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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #2962 - κύριος

Transliteration:
kýrios
Phonetics:
koo'-ree-os  
Word Origin:
from kuros (supremacy)
Parts of Speech:
Noun Masculine
TDNT:
3:1039,486
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. he to whom a person or thing belongs, about which he has power of deciding; master, lord
    1. the possessor and disposer of a thing
      1. the owner; one who has control of the person, the master
      2. in the state: the sovereign, prince, chief, the Roman emperor
    2. is a title of honour expressive of respect and reverence, with which servants greet their master
    3. this title is given to: God, the Messiah
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 113 ‑ אָדֹן (aw‑done', aw‑done');   136 ‑ אֲדֹנָי (ad‑o‑noy');   136 ‑ אֲדֹנָי (ad‑o‑noy');   410 ‑ אֵל (ale);   430 ‑ אֱלֹהִים (el‑o‑heem');   433 ‑ אֱלֹהַּ (el‑o'‑ah, el‑o'‑ah);   1167 ‑ בַּעַל (bah'‑al);   1376 ‑ גְּבִיר (gheb‑eer');   3068 ‑ יהוה (yeh‑ho‑vaw');   4756 ‑ מָרֵא (maw‑ray');   4911 ‑ מָשַׁל (maw‑shal');   6697 ‑ צֻר (tsoor, tsoor);   7706 ‑ שַׁדַּי (shad‑dah'ee);   7980 ‑ שָׁלַט (shaw‑lat');   7989 ‑ שַׁלִּיט (shal‑leet');  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

κύριος [ ], α, ον,

also ος, ον A. Supp. 732, E. Heracl. 143, Arist. Pol. 1306b20:

Thess. κῦρρος IG 9(2).517.20 (Larissa, iii B.C.): (κῦρος) (not in Hom.):

I of persons, having power or authority over, c. gen., Ζεὺς ὁ πάντων κ. Pi. I. 5(4).53, cf. P. 2.58; ἐμῶν τε καὶ σῶν κ. πιστωμάτων A. Ag. 878; πρὶν ἄν σε κ. στήσω τέκνων put thee in possession of.., S. OC 1041; κύριοι πολιτείας Antipho 3.1.1; κ. καταλύσεως Th. 4.20; εἰρήνης καὶ πολέμου X. HG 2.2.18; - ώτατοι τοῦ ἱεροῦ Th. 5.53 (but -ώτατος θεὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ, of the god to whom a temple is dedicated, OGI 90.39 (Rosetta, ii B.C.)); τῶν αὑτοὺ κ. Pl. Lg. 929d, cf. Isoc. 19.34, etc.; θανάτου κ. τινός with power of life and death over, Pl. Criti. 120d; κ. περί τινος Arist. Pol. 1286a24.

2. κύριός εἰμι c. inf., I have authority to do, am entitled to do, A. Ag. 104 (lyr.); οὗτος κ. ὁρκωμοτεῖν (prob. for - ῶν) E. Supp. 1189; κ. ἀπολέσαι, σῶσαι δ' ἄκυροι And. 4.9, cf. Th. 5.63, 8.5; - ώτεροι δοῦναι better able to give, Id. 4.18; οὐ.. κ. οὔτε ἀνελέσθαι πόλεμον οὔτε καταλῦσαι X. An. 5.7.27; δοῦλοι κ. μαστιγοῦν τοὺς ἐλευθέρους Ephor. 29 J.; αἱ ἀρχαὶ κ. κρίνειν Arist. Pol. 1287b16; also κ. τοῦ μὴ μεθυσθῆναι having power not to.., Id. EN 1113b32: c. acc. et inf., κ. εἶναι ἢ τοίαν εἶναι [πόλιν] ἢ τοίαν Pl. R. 429b.

3. folld. by a dependent clause, κ. γενέσθαι, ὅντινα δεῖ καταστήσασθαι Isaiah 6:4.

4. c. part., πριαμένους τι ἢ πωλοῦντας κυρίους εἶναι Th. 5.34; κ. ἦν πράσσων ταῦτα Id. 8.51, cf. Plb. 6.37.8, 18.37.10; κύριοι ἐόντω συλέοντες Schwyzer 337.13 (Delph.).

5. abs., having authority, supreme, τί τῶνδε κυριωτέρους μένεις; A. Supp. 965; - ώτερος σέθεν E. Ba. 505; ὁ πατὴρ μέχρι τούτου κ. [ἐστι ] Arist. Rh. 1402a1; τὸ κ. the sovereign power in a state, Id. Pol. 1281a11, cf. Pl. R. 565a, etc.; τὰ κ. the supreme authorities, D. 19.259, Arist. Rh. 1365b27; τὰ τῆσδε τῆς γῆς κ. S. OC 915; at Athens, κ. ἐκκλησία a sovereign or principal assembly, Ar. Ach. 19, Arist. Ath. 43.4, IG 12.42.22, al., 22.493.8, etc.; ἀγορὰ κ. ib.1298.7. II of things, ὁ τῆς ὥρας τῆς καταρχῆς κ. [ἀστήρ ] Serapio in Cat.Cod.Astr. 1.99: but usu. abs., authoritative, decisive, δίκαι E. Heracl. l.c., And. 1.88, Pl. Cri. 50b; μῦθος -ώτερος of more authority, E. IA 318 (troch.); - ωτάτη τῶν ἐπιστημῶν [ἡ πολιτική ] Arist. Pol. 1282b15; αἱ -ώτεραι ἀρχαί Id. Cael. 285a26, cf. Metaph. 997a12; [ ἡ φρόνησις] τῆς σοφίας κυριωτέρα Id. EN 1143b34; - ωτέρα ἡ καθόλου [ἀπόδειξις ] Id. APo. 86a23; τάραχος ὁ -ώτατος Epicur. Ephesians 1 p.30U.; of sovereign remedies, - ωτάτη τῶν καθάρσεων Pl. Sph. 230d; - ωτάτη κένωσις Gal. 1.299; important, principal, κ. δόξαι, of certain doctrines of Epicurus, Phld. Ir. p.86 W.; τὰ -ώτατα μέρη τῆς φύσεως Epicur. Sent. 9; - ώτερα μέρη τοῦ σώματος Philostr. Gym. 50; τὰ -ώτατα the principal organs, Gal. 1.385 (but, the most important matters, Epicur. Sent. 16); τὸ -ώτατον τῆς Ἐφέσου Philostr. VS 1.22.4: Gramm., κ. τόνος principal accent, D.T. Supp. 674.32.

2. opp. ἄκυρος, valid, νόμος, δόγματα, D. 24.1, Pl. Lg. 926d; κ. ποιεῖν [τὴν γνῶσιν ], opp. ἄκυρον π., D. 21.92, cf. 39.15; τὰς συνθήκας κυρίας ποιεῖν Lys. 18.15; ἡ συγγραφὴ ἥδε κ. ἔστω PEleph. 1.14 (iv B.C.); ἔστω τὰ κριθέντα κ. Lexap. D. 21.94; so τὰς τῶν ἄλλων δόξας κ. ποιεῖν Pl. Tht. 179b.

3. of times, etc., ordained, appointed, ἡ κυρίη ἡμέρη Hdt. 5.50, cf. 93 (pl.); ἡ κ. τῶν ἡμερέων Id. 1.48, 6.129; κ. ἐν ἡμέρᾳ A. Supp. 732; τόδε κ. ἦμαρ E. Alc. 105 (lyr.), etc.; κ. μήν, of a woman with child, i.e. the ninth month, Pi. O. 6.32; ὅταν τὸ κ. μόλῃ φάος (prob.) the appointed time, A. Ag. 766 (lyr.); κ. μένει τέλος Id. Eu. 544 (lyr.); ἡ κ. [ἡμέρα ] D. 21.84, cf. Test.ib.93; but αἱ κ. [ἡμεραι], = κριτικαί, Hp. Aff. 9.

4. legitimate, lawful, ὕπνος πόνος τε, κ. ξυνωμόται A. Eu. 127, cf. 327; κύρι' ἔχοντες having lawful power, ib. 960 (lyr.).

5. ἡ κ. ἀρετή goodness proper, real goodness, Arist. EN 1144b4; [ φλοιὸς] ὁ κ. Thphr. HP 4.15.1; Rhet. and Gramm., κ. ὄνομα the real or actual, hence current, ordinary, name of a thing, opp. μεταφορά, γλῶττα, Arist. Rh. 1404b6, 1410b12, Po. 1457b3, cf. D.H. Comp. 21, D.L. 10.13, etc.; σπάνει κυρίου ὀνόματος for lack of a current term, D.H. Comp. 24; - ώτατα ὀνόματα most ordinary terms, ib. 3 (hence also κ. ὄνομα proper, personal name, Plb. 6.46.10, A.D. Pron. 10.11, al., Hdn. 7.5.8; ὄνομα alone in this sense, Diog.Bab.Stoic. 3.213); κ. [λέξεις ] Phld. Rh. 1.181 S.; κατὰ τὸν κ. τρόπον, opp. καταχρωμένη, ib.1.59 S. III Adv. κυρίως, v. sub voc. Subst. κύριος, ὁ, lord, master, τοῖσι κ. δωμάτων A. Ch. 658, cf. 689, S. Aj. 734, etc.; ὁ κ. alone, head of a family, master of a house (cf. Sch. Ar. Eq. 965), Antipho 2.4.7, Ar. Pl. 6, Arist. Pol. 1269b10; τοὺς κ. τῶν οἰκιῶν PTeb. 5.147 (ii B.C.); also, guardian of a woman, Isa 6.32, PGrenf. 2.15 i 13 (ii B.C.), etc.: generally, guardian, trustee, Isaiah 2:10, D. 43.15, 46.19, Men. Epit. 89, etc. later κύριε, as a form of respectful address, sir, John 12:21, John 20:15, Acts 16:30 (pl.), PFay. 106.15 (ii A.D.), etc.

2. fem. κυρία, ἡ, mistress, lady of the house, Philem. 223, LXX Isaiah 24:2, etc.; κ. τῆς οἰκίας Men. 403: in voc., madam, D.C. 48.44; applied to women from fourteen years upwards, Epict. Ench. 40. (In later Gr. freq. written κύρα, PGrenf. 1.61.4 (vi A.D.), etc.) epith. of Ἶσις, OGI 180 (Egypt, i B.C.), etc.

3. of gods, esp. in the East, Σεκνεβτῦνις ὁ κ. θεός PTeb. 284.6 (i B.C.); Κρόνος κ. CIG 4521 (Abila, i A.D.); Ζεὺς κ. Supp.Epigr. 2.830 (Damascus, iii A.D.); κ. Σάραπις POxy. 110.2 (ii A.D); ἡ κ. Ἄρτεμις IG 4.1124 (Tibur, ii A.D.); of deified rulers, τοῦ κ. βασιλέος θεοῦ OGI 86.8 (Egypt, i B.C.); οἱ κ. θεοὶ μέγιστοι, of Ptolemy XIV and Cleopatra, Berl.Sitzb. 1902.1096: hence, of rulers in general, βασιλεὺς Ἡρώδης κ. OGI 415 (Judaea, i B.C.); of Roman Emperors, BGU 1200.11 (Augustus), POxy. 37 i 6 (Claudius), etc.

4. ὁ Κύριος, = Hebr. Yahweh, LXX Genesis 11:5, al.; of Christ, 1 Corinthians 12:3, etc.

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 κύριος, κυρίου, (properly, an adjective κύριος, κυρία, κύριον, also of two term.; properly equivalent to ἔχων κῦρος, having power or authority) (from Pindar down), he to whom a person or thing belongs, about which he has the power of deciding; master, lord; used a. universally, of the possessor and disposer of a thing, the owner (the Sept. for אָדון, בַּעַל): with the genitive of the thing, as τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος, Matthew 20:8; Matthew 21:40; Mark 12:9; Luke 20:15; τοῦ θερισμοῦ, Matthew 9:38; Luke 10:2; τῆς οἰκίας, the master, Mark 13:35 ( Judges 19:12); τοῦ πωλου, Luke 19:33; τοῦ σαββάτου, possessed of the power to determine what is suitable to the sabbath, and of releasing himself and others from its obligations, Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5. with the genitive of a person, one who has control of the person, the master ( A. V. lord); in the household: δούλου, παιδίσκης, οἰκονόμου, Matthew 10:24; Luke 12:46; Luke 14:21; Luke 16:3,5; Acts 16:16,19, etc.; absolutely, opposed to οἱ δοῦλοι, Ephesians 6:5,9; Colossians 4:1, etc.; in the state, the sovereign, prince, chief: the Roman emperor ((on this use of κύριος see at length Woolsey in Bib. Sacr. for July 1861, pp. 595-608)), Acts 25:26; once angels are called κύριοι, as those to whom, in the administration of the universe, departments are intrusted by God (see ἄγγελος, 2): 1 Corinthians 8:5.

b. κύριος is a title of honor, expressive of respect and reverence, with which servants salute their master, Matthew 13:27; Matthew 25:20,22; Luke 13:8; Luke 14:22, etc.; the disciples salute Jesus their teacher and master, Matthew 8:25; Matthew 16:22; Luke 9:54; Luke 10:17,40; Luke 11:1; Luke 22:33,38; John 11:12; John 13:6,9, 13; John 21:15-17,20f, etc., cf. 20:18; Luke 24:34; his followers salute Jesus as the Messiah, whose authority they acknowledge (by its repetition showing their earnestness (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 65,5a.)), κύριε, κύριε, Matthew 7:21; and R G in Luke 13:25; employed, too, by a son in addressing his father, Matthew 21:30; by citizens toward magistrates, Matthew 27:63; by anyone who wishes to honor a man of distinction, Matthew 8:2,6, 8; Matthew 15:27; Mark 7:28; Luke 5:12; Luke 13:25; John 4:11,15, 19; John 5:7; John 12:21; John 20:15; Acts 9:5; Acts 16:30; Acts 22:8.

c. this title is given α. to God, the ruler of the universe (so the Sept. for אֲדֹנָי, אֱלוהַּ, אֱלֹהִים, יְהוָה, and יָהּ; (the term κύριος is used of the gods from Pindar and Sophocles down, but "the address κύριε, used in prayer to God, though frequent in Epictetus does not occur (so far as I am aware) in any heathen writing before the apostolic times; sometimes we find κύριε Θεός, and once (2,7, 12) he writes κύριε ἐλέησόν ( Lightfoot on Philippians , p. 314note{3}))) — both with the article, κύριος: Matthew 1:22 ( R G); Matthew 5:33>; Mark 5:19; Luke 1:6,9, 28,46; Acts 7:33; Acts 8:24; Acts 11:21; 2 Timothy 1:16,18 (but see ἔλεος, 3); Hebrews 8:2; James 4:15; James 5:15; Jude 1:5 ( R G), etc.; and without the article (cf. Winer s Grammar, 124 (118); Buttmann, 88f (77f)): Matthew 21:9; Matthew 27:10; Mark 13:20; Luke 1:17,38, 58,66; Luke 2:9,23, 26,39; Acts 7:49; Hebrews 7:21; Hebrews 12:6; 1 Peter 1:25; 2 Peter 2:9; Jude (5 T Tr text WH text), 9; κύριος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καί τῆς γῆς, Matthew 11:25; Luke 10:21; Acts 17:24; κύριος τῶν κυριευόντων, 1 Timothy 6:15; κύριος Θεός, see Θεός, 3, p. 288a (and below); κύριος Θεός παντοκράτωρ, Revelation 4:8; κύριος σαβαώθ, Romans 9:29; ἄγγελος and ἄγγελος κυρίου, Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:13,19; Matthew 28:2; Luke 1:11; Luke 2:9; Acts 5:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 12:7; πνευαμα κυρίου, Luke 4:18; Acts 8:39; with prepositions: ὑπό ( R G add the article) κυρίου, Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15; παρά κυρίου, Matthew 21:42 and Mark 12:11, from Psalm 117:23 (Psalm 118:23>); παρά κυρίῳ, 2 Peter 3:8. β. to the Messiah; and that αα. to the Messiah regarded universally: Luke 1:43; Luke 2:11; Matthew 21:3; Matthew 22:45; Mark 11:3; Mark 12:36; Luke 19:34; Luke 20:44. ββ. to Jesus as the Messiah, since by his death he acquired a special ownership in mankind, and after his resurrection was exalted to a partnership in the divine administration (this force of the word when applied to Jesus appears especially in Acts 10:36; Romans 14:8; 1 Corinthians 7:22; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Philippians 2:9-11): Ephesians 4:5; with the article κύριος, Mark 16:19; Acts 9:1; Romans 14:8; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 1 Corinthians 6:13; 1 Corinthians 7:10,12, 34; 1 Corinthians 9:5,14; 1 Corinthians 10:22; 1 Corinthians 11:26; (1 Corinthians 16:22> G L T Tr WH); Philippians 4:5; ( 2 Timothy 4:22 T Tr WH); Hebrews 2:3 (cf. Hebrews 2:7 ff); James 5:7, etc. after his resurrection Jesus is addressed by the title κύριος μου καί Θεός μου, John 20:28. ἀπό τοῦ κυρίου, 1 Corinthians 11:23; 2 Corinthians 5:6; πρός τόν κύριον 2 Corinthians 5:8; κύριος Ἰησοῦς, Acts 1:21; Acts 4:33; Acts 16:31; Acts 20:35; 1 Corinthians 11:23; ( 1 Corinthians 16:23 T Tr WH); 2 Corinthians 1:14; ( 2 Timothy 4:22 Lachmann); Revelation 22:20; κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, 1 Corinthians 16:22 ( R; 23 R G L); 2 Corinthians 13:13 (14) ( WH brackets Χριστός); Ephesians 1:2; 2 Timothy 4:22 ( R G), etc.; κύριος ἡμῶν, 1 Timothy 1:14; 2 Timothy 1:8; Hebrews 7:14; 2 Peter 3:15; Revelation 11:15, etc.; with Ἰησοῦς added ( L T Tr WH in 1 Thessalonians 3:11,13); Hebrews 13:20; Revelation 22:21 ( L T Tr (yet without ἡμῶν)); so with Χριστός, Romans 16:18 ( G L T Tr WH); and Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, 1 Thessalonians 1:3 (cf. Buttmann, 155 (136)); 1 Thessalonians 3:11 ( R G), 1 Thessalonians 3:13> ( Rec.); 1 Thessalonians 5:23>; 2 Thessalonians 2:1,14, 16; 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ((ἡμῶν)); 1 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Corinthians 1:3; Galatians 6:18 ( WH brackets ἡμῶν); Ephesians 1:3; Ephesians 6:24; Romans 16:24 ( R G); 1 Timothy 6:3,14; Philemon 1:25 ( T WH omit ἡμῶν); Philippians 4:23 ( G L T Tr WH omit ἡμῶν), etc.; Ἰησοῦς Χριστός κύριος ἡμῶν, Romans 1:4; and Χριστός Ἰησης κύριος (ἡμῶν), Colossians 2:6; Ephesians 3:11; 1 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:2; κύριος καί σωτήρ, 2 Peter 3:2 (cf. Buttmann, 155 (136)); with Ἰησοῦς Χριστός added, 2 Peter 3:18; without the article, simply κύριος: 1 Corinthians 7:22,25; 1 Corinthians 10:21; 1 Corinthians 16:10; 2 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 12:1; 2 Timothy 2:24; James 5:11; 2 Peter 3:10; κύριος κυρίων, i. e. Supreme Lord (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 36,2; (Buttmann, § 123,12)): Revelation 19:16 (cf. in α. above; of God, Deuteronomy 10:17); with prepositions: ἀπό κυρίου, Colossians 3:24; κατά κύριον, 2 Corinthians 11:17; πρός κύριον, 2 Corinthians 3:16; σύν κυρίῳ, 1 Thessalonians 4:17; ὑπό κύριον, 2 Thessalonians 2:13; on the phrase ἐν κυρίῳ, frequent in Paul, and except in his writings found only in Revelation 14:13, see ἐν, I:6b., p. 211b. The appellation κύριος, applied to Christ, passed over in Luke and John even into historic narrative, where the words and works of Jesus prior to his resurrection are related: Luke 7:13; Luke 10:1; Luke 11:39; Luke 12:42; Luke 13:15; Luke 17:5; Luke 22:31 ( R G L Tr brackets); John 4:1 (here T Tr marginal reading Ἰησοῦς); John 6:23; John 11:2. There is nothing strange in the appearance of the term in the narrative of occurrences after his resurrection: Luke 24:34; John 20:2,18, 20,25; John 21:7,12.

d. There are some who hold that Paul (except in his quotations from the O. T. viz. Romans 4:8; Romans 9:28; Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 1:31; 1 Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 3:20; 1 Corinthians 10:26; 2 Corinthians 6:17; 2 Corinthians 10:17; 2 Timothy 2:19) uses the title κύριος everywhere not of God, but of Christ. But, to omit instances where the interpretation is doubtful, as 1 Corinthians 7:25; 2 Corinthians 8:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:16 ( κύριος τῆς εἰρήνης, cf. Θεός τῆς εἰρήνης, 1 Thessalonians 5:23; but most of the blessings of Christianity are derived alike from God and from Christ), it is better at least in the words ἑκάστῳ ὡς κύριος ἔδωκεν, 1 Corinthians 3:5, to understand God as referred to on account of what follows, especially on account of the words κατά τήν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ τήν δοθεῖσαν μοι in 1 Corinthians 3:10. On the other hand, κρινόμενοι ὑπό τοῦ κυρίου in 1 Corinthians 11:32 must certainly, I think, be taken of Christ, on account of 1 Corinthians 10:22, cf. 1 Corinthians 10:21. Cf. Gabler, Kleinere theol. Schriften, Bd. i., p. 186ff; Winer, De sensu vocum κύριος et κύριος in actis et epistolis apostolorum. Erlang. 1828; Wesselus Scheffer, diss. theol. exhibens disquisitionem de vocis κύριος absolute positae in N. T. usu. Lugd. 1846 (a monograph I have not seen); (Stuart in the Bib. Repos. for Oct. 1831, pp. 733-776; cf. Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T. § 76; Cremer, Biblical-theol. Lex. under the word; Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis for June and December, 1881, p. 126ff, June and December, 1883, p. 101 f On the use of a capital initial, see WH. Introductory § 414). The word does not occur in the (Epistle to Titus (critical editions), the) First Epistle of John (nor in the Second or the Third; for in 2 John 1:3 κυρίου is dropped by the critical editors. Synonym: see δεσπότης, at the end).

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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

(1) κύριος is used in the wide sense of ";possessor,"; ";owner,"; as in Mark 13:35, in P Tebt I. 5.147 (B.C. 118) τοὺς κυρίους τῶν. . οἰκιῶν, ";the owners of the houses,"; and hence the meaning ";master,"; as in P Amh II. 135.11 (early ii/A.D.) ὁ κύριος τῇ γ ̄ προέγραψεν ἡμᾶς, ";the master wrote us on the 3rd";—with reference to certain instructions which the writer of the letter had received.

(2) From this the transition is easy to κύριος either as a title of honour addressed by subordinates to their superiors, or as a courteous appellative in the case of persons nearly related. (a) As exx. of the first class we may cite P Fay 106.15 (c. A.D. 140) ἐξησθένησα. . . κύριε, ";I became very weak, my lord";—a petition to a Prefect, and, more generally, ib. 129.1 (iii/A.D.) χαῖρε, κύριε τ [ι ]μιώτατ [ε, ib. 134.2 (early iv/A.D.) παρακληθεὶς κύριε σκῦλον σεαυτὸν πρὸς ήμᾶς, ";I entreat you, sir, to hasten to me"; (Edd.), P Lond 417.5 (c. A.D. 346) (II. p. 299, Selections, p. 124) γινώσκιν σε θέλω, κύριε, π [ερὶ ] Παύλω τοῦ στρατιότη περὶ τῆς φυγῆς —the village priest of Hermopolis to a military official with reference to a deserter named Paulus, and the Christian P Heid 6.6 (iv/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 125) κύριέ μου ἀγαπιτέ —a certain Justinus to a Christian ";brother"; Papnuthius. See also s.v. κυρία, and cf. Preisigke 1114.5 f. (A.D. 147–8) ἐκόψαμεν τοὺς μεγάλους λίθους. . εἰς τἠν πύλην τοῦ κυρίου Ἀπόλλω [νος καὶ ] τῆς κυρίας [ . (b) The designation is applied to near relatives, e.g. a father—BGU II. 423 .2 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 90) Ἀπίων Ἐπιμάχῳ τῷ πατρὶ καὶ κυρίῳ πλεῖστα χαίρειν, a mother—P Lips I. 110.1 (iii/iv A.D.) Σαραπίω ]ν ̣ . τῇ κ [υ ]ρίᾳ μου μητρὶ. . ., a brother—BGU III. 949.1 (c. A.D. 300) κυρίῳ μου ἀδελφῷ Ἡρᾷ a sister (and probably wife)—P Oxy IV. 744.1 (B.C. I) (= Selections, p. 32) Ἱλαρίωνα (l. ίων) Ἄλιτι τῆι ἀδελφῆι πλεῖστα χαίρειν, and even a sonib. I. 123.1 (iii/iv A.D.) κυρίῳ μου υἱῷ Διονυσοθέωνι.

(3) It is, however, with the religious use of κύριος that we are specially concerned, and in keeping with the conception of ";lordship,"; which was so characteristic of Oriental religions, we may begin by noticing its common use in connexion with the cult of the Egyptian God Sarapis. Letters frequently begin with some such formula as—πρὸ μὲν πάντων εὔχομαί σε ὑιαίνειν (l. ὑγ —) καὶ τὸ προσκύνημά σου ποιῶ παρὰ τῷ κυρίῳ Σαράπιδι, ";before all else I pray for your health, and I supplicate the lord Sarapis on your behalf"; (P Fay 127.5—ii/iii A.D.), and we may add, owing to the striking resemblance of phraseology to 1 Corinthians 10:21 such invitations to a ceremonial feast in the Serapeum as P Oxy I. 110.2 (ii/A.D.) ἐρωτᾷ σε Χαιρήμων δειπνῆσαι εἰς κλείνην τοῦ κυρίου Σαράπιδος ἐν τῷ Σαραπείῳ αὔριον, ἥτις ἐστὶν ι ̄ε ̄, ἀπὸ ὥρας θ ̄, ";Chaeremon requests your company at dinner at the table of the lord Sarapis in the Serapaeum to-morrow, the 15th, at 9 o’clock"; (Edd.), cf. ib. III. 523 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 97).

(4) From this it is easy to see how the title came to be applied to sovereigns or rulers in the East. Thus, to confine ourselves to the period immediately preceding the Christian era, Deissmann (LAE p. 356) cites the description of Ptolemy XIII. as τοῦ κυρίου βασιλ [ ]ος θεοῦ, ";the lord king god,"; from an inscr. of 12th May B.C. 62 (OGIS 186.8), and another inscr. from Alexandria of B.C. 52 where Ptolemy XIV. and Cleopatra are called οἱ κύριοι θεοὶ μέγιστοι, ";the lords, the most great gods"; (cf. Berl. Sitzungsberichte, 1902, p. 1096). Similarly, as the same writer points out (LAE, p. 357), κύριος is applied to Herod the Great (B.C. 37–34) in OGIS 415.1 Βα ]σιλεῖ Ἡρώδει κυρίῳ, and to Herod Agrippa I. (A.D. 37–44) in ib. 418.1 ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας κυρίου βασιλέως Ἀγρίππα, al.

There is no evidence that the title was applied to the Roman Emperors in the West before the time of Domitian. Indeed it was specially disclaimed by Augustus and Tiberius as contrary to the Roman conception of the ";Principate"; (see Ovid Fast. ii. 142, Suet. Aug. 53, Tac. Ann. ii. 87, Suet. Tib. 27, cited by Hatch JBL xxvii. 2, p. 139). In the East, on the other hand, it was bestowed on Claudius, and becomes very common in the time of Nero. For Claudius we may cite the official report of certain events which had taken place—ζ ̄ (ἔτους) Τιβερίου Κλαυδίου Καίσαρος τοῦ κυρίου (P Oxy I. 37i. 6—A.D. 49 (= Selections, p. 49)), and Ostr 1038.6 (A.D. 54) ιδ ̄ (ἔτους) (Τιβερίου) Κλαυδίου. . . τοῦ κυρίου. Numerous other ostraca in Wilcken’s collection show the designation as applied to Nero e.g. 16.4 (A.D. 60) (ἔτους) ζ ̄ Νέρωνος τοῦ κυρίου Χοίαχ ε ̄, 17.4, al. : cf. also for the absence of the art., as in Luke 2:11, Colossians 3:17, Meyer Ostr 39.4 (A.D. 62) ἔτος η ̄ Νέρονος κυρίου Παῦνι η ̄. From the papyri it is sufficient to quote P Oxy II. 246.30 (A.D. 66) in which a registration of cattle is certified as having taken place—(ἔτους) ι ̄β ̄ Νέρωνος τοῦ κυρου (l. κυρίου), and from the inscrr. Syll 376.31 (Boeotia—A.D. 67), where Nero is hailed as ὁ τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου κύριος Νέρων : cf. .55. To later dates belong such passages as Meyer Ostr 17.3 (A.D. 74–5) Οὐεσπασιανοῦ τοῦ κυρίου, Magn 192.8 (time of Antoninus) τειμηθέ [ντα ] ὑπὸ τῶν κυρίων Ἀν [τωνεί ]νου καὶ Κομόδου κα [ὶ Λουκί ]ου Οὐήρου, and Priene 230.5 (A.D. 196–212), where a proconsul is described as ὁ τῶν κυρίων ἐπίτροπος, the κύριοι being Septimius Severus and Caracalla or Caracalla and Geta. See further the material collected by Roscher Ausf. Lex. d. griech. u. röm Mythologie ii. I, p. 1755 ff., Kattenbusch Das apostclische Symbol ii. p. 605 ff., Lietzmann HZNT iii. I, p. 53 ff., and especially the full investigation in W. Bousset’s Kyrios Christos, Göttingen, 1913.

(5) It lies outside our immediate purpose to examine the Pauline usage of κύριος in detail (cf. Thess. p. 136 ff.) beyond remarking that while that usage was doubtless primarily influenced by the LXX, which employed κύριος to render the tetragrammaton, there is good reason for finding in the Apostle’s insistence upon ";the name (of κύριος) which is above every name"; (Philippians 2:9) a protest against the worship of ";the gods many and lords many (θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοί)"; (1 Corinthians 8:5), with which Christianity found itself confronted. See especially Deissmann’s illuminating discussion in LAE p. 353 ff., which has been freely drawn upon here, and for the Pauline idea of κύριος the art. by Böhlig in ZNTW xiv. (1913), p. 23 ff.

(6) One or two miscellaneous exx. of the title may be added. Thus, in view of Lightfoot’s statement (Phil..2 p. 312 n..3) that κύριε is not used in prayer to God before apostolic times, we may quote P Tebt II. 284.6 (i/B.C.) καὶ ὡς θέλει ὁ Σεκνεβτῦ (νις) ὁ κύριος θεὸς καταβήσομαι ἐλευθέρω ̣̓—the writer had received an oracular response : cf. Preisigke 1068 παρὰ τῷ κυρίῳ θεῷ Βησᾷ. In OGIS 655.3, an inscr. from Socnopaei Nesus in the Fayûm of date March 17 B.C. 24, mention is made of a building dedicated τῶι θεῶι καὶ κυρίῳ (cf. John 20:28) Σοκνοπαίωι. And for the Septuagint formula ";lord of the spirits"; (cf. Numbers 16:22; Numbers 27:16) cf. the Jewish prayer for vengeance Syll 816 (ii/i B.C.—see LAE p. 423 ff.), which commences—ἐπικαλοῦμαι καὶ ἀξιῶ τὸν θεὸν τὸν ὕψιστον, τὸν κύριον τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ πάσης σαρκός, and the magic P Lond 46.467 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 80) ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὸν κτίσαντα γῆν καὶ ὀστᾶ καὶ πᾶσαν σάρκα καὶ πᾶν πνεῦμα. . . θεὸς θ [ε ]ῶν ὁ κύριος τῶν πνευμάτων.

(7) There are two other usages of κύριος, which are not found in the NT, but which are so common in our documents that they may be mentioned here for the sake of completeness. (a) The first is the application of ὁ κύριος to the legal ";guardian"; of a woman, which occurs as early as B.C. 139 in P Grenf II. 15i . 13 μετὰ κυρίου τοῦ αὐτῆς ἀνδρὸς Ἑρμίου : cf. from Roman times P Oxy II. 255.4 (A.D. 48) (= Selections, p. 46), a census-return παρὰ Θερ [μου ]θαρίου τῆς Θοώνιος μετὰ κυρίου Ἀπολλω (νίου) τοῦ Σωτάδου, BGU I. 22.5 (A.D. 114) (= Selections, p. 74), a petition from a woman who states that at the moment she has no guardian—τὸ παρὸν μὴ ἔχοντα κύριον P Fay 32.8 (A.D. 131), a property return by Sambous μετὰ κυρίο (υ) τοῦ ὁμοπατρίο (υ) καὶ ὁμομητρίου ἀδελφοῦ Ἀλλο ̣θω ̣νος, ";under the wardship of her full brother on both the father’s and mother’s side, Allothon (?)"; (Edd.), and the late P Lond V. 1724.70 (A.D. 578–82). See further Wenger Stellvertretung, p. 173 ff., Archiv iv. p. 78 ff., v. p. 471 ff. (b) The second is its usage as an adj. = ";valid,"; e.g. P Eleph 1.14 (B.C. 311–310) (= Selections, p. 4) ἡ δὲ συγγραφὴ ἥδε κυρία ἔστω πάντηι πάντως, ";and let this contract be valid under all circumstances,"; P Tebt I. 104.41 (B.C. 92) Διονύσιος ἔχω κυρίαν, ";I, Dionysius, have received the contract, which is valid,"; P Oxy II. 275.33 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 57) κυρία ἡ διδασκαλική, ";the contract of apprenticeship is valid,"; al

 

 

The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (748)NAS (720)HCS (717)
Matthew76
Mark18
Luke98
John51
Acts105
Romans39
1 Corinthians59
2 Corinthians28
Galatians7
Ephesians27
Philippians15
Colossians14
1 Thessalonians22
2 Thessalonians19
1 Timothy8
2 Timothy16
Titus1
Philemon5
Hebrews16
James13
1 Peter7
2 Peter14
2 John1
Jude6
Revelation22
Matthew73
Mark16
Luke96
John52
Acts102
Romans38
1 Corinthians57
2 Corinthians27
Galatians6
Ephesians25
Philippians15
Colossians13
1 Thessalonians22
2 Thessalonians20
1 Timothy6
2 Timothy14
Philemon5
Hebrews16
James13
1 Peter7
2 Peter14
Jude7
Revelation21
Matthew80
Mark18
Luke104
John52
Acts107
Romans43
1 Corinthians66
2 Corinthians29
Galatians6
Ephesians26
Philippians15
Colossians16
1 Thessalonians24
2 Thessalonians22
1 Timothy6
2 Timothy16
Philemon5
Hebrews16
James14
1 Peter8
2 Peter14
Jude7
Revelation23
List of Word Forms
θεοῦ θεῷ Ἰησοῦς και Κυριε Κύριε Κύριέ κυριοι κύριοι κυριοις κυρίοις Κυριον κυριόν κυρίον Κύριον κύριόν κύρίον ΚΥΡΙΟΣ κυριός κύριος κύριός κυριου κυριού Κυρίου κύριου κυρίους κυριω κυρίω κυρίῳ ΚΥΡΙΩΝ κυρίων κυρόυ Κύρου Χριστόν Χριστοῦ Christon Christón Christou Christoû Iesous Iesoûs Iēsous Iēsoûs Kurie kurio kuriō kurioi kuriois Kurion KURIŌN KURIOS Kuriou Kyrie Kýrie Kýrié kyrio kyriō kyrioi kyríoi kyríōi kýrioi kyriois kyríois Kyrion KYRIŌN kyríon kyríōn Kýrion kýrión KYRIOS kýrios kýriós Kyriou Kyríou theo theō theôi theō̂i theou theoû
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