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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #3588 -

ho, hay, to  
Word Origin:
in all their inflections, the definite article
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. this, that, these, etc.
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ὁ, ἡ, τό,

is, when thus written, demonstr. Pronoun. in Att., definite or prepositive Article. in , the so-called postpositive Article, = relative Pronoun, ὅς, ἥ, ὅ. —

I The nom. masc. and fem. sg. and pl., ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ, have no accent in codd. and most printed books, exc. when used as the relative; but ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ differ only in writing from ὃ, ἣ, οἳ, αἳ; the nom. forms of the article are said by Hdn.Gr.1.474 to be oxytone, and by A.D. Pron. 8.7 not to be enclitic. The forms τῶν, τοῖς, ταῖς were barytone (i. e. τὼν, τοὶς, ταὶς) in Aeol. acc. to Aristarch. ap. A.D. Synt. 51.26. For οἱ, αἱ some dialects (not Cypr., cf. Inscr.Cypr. 135.30H., nor Cret., cf. Leg.Gort. 5.28, nor Lesbian, cf. Alc. 81, Sapph. Supp. 5.1) and Hom. have τοί, ταί (though οἱ, αἱ are also found in Hom.): other Homeric forms are gen. sg. τοῖο, gen. and dat. dual τοῖιν Od. 18.34, al.: gen. pl. fem. τάων [], dat. τοῖσι, τῇς and τῇσι, never ταῖσι or ταῖς in Hom. In Dor. and all other dialects exc. Att. and Ion. the fem. forms preserve the old instead of changing it to η, hence Dor. etc. ἁ, τάν, τᾶς; the gen. pl. τάων contracts in many dialects to τᾶν; the gen. sg. is in many places τῶ, acc. pl. τώς, but Cret., etc., τόνς (Leg.Gort. 7.7, al.) or τός (ib.3.50, al.); in Lesbian Aeol. the acc. pl. forms are τοὶς, ταὶς, IG 12(2).645 A 13, B 62; dat. pl. τοῖς, ταῖς (or τοὶς, ταὶς, v. supr.), ib.645 A 8, ib.1.6; ταῖσι as demonstr., Sapph. 16. The Att. Poets also used the Ion. and forms τοῖσι, ταῖσι; and in Trag. we find τοὶ μέν.., τοὶ δέ.., for οἱ μέν.., οἱ δέ.., not only in lyr., as A. Pers. 584, Th. 295, 298; οἱ μέν.. τοὶ δ' S. Aj. 1404 (anap.); but even in a trimeter, A. Pers. 424. In Att. the dual has usu. only one gender, τὼ θεώ (for τὰ θεά) And. 1.113 sq.; τὼ πόλεε Foed. ap. Th. 5.23; τὼ ἡμέρα X. Cyr. 1.2.11; τὼ χεῖρε Id. Mem. 2.3.18; τοῖν χεροῖν Pl. Tht. 155e; τοῖν γενεσέοιν Id. Phd. 71e; τοῖν πολέοιν Isoc. 4.75 (τά S. Ant. 769, Ar. Eq. 424, 484, ταῖν Lys. 19.17, Isaiah 5:16, etc. have been corrected); in Arc. the form τοῖς functions as gen. dual fem., μεσακόθεν τοῖς κράναιυν Schwyzer 664.8 (Orchom., iv B.C.): in Elean and Boeot. ὁ, ἡ (), τό, with the addition of -ί, = ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε, masc. τυΐ the following men, Schwyzer 485.14 (Thespiae, iii B.C.), al., cf. infr. VIII. 5. (With ὁ, ἁ, cf. Skt. demonstr. pron. sa, sâ, Goth. sa, sô, ONorse sá, sú, Old Lat. acc. sum, sam (Enn.): with τό [from Τόδ ] cf. Skt. tat (tad), Lat. is-tud, Goth. pata: with τοί cf. Skt. te, Lith. tĩe, O E. pá, etc.: with τάων cf. Skt. tâsâm, Lat. is-tarum: the origin of the relative ὅς, ἥ, ὅ (q. v.) is different.) ὁ, ἡ, τό,

DEMONSTR. PRONOUN, that, the oldest and in Hom. the commonest sense: freq. also in Hdt. (1.86, 5.35,al.), and sts. in Trag. (mostly in lyr., A. Supp. 1047, etc.; in trimeters, Id. Th. 197, Ag. 7, Eu. 174; τῶν γάρ.., τῆς γάρ.., Id. Supp. 358, S. OT 1082; seldom in Att. Prose, exc. in special phrases, v. infr. VI, VII):

I joined with a Subst., to call attention to it, ὁ Τυδεΐδης he Tydeus' famous son, Il. 11.660; τὸν Χρύσην that venerable man Chryses, I.II: and so with Appellat., Νέστωρ ὁ γέρων N. that aged man, 7.324; αἰετοῦ.. τοῦ θηρητῆρος the eagle, that which is called hunter, 21.252, al.; also to define and give emphasis, τιμῆς τῆς Πριάμου for honour, namely that of Priam, 20.181; οἴχετ' ἀνὴρ ὤριστος a man is gone, and he the best, 11.288, cf. 13.433, al.: sts. with words between the Pron. and Noun, αὐτὰρ ὁ αὖτε Πέλοψ 2.105; τὸν Ἕκτορι μῦθον ἐνίσπες 11.186, cf. 703, al.: different from this are cases like Il. 1.409 αἴ κέν πως ἐθέλῃσιν ἐπὶ Τρώεσσιν ἀρῆξαι, τοὺς δὲ κατὰ πρύμνας τε καὶ ἀμφ' ἅλα ἔλσαι Ἀχαιούς if he would help the Trojans, but drive those back to the ships I mean the Achaeans, where Ἀχ. is only added to explain τούς, cf. 1.472, 4.20, 329, al.

II freq. without a Subst., he, she, it, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε Il. 1.12, al.

III placed after its Noun, before the Relat. Prons., ἐφάμην σὲ περὶ φρένας ἔμμεναι ἄλλων, τῶν ὅσσοι Λυκίην ναιετάουσι far above the rest, above those to wit who, etc., Il. 17.172; οἷ' οὔ πώ τιν' ἀκούομεν οὐδὲ παλαιῶν, τάων αἳ πάρος ἦσαν.. Ἀχαιαί such as we have not heard tell of yet even among the women of old, those women to wit who.., Od. 2.119, cf. Il. 5.332; θάλαμον τὸν ἀφίκετο, τόν ποτε τέκτων ξέσσεν Od. 21.43, cf. 1.116, 10.74: for the Att. usage v. infr. before a Possessive Pron. its demonstr. force is sts. very manifest, φθίσει σε τὸ σὸν μένος that spirit of thine, Il. 6.407, cf. 11.608; but in 15.58, 16.40, and elsewh. it is merely the Art. for cases in which the Homeric usage approaches most nearly to the Attic, v. infr. B. init. ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.. without a Subst., in all cases, genders, and numbers, Hom., etc.: sts. in Opposition, where ὁ μέν prop. refers to the former, ὁ δέ to the latter; more rarely ὁ μέν the latter, ὁ δέ the former, Pl. Prt. 359e, Isoc. 2.32,34: sts. in Partition, the one.., the other.., etc. The Noun with it is regularly in gen. pl., being divided by the ὁ μέν.., ὁ δέ.., into parts, ἠΐθεοι καὶ παρθένοι.., τῶν δ' αἱ μὲν λεπτὰς ὀθόνας ἔχον, οἱ δὲ χιτῶνας εἵατο Il. 18.595; τῶν πόλεων αἱ μὲν τυραννοῦνται, αἱ δὲ δημοκρατοῦνται, αἱ δὲ ἀριστοκρατοῦνται Pl. R. 338d, etc.: but freq. the

1. Noun is in the same case, by a kind of apposition, ἴδον υἷε Δάρητος, τὸν μὲν ἀλευάμενον τὸν δὲ κτάμενον Il. 5.28, cf. Od. 12.73, etc.: so in Trag. and Att., S. Ant. 22, etc.; πηγὴ ἡ μὲν εἰς αὐτὸν ἔδυ, ἡ δὲ ἔξω ἀπορρεῖ Pl. Phdr. 255c; if the Noun be collective, it is in the gen. sg., ὁ μὲν πεπραμένος ἦν τοῦ σίτου, ὁ δὲ ἔνδον ἀποκείμενος D. 42.6: sts. a Noun is added in apposition with ὁ μέν or ὁ δέ, ὁ μὲν οὔτασ' Ἀτύμνιον ὀξέϊ δουρὶ Ἀντίλοχος.., Μάρις δὲ.. Il. 16.317 - 19, cf. 116; τοὺς μὲν τὰ δίκαια ποιεῖν ἠνάγκασα, τοὺς πλουσίους, τοὺς δὲ πένητας κτλ. D. 18.102, cf. Pl. Grg. 501a, etc.

2. when a neg. accompanies ὁ δέ, it follows δέ, e.g. τὰς γοῦν Ἀθήνας οἶδα τὸν δὲ χῶρον οὔ S. OC 24; τὸν φιλόσοφον σοφίας ἐπιθυμητὴν εἶναι, οὐ τῆς μὲν τῆς δ' οὔ, ἀλλὰ πάσης Pl. R. 475b; οὐ πάσας χρὴ τὰς δόξας τιμᾶν, ἀλλὰ τὰς μὲν τὰς δ' οὔ· οὐδὲ πάντων, ἀλλὰ τῶν μὲν τῶν δ' οὔ Id. Cri. 47a, etc.

3. ὁ μέν τις.., ὁ δέ τις.. is used in Prose, when the Noun to which refers is left indefinite, ἔλεγον ὁ μέν τις τὴν σοφίαν, ὁ δὲ τὴν καρτερίαν.., ὁ δέ τις καὶ τὸ κάλλος X. Cyr. 3.1.41; νόμους.. τοὺς μὲν ὀρθῶς τιθέασιν τοὺς δέ τινας οὐκ ὀρθῶς Pl. R. 339c, cf. Phlb. 13c.

4. on τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., or τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., v. infr. VIII. 4.

5. ὁ μέν is freq. used without a corresponding ὁ δέ, οἱ μὲν ἄρ' ἐσκίδναντο.., Μυρμιδόνας δ' οὐκ εἴα ἀποσκίδνασθαι Il. 23.3, cf. 24.722, Th. 8.12, etc.: also folld. by ἀλλά, ἡ μὲν γάρ μ' ἐκέλευε.., ἀλλ' ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔθελον Od. 7.304; by ἄλλος δέ, Il. 6.147, etc.; τὸν μὲν.., ἕτερον δέ Ar. Av. 843, etc.; ὁ μέν.., ὃς δέ.. Thgn. 205 (v.l. οὐδέ): less freq. ὁ δέ in the latter clause without ὁ μέν preceding, τῇ ῥα παραδραμέτην φεύγων, ὁ δ' ὄπισθε διώκων (for ὁ μὲν φεύγων) Il. 22.157; σφραγῖδε.. χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα τὸν δακτύλιον, ἡ δ' ἑτέρα ἀργυροῦν IG 22.1388.45, cf. μέν D. III; γεωργὸς μὲν εἷς, ὁ δὲ οἰκοδόμος, ἄλλος δέ τις ὑφαντής Pl. R. 369d, cf. Tht. 181d.

6. ὁ δέ following μέν sts. refers to the subject of the preceding clause, τοῦ μὲν ἅμαρθ', ὁ δὲ Λεῦκον.. βεβλήκει Il. 4.491; τὴν μὲν γενομένην αὐτοῖσι αἰτίην οὐ μάλα ἐξέφαινε, ὁ δὲ ἔλεγέ σφι Hdt. 6.3, cf. 1.66, 6.9, 133, 7.6: rare in Att. Prose, ἐπεψήφιζεν αὐτὸς ἔφορος ὤν· ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἔφη διαγιγνώσκειν τὴν βοήν Th. 1.87; ἔμενον ὡς κατέχοντες τὸ ἄκρον· οἱ δ' οὐ κατεῖχον X. An. 4.2.6: this is different from ὁ δέ in apodosi, v. infr. 7; also from passages in which both clauses have a common verb, v. ὅ γε 11.

7. ὁ δέ is freq. used simply in continuing a narrative, Il. 1.43, etc.; also used by Hom. in apodosi after a relat., v. ὅδε 111.3.

8. the opposition may be expressed otherwise than by μέν and δέ, οὔθ' ὁ.. οὔθ' ὁ Il. 15.417; ἢ τοῖσιν ἢ τοῖς A. Supp. 439; οὔτε τοῖς οὔτε τοῖς Pl. Lg. 701e. the following usages prevailed in Att. Prose,


1 in dialogue, after καί, it was usual to say in nom. sg. masc. καὶ ὅς; in the other cases the usual forms of the Art. were used (v. ὅς A. II.I and cf. Skt. sas, alternat. form of sa); so, in acc., καὶ τὸν εἰπεῖν Pl. Smp. 174a, cf. X. Cyr. 1.3.9, etc.; also in Hdt., καὶ τὴν φράσαι 6.61, al.

2. ὁ καὶ ὁ such and such, τῇ καὶ τῇ ἀτιμίᾳ Pl. Lg. 721b: but mostly in acc., καί μοι κάλει τὸν καὶ τόν Lys. 1.23, cf. Pl. Lg. 784d; τὰ καὶ τὰ πεπονθώς D. 21.141, cf. 9.68; τὸ καὶ τό Id. 18.243; ἀνάγκη ἄρα τὸ καὶ τό it must then be so and so, Arist. Rh. 1401a4, cf. 1413a22; but τὰ καὶ τά now one thing, now another, of good and bad, τὸν δ' ἀγαθὸν τολμᾶν χρὴ τά τε καὶ τὰ φέρειν Thgn. 398, cf. Pi. P. 5.55, 7.20, al.; τῶν τε καὶ τῶν καιρόν Id. O. 2.53; so πάντα τοῦ μετρίου μεταβαλλόμενα ἐπὶ τὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τά, of excess and defect, Hp. Acut. 46; cf. A. VI.8. abs. usages of single cases,


1 fem. dat. τῇ, of Place, there, on that spot, here, this way, that way, Il. 5.752, 858, al.: folld. by , 13.52, etc.: also in Prose, τὸ μὲν τῇ, τὸ δὲ τῇ X. Ath. 2.12. with a notion of motion towards, that way, in that direction, Il. 10.531, 11.149, 12.124; τῇ ἴμεν ᾗ.. 15.46; δελφῖνες τῇ καὶ τῇ ἐθύνεον ἰχθυάοντες Hes. Sc. 210: only poet. of Manner, τῇ περ τελευτήσεσθαι ἔμελλεν in this way, thus, Od. 8.510. repeated, τῇ μέν.., τῇ δέ.., in one way.., in another.., or partly.., partly.., E. Or. 356, Pl. Smp. 211a, etc.: without μέν, τῇ μᾶλλον, τῇ δ' ἧσσον Parm. 8.48. relat., where, by which way, only , as Il. 12.118, Od. 4.229.

2. neut. dat. τῷ, therefore, on this account, freq. in Hom., Il. 1.418, 2.254, al. (v. infr.): also in Trag., A. Pr. 239, S. OT 510 (lyr.); in Prose, τῷ τοι.. Pl. Tht. 179d, Sph. 230b. thus, so, Il. 2.373, 13.57, etc.: it may also, esp. when εἰ precedes, be translated, then, if this be so, on this condition, Od. 1.239, 3.224, 258,al., Theoc. 29.11. In Hom. the true form is prob. τῶ, as in cod. A, or τώ, cf. A.D. Adv. 199.2.

3. neut. acc. τό, wherefore, Il. 3.176, Od. 8.332, al., S. Ph. 142 (lyr.); also τὸ δέ abs., but the fact Isa., Pl. Ap. 23a, Men. 97c, Phd. 109d, Tht. 157b, R. 340d, Lg. 967a; even when the τό refers to what precedes, the contrast may lie not in the thing referred to, but in another part of the sentence (cf. supr. VI. 6), τὸ δ' ἐπὶ κακουργίᾳ.. ἐπετήδευσαν Th. 1.37; τὸ δὲ.. ἡμῖν μᾶλλον περιέσται Id. 2.89; φασὶ δέ τινες αὐτὸν καὶ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφῶν γεγονέναι· τὸ δὲ οὐκ ἦν but he was not, Nic.Dam. 58J.

4. τὸ μέν.., τὸ δέ.., partly.., partly.., or on the one hand.., on the other.., Th. 7.36, etc., cf. Od. 2.46; more freq. τὰ μέν.., τὰ δέ.., Hdt. 1.173, S. Tr. 534, etc.; also τὰ μέν τι.., τὰ δέ τι.. X. An. 4.1.14; τὸ μέν τι.., τὸ δέ τι.. Luc. Macr. 14; τὰ μέν.., τὸ δὲ πλέον.. Th. 1.90: sts. without τὸ μέν.. in the first clause, τὸ δέ τι Id. 1.107, 7.48: rarely of Time, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ.., τέλος δέ several times.. and finally, Hdt. 3.85.

5. of Time, sts. that time, sts. this (present) time, συνμαχία κ' ἔα ἑκατὸν ϝέτεα, ἄρχοι δέ κα τοΐ (where it is possible, but not necessary, to supply ϝέτος) SIG 9.3 (Olympia, vi B.C.): so with Preps., ἐκ τοῦ, τοῖο, from that time, Il. 1.493, 15.601. πρὸ τοῦ, sts. written προτοῦ, before this, aforetime, Hdt. 1.103, 122, 5.55, A. Ag. 1204, Ar. Numbers 5:1-31, etc.; ἐν τῷ πρὸ τοῦ χρόνῳ Th. 1.32, cf. A. Eu. 462; τὸ πρὸ τοῦ D.S. 20.59. in Thess. Prose, ὑππρὸ τᾶς yesterday, τὰ ψαφίσματα τό τε ὑππρὸ τᾶς γενόμενον καὶ τὸ τᾶμον the decree which was passed yesterday (lit. before this [day]), and to-day's, IG 9(2).517.43 (Larissa, iii B.C.).

6. ἐν τοῖς is freq. used in Prose with Superlatives, ἐν τοῖσι θειότατον a most marvellous thing, Hdt. 7.137; ἐν τοῖς πρῶτοι the very first, Th. 1.6, etc.; ἐν τοῖσι πρῶτος (πρώτοις codd.) Pherecr. 145.4; [Ζεὺς] Ἔρωτά τε καὶ Ἀνάγκην ἐν τοῖς πρῶτα ἐγέννησεν first of all, Aristid. Or. 43(1).16, cf. 37(2).2: when used with fem. Nouns, ἐν τοῖς remained without change of gender, ἐν τοῖς πλεῖσται δὴ νῆες the greatest number of ships, Th. 3.17; ἐν τοῖς πρώτη ἐγένετο (sc. ἡ στάσις) ib. 82: also with Advbs., ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα Id. 8.90, Pl. Cri. 52a, Plu. 2.74e, 421d, 723e, Brut. 6, 11,al., Paus. 1.16.3, etc.; ἐν τοῖς χαλεπώτατα Th. 7.71; τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα μελάγγειον οὖσαν Plu. 2.364c: in late Prose, also with Positives, ἐν τοῖς παράδοξον Aristid. Or. 48(24).47 codd.; with πάνυ, ἐν τοῖς πάνυ D.H. 1.19, cf. 66 (ἐν ταῖς πάνυ f.l. 4.14, 15). ὁ, ἡ, τό,

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, the, to specify individuals: rare in this signf. in the earliest Gr., becoming commoner later. In Hom. the demonstr. force can generally be traced, v. supr. A. I, but the definite Art. must be recognized in places like Il. 1.167, 7.412, 9.309, 12.289, Od. 19.372: also when joined to an Adj. to make it a Subst., αἰ

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List of Word Forms
αι αί αἱ αἵ αυτά αυτοίς αυτού αὐτοῦ αυτών γῇ Η ἡ ἥ και μου ν Ο ὁ ὅ Ὃ οβελίσκοι οβολοί οβολός οβολώ οδόντες οι οἱ οἵ ὃν ος ου ούτοί πάσαν προς σε τα τά τὰ ΤΑΙΣ ταῖς τας τὰς τη τῇ την τήν τὴν ΤΗΣ τὴς τῆς τν τνω ΤΟ Τό τὸ τοις τοίς τοῖς ΤΟΝ τόν τὸν τοπρωϊ ΤΟΥ τοῦ τους τούς τοὺς τοῦς τω τῷ ΤΩΝ τῶν ψου ai autou autoû e Ē ge gē gêi gē̂i hai haí he hē hḗ ho hó HÒ hoi hoí hon hòn O oi on ta tá tà TAIS taîs tas tàs te tē têi tē̂i ten tēn tḗn tḕn TeS tês TĒS tḕs tē̂s TO Tó tò tō tôi tō̂i tois toîs TON tón tòn tôn TŌN tō̂n TOU toû tous toús toùs toûs
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