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Old & New Testament Greek

Entry for Strong's #4352 - προσκυνέω

Transliteration:
proskynéō
Phonetics:
pros-koo-neh'-o  
Word Origin:
from (4314) and a probable derivative of (2965) (meaning to kiss, like a dog licking his master's hand)
Parts of Speech:
Verb
TDNT:
6:758,948
Word Definition  [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. to kiss the hand to (towards) one, in token of reverence
  2. among the Orientals, esp. the Persians, to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound reverence
  3. in the NT by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance, whether in order to express respect or to make supplication
    1. used of homage shown to men and beings of superior rank
      1. to the Jewish high priests
      2. to God
      3. to Christ
      4. to heavenly beings
      5. to demons
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 2111 ‑ זוּעַ (zoo'‑ah);   3766 ‑ כָּרַע (kaw‑rah');   5401 ‑ נָשַׁק (naw‑shak');   5456 ‑ סָגַד (saw‑gad');   5647 ‑ עָבַד (aw‑bad');   7812 ‑ שָׁחָה (shaw‑khaw');  
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

προσκῠν-έω, fut. -ήσω Hippon. 32 (tm.), Pl. R. 469a: aor. προσεκύνησα X. Cyr. 5.3.18; poet. προσέκῠσα Ar. Eq. 640, imper. πρόσκυσον ib. 156, S. Ph. 776, inf. -κύσαι ib. 657, part. -κύσας ib. 533, 1408 (troch.): pf. -κεκύνηκα LXX Exodus 32:8, OGI 196.2 (Egypt, i B.C. ): Pass., pres. inf. προσκυνεῖσθαι E. Tr. 1021: aor. προσεκυνήθην Arr. An. 4.11.9: make obeisance to the gods or their images, fall down and worship, c. acc., Hdt. 2.121, etc.; γῆν τε π. ἅμα καὶ τὸν θεῶν Ὄλυμπον S. OC 1654, cf. A. Pers. 499, Ar. Eq. 156: prov., οἱ -κυνοῦντες τὴν Ἀδράστειαν σοφοί, of deprecating the wrath of Nemesis, A. Pr. 936, cf. Pl. R. 451a; τὸν φθόνον δὲ πρόσκυσον S. Ph. 776; στεῖχε προσκύσας χθόνα, to avert divine wrath, ib. 1408 (troch.); of sacred places, do reverence to, πατ ρῷα ἕδη θεῶν Id. El. 1374; τὰς θήκας Pl. R. 469b; τὴν θόλον D. 19.314: abs., Ar. Eq. 640 .

2. esp. of the Oriental fashion of prostrating oneself before kings and superiors, abs., Hdt. 1.119, 8.118: c. acc., π. τὸν Δαρεῖον make obeisance to him, Id. 3.86; προσκυνεῖν διδάσκονται τὸν βασιλέα [οἱ ἐλέφαντες ] Arist. HA 630b20; προσπίπτων π . Hdt. 1.134, cf. 7.136; πάντες σε προσκυνοῦμεν οἵδ' ἱκτήριοι S. OT 327; προσκυνῶ σ', ἄναξ, προσπίτνων E. Or. 1507 (troch.), cf. X. Cyr. 5.3.18, 8.3.14, Plu. Them. 27, Arr. l.c., etc.; κύψας ὁ λαὸς προσεκύνησεν LXX Exodus 12:27; οὐδένα ἄνθρωπον δεσπότην ἀλλὰ τοὺς θεοὺς π . X. An. 3.2.13; π. τοὺς ὑβρίζοντας ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις D. 21.106: ironically, π. τινὰ ὡς ἱερὸν καὶ θαυμαστόν Pl. R. 398a: later c. dat., LXX Genesis 24:26, al., Ev.Matthew 2:2; Matthew 2:11, Ev.John 4:23, D.C. 67.13; τῳ θεῷ J. AJ 9.13.2 . (Orig. perh. throw a kiss to the god, cf. Apul. Met. 4.28: the gesture is probably represented in Sumerian and Babylonian art monuments.)

II later, kiss, σοῦ -ήσω τὴν χεῖρα BGU 423.15 (ii A.D.); τὸ πρόσωπον, τὴν ὄψιν, τοὺς πόδας, PLond. 3.1244.4 (iv A.D.), PGiss. 22.5 (ii A.D.), PGen. 91.6 (vi/vii A.D.) .

2. greet, σπουδάζουσα -ῆσαί σε (by letter) BGU 615.8 (ii A.D.); ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἵνα ὑμᾶς -ήσω διὰ πολλοῦ χρόνου PLips. 110.19 (iii/iv A.D.), cf. PGiss. 17.11 (ii A.D.) .

3. welcome respectfully, respect, προσεκύνησά σου τὰ γράμματα POxy. 237 vi 37 (ii A.D.), cf. PTeb. 286.22 (ii A.D.), etc.; τὴν θείαν ἀντιγραφὴν ὑπὸ πάντων προσκυνουμένην OGI 262.27 (Baetocaece, iii A.D. ).

Thayer's Expanded Definition
 προσκυνέω, προσκύνω; imperfect προσεκύνουν; future προσκυνήσω; 1aorist προσεκύνησα; from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; the Sept. very often for הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה (to prostrate oneself); properly, to kiss the hand to (toward) one, in token of reverence: Herodotus 1,134; (cf. K. F. Hermann, Gottesdienstl. Alterthümer d. Griech. § 21; especially Hoelemann, Die Biblical Gestalt. d. Anbetung in his 'Bibelstudien' i., 106ff); hence, among the Orientals, especially the Persians, to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound reverence ("to make a 'salam'"); Latin veneror ( Nepos, Conon. 3,3), adoro ( Pliny, h. n. 28,5, 25; Suetonius, Vitell. 2); hence, in the N. T. by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance, whether in order to express respect or to make supplication. It is used a. of homage shown to men of superior rank: absolutely, Matthew 20:20 (the Jewish high-priests are spoken of in Josephus, b. j. 4,5, 2as προσκυνούμενοι); πεσών ἐπί τούς πόδας προσεκύνησεν, Acts 10:25; τίνι (according to the usage of later writings; cf. Winer s Grammar, 36,210 (197); (Buttmann, § 131,4); Lob. ad Phryn., p. 463), Matthew 2:2,8; Matthew 8:2; Matthew 9:18; Matthew 14:33; Matthew 15:25; (Matthew 18:26>); Matthew 28:9,17> ( R G); Mark 5:6 (here WH Tr marginal reading have the accusative); Mark 15:19>; John 9:38; with πεσών preceding, Matthew 2:11; Matthew 4:9; ἐνώπιον τῶν ποδῶν τίνος, Revelation 3:9; (it may perhaps be mentioned that some would bring in here Hebrews 11:21 προσεκύνησεν ἐπί τό ἄκρον τῆς ῤάβδου αὐτοῦ, explaining it by the (Egyptian) custom of bowing upon the magistrate's staff of office in taking an oath; cf. Chabas, Melanges Egypt. III. i., p. 80, cf. p. 91 f; but see below).

b. of homage rendered to God and the ascended Christ, to heavenly beings, and to demons: absolutely (our to worship) (cf. Winer's Grammar, 593 (552)), John 4:20; John 12:20; Acts 8:27; Acts 24:11; Hebrews 11:21 (cf. above); Revelation 11:1; πίπτειν καί προσκυνεῖν, Revelation 5:14; τίνι, John 4:21,23; Acts 7:43; Hebrews 1:6; Revelation 4:10; Revelation 7:11; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:4,20; Revelation 22:8; Revelation 13:4 G L T Tr WH (twice (the 2nd time WH text only)); Revelation 13:15> G T Tr WH text; Revelation 20:4 Rec.; πεσών ἐπί πρόσωπον προσκυνήσει τῷ Θεῷ, 1 Corinthians 14:25; πίπτειν ἐπί τά πρόσωπα καί προσκυνεῖν τῷ Θεῷ, Revelation 11:16; preceded by πίπτειν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν τίνος, Revelation 19:10. in accordance with the usage of the older and better writings with τινα or τί (cf. Matthiae, § 412): Matthew 4:10; Luke 4:8; Revelation 9:20; Revelation 13:12; Revelation 14:9,11; also Revelation 13:4 ( Rec. twice; ( WH marginal reading once)), 8 (where Rec. dative), 15 R L WH marginal reading; 20:4 a (where Rec. dative), 4 b (where Relz dative); Luke 24:52 R G L Tr brackets WH reject; (the Sept. also connects the word far more frequent with the dative than with the accusative (cf. Hoelemann as above, p. 116ff)); ἐνώπιον τίνος, Luke 4:7; Revelation 15:4.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (60)NAS (60)HCS (60)
Matthew13
Mark2
Luke3
John7
Acts4
1 Corinthians1
Hebrews2
Revelation22
Matthew13
Mark2
Luke3
John7
Acts4
1 Corinthians1
Hebrews2
Revelation22
Matthew13
Mark2
Luke3
John11
Acts4
1 Corinthians1
Hebrews2
Revelation24
List of Word Forms
προσεκυνει προσεκύνει προσεκύνησα προσεκυνησαν προσεκύνησαν προσεκύνησε προσεκυνησεν προσεκύνησεν προσεκυνουν προσεκύνουν προσκεκυνήκασι προσκυνει προσκυνεί προσκυνεῖ προσκυνειν προσκυνείν προσκυνεῖν προσκύνειν προσκυνειτε προσκυνείτε προσκυνεῖτε προσκυνησαι προσκυνήσαι προσκυνήσαί προσκυνῆσαι προσκυνησαντες προσκυνήσαντες προσκυνησατε προσκυνήσατε προσκυνησατωσαν προσκυνησάτωσαν προσκυνησάτωσάν προσκυνήσατωσάν προσκυνησει προσκυνήσει προσκυνησεις προσκυνήσεις προσκυνησετε προσκυνήσετε προσκυνήση προσκυνησης προσκυνήσης προσκυνήσῃς προσκυνήσητε προσκυνησον προσκύνησον προσκυνήσουσι προσκυνήσουσί προσκυνησουσιν προσκυνήσουσιν προσκυνησω προσκυνήσω προσκυνήσωμεν προσκυνησων προσκυνήσων προσκυνησωσι προσκυνήσωσι προσκυνησωσιν προσκυνήσωσιν προσκυνουμεν προσκυνούμεν προσκυνοῦμεν προσκυνουντας προσκυνούντας προσκυνοῦντας προσκυνουντες προσκυνούντες προσκυνοῦντες προσκυνούντος προσκυνουσα προσκυνούσα προσκυνοῦσα προσκυνούσι προσκύνουσι προσκυνούσιν προσκυνώ prosekunei prosekunesan prosekunēsan prosekunesen prosekunēsen prosekunoun prosekynei prosekýnei prosekynesan prosekynēsan prosekýnesan prosekýnēsan prosekynesen prosekynēsen prosekýnesen prosekýnēsen prosekynoun prosekýnoun proskunei proskunein proskuneite proskunesai proskunēsai proskunesantes proskunēsantes proskunesate proskunēsate proskunesatosan proskunēsatōsan proskunesei proskunēsei proskuneseis proskunēseis proskuneses proskunēsēs proskunesete proskunēsete proskuneso proskunēsō proskuneson proskunēson proskunēsōn proskunesosin proskunēsōsin proskunesousin proskunēsousin proskunoumen proskunountas proskunountes proskunousa proskynei proskyneî proskynein proskyneîn proskyneite proskyneîte proskynesai proskynêsai proskynēsai proskynē̂sai proskynesantes proskynēsantes proskynḗsantes proskynesate proskynēsate proskynḗsate proskynesatosan proskynesátosan proskynēsatōsan proskynēsátōsan proskynesei proskynēsei proskynḗsei proskyneseis proskynēseis proskynḗseis proskynḗsēis proskyneses proskynēsēs proskynesete proskynēsete proskynḗsete proskyneso proskynēsō proskynḗso proskynḗsō proskyneson proskynēson proskynēsōn proskynḗson proskynḗsōn proskýneson proskýnēson proskynesosin proskynēsōsin proskynḗsosin proskynḗsōsin proskynesousin proskynēsousin proskynḗsousin proskynoumen proskynoûmen proskynountas proskynoûntas proskynountes proskynoûntes proskynousa proskynoûsa
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