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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #2532 - καί

Word Origin:
apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. and, also, even, indeed, but
Frequency count based on 1894 Scrivener Greek New Testament.
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions




1. copulative, joining words and sentences, and; also Adv., even, also, just, freq. expressing emphatic assertion or assent, corresponding as positive to the negative οὐ (μή) or οὐδέ (μηδέ). copulative, and, I joining words or sentences to those preceding, ἦ, καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ' ὀφρύσινεῦσε Κρονίων Il. 1.528, etc.: repeated with two or more Nouns, αἱ δὲ ἔλαφοι κ. δορκάδες κ. οἱ ἄγριοι οἶες κ. οἱ ὄνοι οἱ ἄγριοι X. Cyr. 1.4.7; joining only the last pair, Cleom. 2.1 (p.168.5 Z.), Phlp. in APr. 239.30, etc., v. l. in Arist. Po. 1451a20; ὁ ὄχλος πλείων κ. πλείων ἐπέρρει more and more, X. Cyr. 7.5.39; to add epithets after πολύς, πολλὰ κ. ἐσθλά Il. 9.330; πολλὰ κ. μεγάλα D. 28.1, etc.

2. to addalimiting or defining expression, πρὸς μακρὸν ὄρος κ. Κύνθιον ὄχθον to the mountain and specially to.., h. Revelation 17:1-18, cf. A. Ag. 63 (anap.), S. Tr. 1277 (anap.) (sts. in reverse order, πρὸς δῶμα Διὸς κ. μακρὸν Ὄλυμπον Il. 5.398); to add by way of climax, θεῶν.. κ. Ποσειδῶνος all the gods, and above all.., A. Pers. 750, etc.; ἐχθροὶ κ. ἔχθιστοι Th. 7.68; τινὲς κ. συχνοί Pl. Grg. 455c; freq. ἄλλοι τε καί.., ἄλλως τε καί.., v. ἄλλος 11.6, ἄλλως 1.3; ὀλίγου τινὸς ἄξια κ. οὐδενός little or nothing, Id. Ap. 23a: joined with the demonstr. Pron. οὗτος (q. v.), εἶναι.. δούλοισι, κ. τούτοισι ὡς δρηπέτῃσι Hdt. 6.11, cf. 1.147; κ. ταῦτα and this too.., γελᾶν ἀναπείθειν, κ. ταῦθ' οὕτω πολέμιον ὄντα τῷ γέλωτι X. Cyr. 2.2.16, etc.

II at the beginning of a sentence,

1 in appeals or requests, καί μοι δὸς τὴν Χεῖρα Il. 23.75; καί μοι λέγε.., καί μοι ἀπόκριναι.., Pl. Euthphr. 3a, Grg. 462b; freq. in Oratt., καί μοι λέγε.. τὸ ψήφισμα, καί μοι ἀνάγνωθι.., D. 18.105, Lys. 14.8, etc.

2. in questions, to introduce an objection or express surprise, κ. τίς τόδ' ἐξίκοιτ' ἂν ἀγγέλων τάχος; A. Ag. 280; κ. πῶς..; pray how..? E. Ph. 1348; κ. δὴ τί..; but then what..? Id. Hel. 101; κ. ποῖον..; S. Aj. 462; κ. τίς εἶδε πώποτε βοῦς κριβανίτας; Ar. Ach. 86; κἄπειτ' ἔκανες; E. Med. 1398 (anap.); κ. τίς πώποτε Χαριζόμενος ἑτέρῳ τοῦτο εἰργάσατο; Antipho 5.57, cf. Isaiah 1:20, Isoc. 12.23, Pl. Tht. 163d,al.

3. = καίτοι, and yet, Ar. Eq. 1245, E. HF 509.

4. at the beginning of a speech, Lys. Fr. 36a.


1. after words implying sameness or like ness, as, γνώμῃσι ἐχρέωντο ὁμοίῃσι κ. σύ they had the same opinion as you, Hdt. 7.50, cf. 84; ἴσον or ἴσα κ..., S. OT 611, E. El. 994; ἐν ἴσῳ (sc. ἐστὶ) κ. εἰ.. Th. 2.60, etc.

2. after words implying comparison or opposition, αἱ δαπάναι οὐχ ὁμοίως κ. πρίν Id. 7.28; πᾶν τοὐναντίον ἔχει νῦν τε κ. ὅτε.. Pl. Lg. 967a.

3. to express simultaneity, ἦν ἦμαρ δεύτερον.., κἀγὼ κατηγόμην S. Ph. 355, cf. Th. 1.50; παρέρχονταί τε μέσαι νύκτες κ. ψύχεται [ τὸ ὕδωρ ] Hdt. 4.181, cf. 3.108; [ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ] οὐκ ἔφθασαν τὴν ἀρχὴν κατασχόντες κ. Θηβαίοις εὐθὺς ἐπεβούλευσαν Isoc. 8.98. joining an affirm. clause with a neg., ἀλλ' ὥς τι δράσων εἷρπε κοὐ θανούμενος S. Tr. 160, etc. καί.., καί.. correlative, not only.., but also.., κ. ἀεὶ κ. νῦν, κ. τότε κ. νῦν, Pl. Grg. 523a, Phlb. 60b; κ. κατὰ γῆν κ. κατὰ θάλατταν X. An. 1.1.7. by anacoluthon, ὣς φαμένη κ. κερδοσύνῃ ἡγήσατ' Ἀθήνη, for ὣς ἔφη κ..., Il. 22.247; ἔρχεται δὲ αὐτή τε.. κ. τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα, for κ. ὁ υἱός, X. Cyr. 1.3.1; ἄλλας τε κατηγεόμενοί σφι ὁδούς, κ. τέλος ἐγίνοντο Hdt. 9.104; τοιοῦτος ὤν, κᾆτ' ἀνὴρ ἔδοξεν εἶναι Ar. Eq. 392, cf. Nu. 624.

IV even, also, just,

1 τάχα κεν κ. ἀναίτιον αἰτιόῳτο even the innocent, Il. 11.654, cf. 4.161, etc.; δόμεναι κ. μεῖζον ἄεθλον an even greater prize, 23.551, cf. 10.556, 5.362: with numerals, κ. πέντε full five, 23.833; γενομένης κ. δὶς ἐκκλησίας Th. 1.44, cf. Hdt. 2.44, 60, 68, al. (but ἐτῶν δύο κ. τριῶν two or three, Th. 1.82, cf. X. Eq. 4.4).

2. also, κ. ἐγώ I also, Il. 4.40; κ. αὐτοί they also, X. An. 3.4.44, etc.; Ἀγίας καὶ Σωκράτης κ. τούτω ἀπεθανέτην likewise died, ib. 2.6.30; in adding surnames, etc., Ὦχος ὁ κ. Δαρειαῖος Ctes. Fr. 29.49 (sed Photii est): Ptol. Papyri have nom. ὃς κ., gen. τοῦ κ. etc., Πανίσκος ὃς κ. Πετεμῖνις PLond. 2.219 (b) 2 (ii B.C.); dat. τῷ κ. ib.(a) v2, PRein. 26.5 (ii B. C.); nom. ὁ κ. first in PTeb. 110.1 (i B. C.), freq. later, BGU 22.25 (ii A. D.), etc.; Ἰούδας ὁ κ. Μακκαβαῖος J. AJ 12.6.4; Σαῦλος ὁ κ. Παῦλος Acts 13:9 : with ἄλλος, λαβέτω δὲ κ. ἄλλος Od. 21.152; εἴπερ τι κ. ἄλλο, ὥς τις κ. ἄλλος, X. Mem. 3.6.2, An. 1.3.15, cf. Pl. Phd. 59a, Ar. Nu. 356: freq. in antithetic phrases, οὐ μόνον.., ἀλλὰ καὶ.., not only.., but also.., v. μόνος; οὐδὲν μᾶλλον.. ἢ οὐ καὶ.. Hdt. 5.94, al. freq. used both in the anteced. and relat. clause, where we put also in the anteced. only, εἰ μὲν κ. σὺ εἶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὧνπερ κ. ἐγώ Pl. Grg. 458a, cf. Il. 6.476, X. An. 2.1.21.

3. freq. in apodosi, after temporal Conjs., ἀλλ' ὅτε δή ῥα.., κ. τότε δή.. Il. 1.494, cf. 8.69, Od. 14.112; also after εἰ, Il. 5.897: in Prose, ὡς δὲ ἔδοξεν, κ. ἐχώρουν Th. 2.93: as a Hebraism, κ. ἐγένετο.. κ... LXX Genesis 24:30, al., Luke 1:59, etc.

4. with Advs., to give emphasis, κ. κάρτα Hdt. 6.125; κ. λίην full surely, Il. 19.408, Od. 1.46; κ. μᾶλλον Il. 8.470, cf. E. Heracl. 386; κ. πάλαι, κ. πάνυ, S. OC 1252, Pl. Chrm. 154e; κ. μάλα, κ. σφόδρα, in answers, Ar. Nu. 1326, Pl. La. 191e.

5. with words expressing a minimum, even so much as, were it but, just, ἱέμενος κ. καπνὸν ἀποθρῴσκοντα νοῆσαι Od. 1.58; οἷς ἡδὺ κ. λέγειν Ar. Nu. 528; τίς δὲ κ. προσβλέψεται; who will so much as look at you? E. IA 1192, cf. Ar. Ra. 614, Pl. Ap. 28b, 35b.

6. just, τοῦτ' αὐτὸ κ. νοσοῦμεν 'tis just that that ails me, E. Andr. 906, cf. Ba. 616, S. Tr. 490, Ar. Pax 892, Ra. 73, Pl. Grg. 456a, Tht. 166d: freq. with a relat., τὸ κ. κλαίουσα τέτηκα Il. 3.176; διὸ δὴ καὶ.. Th. 1.128, etc.: also in interrogations (usu. to be rendered by emphasis in intonation), ποίου Χρόνου δὲ καὶ πεπόρθηται πόλις; and how long ago was the city sacked? A. Ag. 278; ποῦ καί σφε θάπτει; where is he burying her? E. Alc. 834, cf. S. Aj. 1290, al., X. An. 5.8.2, Ar. Pax 1289, Pl. Euthphr. 6b, D. 4.46, etc.

7. even, just, implying assent, ἔπειτά με κ. λίποι αἰών thereafter let life e'en leave me, Il. 5.685, cf. 17.647, 21.274, Od. 7.224.

8. κ. εἰ even if, of a whole condition represented as an extreme case, opp. εἰ κ. although, notwithstanding that, of a condition represented as immaterial even if fulfilled, cf. Il. 4.347, 5.351, Od. 13.292, 16.98 with Il. 5.410, Od. 6.312, 8.139, etc.; εἰ κ. ἠπιστάμην if I had been able, Pl. Phd. 108d, cf. Lg. 663d. (This remark does not apply to cases where εἰ and καί each exert their force separtely, as εἴ περ ἀδειής τ' ἐστί, καὶ εἰ.. and if.. Il. 7.117, cf. Hdt. 5.78, etc.)

9. before a Participle, to represent either καὶ εἰ.., or εἰ καί.., although, albeit, Ἕκτορα κ. μεμαῶτα μάχης σχήσεσθαι ὀΐω, for ἢν κ. μεμάῃ, how much soever he rage, although he rage, Il. 9.655; τί σὺ ταῦτα, κ. ἐσθλὸς ἐών, ἀγορεύεις; (for εἰ κ. ἐσθλὸς εἶ) 16.627, cf. 13.787, Od. 2.343, etc.; κ. τύραννος ὢν ὅμως S. OC 851.


1. καί and, is by Poets sts. put after another word, ἔγνωκα, τοῖσδε κοὐδὲν ἀντειπεῖν ἔχω, for καὶ τοῖσδε οὐδέν A. Pr. 51, cf. Euph. 51.7, etc.

2. καί also, sts. goes between a Pr and its case, ἐν κ. θαλάσσᾳ Pi. O. 2.28.

3. very seldom at the end of a verse, S. Ph. 312, Ar. V. 1193.


with , as κἄν, κἀγαθοί, etc.;

with ε, as κἀγώ, κἄπειτα, etc., Dor. κἠγώ, κἤπειτα, etc.;

with η, as Χἠ, Χἠμέρη, Χἠμεῖς, etc.;

with in Χἰκετεύετε, Χἰλαρή;

with ο, as Χὠ, Χὤστις, etc.;

with υ in Χὐμεῖς, Χὐποχείριον, etc.;

with ω in the pron. ᾧ, Χᾦ;

with αι, as κᾀσχρῶν;

with αυ, as καὐτός;

with ει, as κεἰ, κεἰς (but also κἀς), κᾆτα;

with εὐ-, as κεὐγένεια, κεὐσταλής;

with οι in Χοἰ (Χᾠ EM 816.34);

with ου in Χοὖτος, κοὐ, κοὐδέ, and the like.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 καί, a conjunction, and; the most frequent by far of all the particles in the N. T. (On its uses see Winer s Grammar, § 53,3ff; Buttmann, 361 (310ff), and cf. Ellicott on Philippians 4:12; on the difference between it and τέ see under the word τέ at the beginning)

I. It serves as a copulative i. e. to connect (Latin et, atque, German und);

1. it connects single words or terms:

a. universally, as οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί Σαδδουκαῖοι, Matthew 16:1; Θεός καί πατήρ, he who is God and Father (see Θεός, 3); ἐν καρδία καλή καί ἀγαθή, Luke 8:15; πολυμερῶς καί πολυτρόπως, Hebrews 1:1; it is repeated before single terms, to each of which its own force and weight is thus given: υἱοθεσία καί δόξα καί αἱ διαθῆκαι καί νομοθεσία καί λατρεία καί αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι t, Romans 9:4; ἁτια καί διακαια καί ἀγαθή, Romans 7:12; add, Matthew 23:23; Luke 14:21; John 16:8; Acts 15:20,29; Acts 21:25; Hebrews 9:10; Revelation 5:12; Revelation 18:12 f; cf. Winer s Grammar, 519f (484).

b. it connects numerals; and so that (contrary to the more common usage) the greater number precedes: δέκα καί ὀκτώ, Luke 13:4,11 (but in both passages, L and Tr brackets, WH omits καί; Tdf. δεκαοκτώ), 16; τεσσαράκοντα καί ἕξ, John 2:20; add, John 5:5 G T; Acts 13:20; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 37,4; (Lightfoot on Galatians 1:18; noteworthy also is its use in 2 Corinthians 13:1 (cf. Deuteronomy 19:15, the Sept.) ἐπί στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καί τριῶν (in Matthew 18:16 τριῶν cf. Winer s Grammar, 440 (410) note) at the mouth of two witnesses and (should there be so many) of three; a similar use of καί, to lend a certain indefiniteness to the expression, occurs occasionally with other than numerical specifications, as James 4:13 σήμερον καί ( Rst G; but L T Tr WH ) αὔριον; cf. Kühner, § 521,2; Ebeling, Lex. Homer, under the word, p. 614 a).

c. it joins to partitive words the general notion; so that it is equivalent to and in general, and in a word, in short: Πέτρος καί οἱ ἀπόστολοι, Acts 5:29; οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς (καί οἱ πρεσβύτεροι Rec.) καί τό συνέδριον ὅλον, Matthew 26:59; καί δικαιώμασι σαρκός, Hebrews 9:10 Rec. Tr brackets WH marginal reading; καί ἐπί τόν Ἰσραήλ τοῦ Θεοῦ, Galatians 6:16, and often in Greek writings; cf. Winer s Grammar, 437f (407); 520f (485); (Buttmann, 363 (311 f); 400 (343)); with τέ preceding, τέ ... αὐτοῦ δύναμις καί θειότης, Romans 1:20 (see τέ, 2a.); and, on the other hand, it joins to a general idea something particular, which is already comprised indeed in that general notion but by this form of expression is brought out more emphatically (which Strabo 8 (1), p. 340 calls συνκαταλέγειν τό μέρος τῷ ὅλῳ); so that it is equivalent to and especially (cf. Winer's Grammar, as above): τά πάντα καί τά τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, Matthew 8:33; τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καί τῷ Πέτρῳ, Mark 16:7; αἱ φωναί αὐτῶν καί τῶν ἀρχιερέων, Luke 23:23 ( R G); σύν γυναιξί καί Μαριάμ, Acts 1:14; ἐν Ιουδα καί Ἱερουσαλήμ, 1 Maccabees 2:6; πᾶς Ιουδα καί Ἱερουσαλήμ, 2 Chronicles 35:24, cf. 32:33; often so in Greek writings also.

2. It connects clauses and sentences;

a. universally, as διακαθαριεῖ τήν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ καί συνάξει τόν σῖτον κτλ., Matthew 3:12; εἰσῆλθον ... καί ἐδίδασκον, Acts 5:21; and in innumerable other examples b. In accordance with the simplicity of the ancient popular speech, and especially of the Hebrew tongue, it links statement to statement, the logical relations of which the more cultivated language expresses either by more exact particles, or by the use of the participial or the relative construction (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 60,3; Buttmann, 288 (248ff); 361 f (310f)): e. g. that very frequent formula ἐγένετο ... καί (see γίνομαι, 2b.); καί εἶδον καί (equivalent to ὅτι) σεισμός ἐγένετο, Revelation 6:12; τέξεται υἱόν καί καλέσεις τό ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (equivalent to οὗ ὄνομα καλέσεις), Matthew 1:21; καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καί (equivalent to ὅθεν) ποιήσωμεν σκηνάς, Mark 9:5; clauses are thus connected together in clusters; as, Matthew 7:25,27 (an example of six clauses linked together by καί); Matthew 14:9 ff; Mark 1:12-14; Luke 18:32-34; John 2:13-16; John 10:3; 1 Corinthians 12:5-6; Revelation 6:2,8, 12-16; Revelation 9:1-4 (where nine sentences are strung together by καί), etc. after a designation of time καί annexes what will be or was done at that time: ἤγγικεν ὥρα καί παραδίδοται κτλ., Matthew 26:45; ἦν δέ ὥρα τρίτῃ καί ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν, Mark 15:25; ἐγγύς ἦν τό πάσχα ... καί ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα Ἰησοῦς, John 2:13; ἡμέραι ἔρχονται καί συντελέσω, Hebrews 8:8; add, Luke 23:44; John 4:35; John 5:1; John 11:55; Acts 5:7; and not infrequent so in Greek writings, as ἤδη δέ ἦν ὀψέ καί οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἐξαπίνης πρυμναν ἀκρουοντο, Thucydides 1,50; cf. Matthiae, § 620,1a., p. 1481; Winer s Grammar, 430 (405f); (Buttmann, 301 (310)).

c. it joins affirmative to negative sentences, as μή συνκοφαντησατε καί ἀρκεῖσθε, Luke 3:14; οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις καί τό φρέαρ ἐστι βαθύ, John 4:11; οὔτε ... ἐπιδέχεται καί ... κωλύει, 3 John 1:10 (rarely so in Greek writings, as Euripides, Iph. Taur. 578; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 714); much more often it annexes a clause depending on the preceding negative: μήποτε σε παραδῷ ... καί κριτής σε παραδῷ ... καί εἰς φυλακήν βληθήσῃ, Matthew 5:25; add, Matthew 7:6; Matthew 10:38; Matthew 13:15; Matthew 27:64; Luke 12:58; Luke 21:34; John 6:53; John 12:40; Acts 28:27; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; 1 Timothy 6:1; Hebrews 12:15; Revelation 16:15; (see Buttmann, 368 (315)

d.; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 56,2a.).

d. it annexes what follows from something said before (καί consecutive), so as to be equivalent to and so: Matthew 5:15 (καί λάμπει); Matthew 23:32 (καί πληρώσατε); 2 Corinthians 11:9 (καί ἐν παντί); Hebrews 3:19; 1 John 3:19 (καί ἔμπροσθεν); 2 Peter 1:19 (καί ἔχομεν); so in statements after imperatives and words having the force of an imperative: δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καί ποιήσω ὑμᾶς etc. Matthew 4:19; εἶπε λόγῳ, καί ἰαθήσεται παῖς μου, Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:7; (ἀντισητε τῷ διαβόλῳ καί φεύξεται ἀφ' ὑμῶν, James 4:7; add, Matthew 7:7; Mark 6:22; Luke 10:28; John 14:16; Revelation 4:1; cf. Fritzsche on Matthew , pp. 187 (and 416) (cf. Sirach 2:6 Sirach 3:17).

e. with a certain rhetorical emphasis, it annexes something apparently at variance with what has been previously said; so that it is equivalent to and yet (cf. Stallbaum on Plato, Apology, p. 29b.); so the Latin atque (cf. Beier on Cicero, de off. 3,11, 48): Matthew 3:14 (καί σύ ἔρχῃ πρός με); Matthew 6:26; Matthew 10:29; Mark 12:12; John 1:5 (καί σκοτία κτλ.); John 1:10 (καί κόσμος); John 3:11,32; John 5:40 (καί οὐ θέλετε); John 6:70; John 7:28; John 8:49,55 (καί οὐκ ἐγνώκατε); John 9:30; 1 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 6:9; Hebrews 3:9; Revelation 3:1 ( ... ζῇς, καί νεκρός εἰ), etc. when a vain attempt is spoken of: Matthew 12:43 (ζητεῖ καί οὐχ εὑρίσκει); Matthew 13:17; 26:60>; Luke 13:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18.

f. like the Hebrew וְ (see Gesenius, Thesaurus, i., p. 396{a}), it begins an apodosis, which is thus connected with the protasis, cf. the German da (or English then) (in classical Greek sometimes δέ; see δέ, 8) (cf. Buttmann, 362 (311)

d.; Winer's Grammar, § 53,3f.; Ellicott on Philippians 1:22): with ὅτε or a temporal ὡς preceding in the protasis (as sometimes in Greek prose (e. g. Thucydides 2,93, where see Krüger)), Luke 2:21; Acts 13:18f (here WH text omit καί; see ὡς, I:7); ὡς ... καί ἰδού, Luke 7:12; Acts 1:10; Acts 10:17 ( R G Tr marginal reading brackets); ἐάν ... καί εἰσελεύσομαι, Revelation 3:20 T WH marginal reading, although here καί may be rendered also (I also will come in, etc.), declaring that, if the first thing (expressed in the protasis) be done, the second (expressed in the apodosis) will be done also.

g. as in classical Greek, it begins a question thrown out with a certain impassioned abruptness and containing an urgent rejoinder to another's speech (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 53,3a.; Matthiae, § 620,1d.; Kühner, § 521,3ii., p. 791 f): καί τίς δύναται σωθῆναι; Mark 10:26; καί τίς ἐστι μου πλησίον; Luke 10:29; καί τίς ἐστιν κτλ., John 9:36 ( G T Tr WH); add, John 14:22 ( G T). Peculiar Isaiah 2Corinthians 2:2: εἰ γάρ ἐγώ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, καί τίς ... ἐμοῦ (a swarm of examples of this form of speech occur in Clement. homil. 2,43, e. g. εἰ Θεός ψεύδεται, καί τίς ἀληθευει;) where the writer after the conditional protasis, interrupting himself as it were, utters the substance of the negative apodosis in a new question, where we render who then is he that etc., for then there is no one who etc. h. it introduces parentheses (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 62,1): καί ἐκωλύθην ἀξρηι τοῦ δεῦρο, Romans 1:13 ( Demosthenes, Lept., p. 488,9; so the Latin et, e. g. praeda — et aliquantum ejus fuit — militi concessa, Livy 27,1); cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans , i., p. 35f.

3. It annexes epexegetically both words and sentences (καί epexegetical or 'explicative'), so that it is equivalent to and indeed, namely ( Winer's Grammar, § 53,3e.; cf. § 66,7 at the end): χάριν καί ἀποστολήν, Romans 1:5, where cf. Fritzsche; περί ἐλπίδος καί ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Acts 23:6; πολλά ... καί ἑτέρα, Luke 3:18; πολλά ... καί ἀλλά σημεῖα, John 20:30; πολλά καί βαρέα αἰτιώματα a, Acts 25:7; πολλοί καί ἀνυπότακτοι, Titus 1:10 ( R G; on the preceding use of καί cf. πολύς, d. α. at the end); καί ( L brackets καί) ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ, and indeed (i. e. viz.) when he shall be taken away etc. Luke 5:35 (others find here an aposiopesis; cf. Meyer at the passage (edited by Weiss)); καί χάριν, ἀντί χάριτος, John 1:16; καί περισσόν ἔχωσιν, John 10:10, add 33 (where the words καί ὅτι κτλ. show what kind of blasphemy is meant); Acts 5:21 (on which see γερουσία); Romans 2:15 (where καί μεταξύ κτλ. adds an explanation respecting the testimony of conscience); 1 Corinthians 3:5; 1 Corinthians 15:38, etc.; cf. Bornemann, Scholia, p. 38; Fritzsche, Quaest. Lucian, p. 9ff; so the Latin et in Cicero, Tusc. 3,20, 48 laudat, et saepe, virtutem; pro Mil. 25 te enim jam appello et ea voce ut me exaudire possis; cf. Ramshorn, Latin Gram. ii., p. 809; (Harpers' Latin Dict. under the word et, II. A.); equivalent to and indeed, to make a climax, for and besides: καί ἀκατάκριτον, Acts 22:25; καί τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον, 1 Corinthians 2:2; καί τοῦτο, Latin idque ( Cicero, off. 1,1, 1 te ... audientem Cratippum idque Athenis), our and this, and that, and that too, equivalent to especially: Romans 13:11; 1 Corinthians 6:6, and L T Tr WH in 8 ( 4 Maccabees 14:9); also καί ταῦτα (common in Greek writings), 1 Corinthians 6:8 Rec.; Hebrews 11:12; cf. Klotz, Devar. i., p. 108; it. 2, p. 652 f; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 162 (153)).

4. it connects whole narratives and expositions, and thus forms a transition to new matters: Matthew 4:23; Matthew 8:14,23, 28; Matthew 9:1,9, 27,35; Matthew 10:1; Mark 5:1,21; Mark 6:1,6; Luke 8:26; John 1:19 (cf. John 1:15>); 1 John 1:4, etc.; especially in the very common καί ἐγένετο, Matthew 7:28; Luke 7:11; Luke 8:1, etc. (see γίνομαι, 2b.).

5. καί ... καί, a repetition which indicates that of two things one takes place no less than the other: both ... and, as well ... as, not only ... but also ( Winer's Grammar, § 53,4): it serves to correlate — not only single terms, as καί ( L brackets καί) ψυχήν καί σῶμα, Matthew 10:28; add, Mark 4:41; John 4:36 (here Tr WH omit first καί); Romans 11:33; Philippians 2:13; Philippians 4:12, etc.; καί ἐν ὀλίγῳ καί πολλῷ ( L T Tr WH μεγάλῳ) both with little effort and with great (but see μέγας, 1a. γ. at the end), Acts 26:29; but also clauses and sentences, as Mark 9:13; John 7:28; John 9:37; John 12:28; 1 Corinthians 1:22; and even things that are contrasted (cf. Winer s Grammar, as above; Buttmann, § 149,8b.): John 15:24; Acts 23:3; καί ... καί οὐ, Luke 5:36; John 6:36; now ... now, Mark 9:22; καί οὐ ... καί, John 17:25.

6. τέ ... καί, see τέ, 2.

II. It marks something added to what has already been said, or that of which something already said holds good; accordingly it takes on the nature of an adverb, also (Latin etiam, quoque, German auch (cf. Winer s Grammar and Buttmann's Grammar, as at the beginning In this use it generally throws an emphasis upon the word which immediately follows it; cf. Klotz, Devar. ii. 2, p. 638.));

1. used simply,

a. also, likewise: Matthew 5:39; Matthew 12:45; Mark 2:28; Luke 3:14; John 8:19; Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 1 Corinthians 11:6, etc.; very frequent with pronouns: καί ὑμεῖς, Matthew 20:4,7; Luke 21:31; John 7:47, etc.; κἀγώ, καί ἐγώ, see κἀγώ, 2; καί αὐτός, see αὐτός, I:1a. preceded by an adverb of comparison in the former part of the sentence: καθώς ... καί, Luke 6:31 ( WH text omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets, καί ὑμεῖς); John 6:57; John 13:15,33; 1 John 2:18; 1 John 4:17; 1 Corinthians 15:49; ὥσπερ ... οὕτω καί, Romans 11:30; 1 Corinthians 15:22; Galatians 4:29; καθάπερ ... οὕτω καί, 2 Corinthians 8:11; ὡς ... καί, Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2 R L brackets; Acts 7:51 ( L καθώς; 2 Corinthians 13:2 see ὡς, L 1at the end); Galatians 1:9; Philippians 1:20 ( Thucydides 8,1; ὥσπερ ... καί, Xenophon, mem. (2,2, 2 (and Kühner, at the passage)); 3,1, 4; (4,4, 7; cf. Buttmann, 362 (311)

c.)); with εἰ; preceding, Galatians 4:7. sometimes καί stands in each member of the comparison: 1 Thessalonians 2:14; Romans 1:13; Colossians 3:13 ( 2 Maccabees 2:10 2 Maccabees 6:14; also in Greek writings, cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2, p. 635; Kühner, on Xenophon, mem. 1,1, 6 (also in his Greek Gram. § 524,2vol. ii. 799; cf. Ellicott on Ephesians 5:23; Winer s Grammar, § 53,5)).

b. equivalent to even ( A. V. sometimes yea) (Latin vel, adeo; German sogar, selbst): Matthew 5:46; Matthew 10:30; Mark 1:27; Luke 10:17; 1 Corinthians 2:10; Galatians 2:17; Ephesians 5:12, etc.

c. before a comparative it augments the gradation, even, still (German noch): Matthew 11:9; ( John 14:12); Hebrews 8:6 ( Buttmann, 363 (311) g.; others regard the καί in this passage as corresponsive (also) rather than ascensive, and connect it with ὅσῳ).

d. with a participle equivalent to although (cf. Krüger, § 56,13, 2): Luke 18:7 R G (see μακροθυμέω, 2).

2. joined with pronouns and particles, also;

a. with comparative adverbs: ὡς καί, Acts 11:11; 1 Corinthians 7:7; 1 Corinthians 9:5, etc.; καθώς καί, Romans 15:7; 1 Corinthians 13:12; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Ephesians 4:17,32; Ephesians 5:2, etc.; οὕτω καί, Romans 5:15 ( WH brackets καί), 18f; 6:11; 1 Corinthians 11:12, etc.; ὁμοίως καί, John 6:11; ὡσαύτως καί, Luke 22:20 ( R G L Tr marginal reading, T Tr text WH καί ὡς. (but WH reject the passage)); 1 Corinthians 11:25; καθάπερ καί (see καθάπερ).

b. added to words designating the cause, it marks something which follows of necessity from what has been previously said: διό καί, Luke 1:35; Acts 10:29; Romans 1:24 Rec.; Hebrews 13:12; ( 1 Peter 2:6 R); διά τοῦτο καί, Luke 11:49; John 12:18 (here Tr text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets καί).

c. after the interrogative τί, καί (which belongs not to τί, but to the following word (to the whole sentence, rather; cf. Bäumlein, Partikeln: p. 152)) points the significance of the question, and may be rendered besides, moreover, (German noch) (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 53,3a. at the end; especially Krüger, § 69,32, 16): τί καί βαπτίζονται; ( A. V. why then etc.), 1 Corinthians 15:29; τί καί ἐλπίζει; (properly, why doth he also or yet hope for, and not rest in the sight?), Romans 8:24 ( R G T); ἵνα τί καί, Luke 13:7.

d. ἀλλά καί, but also: Luke 24:22; John 5:18; Romans 1:32; Romans 5:3,11; Romans 8:23; Romans 9:10; 2 Corinthians 7:7; 2 Corinthians 8:10,19, 21; 2 Corinthians 9:12; 1 John 2:2, etc.; equivalent to Latin at etiam (in an apodosis after εἰ): Romans 6:5 ( Winer s Grammar, 442 (412)).

e. δέ καί, and δέ ... καί, but also, and also: Matthew 3:10 ( R G); Matthew 18:17; 27:44>; Mark 14:31 ( WH brackets δέ); Luke 2:4; Luke 9:61; Luke 14:12,26 ( L text Tr WH ἔτι τέ καί, see ἔτι, 2at the end); Luke 18:1> ( R G), Luke 18:9> ( L brackets καί); John 2:2; John 3:23; John 18:2,5; Acts 5:16; 1 Corinthians 1:16; 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 14:15; 1 Corinthians 15:15; 2 Corinthians 4:3, etc. καί ... γάρ,

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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

καί ,



I. Copulative.

1. Connecting single words;

(a) in general: Matthew 2:18; Matthew 16:1, Mark 2:15, Luke 8:15, Hebrews 1:1, al. mult.; repeated before each of the terms in a series, Matthew 23:23, Luke 14:21, Romans 7:12; Romans 9:4, al.;

(b) connecting numerals (WM, § 37, 4): John 2:20, Acts 13:20;

(c) joining terms which are not mutually exclusive, as the part with the whole: Matthew 8:33; Matthew 26:59, Mark 16:17, Acts 5:29, al.

2. Connecting clauses and sentences: Matthew 3:12, Acts 5:21, al. mult.; esp.

(a) where, after the simplicity of the popular language, sentences are paratactically joined (WM, § 60, 3; M, Proverbs 12:1-28; Deiss., LAE, 128 ff.): Matthew 1:21; Matthew 7:25, Mark 9:5, John 10:3, al.;

(b) joining affirmative to negative sentences: Luke 3:14, John 4:11, 3 John 1:10;

(c) consecutive, and so: Matthew 5:15; Matthew 23:32, Hebrews 3:19, al.; after imperatives, Matthew 4:19, Luke 7:7, al.; (d) = καίτοι and yet: Matthew 3:14; Matthew 6:26, Mark 12:12, Luke 18:7 (Field, Notes, 72), 1 Corinthians 5:2, al.;

(e) beginning an apodosis (= Heb. ו ; so sometimes δέ in cl.), then: Luke 2:21; Luke 7:12, Acts 1:10; beginning a question (WM, § 53, 3 a): Mark 10:26, Luke 10:29, John 9:36.

3. Epexegetic, and, and indeed, namely (WM, § 53, 3 c): Luke 3:18, John 1:16, Acts 23:6, Romans 1:5, 1 Corinthians 3:5, al.

4. In transition: Matthew 4:23, Mark 5:1; Mark 5:21, John 1:19, al.; so, Hebraistically, καὶ ἐγένετο (זַיְהִי H1961; also ἐγένετο δέ ), Mark 1:9 (cf. Luke 5:1; v. Burton, §§ 357-60; M, Proverbs 14:1-35; Proverbs 16:1-33).

5. καὶ . . καί , both . . . and (for τε . . . καί , see τε );

(a) connecting single words: Matthew 10:28, Mark 4:41, Romans 11:33, al.;

(b) clauses and sentences: Mark 9:13, John 7:28, 1 Corinthians 1:22, al.

II. Adjunctive, also, even, still: Matthew 5:39-40, Mark 2:28, al. mult.; esp. c. prop., adv., etc., Matthew 20:4, John 7:47, al.; ὡς κ ., Acts 11:17; καθὼς κ ., Romans 15:7; οὕτω κ ., Romans 6:11; κ ., Luke 1:35; ὁ κ . (Deiss., BS, 313 ff.), Acts 13:9; pleonastically, μετὰ κ . (Bl., § 77, 7; Deiss., BS, 265 f,), Philippians 4:3; τί κ ., 1 Corinthians 15:29; ἀλλὰ κ ., Luke 14:22, John 5:18, al.; καίγε (M, Pr., 230; Burton, § 437), Acts 17:27; καίπερ , Hebrews 5:8; κ . ἐάν , see ἐάν .

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

In LAE p. 129 ff. Deissmann discusses the thoroughly popular character of the Johannine style with its short paratactic sentences, introduced by καὶ. . . καί. To illustrate this, he cites amongst other exx. a Dream from the Serapeum, P Par 51 (B.C. 160) (= Selections, p. 18 ff. : see especially the amended readings in Archiv vi. p. 204), which runs—.2 ff. ὤμ [ην ] βατ (= δ)ίζειν με [ἀπ ]ὸ λειβὸς ἕως ἀ [πηλι ]ώτου, καὶ ἀναπίπτομαι ἐπ᾽ ἄχυρον · καὶ [ἄν ]θρωπ [ος ] ἀπὸ λιβός μου, ἐχόμενός μου · ἀναπίπτει καὶ αὐτός, καὶ ὥσπερ κεκλειμμ [ένοι ] μου ἦσαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου, καὶ ἐξαί [φνης ] ἀνύγω τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς μου, καὶ ὁρῶ κτλ., ";I dreamed that I was going from West to East, and I lie down upon chaff. And there is a man west of me, near to me. He also lies down, and my eyes were as if they were closed. And suddenly I open my eyes, and I see etc."; Cf. also the letter of consolation P Oxy I. 115.3 ff. (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 96) οὕτως ἐλυπήθην καὶ ἔκλαυσα ἐπὶ τῶι εὐμοίρωι (";the blessed one";) ὡς ἐπὶ Διδυμᾶτος ἔκλαυσα, καὶ πάντα ὅσα ἦν καθήκοντα ἐποίησα καὶ πάντες οἱ ἐμοί, and the inscr. Syll 807 .15 ff. cited s.v. ἐπιχρίω, on which Deissmann (op. cit. p. 132) remarks : ";this text is, if possible, even more paratactic (‘Semitic,’ people would say, if it were a quotation from the New Testament) than the corresponding passage in St. John [John 9:7; John 9:11.]."; So also the simple parataxis of John 4:35 al. is illustrated by the illiterate P Par 18.14 ἔτι δύο ἡμέρας ἔχομεν καὶ φθάσομεν εἰς Πηλ [οίσι, and by the dedicatory inscr. at El-Kab, Preisigke 158 Ἀνδρόμαχος Μακεδὼν ἀφίκετο πρὸς Ἀμενώθην χρηστὸν θεὸν μ [ι ]σθοῦ ἐργαζόμενος καὶ ἐμαλακίσθη (";he was weakly";) καὶ ὁ θεὸς αὐτῶι ἐβοήθησε αὐθημερή : cf. Thumb Hellen. p. 129. Notwithstanding, however, this use of καί in later Greek idiom, it is impossible to deny that the use of καί in the LXX for the Heb. ו influenced the Johannine usage.

For δέ after καί, as in Matthew 10:18, John 6:51, 1 John 1:3, cf. P Hib I. 54.20 (c. B.C. 245) καὶ τὸ σῶμα δὲ εἰ συνείληφας παράδος αὐτὸ (deleted in the original) Σεμφθεῖ. For καί after μετά in Philippians 4:3 Deissmann (BS, p. 265) can quote only BGU II. 412.6 (iv/A.D.) Λαυνοῦς χήρα οὖσα μετὰ καί τοῦ υἱοῦ ἑαυτῆς, but he gives (p. 266) several instances of σὺν καί, e.g. ib.515.17 (A.D. 193) Πτολεμαῖος σὺν καὶ ὑπη [ρ ] [τ ]ῃ Ἀμμων [ ] : add from the inscr. PAS iii. 612 (Imperial) σὺν καὶ τῷ ἀνδρὶ αὐτῆς. For καὶ γάρ see s.v. γάρ, and add P Giss I.69.4 (A.D.118–9) καὶ γὰρ πέρυσι ἐπὶ τὴν παράλημψιν τῶν ἱματίων αὐτὸν παρὰ σοὶ κατέλειψα : and for ὁ καί see s.v. . The strange form κά for καί occurs seven times in Codex Washington (W).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (1097)NAS (936)HCS (6640)
1 Corinthians207
2 Corinthians127
1 Thessalonians53
2 Thessalonians34
1 Timothy65
2 Timothy48
1 Peter54
2 Peter43
1 John78
2 John9
3 John7
1 Corinthians67
2 Corinthians61
1 Thessalonians18
2 Thessalonians4
1 Timothy8
2 Timothy13
1 Peter16
2 Peter8
1 John11
2 John2
1 Corinthians216
2 Corinthians155
1 Thessalonians83
2 Thessalonians44
1 Timothy83
2 Timothy58
1 Peter60
2 Peter56
1 John106
2 John16
3 John11
List of Word Forms
ανδ Βηθήλ γενεάς κα ΚΑΙ καί καὶ κυρίου κυρίω ο οι ταις τη του KAI kaí kaì

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