Old & New Testament Greek
in all their inflections, the definite article
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
ὁ, ἡ, τό,
is, when thus written, demonstr. Pronoun. in Att., definite or prepositive Article. in , the so-called postpositive Article, = relative Pronoun, ὅς, ἥ, ὅ. —
I The nom. masc. and fem. sg. and pl., ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ, have no accent in codd. and most printed books, exc. when used as the relative; but ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ differ only in writing from ὃ, ἣ, οἳ, αἳ; the nom. forms of the article are said by Hdn.Gr.1.474 to be oxytone, and by A.D. Pron. 8.7 not to be enclitic. The forms τῶν, τοῖς, ταῖς were barytone (i. e. τὼν, τοὶς, ταὶς) in Aeol. acc. to Aristarch. ap. A.D. Synt. 51.26. For οἱ, αἱ some dialects (not Cypr., cf. Inscr.Cypr. 135.30H., nor Cret., cf. Leg.Gort. 5.28, nor Lesbian, cf. Alc. 81, Sapph. Supp. 5.1) and Hom. have τοί, ταί (though οἱ, αἱ are also found in Hom.): other Homeric forms are gen. sg. τοῖο, gen. and dat. dual τοῖιν Od. 18.34, al.: gen. pl. fem. τάων [ᾱ], dat. τοῖσι, τῇς and τῇσι, never ταῖσι or ταῖς in Hom. — In Dor. and all other dialects exc. Att. and Ion. the fem. forms preserve the old ᾱ instead of changing it to η, hence Dor. etc. ἁ, τάν, τᾶς; the gen. pl. τάων contracts in many dialects to τᾶν; the gen. sg. is in many places τῶ, acc. pl. τώς, but Cret., etc., τόνς (Leg.Gort. 7.7, al.) or τός (ib.3.50, al.); in Lesbian Aeol. the acc. pl. forms are τοὶς, ταὶς, IG 12(2).645 A 13, B 62; dat. pl. τοῖς, ταῖς (or τοὶς, ταὶς, v. supr.), ib.645 A 8, ib.1.6; ταῖσι as demonstr., Sapph. 16. The Att. Poets also used the Ion. and forms τοῖσι, ταῖσι; and in Trag. we find τοὶ μέν.., τοὶ δέ.., for οἱ μέν.., οἱ δέ.., not only in lyr., as A. Pers. 584, Th. 295, 298; οἱ μέν.. τοὶ δ' S. Aj. 1404 (anap.); but even in a trimeter, A. Pers. 424. In Att. the dual has usu. only one gender, τὼ θεώ (for τὰ θεά) And. 1.113 sq.; τὼ πόλεε Foed. ap. Th. 5.23; τὼ ἡμέρα X. Cyr. 1.2.11; τὼ χεῖρε Id. Mem. 2.3.18; τοῖν χεροῖν Pl. Tht. 155e; τοῖν γενεσέοιν Id. Phd. 71e; τοῖν πολέοιν Isoc. 4.75 (τά S. Ant. 769, Ar. Eq. 424, 484, ταῖν Lys. 19.17, Isaiah 5:16, etc. have been corrected); in Arc. the form τοῖς functions as gen. dual fem., μεσακόθεν τοῖς κράναιυν Schwyzer 664.8 (Orchom., iv B.C.): — in Elean and Boeot. ὁ, ἡ (ἁ), τό, with the addition of -ί, = ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε, nom.pl. masc. τυΐ the following men, Schwyzer 485.14 (Thespiae, iii B.C.), al., cf. infr. VIII. 5. (With ὁ, ἁ, cf. Skt. demonstr. pron. sa, sâ, Goth. sa, sô, ONorse sá, sú, Old Lat. acc. sum, sam (Enn.): — with τό [from Τόδ ] cf. Skt. tat (tad), Lat. is-tud, Goth. pata: — with τοί cf. Skt. te, Lith. tĩe, O E. pá, etc.: — with τάων cf. Skt. tâsâm, Lat. is-tarum: — the origin of the relative ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (q. v.) is different.) ὁ, ἡ, τό,
DEMONSTR. PRONOUN, that, the oldest and in Hom. the commonest sense: freq. also in Hdt. (1.86, 5.35,al.), and sts. in Trag. (mostly in lyr., A. Supp. 1047, etc.; in trimeters, Id. Th. 197, Ag. 7, Eu. 174; τῶν γάρ.., τῆς γάρ.., Id. Supp. 358, S. OT 1082; seldom in Att. Prose, exc. in special phrases, v. infr. VI, VII):
I joined with a Subst., to call attention to it, ὁ Τυδεΐδης he — Tydeus' famous son, Il. 11.660; τὸν Χρύσην that venerable man Chryses, I.II: and so with Appellat., Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων N. — that aged man, 7.324; αἰετοῦ.. τοῦ θηρητῆρος the eagle, that which is called hunter, 21.252, al.; also to define and give emphasis, τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου for honour, namely that of Priam, 20.181; οἴχετ' ἀνὴρ ὤριστος a man is gone, and he the best, 11.288, cf. 13.433, al.: sts. with words between the Pron. and Noun, αὐτὰρ ὁ αὖτε Πέλοψ 2.105; τὸν Ἕκτορι μῦθον ἐνίσπες 11.186, cf. 703, al.: — different from this are cases like Il. 1.409 αἴ κέν πως ἐθέλῃσιν ἐπὶ Τρώεσσιν ἀρῆξαι, τοὺς δὲ κατὰ πρύμνας τε καὶ ἀμφ' ἅλα ἔλσαι Ἀχαιούς if he would help the Trojans, but drive those back to the ships — I mean the Achaeans, where Ἀχ. is only added to explain τούς, cf. 1.472, 4.20, 329, al.
II freq. without a Subst., he, she, it, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε Il. 1.12, al.
III placed after its Noun, before the Relat. Prons., ἐφάμην σὲ περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, τῶν ὅσσοι Λυκίην ναιετάουσι far above the rest, above those to wit who, etc., Il. 17.172; οἷ' οὔ πώ τιν' ἀκούομεν οὐδὲ παλαιῶν, τάων αἳ πάρος ἦσαν.. Ἀχαιαί such as we have not heard tell of yet even among the women of old, those women to wit who.., Od. 2.119, cf. Il. 5.332; θάλαμον τὸν ἀφίκετο, τόν ποτε τέκτων ξέσσεν Od. 21.43, cf. 1.116, 10.74: — for the Att. usage v. infr. before a Possessive Pron. its demonstr. force is sts. very manifest, φθίσει σε τὸ σὸν μένος that spirit of thine, Il. 6.407, cf. 11.608; but in 15.58, 16.40, and elsewh. it is merely the Art. for cases in which the Homeric usage approaches most nearly to the Attic, v. infr. B. init. ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.. without a Subst., in all cases, genders, and numbers, Hom., etc.: sts. in Opposition, where ὁ μέν prop. refers to the former, ὁ δέ to the latter; more rarely ὁ μέν the latter, ὁ δέ the former, Pl. Prt. 359e, Isoc. 2.32,34: sts. in Partition, the one.., the other.., etc. — The Noun with it is regularly in gen. pl., being divided by the ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.., into parts, ἠΐθεοι καὶ παρθένοι.., τῶν δ' αἱ μὲν λεπτὰς ὀθόνας ἔχον, οἱ δὲ χιτῶνας εἵατο Il. 18.595; τῶν πόλεων αἱ μὲν τυραννοῦνται, αἱ δὲ δημοκρατοῦνται, αἱ δὲ ἀριστοκρατοῦνται Pl. R. 338d, etc.: but freq. the
1. Noun is in the same case, by a kind of apposition, ἴδον υἷε Δάρητος, τὸν μὲν ἀλευάμενον τὸν δὲ κτάμενον Il. 5.28, cf. Od. 12.73, etc.: so in Trag. and Att., S. Ant. 22, etc.; πηγὴ ἡ μὲν εἰς αὐτὸν ἔδυ, ἡ δὲ ἔξω ἀπορρεῖ Pl. Phdr. 255c; if the Noun be collective, it is in the gen. sg., ὁ μὲν πεπραμένος ἦν τοῦ σίτου, ὁ δὲ ἔνδον ἀποκείμενος D. 42.6: sts. a Noun is added in apposition with ὁ μέν or ὁ δέ, ὁ μὲν οὔτασ' Ἀτύμνιον ὀξέϊ δουρὶ Ἀντίλοχος.., Μάρις δὲ.. Il. 16.317 - 19, cf. 116; τοὺς μὲν τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖν ἠνάγκασα, τοὺς πλουσίους, τοὺς δὲ πένητας κτλ. D. 18.102, cf. Pl. Grg. 501a, etc.
2. when a neg. accompanies ὁ δέ, it follows δέ, e.g. τὰς γοῦν Ἀθήνας οἶδα τὸν δὲ χῶρον οὔ S. OC 24; τὸν φιλόσοφον σοφίας ἐπιθυμητὴν εἶναι, οὐ τῆς μὲν τῆς δ' οὔ, ἀλλὰ πάσης Pl. R. 475b; οὐ πάσας χρὴ τὰς δόξας τιμᾶν, ἀλλὰ τὰς μὲν τὰς δ' οὔ· οὐδὲ πάντων, ἀλλὰ τῶν μὲν τῶν δ' οὔ Id. Cri. 47a, etc.
3. ὁ μέν τις.., ὁ δέ τις.. is used in Prose, when the Noun to which ὁ refers is left indefinite, ἔλεγον ὁ μέν τις τὴν σοφίαν, ὁ δὲ τὴν καρτερίαν.., ὁ δέ τις καὶ τὸ κάλλος X. Cyr. 3.1.41; νόμους.. τοὺς μὲν ὀρθῶς τιθέασιν τοὺς δέ τινας οὐκ ὀρθῶς Pl. R. 339c, cf. Phlb. 13c.
4. on τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., or τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., v. infr. VIII. 4.
5. ὁ μέν is freq. used without a corresponding ὁ δέ, οἱ μὲν ἄρ' ἐσκίδναντο.., Μυρμιδόνας δ' οὐκ εἴα ἀποσκίδνασθαι Il. 23.3, cf. 24.722, Th. 8.12, etc.: also folld. by ἀλλά, ἡ μὲν γάρ μ' ἐκέλευε.., ἀλλ' ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔθελον Od. 7.304; by ἄλλος δέ, Il. 6.147, etc.; τὸν μὲν.., ἕτερον δέ Ar. Av. 843, etc.; ὁ μέν.., ὃς δέ.. Thgn. 205 (v.l. οὐδέ): less freq. ὁ δέ in the latter clause without ὁ μέν preceding, τῇ ῥα παραδραμέτην φεύγων, ὁ δ' ὄπισθε διώκων (for ὁ μὲν φεύγων) Il. 22.157; σφραγῖδε.. χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα τὸν δακτύλιον, ἡ δ' ἑτέρα ἀργυροῦν IG 22.1388.45, cf. μέν D. III; γεωργὸς μὲν εἷς, ὁ δὲ οἰκοδόμος, ἄλλος δέ τις ὑφαντής Pl. R. 369d, cf. Tht. 181d.
6. ὁ δέ following μέν sts. refers to the subject of the preceding clause, τοῦ μὲν ἅμαρθ', ὁ δὲ Λεῦκον.. βεβλήκει Il. 4.491; τὴν μὲν γενομένην αὐτοῖσι αἰτίην οὐ μάλα ἐξέφαινε, ὁ δὲ ἔλεγέ σφι Hdt. 6.3, cf. 1.66, 6.9, 133, 7.6: rare in Att. Prose, ἐπεψήφιζεν αὐτὸς ἔφορος ὤν· ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἔφη διαγιγνώσκειν τὴν βοήν Th. 1.87; ἔμενον ὡς κατέχοντες τὸ ἄκρον· οἱ δ' οὐ κατεῖχον X. An. 4.2.6: this is different from ὁ δέ in apodosi, v. infr. 7; also from passages in which both clauses have a common verb, v. ὅ γε 11.
7. ὁ δέ is freq. used simply in continuing a narrative, Il. 1.43, etc.; also used by Hom. in apodosi after a relat., v. ὅδε 111.3.
8. the opposition may be expressed otherwise than by μέν and δέ, οὔθ' ὁ.. οὔθ' ὁ Il. 15.417; ἢ τοῖσιν ἢ τοῖς A. Supp. 439; οὔτε τοῖς οὔτε τοῖς Pl. Lg. 701e. the following usages prevailed in Att. Prose,
1 in dialogue, after καί, it was usual to say in nom. sg. masc. καὶ ὅς; in the other cases the usual forms of the Art. were used (v. ὅς A. II.I and cf. Skt. sas, alternat. form of sa); so, in acc., καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν Pl. Smp. 174a, cf. X. Cyr. 1.3.9, etc.; also in Hdt., καὶ τὴν φράσαι 6.61, al.
2. ὁ καὶ ὁ such and such, τῇ καὶ τῇ ἀτιμίᾳ Pl. Lg. 721b: but mostly in acc., καί μοι κάλει τὸν καὶ τόν Lys. 1.23, cf. Pl. Lg. 784d; τὰ καὶ τὰ πεπονθώς D. 21.141, cf. 9.68; τὸ καὶ τό Id. 18.243; ἀνάγκη ἄρα τὸ καὶ τό it must then be so and so, Arist. Rh. 1401a4, cf. 1413a22; but τὰ καὶ τά now one thing, now another, of good and bad, τὸν δ' ἀγαθὸν τολμᾶν χρὴ τά τε καὶ τὰ φέρειν Thgn. 398, cf. Pi. P. 5.55, 7.20, al.; τῶν τε καὶ τῶν καιρόν Id. O. 2.53; so πάντα τοῦ μετρίου μεταβαλλόμενα ἐπὶ τὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τά, of excess and defect, Hp. Acut. 46; cf. A. VI.8. abs. usages of single cases,
1 fem. dat. τῇ, of Place, there, on that spot, here, this way, that way, Il. 5.752, 858, al.: folld. by ᾗ, 13.52, etc.: also in Prose, τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ X. Ath. 2.12. with a notion of motion towards, that way, in that direction, Il. 10.531, 11.149, 12.124; τῇ ἴμεν ᾗ.. 15.46; δελφῖνες τῇ καὶ τῇ ἐθύνεον ἰχθυάοντες Hes. Sc. 210: — only poet. of Manner, τῇ περ τελευτήσεσθαι ἔμελλεν in this way, thus, Od. 8.510. repeated, τῇ μέν.., τῇ δέ.., in one way.., in another.., or partly.., partly.., E. Or. 356, Pl. Smp. 211a, etc.: without μέν, τῇ μᾶλλον, τῇ δ' ἧσσον Parm. 8.48. relat., where, by which way, only , as Il. 12.118, Od. 4.229.
2. neut. dat. τῷ, therefore, on this account, freq. in Hom., Il. 1.418, 2.254, al. (v. infr.): also in Trag., A. Pr. 239, S. OT 510 (lyr.); in Prose, τῷ τοι.. Pl. Tht. 179d, Sph. 230b. thus, so, Il. 2.373, 13.57, etc.: it may also, esp. when εἰ precedes, be translated, then, if this be so, on this condition, Od. 1.239, 3.224, 258,al., Theoc. 29.11. — In Hom. the true form is prob. τῶ, as in cod. A, or τώ, cf. A.D. Adv. 199.2.
3. neut. acc. τό, wherefore, Il. 3.176, Od. 8.332, al., S. Ph. 142 (lyr.); also τὸ δέ abs., but the fact Isa., Pl. Ap. 23a, Men. 97c, Phd. 109d, Tht. 157b, R. 340d, Lg. 967a; even when the τό refers to what precedes, the contrast may lie not in the thing referred to, but in another part of the sentence (cf. supr. VI. 6), τὸ δ' ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ.. ἐπετήδευσαν Th. 1.37; τὸ δὲ.. ἡμῖν μᾶλλον περιέσται Id. 2.89; φασὶ δέ τινες αὐτὸν καὶ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν γεγονέναι· τὸ δὲ οὐκ ἦν but he was not, Nic.Dam. 58J.
4. τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., partly.., partly.., or on the one hand.., on the other.., Th. 7.36, etc., cf. Od. 2.46; more freq. τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., Hdt. 1.173, S. Tr. 534, etc.; also τὰ μέν τι.., τὰ δέ τι.. X. An. 4.1.14; τὸ μέν τι.., τὸ δέ τι.. Luc. Macr. 14; τὰ μέν.., τὸ δὲ πλέον.. Th. 1.90: sts. without τὸ μέν.. in the first clause, τὸ δέ τι Id. 1.107, 7.48: rarely of Time, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ.., τέλος δέ several times.. and finally, Hdt. 3.85.
5. of Time, sts. that time, sts. this (present) time, συνμαχία κ' ἔα ἑκατὸν ϝέτεα, ἄρχοι δέ κα τοΐ (where it is possible, but not necessary, to supply ϝέτος) SIG 9.3 (Olympia, vi B.C.): so with Preps., ἐκ τοῦ, τοῖο, from that time, Il. 1.493, 15.601. πρὸ τοῦ, sts. written προτοῦ, before this, aforetime, Hdt. 1.103, 122, 5.55, A. Ag. 1204, Ar. Numbers 5:1-31, etc.; ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳ Th. 1.32, cf. A. Eu. 462; τὸ πρὸ τοῦ D.S. 20.59. in Thess. Prose, ὑππρὸ τᾶς yesterday, τὰ ψαφίσματα τό τε ὑππρὸ τᾶς γενόμενον καὶ τὸ τᾶμον the decree which was passed yesterday (lit. before this [day]), and to-day's, IG 9(2).517.43 (Larissa, iii B.C.).
6. ἐν τοῖς is freq. used in Prose with Superlatives, ἐν τοῖσι θειότατον a most marvellous thing, Hdt. 7.137; ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι the very first, Th. 1.6, etc.; ἐν τοῖσι πρῶτος (πρώτοις codd.) Pherecr. 145.4; [Ζεὺς] Ἔρωτά τε καὶ Ἀνάγκην ἐν τοῖς πρῶτα ἐγέννησεν first of all, Aristid. Or. 43(1).16, cf. 37(2).2: when used with fem. Nouns, ἐν τοῖς remained without change of gender, ἐν τοῖς πλεῖσται δὴ νῆες the greatest number of ships, Th. 3.17; ἐν τοῖς πρώτη ἐγένετο (sc. ἡ στάσις) ib. 82: also with Advbs., ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα Id. 8.90, Pl. Cri. 52a, Plu. 2.74e, 421d, 723e, Brut. 6, 11,al., Paus. 1.16.3, etc.; ἐν τοῖς χαλεπώτατα Th. 7.71; τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα μελάγγειον οὖσαν Plu. 2.364c: in late Prose, also with Positives, ἐν τοῖς παράδοξον Aristid. Or. 48(24).47 codd.; with πάνυ, ἐν τοῖς πάνυ D.H. 1.19, cf. 66 (ἐν ταῖς πάνυ f.l. 4.14, 15). ὁ, ἡ, τό,
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, to specify individuals: rare in this signf. in the earliest Gr., becoming commoner later. In Hom. the demonstr. force can generally be traced, v. supr. A. I, but the definite Art. must be recognized in places like Il. 1.167, 7.412, 9.309, 12.289, Od. 19.372: also when joined to an Adj. to make it a Subst., αἰ
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, , , originally , , (as is evident from the forms , for , in Homer
and the Ionic writings), corresponds to our definite article the
(German der, die, das
), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer
, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the N. T.
I. As a demonstrative pronoun; Latin hic, hacc, hoc; German der, die, das, emphatic; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 17,1; Buttmann, 101 f (89f);
1. in the words of the poet Aratus, , quoted by Paul in Acts 17:28.
2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ... , that ... this, the one ... the other: Matthew 13:23 R G Tr (here the division is threefold); Galatians 4:23 (here L WH Tr marginal reading brackets ); ... , Acts 28:24; Philippians 1:16f; ... , Hebrews 7:5f, 20 (21), 23 f; ... , Mark 12:5 R G; Ephesians 4:11; ... (Lclnn. ) ... , Matthew 16:14 cf. John 7:12; followed by , Acts 17:18; (see I.) followed by , Romans 14:2; stands as though had preceded, Matthew 26:67; Matthew 28:17.
3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; , but Hebrews , and he (German er aber): Matthew 2:14; Matthew 4:4; Matthew 21:29; Mark 1:45; Mark 12:15; Luke 8:21,30, 48; Luke 22:10,34; John 9:38, and very often; plural, Matthew 2:5,9; Matthew 4:20; Mark 12:14 ( R G L marginal reading), 16 ( L brackets ); Luke 7:4; Luke 20:5,12; Luke 22:9,38, 71; Acts 4:21; Acts 12:15, and often; , in the Acts alone: Acts 1:6; Acts 5:41; Acts 15:3,30; , Acts 23:18; 28:5>.
II. As the definite or prepositive article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the German der, die, das, examples of which use are not found in the N. T.), whose use in the N. T. is explained at length by Winer s Grammar, §§ 18-20; Buttmann, 85 (74ff); ( Green, p. 5ff). As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed
1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the article thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as , , , , , ( John 1:1 f), , , , , , etc.
b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as , , , , etc. , the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Matthew 11:3; Luke 7:19; , the (promised and expected) prophet, John 1:21; John 7:40; , the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation: , etc.; , the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Corinthians 10:1 f; , James 2:25; , 1 Corinthians 15:8. to designations of eminent personages: , (see ); , John 3:10; cf. Fritzsche on Mark , p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as , Matthew 2:7 cf. 1; , Matthew 9:17: , Matthew 8:31 cf. Matthew 8:28; , Matthew 21:7, cf. Matthew 21:2, and countless other examples The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as , the babes belonging to the people of that place, Luke 18:15; , namely, which were there, Matthew 21:8; , to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14; , the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Matthew 8:23 ( R G T, cf. Matthew 8:18); Matthew 9:1> ( R G); Matthew 13:2> ( R G); , the mountain near the place in question ( der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) (But some commentators still regard as used here generically or Hebraistically like , the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country (cf. the Sept. Joshua 17:16; Joshua 20:7; Genesis 19:17,19, etc.); cf. Lightfoot 'Fresh Revision' etc., p. 111 f; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Matthew 7te Aufl.), Matthew 5:1; Mark 3:13; Luke 9:28; John 6:3,15 ( 1 Maccabees 9:38,40); , the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Matthew 9:10,28; Matthew 13:36; Matthew 17:25; , namely, that is in the house, Matthew 5:15; also , ibid.; , in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Luke 2:7 R G; , the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Corinthians 4:5; so everywhere in the doxologies: , 1 Peter 4:11; Revelation 5:13, etc.
c. The article prefixed to the plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name — as , Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:25; , Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in , , , people, the multitude (German die Leute); , Matthew 24:28; , Matthew 7:6.
d. The article prefixed to the singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, , Matthew 15:11; , Matthew 18:17; , Luke 10:7; 1 Timothy 5:18; , Galatians 3:20; , Galatians 4:1; , Romans 1:17; Hebrews 10:38; , the signs required of anyone who claims to be an apostle, 2 Corinthians 12:12, and ether examples e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 29,2; Buttmann, § 129a. 5): (properly, , thou who art the king), John 19:3; , , Matthew 11:26; , , James 5:1; , Revelation 18:20; add, Mark 5:41; Mark 10:47; Luke 12:32; Luke 18:11,13; John 8:10; John 20:28; Acts 13:41; Romans 8:15; Ephesians 5:14,22, 25; Ephesians 6:1,4; Revelation 12:12.
f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: or , Acts 14:10 ( R G); Acts 26:24> ( Proverbs 26:25); ... , 1 Corinthians 11:5; especially in the expression , when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to anyone (as in French, il a les epaules larges); Song of Solomon , , Matthew 12:10 R G; Mark 3:1; (( Rec. )), Revelation 4:7; , Hebrews 5:14; , Hebrews 7:24; ., Mark 5:3; , 1 Peter 4:8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Maccabees 3:25. the genitive of a person pronoun , , is added to the substantive: Matthew 3:4; Mark 8:17; Revelation 2:18; 1 Peter 2:12, cf. Ephesians 1:18; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 18,2; (Buttmann, § 125,5).
g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 18,5,6; Buttmann, § 124,3,4; ( Green, p. 28f); . as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find and , and , etc. has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's Gospel, if Mark 15:43 (in R G L) be excepted (but T Tr WH insert the article there also); is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: , Mark 15:45; , Hebrews 11:20, and many other examples, especially in the genealogies, Matthew 1:1 ff; Luke 3:23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as , Hebrews 11:21; , Acts 7:16; , Matthew 22:32; Acts 7:32; ... , Luke 13:28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae, § 274): let the following suffice as examples: , John 8:56; Romans 4:1; , Matthew 4:21; , Matthew 27:56, etc.; , Matthew 3:1; , Luke 9:7; , Matthew 1:16; namely, , Acts 13:9; , Mark 14:3; , Mark 10:46 ( R G); , Luke 11:51. But there are exceptions also to this usage , Luke 3:19; , , Acts 13:21; in the opening of the Epistles: , Romans 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:1, etc. . Proper names of countries and region s have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as (but cf. 2 Corinthians 9:2), , , , , (but cf. Romans 15:26; 1 Corinthians 16:5), etc. Only , if Acts 7:11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, especially when joined to prepositions, particularly , and , are without the article; but we find ( R G ) in Acts 18:2. . Names of rivers and streams have the article in Matthew 3:13; Mark 1:5; Luke 4:1; Luke 13:4; John 1:28; , John 18:1 G L Tr marginal reading
2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers;
a. to nouns accompanied by a genitive of the pronouns , , , , , , : Matthew 1:21,25; Matthew 5:45; Matthew 6:10-12; Matthew 12:49; Mark 9:17; Luke 6:27; Luke 10:7; Luke 16:6; Acts 19:25 ( L T Tr WH ); Romans 4:19; Romans 6:6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Matthew 19:28; Luke 1:72; Luke 2:32; 2 Corinthians 8:23; James 5:20, etc.; cf. Buttmann, § 127,27.
b. The possessive pronouns , , , , joined to substantives (if John 4:34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive ( , John 5:30; , John 17:17>; , 1 John 1:3; , John 7:6), very rarely between the article and the substantive ( , John 5:47; , John 7:16>; , John 4:42>), yet this is always done by the other N. T. writings, Matthew 18:20; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Acts 24:6 ( Rec.); Acts 26:5>; Romans 3:7, etc.
c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive — as , Galatians 6:5; , Matthew 12:35; , John 7:24; , Luke 10:42; , Luke 12:10; Acts 1:8; , John 17:3, and many other examples; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as , Mark 3:29; John 14:26; Acts 1:16; Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:15; , 1 John 1:2; 1 John 2:25; , John 10:11; , Acts 12:10, and other examples; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts (Acts 14:10> R G); Acts 26:24>; 1 Corinthians 11:5 (cf. Buttmann, § 125,5; Winer's Grammar, § 20,1c.). As to the adjectives of quantity, , , , see each in its own place.
d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as , Romans 9:11; , Romans 11:27; , 1 Corinthians 1:18; , Colossians 2:5; on the other hand, , 1 Thessalonians 1:8; , 2 Corinthians 8:4; see many other examples of each usage in Winer s Grammar, 131ff (124ff); (Buttmann, 91ff (80ff)).
e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (, ) belonging to it either precedes or follows ( Winer s Grammar, § 18,4; Buttmann, § 127,29-31); as, , John 9:24 ( , L Tr marginal reading WH); Acts 6:13; Acts 22:26; , Matthew 15:8; , Luke 15:30; plural Luke 24:17, and numberless other examples; , Luke 14:30; , Mark 7:6 ( , L WH marginal reading); , Luke 15:24; , Luke 18:11 ( , L marginal reading); , John 7:36 ( , L T Tr WH), and many other examples on , see , 2; on etc., see (I:1b. etc.); on etc., see , III.
3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 34,2; Buttmann, § 128,1); as, , (which see each in its place); , Hebrews 7:7; with a genitive added, , Romans 1:19; , Romans 8:3; , 1 Corinthians 1:25; , Hebrews 7:18; , Romans 1:20; , 2 Corinthians 4:2, etc.
4. The article with cardinal numerals: one; the one (of two), see , 4a.; but differently in Romans 5:15,17, the (that) one. So also (our the twain), Matthew 19:5; the (those) ten, and , Luke 17:17; () , Luke 13:4.
5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives ( Winer s Grammar, §§ 18,3; 45,7; Buttmann, §§ 129,1b.; 144,9); as, , Matthew 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; , Mark 6:14 (for which Matthew 14:2 ); , Matthew 13:3; Luke 8:5; , Hebrews 11:28; , Luke 7:14; , Matthew 8:33; Mark 5:14; , the eaters ( convivae), Matthew 14:21; , Matthew 18:30,34; (see , 2).
b. the participle with the article must be resolved into he who (and a finite verb; cf. Buttmann, § 144,9): Matthew 10:40; Luke 6:29; Luke 11:23; John 15:23; 2 Corinthians 1:21; Philippians 2:13, and very often. followed by a participle ( Winer's Grammar, 111 (106)), Matthew 5:22; Matthew 7:26; Luke 6:30 ( T WH omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets article); Luke 11:10>; Romans 2:1; 1 Corinthians 16:16; Galatians 3:13, etc.; Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
ὁ , ἡ , τό ,
the prepositive article (ἄρθρον προτακτικόν ), originally a demonstr. prop. (so usually in Hom.), in general corresponding to the Eng. definite article.
I. As demonstr. Aron.
1. As freq. in Hom., absol., he (she, it), his (etc.) : (quoted from the poet Aratus).
2. Distributive, ὁ μὲν . . . ὁ δέ , the one . . . the other: , ; pl., ; , , al.; οἱ μὲν . . . ἄλλοι δέ , , . οἱ μὲν . . . ὁ δέ , ; .
3. In narration (without ό μὲν preceding), ὁ δέ , but he: , , , , al. mult.
II. As prepositive article, the, prefixed,
1. to nouns unmodified: ὁ θεός , τὸ φῶς , etc.; to abstract nouns, ἡ σοφία , etc., to pl. nouns which indicate a class, οἱ ἀλώπεκες , foxes, , al.; to an individual as representing a class, ὁ ἐργάτης , ; c. nom. = voc. in addresses, , , , al.; to things which pertain to one, ἡ χεῖρ , his hand, ; to names of persons well known or already mentioned; usually to names of countries (originally adjectives), ἡ Ἰουδαία , etc.
2. To modified nouns : c. pers. prop. gen., μοῦ , σοῦ , etc.; c. poss. prop., ἐμός , σός , etc.; c. adj. between the art, and the noun, ό ἀγαθὸς ἄθρωτος , ; the noun loll, by adj., both c. art., ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός , (on ὁ ὄχλος πολύς , , v. M, Pr., 84); before adjectival phrases, ἡ κατ᾿ ἐκλογὴν πρόοθεσις , .
3. To other parts of speech used as substantives;
(a) neuter adjectives: τ . ἀγαθόν , etc.;
(b) cardinal numerals: ὁ εἷς , oἷ δύο , etc.;
(c) participles: ὁ Βαπτίζων (= ὁ Βαπτιστής , ), ; πᾶς ὁ , c. ptcp., every one who, etc.;
(d) adverbs: τὸ πέραν , τὰ νῦν , ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος ;
(e) infinitives: nom., τὸ θέλειν , , al.; gen., τοῦ , after adjectives, ἄξιον τοῦ πορεύεσθαι , ; verbs, ἔλαχεν τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι , ; and freq. in a final sense, ἐξῆλθεν σπΕέιρων τοῦ σπείρειν , (on the artic. inf., v. B1., § 71).
4. In the neut. to sentences, phrases or single words treated as a quotation : τὸ Ἐι δύνῃ , ; τὸ ἔτι ἅπαξ , ; τό ἀνέβη , , al.
5. To prepositional phrases: oἱ ἀπὸ Ἰταλίας , ; oἱ ἐκ νόμου , ; neut. acc absol., in adverbial phrases, τὸ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν , daily, ; τὸ κατὰ σάρκα , as regards the flesh, ,
6. To nouns in the genitive, denoting kinship, association, etc.: ὁ τοῦ , the son of (unless context indicates a different relationship), , al.; τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ , the things that pertain to God, ; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης , (cf. M, Pr., 81 If.; B1., §§ 46, 47).
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT
The following may serve as exx. of this common word, probably borrowed, like Lat. asinus, from some Asiatic language (Boisacq, p. 705)—P Petr III. 140 (a).2 (iii/B.C.) ἀπ [οστεῖ ]λόν μοι τὴν ὄνον, P Grenf II. 14 (b).5 f. (B.C. 225) (= Chrest. I. p. 489) συνκεχρήμε ̣[θ ]α δ ̣ὲ ὄνους βαδιστὰς (see s.v. βαδίζω) πέντε. . . ἑτοιμάκαμεν δὲ καὶ τοὺς τεσσαράκοντα ὄνους [τοὺς σ ]κ ̣[ε ]υ ̣οφόρους, P Ryl II. 142.20 (A.D. 37) ἤροσαν διὰ ὄνων εἰς λόγο (ν) δεσχ (= μ)ῶ (ν) ἑξακοσίων, ";they carried off by means of donkeys a matter of six hundred bundles"; (Edd.), ib. 145.16 (A.D. 38) ἀφήρπασεν παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ ὄνον θήλειαν, ";be robbed him of a female donkey"; (Edd.), P Lond II. 331.16 f. (A.D. 165) (= II. p. 154, Chrest. I. p. 575) δώσ [ο ]μεν ἔτι καταβαίνοντι ὄνους τέσσαρας καὶ ἀναβαίνοντι τοὺς ἴσους, ";we shall give him for the down journey four asses, and for the up journey the same number,"; P Oxy VI. 932.8 (late ii/A.D.) ἐὰν δύνῃ ἀναβῆναι ἵνα ἐπιγνοῖς (cf. Luke 1:4 א*) τὸν ὄνον, ";if you can go up to find out the ass, do so"; (Edd.), and ib. I. 112.6 (iii/iv A.D.) δήλωσόν μοι ἢ πλοίῳ ἐξέρχ [ει ] ἢ ὄνῳ, ";let me know whether you are coming by boat or by donkey,"; a good ex. of the instrumental dat. In P Fay 67.2 (A.D. 80) (πυροῦ) ὄνους τρεῖς, ὄνους = ";donkey-loads"; : cf. BGU II. 362i. 6 (A.D. 215) ὄν ]ων γ ̄ ὑπὸ δένδρα, ";three asses laden with trees";—a rare instance of Coptic syntactical influence found in the papyri (cf. s.v. ὀστέον, and see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 20). In Herodas vi. 83 ὁ ὄνος = ";the grindstone"; : cf. μύλος ὀνικός (Matthew 18:6, Mark 9:42). On the δίπλωμα ὄνων, see Ostr. i. p. 360 f. For ὀνηλάτης cf. P Fay 119.3 (c. A.D. 100), and for ὀνηλάσιον cf. P Ryl II. 183 (a).2 (A.D. 16). See also s.v. βαδίζω.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (543)||NAS (592)||HCS (10117)
|KJV (543)||NAS (592)||HCS (10117)
List of Word Forms
αι αί αἱ αἵ αυτά αυτοίς αυτού αὐτοῦ αυτών γῇ Η ἡ ἥ και μου ν Ο ὁ ὅ Ὃ οβελίσκοι οβολοί οβολός οβολώ οδόντες οι οἱ οἵ ὃν ος ου ούτοί πάσαν προς σε τα τά τὰ ΤΑΙΣ ταῖς τας τὰς τη τῇ την τήν τὴν ΤΗΣ τὴς τῆς τν τνω ΤΟ Τό τὸ τοις τοίς τοῖς ΤΟΝ τόν τὸν τοπρωϊ ΤΟΥ τοῦ τους τούς τοὺς τοῦς τω τῷ ΤΩΝ τῶν ψου ai autou autoû e Ē ge gē gêi gē̂i hai haí he hē hḗ ho hó HÒ hoi hoí hon hòn O oi on ta tá tà TAIS taîs tas tàs te tē têi tē̂i ten tēn tḗn tḕn TeS tês TĒS tḕs tē̂s TO Tó tò tō tôi tō̂i tois toîs TON tón tòn tôn TŌN tō̂n TOU toû tous toús toùs toûs
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