ver. 2.0.14.10.21
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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #4314 - πρός

Transliteration:
pr
Phonetics:
pros  
Word Origin:
a strengthened form of (4253)
Parts of Speech:
Preposition
TDNT:
6:720,942
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. to the advantage of
  2. at, near, by
  3. to, towards, with, with regard to
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πρός, Prep., expressing direction, on the side of, in the direction of, hence c. gen., dat., and acc., from, at, to: Ep. also προτί and ποτί, in Hom. usually c. acc., more rarely c. dat., and each only once c. gen., Il. 11.831, 22.198: dialectal forms: Dor. ποτί (q. v.) and ποί, but Cret. πορτί Leg.Gort. 5.44, etc., Argive προτ ( ί ) Schwyzer 84.3 (found at Tylisus, V B.C.), restored in Mnemos. 57.208(Argos, vi B.C. ), and in Alcm. 30; Arc., Cypr. πός SIG 306.11 (Tegea, iv B.C. ), Inscr.Cypr. 135.19H., also sts. in Asia Minor in compds., v. ποσάγω, ποσφέρω; Aeol. πρός Sapph. 69 ( προς- ), 109, Alc. 20 (s. v.l.); πρές Jo.Gramm. Comp. 3.10; Pamphylian περτ ( ί ) Schwyzer 686.7, 686a4. (With προτί, πρός cf. Skt. práti 'towards, near to, against, back, etc.', Slav. protiv[ucaron], Lett. pret 'against', Lat. pretium: ποτί (q. v.) and πός are not cogn.) A.

WITH GEN., πρός refers to that from which something comes: I of Place, from, ἵκετο ἠὲ π. ἠοίων ἦ ἑσπερίων ἀνθρώπων Od. 8.29; τὸν π. Σάρδεων ἤλεκτρον S. Ant. 1037 (v.l.).

2. on the side of, towards, νήσοισι πρὸς Ἤλιδος towards Elis, Od. 21.347; π. ἁλός, π. Θύμβρης, Il. 10.428, 430; εἶναι π. θαλάσσης Hdt. 2.154; ἱδρῦσθαι π. τοῦ Ἑλλησπόντου Id. 8.120; ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο π. Ὀλύνθου Th. 1.62, etc.; φυλακαὶ π. Αἰθιόπων, π. Ἀραβίων, π. Διβύης, on the frontier towards the Ethiopians, etc., Hdt. 2.30: freq. with words denoting the points of the compass, δύω θύραι εἰσίν, αἱ μὲν π. βορέαο, αἱ δ' αὖ π. νότου one on the north side, the other on the south side, Od. 13.110; οἰκέουσι π. νότου ἀνέμου Hdt. 3.101; π. ἄρκτου τε καὶ βορέω ἀνέμου κατοικημένοι ib. 102; π. μεσαμβρίης ib. 107; π. τοῦ Τμώλου τετραμμένον τῆς πόλιος (in such phrases the acc. is more common) Id. 1.84; π. Πλαταιῶν Th. 3.21; π. Νεμέας Id. 5.59; ἀπὸ τῆσδε τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ π. τοῦ λιμένος ἅπαν everything on the harbour- ward side of this road, IG 12.892: combined with π. c. acc., π. ἠῶ τε καὶ τοῦ Τανάϊδος Hdt. 4.122; τὸν μέν π. βορέω ἑστεῶτα, τὸν δὲ π. νότον Id. 2.121, cf. 4.17 .

3. before, in presence of, μάρτυροι ἔστων π. τε θεῶν μακάρων π. τε θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων Il. 1.339; οὐδ' ἐπιορκήσω π. δαίμονος 19.188; ποίτοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος . . ὑπίσχομαι prob. in IG 22.1126.7 (Amphict. Delph., iv B. C. ); ὑποσχομένους πρὸς τοῦ Διός ib.1237.16: hence, in the eyes of, ἄδικον οὐδὲν οὔτε π. θεῶν οὔτε π. ἀνθρώπων Th. 1.71, cf. X. An. 1.6.6, etc.; ὅσιος π. θεῶν Lex ap. And. 1.97; κατειπάτω . . ἁγνῶς π. τοῦ θεοῦ if he wishes to be pure in the sight of the god, SIG 986.9, cf. 17 (Chios, v/iv B. C. ); ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς π. ἀνθρώπων βραχὺ μέτρον ἔχει Pi. P. 4.286 .

4. in supplication or adjuration, before, and so, in the name of, σε . . γουνάζομαι . . π. τ' ἀλόχου καὶ πατρός Od. 11.67; π. θεῶν πατρῴων S. Ant. 839 (lyr.), etc.; ἱκετεύω, ἀντιβολῶ π. παίδων, π. γυναικῶν, etc., D. 28.20, etc.: the verb is freq. omitted with π. θεῶν or τῶν θεῶν, E. Hec. 551, S. OT 1037, Ar. V. 760; π. τοῦ Διός Id. Av. 130: less freq. with other words, π. τῆς ἑστίας E. Fr. 953.39; π. Χαρίτων Luc. Hist.Conscr. 14; μὴ π. γενείου S. El. 1208; μὴ π. ξενίας τᾶς σᾶς Id. OC 515 (lyr.): sts. in questions, π. θεῶν, τίς οὕτως εὐήθης ἐστίν; in heaven's name, D. 1.15; π. τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς . . ; Din. 1.45; ἆρ' οὖν, ὦ π. Διός, . . ; Pl. R. 459a, cf. Ap. 26e: sts. in Trag. with the pron. σε between prep. and case, π. νύν σε πατρὸς π. τε μητρός . . ἱκνοῦμαι S. Ph. 468; μὴ π. σε γονάτων E. Med. 324 .

5. of origin or descent, from, on the side of, γένος ἐξ Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ τὰ π. πατρός by the father's side, Hdt. 7.99; Ἀθηναῖον . . καὶ τὰ π. πατρὸς καὶ τὰ π. μητρός D. 57.17, cf. Isoc. 3.42, SIG 1015.7 (Halic.); πρόγονοι ἢ π. ἀνδρῶν ἢ γυναικῶν in the male or female line, Pl. Tht. 173d; ὁ πατὴρ π. μὲν ἀνδρῶν ἦν τῶν Εὐπατριδῶν Isoc. 16.25; οἱ συγγενεῖς τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ π. ἀνδρῶν καὶ π. γυναικῶν D. 57.23; οἱ π. αἵματος blood-relations, S. Aj. 1305; ἢ φίλων τις ἢ π. αἵματος φύσιν Id. El. 1125 .

II of effects proceeding from what cause soever:

1 from, at the hand of, with Verbs of having, receiving, etc., ὡς ἂν . . τιμὴν καὶ κῦδος ἄρηαι π. πάντων Δαναῶν Il. 16.85, cf. 1.160, etc.; τιμὴν π. Ζηνὸς ἔχοντες Od. 11.302; δίδοι οἱ . . χάριν ποτ' ἀστῶν καὶ ποτὶ ξείνων Pi. O. 7.90; ἄνθεα τιμῆς πρὸς θνητῶν ἀνελέσθαι Emp. 4.7; φυλακῆς π. δήμου κυρῆσαι Hdt. 1.59; τυχεῖν τινος π. θεῶν A. Th. 550, cf. S. Aj. 527; λαχὼν π. δαιμόνων ὄλβον Pi. N. 9.45; κακόν τι π. θεῶν ἢ π. ἀνθρώπων λαβεῖν Hdt. 2.139, etc.; μανθάνειν π. ἀστῶν S. OC 13: with passive Verbs, προτὶ Ἀχιλλῆος δεδιδάχθαι to have been taught by . ., Il. 11.831, cf. S. OT 357; ἄριστα πεποίηται . . πρὸς Τρώων Il. 6.57; αἴσχε' ἀκούω π. Τρώων ib. 525, cf. Heraclit. 79; ταῦτα . . π. τούτου κλύειν S. OT 429; οὐ λέγεται π. οὐδαμῶν Hdt. 1.47; ἀτιμάζεσθαι, τετιμῆσθαι π. τινῶν, ib. 61, 2.75; also λόγου οὐδενὸς γίνεσθαι π. τινῶν Id. 1.120; παθεῖν τι π. τινός at the hand of, ib. 73; π. ἀλλήλοιν θανεῖν E. Ph. 1269, cf. S. OT 1237; π. τῆς τύχης ὄλωλεν ib. 949; τὸ ποιεύμενον π. τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων Hdt. 7.209; αἰτηθέντες π. τινὸς χρήματα Id. 8.111; ἱμέρου βέλει π. σοῦ τέθαλπται A. Pr. 650: with an Adj. or Subst., τιμήεσσα π. πόσιος Od. 18.162; ἐπίφθονος π. τῶν πλεόνων ἀνθρώπων Hdt. 7.139; ἔρημος π. φίλων S. Ant. 919; ἀπαθὴς π. ἀστῶν Pi. P. 4.297; πειθὼ π. τινός S. El. 562; π. Τρώων . . κλέος εἶναι Il. 22.514; ἄρκεσις π. ἀνδρός, δόξα π. ἀνθρώπων, S. OC 73, E. Heracl. 624 (lyr.); ἐλίπετο ἀθάνατον μνήμην π. Ἑλλησποντίων Hdt. 4.144: with an Adv., οἶμαι γὰρ ἂν οὐκ ἀχαρίστως μοι ἔχειν οὔτε π. ὑμῶν οὔτε π. τῆς Ἑλλάδος I shall meet with no ingratitude at your hands, X. An. 2.3.18, cf. Pl. R. 463d .

2. of things, π. τίνος ποτ' αἰτίας [τέθνηκεν ]; from of by what cause? S. OT 1236; π. ἀμπλακημάτων by or by reason of . ., Id. Ant. 51 .

III of dependence or close connexion: hence,

1 dependent on one, under one's protection, π. Διός εἰσι ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε Od. 6.207, 14.57; δικασπόλοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας π. Διὸς εἰρύαται by commission from him, Il. 1.239; π. ἄλλης ἱστὸν ὑφαίνοις at the bidding of another, 6.456 .

2. on one's side, in one's favour, Hdt. 1.75, 124, S. OT 1434, Tr. 479, etc.; π. τῶν ἐχόντων . . τὸν νόμον τίθης E. Alc. 57 . of that which is derivable from: hence, agreeable to, becoming, like, τὰ τοιαῦτα ἔργα οὐ π. τοῦ ἅπαντος ἀνδρὸς νενόμικα γίνεσθαι, ἀλλὰπ. ψυχῆς τε ἀγαθῆς καὶ ῥώμης ἀνδρηΐης Hdt. 7.153, cf. 5.12; ἦ κάρτα π. γυναικὸς αἴρεσθαι κέαρ 'tis very like a woman, A. Ag. 592, cf. 1636; οὐ π. ἰατροῦ σοφοῦ θρηνεῖν ἐπῳδάς S. Aj. 581, cf. Ar. V. 369, E. Hel. 950, etc.; π. σοῦ ἐστι Id. HF 585, etc.; οὐκ ἦν π. τοῦ Κύρου τρόπου X. An. 1.2.11, etc.: of qualities, etc., π. δυσσεβείας A. Ch. 704; π. δίκης οὐδὲν τρέμων agreeably to justice, S. OT 1014, cf. El. 1211; οὐ π. τῆς ὑμετέρας δόξης Th. 3.59; ἐάν τι ἡμῖν π. λόγου ᾖ if it be at all to our purpose, Pl. Grg. 459c; εἰ τόδε π. τρόπου λέγω correctly, Id. R. 470c; but π. τρόπου τι ὠνεῖσθαι buy at a reasonable price, Thphr. Char. 30.12; τὰ γενήματα π. ἐλάσσονος τιμᾶς πωλῶν IG 5(2).515.14 ( Lycosura ); π. ἀγαθοῦ, π. κακοῦ τινί ἐστι or γίγνεται, it is to one's advantage or otherwise, Arist. Mu. 397a30, Arr. An. 7.16.5, Hld. 7.12; π. ἀτιμίας λαβεῖν τι to take a thing as an insult, regard it so, Plu. Cic. 13; π. δέους λαβεῖν τι Id. Flam. 7; λαβεῖν τι π. ὀργῆς (v.l. ὀργήν ) J. AJ 8.1.3; μοι π. εὐκλείας γένοιτο ib. 18.7.7; τῷ δήμῳ π. αἰσχύνης ἂν ἦν, π. ὀνείδους ἂν ἦν τῇ πόλει, Lib. Decl. 43.27, 28 .

WITH DAT., it expresses proximity, hard by, near, at, ποτὶ γαίῃ Od. 8.190, 11.423; ποτὶ γούνασι Il. 5.408; ποτὶ δρυσίν among the oaks, 14.398 (nisi leg. περί ) ; πρὸς ἄκμονι χαλκεύειν Pi. P. 1.86; ποτὶ γραμμᾷ στᾶσαί τινα ib. 9.118; ἄγκυραν ποτὶ ναΐ κρημνάντων ib. 4.24; δῆσαί τινα πρὸς φάραγγι A. Proverbs 15:1-33; νεὼς καμούσης ποντίῳ π. κύματι Id. Th. 210; π. μέσῃ ἀγορᾷ S. Tr. 371; π. Ἀργείων στρατῷ Id. Aj. 95; π. πέδῳ κεῖται Id. OT 180 (lyr.); θακεῖν π. ναοῖς ib. 20, cf. A. Eu. 855; π. ἡλίου ναίουσι πηγαῖς Id. Pr. 808; π. τῇ γῇ ναυμαχεῖν Th. 7.34; ἐς μάχην καθίστασθαι π. (v.l. ὑπ' ) αὐτῇ τῇ πόλει Id. 2.79; τεῖχος π. τῇ θαλάσσῃ Id. 3.105; αἱ π. θαλάττῃ πόλεις X. HG 4.8.1; τὸ π. Αἰγίνῃ στράτευμα off Aegina, Th. 1.105; Αίβυες οἱ π. Αἰγύπτῳ bordering on . ., ib. 104; τὸ π. ποσί that which is close to the feet, before one, S. OT 130, etc.; θρηνεῖν ἐπῳδὰς π . . . πήματι over it, Id. Aj. 582; αἱ π. τῇ βάσει γωνίαι the angles at the base, Euc. 1.5,al.; τὴν π. τῷ . . ιερῷ κρήνην IG 22.338.13, cf. SIG 1040.15 (Piraeus, iv B. C. ), al.

2. before, in the presence of, π. τοῖς θεσμοθέταις, π. τῷ διαιτητῇ λέγειν, D. 20.98, 39.22; ὅσα π. τοῖς κριταῖς γέγονεν Id. 21.18; π. διαιτητῇ φεύγειν Id. 22.28 .

3. with Verbs denoting motion towards a place, upon, against, ποτὶ δὲ σκῆπτρον βάλε γαίῃ Il. 1.245, Od. 2.80; με βάλῃ . . ποτὶ πέτρῃ 5.415, cf. 7.279, 9.284; νῆας ποτὶ σπιλάδεσσιν ἔαξαν 3.298, cf. 5.401; λιαζόμενον ποτὶ γαίῃ sinking on the ground, Il. 20.420; ἴσχοντες πρὸς ταῖς πόλεσι Th. 7.35 .

4. sts. with a notion of clinging closely, προτὶ οἷ λάβε clasped to him, Il. 20.418; προτὶ οἷ εἷλε 21.507; πρὸς ἀλλήλῃσιν ἔχονται Od. 5.329; προσπεπλασμένας . . π. ὄρεσι Hdt. 3.111; π. δμῳαῖσι κλίνομαι fall into the arms of . ., S. Ant. 1189; π. τινί close to, Men. Epit. 204 .

II to express close engagement, at the point of, π. αὐτῷ γ' εἰμὶ τῷ δεινῷ λέγειν S. OT 1169; engaged in or about, π. τῷ εἰρημένῳ λόγῳ ἦν Pl. Phd. 84c, cf. Phdr. 249c, 249d; ἂν π. τῷ σκοπεῖν . . γένησθε D. 18.176; ἀεὶ π. ᾧ εἴη ἔργῳ, τοῦτο ἔπραττεν X. HG 4.8.22; διατρίβειν or σχολάζειν π. τινί, Epicr. 11.3 (anap.), Arist. Pol. 1308b36 (but π. ταῦτα ἐσχόλασα X. Mem. 3.6.6 ); ὅλος εἶναι π. τῷ λήμματι D. 19.127; π. τῇ ἀνάγκῃ ταύτῃ γίγνεσθαι Aeschin. 1.74; τὴν διάνοιαν, τὴν γνώμην ἔχειν π. τινί, Pl. R. 500b, Aeschin. 3.192; κατατάξαι αὐτὸν π. γράμμασιν, i.e. give him a post as clerk, PCair.Zen. 342.3 (iii B. C.); ὁ π. τοῖς γράμμασι τεταγμένος Plb. 15.27.7, cf. 5.54.7, D.S. 2.29, 3.22; ἐπιμελητὴς π. τῇ εἰκασίᾳ τοῦ σησάμου PTeb. 713.2, cf. 709.1 (ii B. C.) .

III to express union or addition, once in Hom., ἄασάν μ' ἕταροί τε κακοὶ π. τοῖσί τε ὕπνος and besides them sleep, Od. 10.68; π. τοῖς παροῦσιν ἄλλα in addition to, A. Pr. 323, cf. Pers. 531, Xenoph. 8.3 . Emp. 59.3; ἄλλους π. ἑαυτῷ Th. 1.90; π. ταῖς ἡμετέραις [τριήρεσι ] Id. 6.90; δέκα μῆνας π. ἄλλοις πέντε S. Tr. 45; τρίτος . . π. δέκ' ἄλλαισιν γοναῖς A. Pr. 774; κυβερνήτης π. τῇ σκυτοτομίᾳ in addition to his trade of leather-cutter, Pl. R. 397e: freq. with neut. Adjs., π. τῷ νέῳ ἁπαλός besides his youth, Id. Smp. 195c, cf. Tht. 185e; π. τῷ βλαβερῷ καὶ ἀηδέστατον Id. Phdr. 240b; π. τούτοισι besides this, Hdt. 2.51, cf. A. Pers. 237 (troch.), etc.; rarely in sg., π. τούτῳ Hdt. 1.31, 41; π. τοῖς ἄλλοις besides all the rest, Th. 2.61, etc.: cf. the Advb. usage, infr. D.

WITH ACCU S., it expresses motion or direction towards an object: I of Place, towards, to, with Verbs of Motion, ἰέναι π. Ὄλυμπον Il. 1.420; ἰέναι π. δώματα, etc., Od. 2.288, etc.; ἰέναι π. ἠῶ τ' ἠέλιόν τε Il. 12.239; φέρειν προτὶ ἄστυ, ἄγειν προτὶ Ἴλιον, etc., 13.538, 657, etc.; ἄγεσθαιπρὸς οἶκον, ἐρύεσθαι ποτὶ Ἴλιον, 9.147, 18.174; ὠθεῖν, δίεσθαι προτὶ ἄστυ, 16.45, 15.681, etc.; ῥίπτασκε ποτὶ νέφεα Od. 8.374; βαλεῖν ποτὶ πέτρας 12.71; κυλινδόμενα προτὶ χέρσον 9.147; ἀπῆλθε πρὸς ἑαυτόν returned to his home, LXX Numbers 24:25; κληθῆναι π. τὸ δεῖπνον (rarer than ἐπὶ δεῖπνον ) Plu. Cat.Ma. 3 .

2. with Verbs implying previous motion, upon, against, π. τεῖχος, π. κίονα ἐρείσας, Il. 22.112, Od. 8.66; ἅρματα . . ἔκλιναν π. ἐνώπια Il. 8.435; ἔγχος ἔστησε π. κίονα Od. 1.127; ποτὶ τοῖχον ἀρηρότες 2.342; ποτὶ βωμὸν ἵζεσθαι 22.334; πρὸς γοῦνα καθέζετό τινος 18.395; π. ἄλλοτ' ἄλλον πημονὴ προσιζάνει A. Pr. 278; τὰ πολλὰ πατρὸς π. τάφον κτερίσματα S. El. 931; χῶρον π. αὐτὸν τόνδ' dub. in Id. Ph. 23; later, ἔστη π. τὸν στῦλον LXX 4 Ki. 23.3; ὁ ὄχλος π. τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν Mark 4:1; π. ὑμᾶς παραμενῶ with you, 1 Corinthians 16:6

Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (523)NAS (73)HCS (604)
Matthew43
Mark65
Luke159
John90
Acts126
Romans18
1 Corinthians24
2 Corinthians34
Galatians8
Ephesians12
Philippians5
Colossians7
1 Thessalonians13
2 Thessalonians5
1 Timothy5
2 Timothy5
Titus5
Philemon4
Hebrews20
James3
1 Peter3
2 Peter2
1 John6
2 John2
3 John1
Revelation9
Matthew4
Mark10
Luke13
John2
Acts8
Romans2
1 Corinthians2
2 Corinthians5
Galatians1
Ephesians3
Colossians4
1 Thessalonians3
2 Thessalonians1
Philemon1
Hebrews4
2 Peter1
1 John2
Revelation2
Matthew40
Mark63
Luke115
John91
Acts115
Romans17
1 Corinthians24
2 Corinthians32
Galatians8
Ephesians16
Philippians3
Colossians6
1 Thessalonians12
2 Thessalonians4
1 Timothy4
2 Timothy7
Titus5
Philemon3
Hebrews18
James1
1 Peter2
2 Peter2
1 John4
2 John3
3 John1
Revelation8
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