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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #235 - ἀλλά

Word Origin:
neuter plural of (243)
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. but
    1. nevertheless, notwithstanding
    2. an objection
    3. an exception
    4. a restriction
    5. nay, rather, yea, moreover
    6. forms a transition to the cardinal matter
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


Conj., orig. neut. pl. of ἄλλος, otheruise: used adversatively to limit or oppose words, sentences, or clauses, stronger than δέ:

I in simple oppositions, but,

1. after neg. clauses, οὐ κακός, ἀλλ' ἀγαθός Thgn. 212; οὐδὲ μὲν Ἕκτωρ μίμνεν, ἀλλ'.. ἐφορμᾶται Il. 15.690, etc. after a simple neg., ἦ παραφρονεῖς; οὔκ, ἀλλ' ὕπνος μ' ἔχει Ar. V. 9, etc. freq. after οὐ μόνον, μὴ μόνον, with or without καί, οὐ μόνον ἅπαξ, ἀ. πολλάκις Pl. Phdr. 228a, cf. Th. 3.59, X. Mem. 1.4.13, etc.; without μόνον, οὐχ ἑσπέρας, ἀλλὰ καὶ μεσημβρίας E. Fr. 1006: also after οὐχ (or μὴ (ὅτι, οὐχ (or μὴ) ὅπως, either, not only.. but.., μὴ ὅτι ἰδιώτην τινά, ἀλλὰ τὸν μέγαν βασιλέα Pl. Ap. 40d; μὴ ὅτι κατὰ τὸ σῶμα, ἀλλὰ καὶ κατὰ τὴν ψυχήν Id. Smp. 207e; or, not only not.. but.., οὐχ ὅπως κωλυταὶ.. γενήσεσθε, ἀλλὰ καὶ.. περιόψεσθε Th. 1.35; οὐχ ὅτι ὠργίζοντο, ἀλλ' ἐζήλουν D. 19.265; the neg. form is ἀλλ' οὐδέ, μὴ ὅτι ὑπὲρ ἄλλου, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ δίκην εἴρηκα Isaiah 10:1, etc.

2. in the apodosis of hypothetical sentences, still, at least, εἴπερ γάρ τε.. ἀλλά τε Il. 1.82, etc.: in Prose, esp. ἀλλ' οὖν.. γε or ἀλλά.. γε, εἰ καὶ σμικρά, ἀ. οὖν ἴση γε ἡ χάρις Hdt. 3.140; εἰ μή (sc. ὁρῶ), ἀλλ' ἀκούω γε, Pl. Grg. 470d, cf. Isoc. 3.15,al.; εἰ μηδέν ἐστι τελευτήσαντι, ἀλλ' οὖν τοῦτόν γε τὸν χρόνον ἧττον ἀηδὴς ἔσομαι Pl. Phd. 91b (in later Gk. ἀλλά γε may be in juxtaposition, εἰ ἄλλοις οὐκ εἰμὶ ἀπόστολος, ἀλλά γε ὑμῖν εἰμί 1 Corinthians 9:2, and ἀ. γε δή is found with vv. Il. in Pl. Phdr. 262a); εἰ καὶ μετέχουσι.. ἀλλ' οὐ.. Arist. Pol. 1282a11: less freq. after Conjunctions of Time, as ἐπεὶ δή Od. 14.151; ἐπεί S. OC 241. after Hom., . is used elliptically, esp. with Advbs. of Time, ὦ θεοὶ πατρῷοι, συγγένεσθέ γ' ἀ. νῦν (sc. εἰ μὴ πρότερον, ἀ. νῦν γε) S. El. 411, cf. Ant. 552, E. Heracl. 565; ἀ. τῷ χρόνῳ Id. Med. 912; ἐὰν οὖν ἀ. νῦν γ' ἔτι, i.e. ἐὰν οὖν [μὴἄλλοτε], ἀ. νῦν γε.. if then now at least ye still.., D. 3.33, cf. Lys. 10.15: without an Adv. of Time, at least, ἡ δ' ἀ. πρός σε μικρὸν εἰπάτω μόνον Ar. Pax 660, cf. S. OC 1276, E. HF 331.

3. sts.= ἀλλ' ἤ (q.v.), except, but, οὔτι μοι αἴτιος ἄλλος, ἀ... τοκῆε no one else, but.., Od. 8.312; οὐδέ τις ἄλλη φαίνετο γαιάων, ἀ. οὐρανὸς ἠδὲ θάλασσα 12.404; ἔπαισεν οὔτις ἀ. ἐγώ S. OT 1331; ἡδέα.. οὐκ ἔστιν ἀ. τούτοις Arist. EN 1176a22, cf. 1152b30: cf. reverse process in our word but=be out, except: sts. with force of after comparatives, τάφον, οὐκ ἐν ᾧ κεῖνται μᾶλλον, ἀ.ἐν ᾧ ἡ δόξα κτλ. not that in which they are lying, but far more.., Th. 2.43; οὐχ ὅπλων τὸ πλέον, ἀ. δαπάνης Id. 1.83.

4. with neg. after an affirmative word or clause, to be rendered simply by not, ἀγαθῶν, ἀ. οὐχὶ κακῶν αἴτιον Lys. 14.16; τῶν σπουδαίων, ἀ. μὴ τῶν φαύλων Isoc. 1.2; ἐκεῖθεν, ἀ. οὐκ ἐνθένδε ἡρπάσθη Pl. Phdr. 229d: after a question, τί δεῖ ἐμβαλεῖν λόγον περὶ τούτου, ἀ. οὐχὶ προειπεῖν; X. Cyr. 2.2.19, cf. Isoc. 15.229, etc. without neg., μικρὸς μὲν ἔην δέμας, ἀ. μαχητής Il. 5.801.

II to oppose whole sentences, but, yet:

1. freq. in transitions, as Il. 1.135, 140, etc.; ἀ. καὶ ὥς.. 1.116; ἀ. οὐδ' ὥς.. Od. 1.6: after Hom. in answers and objections, nay but.., well but.., freq. with negs., esp. in making and answering objections, Ar. Ach. 402, 407; also in affirmative answers, Pl. Prt. 330b, Grg. 449a, etc.: repeated in a succession of questions or objections, πότερον ᾔτουν σέ τι.. ; ἀ. ἀπῄτουν; ἀ. περὶ παιδικῶν μαχόμενος; ἀ. μεθύων ἐπαρῴνησα; X. An. 5.8.4, cf. Pl. Thg. 123e, Isoc. 17.47; ἀ. μήν.., answered by .., Arist. Pol. 1287a23: in vehement answers Pl. often uses νὴ τοὺς θεοὺς ἀ..., μὰ Δἴ ἀ.., Grg. 481c, Phlb. 36a, cf. Alc. 1.110b, c: at beginning of speech, to introduce a general objection, Od. 4.472, cf. X. Smp. 1, Men. Georg. 22.

2. with imper. or subj., to remonstrate, encourage, persuade, etc., freq. in Hom., ἀ. ἄγε, ἴθι, Il. 1.210, 11.611; ἀ. ἴομεν 6.526; ἀ. πίθεσθε 1.259; after voc., ὦ Φίντις, ἀ. ζεῦξον Pi. O. 6.22, cf. Tyrt. 10.15, etc.; answered by a second ., ἀ. περιμένετε. ἀ. περιμενοῦμεν Pl. R. 327b; ἀλλ' ἕρπεθ' ὡς τάχιστα S. OC 1643, cf. Ant. 1029, etc.

3. to break off a subject abruptly, ἀ. τά γε Ζεὺς οἶδεν Od. 15.523; ἀ. ταῦτα μὲν τί δεῖλέγειν; S. Ph. 11, cf. Tr. 467, etc.

4. in resuming an address after parenthesis, Pi. O. 2.12, 4.7.

5. in elliptical phrases, οὐ μὴν ἀ., οὐ μέντοι ἀ... it is not [so], but.., ὁ ἵππος πίπτει καὶ μικροῦ αὐτὸν ἐξετραχήλισεν· οὐ μὴν [ἐξετ ραχήλισεν] ἀ. ἐπέμεινεν ὁ Κῦρος it did not however [throw him], but.., X. Cyr. 1.4.8; οὐ μέντοι ἀ. Pl. Smp. 173b; οὐ γὰρ ἀ. Ar. Ra. 58, 498: after δέ, ὑμεῖς δέ μ' ἀ. παιδὶ συμφονεύσατε E. Hec. 391.

III when joined with other Particles, each retains proper force, as,

1. ἀλλ' ἄρα, used by Hom. in transitions, Il. 6.418, 12.320, etc.; later, to introduce an objection, Pl. Ap. 25a; in questions, ἀλλ' ἆρα..; Id. R. 381b.

2. ἀλλ' οὖν, concessive, at all events, Ar. Ra. 1298; τοὺς πρώτους χρόνους ἀ. οὖνπροσεποιοῦνθ' ὑμῖν εἶναι φίλοι Aeschin. 3.86; well then, Pl. Prt. 310a; but then, however, with γε following, Hdt. 3.140, S. Ant. 84, E. Cyc. 652, Isoc. 3.18, etc.; ἀλλ' οὖν γε in apodosi, v. supr. 1.2.

3. ἀλλὰ γάρ, freq. with words between, but really, certainly, as ἀλλὰ γὰρ Κρέοντα λεύσσω.., παύσω γόους, but this is irreg. for ἀλλά, Κρέοντα γὰρ λεύσσω, παύσω γόους, E. Ph. 1308, cf. S. Ant. 148; for the reg. order cf. S. Ph. 81, E. Heracl. 480, Med. 1067; freq. elliptical, the Verb being understood, Hdt. 8.8, A. Pr. 941, S. Ant. 155: in Hom. only with negs., ἀλλ' οὐ γάρ Il. 7.242, Od. 14.355, al., cf. S. OT 1409; ἀ. γὰρ δή, ἀ. γάρ τοι, S. Aj. 167, Ph. 81.

4. ἀ. εἰ.. quid si.. ? Il. 16.559.

5. ἀ. ἦ in questions, chiefly of surprise or remonstrance, A. Ch. 220, S. El. 879, Ar. Ach. 1111; ἀλλ' ἦ, τὸ λεγόμενον, κατόπιν ἑορτῆς ἥκομεν; Pl. Grg. 447a, cf. Prt. 309c.

6. ἀ. followed by strengthening Particle, ἀλλ' ἤτοι μὲν ταῦτα θεῶν ἐν γούνασι κεῖται Il. 17.514; esp. c. imper., 1.211, al.; ἀλλά τοι Od. 15.518, A. Pers. 795, etc.; ἀ. μέντοι, with or without γε, Pl. Smp. 214e, Hp.Ma. 287d, al.; ἀ. μήν, v. μήν; ἀ. δή, mostly with words between, S. Aj. 1271, OC 586, Isoc. 4.109, etc.; without intervening words, Pl. Ap. 37c, al.; ἀ. δῆτα Id. Hp.Ma. 285c; ἀ. μὲν δὴ καὶ αὐτός Id. Tht. 143b, cf. S. El. 103. = et quidem, Olymp. in Mete. 1.13, al.

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