Philippians 4:19; Philemon 1:4; κύριος Θεός σου, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτῶν (in imit. of Hebrew אֱלֹהֶיך יְהוָה, אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה, אֱלֹהֵיכֶם יְהוָה, אֶלֹהֵיהֶם יְהוָה): Matthew 4:7; Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:29 (see above); Luke 4:8,12; Luke 10:27; Acts 2:39; cf. Thilo, Cod. apocr. Nov. Test., p. 169; (and Lightfoot as quoted under the word κύριος, c. α. at the beginning); Θεός καί πατήρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ: Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 11:31 ( L T Tr WH omit ἡμῶν and Χριστοῦ); Ephesians 1:3; Colossians 1:3 ( L WH omit καί); 1 Peter 1:3; in which combination of words the genitive depends on Θεός as well as on πατήρ, cf. Fritzsche on Romans , iii., p. 232 f; (Oltramare on Romans , the passage cited; Lightfoot on Galatians 1:4; but some would restrict it to the latter; cf. e. g. Meyer on Romans , the passage cited; also on Ephesians , the passage cited; Ellicott on Galatians , the passage cited; also, Ephesians , the passage cited); Θεός τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ephesians 1:17; Θεός καί πατήρ ἡμῶν, Galatians 1:4; Philippians 4:20; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:11,13; Θεός πατήρ, 1 Corinthians 8:6; Θεός καί πατήρ, 1 Corinthians 15:24; Ephesians 5:20; James 1:27; James 3:9 ( Rec.; others κύριος καί πατήρ); ἀπό Θεοῦ πατρός ἡμῶν, Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 1:2; Ephesians 1:2; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:2; 1 Timothy 1:2 ( Rec., others omit ἡμῶν); Philemon 1:3; ( Θεός πατήρ, Colossians 3:17 L T Tr WH (cf. Lightfoot at the passage); elsewhere without the article as) Θεοῦ πατρός (in which phrase the two words have blended as it were into one, equivalent to a proper name, German Gottvater ( A. V. God the Father)): Philippians 2:11; 1 Peter 1:2; ἀπό Θεοῦ πατρός, Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 6:23; 2 Timothy 1:2; Titus 1:4; παρά Θεοῦ πατρός, 2 Peter 1:17; 2 John 3; cf. Wieseler, commentary üb.

d. Brief a. d. Galat., p. 10ff Θεός with the genitive of the thing of which God is the author (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30,1): τῆς ὑπομονῆς καί τῆς παρακλήσεως, Romans 15:5; τῆς ἐπλιδος, Romans 15:13; τῆς εἰρήνης, Romans 15:33; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; τῆς παρακλήσεως, 2 Corinthians 1:3. τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, the things of God, i. e. α. his counsels, 1 Corinthians 2:1 L β. his interests, Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33. γ. things due to God, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25. τά πρός τόν Θεόν, things respecting, pertaining to, God — contextually equivalent to the sacrificial business of the priest, Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; cf. Xenophon, rep. Lac. 13,11; Fritzsche on Romans , iii., p. 262 f Nom. Θεός for the vocative: Mark 15:34; Luke 18:11,13; John 20:28; Acts 4:24 ( R G; Hebrews 1:8 ?); Acts 10:7>; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 29,2; (Buttmann, 140 (123)). τῷ Θεῷ, God being judge (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31,4a.; 248 (232 f); Buttmann, § 133,14): after δυνατός, 2 Corinthians 10:4; after ἀστεῖος, Acts 7:20 (after ἄμεμπτος, Wisdom of Solomon 10:5; after μέγας, Jonah 3:3; see ἀστεῖος, 2). For the expressions ἄνθρωπος Θεοῦ, δύναμις Θεοῦ, υἱός Θεοῦ, etc., Θεός τῆς ἐλπίδος etc., ζῶν Θεός etc., see under ἄνθρωπος 6, δύναμις a., υἱός τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἐλπίς 2, ζάω I:1, etc.

4. Θεός is used of whatever can in any respect be likened to God, or resembles him in any way: Hebraistically, equivalent to God's representative or vicegerent, of magistrates and Judges , John 10:34 f after Psalm 81:6 (Psalm 82:6>) (of the wise Prayer of Manasseh , Philo de mut. nom. § 22; quod omn. prob. book § 7; ( σοφός λέγεται Θεός τοῦ ἄφρονος ... Θεός πρός φαντασίαν καί δοκησιν, quod det. pot. insid. § 44); πατήρ καί μήτηρ ἐμφανεις εἰσί θεοί, μιμούμενοι τόν ἀγεννητον ἐν τῷ ζοωπλάστειν, de decal. § 23; ὠνομάσθη (i. e. Moses) ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους Θεός καί βασιλεύς, de vita Moys. i. § 28; (de migr. Abr. § 15; de alleg. leg. i. § 13)); of the devil, Θεός τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου (see αἰών, 3), 2 Corinthians 4:4; the person or thing to which one is wholly devoted, for which alone he lives, e. g. κοιλία, Philippians 3:19.

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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

θεός , -οῦ , ,

(Acts 19:37 only; v. M, Pr., 60, 244), late voc., θεέ (Matthew 27:46; cf. Deuteronomy 3:24, al.),

[in LXX chiefly for H430, also for H410 and other cognate forms, H3068, etc.;]

a god or deity, God.

1. In polytheistic sense, a god or deity: Acts 28:6, 1 Corinthians 8:4, 2 Thessalonians 2:4, al.; pl., Acts 14:11; Acts 19:26, Galatians 4:8, al.

2. Of the one true God;

(a) anarthrous: Matthew 6:24, Luke 20:38, al.; esp. c. prep. (Kühner3, iii, 605), ἀπὸ θ ., John 3:2; ἐκ , Acts 5:39, 2 Corinthians 5:1, Philippians 3:9; ὑπό , Romans 13:1; παρὰ θεοῦ , John 1:6; παρὰ θεῴ , 2 Thessalonians 1:6, 1 Peter 2:4; παρὰ θεόν , Romans 8:27, 2 Corinthians 7:9-10; also when in gen. dependent on an anarth. noun (Bl., § 46, 6), Matthew 27:43, Luke 3:2, Romans 1:17, 1 Thessalonians 2:13; as pred., Luke 20:38, John 1:1, and when the nature and character rather than the person of God is meant, Acts 5:29, Galatians 2:6, al. (M, Th., 14);

(b) more freq., c. art.: Matthew 1:23, Mark 2:7, al. mult.; c. prep., ἀπὸ τ . θ ., Luke 1:26; ἐκ , John 8:42, al.; παρά τοῦ θ ., John 8:40; Papyri τῴ θ ., Romans 9:14; ἐν , Colossians 3:3; ἐπὶ τῷ θ ., Luke 1:47; ἐπὶ τὸν θ ., Acts 15:19; εἰς τ . θ ., Acts 24:15; πρὸς τ . θ ., John 1:2; c. gen. pers., Matthew 22:32, Mark 12:26-27, Luke 20:37, John 20:17, al.; ὁ θ . μου , Romans 1:8, Philippians 1:3, al.; ὁ θ . καὶ πατήρ κ . τ . λ ., Romans 15:6, Ephesians 1:3, Philippians 4:20, al.; c. gen. rei, Romans 15:5; Romans 15:13; Romans 15:33, 2 Corinthians 1:3, 1 Thessalonians 5:23; τὰ τ . θεοῦ , Matthew 16:23, Mark 12:17, 1 Corinthians 2:11; τὰ πρὸς τὸν θ ., Romans 15:17, Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; τ . θεῷ , as a superl. (LXX, Joshua 3:3), Acts 7:20, 2 Corinthians 10:4; Hebraistical]y, of judges (Psalms 82:6), John 10:34 (LXX), John 10:36

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For the application of the title θεός to the Ptolemaic kings it is sufficient to recall Brit. Mus. Inscrr. IV. 1 No. 906.3 (B.C. 284–273) where a votive offering is dedicated in honour of Πτολεμαίον τοῦ σωτῆρος καὶ θεοῦ, and the description of Ptolemy V. (Epiphanes) on the Rosetta stone—OGIS 90.10 (B.C. 196) ὑπάρχων θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ θεᾶς : cf. Deissmann LAE, p. 348 and the full discussion by E. Kornemann ";Zur Geschichte der antiken Herrscherkulte"; in Beiträge zur alten Geschichte [Klio] i., p. 51 ff. (Leipzig, 1902).

The same practice is still more strikingly illustrated in the Imperial period, as when in an inscr. from the Fayûm district, dated March 17th, B.C. 24, Augustus is described as θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ (OGIS 655.2), or as when a votive inscr. is addressed to Nero—ἀγαθῶ (ι) θεῶ (ι) (Cos 92.7) : see Deissmann ut s. p. 349. With this may be compared the frequent use for Augustus of the title υἱὸς θεοῦ, corresponding to the divi filius of the Latin inscrr., e.g. BGU I. 174.1 (A.D . 7) ἔτους ἕ [κ ]του καὶ τριακοστοῦ [τῆς ] Καίσαρος κρατήσεως θεοῦ υἱ [ ]ν (l. υἱοῦ), and, interesting as coming from the Emperor himself, the letter, IMAe III. 174 (A.D. 5), which begins—Καῖσαρ θεοῦ υἱὸς Σεβαστός. Other examples will be found in Deissmann BS, p. 166 f., LAE, p. 350 f., where the bearing of this usage upon the early Christian title of Christ is discussed : cf. also Harnack History of Dogma i. p. 118 ff. Mention should also be made of the Imperial oath, in which, following Ptolemaic practice, the person of the Emperor is directly invoked. A very early example is BGU II. 543.1 (B.C. 27) ὄμνυμι Καίσαρα Αὐτοκράτορα θεοῦ υἱόν : cf. Chrest. I. III.2 (A.D. 6) ὄμνυ ̣[μι ] [Καίσαρα ] Αὐτοκράτορα θεοῦ ν [ἱὸν ] Δία Ἐλευθέριον [Σεβαστόν ] with Wilcken’s important note. It gives one a thrill to find the very combination of John 20:28 applied in BGU IV. 1197.1 (B.C. 4) to Asclepiades, apparently a high official—τῷ θεῶι καὶ κυρίωι : the same designation recurs in ib. 1201.1 (A.D. 2) with reference to a priest, but the editor knows of no other exx. of this use of θεός.

From pagan letters we may cite a few instances of constantly recurring expressions—P Hib I. 79.6 (c. B.C. 260) τοῖς θεοῖς πολλὴ χά [ρι ]ς, P Giss I. 17.6 (time of Hadrian) (= Chrest. I. p. 566) χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς πᾶσι ὅτι σε διαφυλάσσουσι ἀπρόσκοπον, P Lond 42.3 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections, p. 9) ὡς τοῖς θεοῖς εὐχομένη διατελῶ, BGU I. 248.11 (ii/A.D.) θεῶν δὲ βουλομένων, ib. I. 27.11 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 101) ὡς ὁ θεὸς ἤθελεν, ib. II. 451.10 (i/ii A.D.) θεῶν ἐπιτρεπόν [τ ]ων, and P Oxy VI. 935.3 (iii/A.D.) θεῶν συνλαμβανόντων, Cf. .10 συνλαμβ [ ]νο [υσι ] γὰρ ἡμεῖν ἀεὶ ο [ ] π [άτ ]ριοι θεοὶ ἡμῶν δ ̣[ιδό ]ντες ἡμεῖν ὑγία [ν καὶ ] σω [τ ]ηρίαν. With this last may be compared the soldier’s letter to his sister, BGU II. 632.6 (ii/A.D.), in which he assures her that he is μνι ̣αν σου ποιούμενος (cf. Romans 1:9 al.) παρὰ τοῖς [ἐν ]θάδε θεοῖς, showing that for the time being he has transferred his allegiance to the gods of the place where he is garrisoned (cf. Deissmann LAE, p. 173).

For prepositional phrases see P Petr II. 13(19).7 (mid. iii/ B.C.) (= Witkowski .2, p. 19) καὶ ζῶντός σου καὶ εἰς θεοὺς ἀπελθόντος, P Tebt I. 58 recto .35 (B.C. III) σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς, ";by the grace of the gods,"; P Ryl II. 243.8 (ii/A.D.) ἐλπίζοντες σὺν θεῷ τὸ πεδείον σπαρῆναι, ";hoping that with God’s help the field will be sown,"; where, as the editors point out, the use of θεῷ alone does not imply that the writer was a Christian (cf. Archiv i. p. 436), and, for an undoubtedly Christian ex., the letter of the presbyter Psenosiris, P Grenf II. 73.16 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 118) ὅταν ἔλθῃ σὺν Θεῷ, with the corresponding use of ἐν Θ (ε) in .6. In P Iand 11.2 (iii/A.D.) ἐλπίδω γὰρ εἰς θεόν, the writer may well be a Christian (or a Jew), cf. Acts 24:15,1 Peter 3:5; and the same may perhaps be said regarding BGU I. 246.13 (ii/iii A.D.) νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας ἐντυνχάνω τῷ θεᾦ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, cf. 1 Thessalonians 3:10. A iv/A.D. letter of a Christian servant to his master, which abounds in echoes of NT language, has—ὡς ἐν ἄλ ]λ ̣οις πλείστοις νῦν ἔτι μᾶλλον ἡ πρὸς σὲ [τοῦ δεσπό ]τ ̣ον θεοῦ γνῶσις ἀνεφάνη (cf. Luke 19:11 ἅπασιν ἡμῖν, ";as on many other occasions so now still more plainly the favour of the Lord God towards you has been revealed to all of us"; (P Oxy VI. 939.4 = Selections, p. 128) : cf. also P Oxy I. 120.16 (iv/ A.D.) μὴ ἆρα παρέλκομαι ἢ καὶ εἴργομαι ἔστ᾽ ἂν ὁ θεὸς ἡμᾶς αἰλαιήσῃ (l. ἐλεήσῃ), ";am I to be distracted and oppressed until Heaven takes pity on me?"; For the voc. θεἑ, which is found in Matthew 27:46, cf. the magical P Lond 121.529 (iii/ A.D.) (= I. p. 101) κύριε θεὲ μέγιστε, which is reinforced by a Pisidian inscr., unfortunately undated, JHS 1902, p. 355, θέ. See also s.vv. ἄγνωστος, ἄξιος, κύριος, παντοκράτωρ, σωτήρ, ὕψιστος, and for the Pauline usage Slaten Qualitative Nouns, p. 64 ff.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (1343)NAS (1312)HCS (1314)
1 Corinthians86
2 Corinthians65
1 Thessalonians30
2 Thessalonians14
1 Timothy21
2 Timothy12
1 Peter35
2 Peter7
1 John40
2 John2
3 John2
1 Corinthians87
2 Corinthians65
1 Thessalonians30
2 Thessalonians14
1 Timothy20
2 Timothy13
1 Peter34
2 Peter7
1 John40
2 John2
3 John2
1 Corinthians106
2 Corinthians79
1 Thessalonians36
2 Thessalonians18
1 Timothy22
2 Timothy13
1 Peter39
2 Peter7
1 John62
2 John2
3 John3
List of Word Forms
Θεε Θεέ Θεοι Θεοί θεοὶ θεοις θεοίς θεοῖς θεόις θεον θεόν θεὸν θεος θεός θεὸς θεου θεού θεοῦ θεόυ θεους θεούς θεοὺς ΘΕΩ θεώ θεῷ θεων θεών και κύριος κυρίου κυρίω οἴκῳ kuriou kyriou kyríou oiko oikō oíkoi oíkōi Thee Theé THEo THEŌ Theoi Theoí theoì theôi theō̂i theois theoîs theon theón theòn theos theós theòs theou theoû theous theoùs

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