Old & New Testament Greek
a primary particle
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Pr governing gen.: — orig. sense, over against. (Cf. Skt. a/nti 'opposite', 'facing', Lat. ante, etc.) USAGE:
I of Place, opposite, over against, formerly quoted from several places of Hom., as Il. 21.481 ἀντὶ ἐμεῖο (where now ἀντί' ἐμεῖο, i.e. ἀντία) Τρώων ἄνθ' ἑκατόν (i.e. ἄντα) 8.233; so ἄντ' Αἴαντος (i.e. ἄντα) 15.415, cf. Od. 4.115, Hes. Op. 727; but ἀντί is so used in X. An. 4.7.6, IG 2.835 c-l 68; αἱ ὀπαὶ αἱ γιγνόμεναι ἀ. τόρμων mortises facing tenons, Hero Bel. 97.5; ἀντὶ μαιτύρων in the presence of witnesses, Leg.Gort. 1.40; ἀντὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἡμῶν Eudox. Ars 18.
II of Time, ἀντὶ νυκτός the same night, SIG 1025.43 (Cos); ἀντὶ ϝέτεος GDI 2561 A 45 (Delph.); ἀντ' ἐνιαυτοῦ IG 5(2).266.8 (Mantinea, i B.C.); ἀνθ' ἡμέρας· δι' ὅλης τῆς ἡμέρας, Hsch.; cf. ἀντετοῦς.
1. instead, in the place of, Ἕκτορος ἀντὶ πεφάσθαι Il. 24.254; ἀντὶ γάμοιο τάφον Od. 20.307; so later πολέμιος ἀντὶ φίλου καταστῆναι Hdt. 1.87; ἀντὶ ἡμέρης νὺξ ἐγένετο Id. 7.37; ἀντὶ φωτῶν σποδός A. Ag. 434; τὸν πόλεμον ἀντ' εἰρήνης μεταλαμβάνειν Th. 1.120, cf. 4.20, 7.75; βασιλεύειν ἀντί τινος X. An. 1.1.4; also ἀντὶ ἄρχεσθαι ὑπ' ἄλλων ἄρχειν ἁπάντων Hdt. 1.210, cf. 6.32, 7.170 (where the usual constr. would be ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄρχεσθαι, cf. Th. 7.28, X. Cyr. 6.2.19, etc.); ὀργίλοι ἀντὶ θυμοειδοῦς γεγένηνται Pl. R. 411c: sts. used elliptically, ἦ 'τολμήσατ' ἀντ' ἐμοῦ δοῦναί τινι; i.e. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐμοὶ δοῦναι, S. Ph. 369, cf. OC 448, Ar. Av. 58.
2. in Hom. often to denote equivalence, ἀντί νυ πολλῶν λαῶν ἐστιν ἀνήρ he is as good as many men, Il. 9.116; ἀντὶ κασιγνήτου ξεῖνος.. τέτυκται a guest is as much as a brother, Od. 8.546; ἀντί τοί εἰμ' ἱκέταο I am as a suppliant, Il. 21.75, cf. 8.163; so later τοῦτό σφι ἀντὶ λουτροῦ ἐστί serves as a bath, Hdt. 4.75; ὑπάρχειν ἀντὶ τῶν ἔνδον to be as hostages for.., Th. 2.5; δουλεύειν ἀντὶ ἀργυρωνήτων just like bought slaves, D. 17.3; ἀντὶ [πλεύμονος] βράγχια Arist. PA 669a4.
3. to denote exchange, at the price of, in return for, σοὶ δὲ θεοὶ τῶνδ' ἀντὶ χάριν.. δοῖεν Il. 23.650; νῆσον ἀντὶ χρημάτων παρέλαβον for money paid, Hdt. 3.59; ἀντ' ἀργυρίου ἀλλάξασθαι Pl. R. 371d; ἀμείβειν τι ἀντί τινος Pi. P. 4.17, cf. E. Or. 646, 651; ἀντὶ ποίας εὐεργεσίας; Lys. 6.40, etc.; τί δ' ἐστὶν ἀνθ' οὗ..; S. Ant. 237; ὄνειδος ἀνθ' ὅτου Id. OC 967; δοίην ἀντ' ἀνιῶν ἀνίας grief for grief, Thgn. 344; ἀντ' ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθοῖσι βρύοις A. Supp. 966: — hence ἀνθ' ὧν wherefore, A. Proverbs 31:1-31, S. OT 264, Th. 6.83, Luke 12:3; ἀντὶ τούτου therefore, Ephesians 5:31; but ἀνθ' ὧν also for ἀντὶ τούτων ὄτι.., because, S. Ant. 1068, Ar. Pl. 434; ἀντὶ τοῦ; wherefore? why? S. OT 1021; also ἀνθ' ὧν ὅτι ἦτε.. instead of being as you were.., LXX De. 28.62.
4. for the sake of, Pl. Mx. 237a, Arist. EN 1110a21; with Verbs of entreaty, like πρός c. gen., ἀντὶ παίδων ἱκετεύομέν σε S. OC 1326.
5. to mark comparison, ἓν ἀνθ' ἑνός one set against the other, compared with it, Pl. R. 331b, Lg. 705b; χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος, i.e. ever-increasing grace, John 1:16; in preference to, ἀφνεὸν βούλεται ἀντ' ἀγαθοῦ Thgn. 188; ἀντὶ αὐλοῦ καὶ ἀντὶ κιθάρας ὁ ἦχος ἀκούεται Demetr. Eloc. 71; αἱρεῖσθαί τι ἀντί τινος Isoc. 9.3, D. 1.1, cf. X. Lac. 9.1: even after Comparatives, πλέον ἀντὶ σοῦ S. Tr. 577; μείζον' ὅστις ἀντὶ τῆς αὑτοῦ πάτρας φίλον νομίζει Id. Ant. 182; so (esp. after a neg.) ἄλλος ἀντ' ἐμοῦ A. Pr. 467, S. Aj. 444, Ar. Nu. 653; δόξαν ἀντὶ τοῦ ζῆν ἠγαπηκώς Plu. Alex. 42.
POSITION: ἀντί rarely follows its case, as in Il. 23.650, A. Ag. 1277, Ig 5(1).1119 (Geronthrae, iv B.C.), AP 7.715 (Leon.); but the Gramm. hold that it never suffers anastrophe.
IN COMPO S. it signifies,
1 over against, opposite, as ἀντιβαίνω, ἀντίπορος.
2. against, in opposition to, as ἀντιλέγω, ἀντίβιος.
3. one against another, mutually, as ἀντιδεξιόομαι.
4. in return, as ἀντιβοηθέω.
5. instead of, as ἀντιβασιλεύς, ἀνθύπατος.
6. equal to, like, as ἀντίθεος, ἀντίπαις, ἀντίδουλος.
7. corresponding, counter, as ἀντίφορτος, ἀντίτυπος.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
(before , ; elsewhere neglecting elision) a preposition followed by the genitive (answering to the Latin ante
and the German prefixes ant-
), in the use of which the N. T. writings coincide with the Greek ( Winer
's Grammar, 364 (341));
1. properly, it seems to have signified over against, opposite to, before, in a local sense (Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram., p. 412; (cf. Curtius, § 204)). Hence,
2. indicating exchange, succession, for, instead of, in place of (something).
a. universally, instead of: , Luke 11:11; to serve as a covering, 1 Corinthians 11:15; , James 4:15 ( with the infinitive often in Greek writings ( Winer s Grammar, 329 (309); Buttmann, 263 (226))).
b. of that for which anything is given, received, endured: Matthew 5:38; Matthew 17:27 (to release me and thyself from obligation); Hebrews 12:2 (to obtain the joy; cf. Bleek, Lünemann, or Delitzsch at the passage); of the price of sale (or purchase): Hebrews 12:16; , Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45. Then c. of recompense: , Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9,( Wisdom of Solomon 11:16 (15)). equivalent to , for that, because: Luke 1:20; Luke 19:44; Acts 12:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:10 (also in secular authors (examples in Wetstein (1752) on Luke 1:20); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 710; ( Winer s Grammar, 364 (342), cf. 162 (153); Buttmann, 105 (92)); Hebrew אֲשֶׁר תַּחַת, Deuteronomy 21:14; 2 Kings 22:17).
d. of the cause: wherefore, Luke 12:3; for this cause, Ephesians 5:31.
e. of succession to the place of another: in place of Herod, Matthew 2:22 ( 1 Kings 11:44; Herodotus 1,108; Xenophon, an. 1,1, 4). grace in the place of grace, grace succeeding grace perpetually, i. e. the richest abundance of grace, John 1:16 ( Theognis, verse 344 (yet cf. the context verse 342 (vss. 780,778, Welcker edition); more appropriate are the references to Philo, i. 254, Mang. edition (de poster. Caini § 43, vol. ii. 39, Richter edition), and Chrysostom de sacerdot. l. 6c. 13 § 622)).
3. As a prefix, it denotes a. opposite, over against: , .
b. the mutual efficiency of two: , , .
c. requital: , .
d. hostile opposition: .
e. official substitution instead of: .<1> 1>
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT
The primitive local force, surviving in ἔναντι and the Latin cognate ante, and conspicuous in the old Cretan dialect, leaves traces in the Κοινή : there is an interesting discussion of its provenance in Wackernagel’s pamphlet, Helltnistica (Göttingen, 1907), p. 5 f. Its solitary appearance in an Attic inscr., and in one passage of the ";Halbattiker"; Xenophon, make quite natural such an abnormality in the Κοινή as P Par 1.406 (the astronomical treatise of Eudoxus) ὅταν ἡ σελήνη τῷ ἡλίῳ ἐπισκοτήσ [ῃ ] ἀντὶ τῆς ὄψεως ὴμῶν. Closely akin is the temporal use in Syll 616.43 (dialect of Cos, iii/B.C.) ἁγνεύεσθαι. . ἀντὶ νυκτός, ";ea ipsa nocte"; : so Dittenberger, who compares 438.45 (Delphi, before B.C. 400) ἀντὶ ϝ έτεος, and Hesychius ";ἀντέτους · τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἔτους."; This may be seen still in P Lond 1171.9 (B.C. 8) (= III. p. 177) τιμ (ῆς) οἴνου ἀντὶ τῆς ε ̄ τῶν ἐπαγομένων ";to cost of wine for the 5th of the intercalary days."; By far the commonest meaning of ἀντί is the simple ";instead of."; P Tebt II. 343.24 (ii/A.D.) ὥστε ἀντὶ ἐλαιῶνο [ς ] φ [ο (ρίμου)] ἄρουραι κτλ. ";making 26/63/4 arourae converted from productive oliveyard"; (Edd.). P Giss I. 47.10 (ii/A.D.) a corslet bought for 360 dr. ἀντὶ πλείονος, ";under its value."; P Rein 74 (B.C. 141?) ἀντ᾽ έλευθέρου δοῦλο [ς ] γενέσθαι. P Oxy VIII. 1119.20 (A.D. 254) ἑτέρους ἀντ᾽ αὐτῶν. P Hib I. 170 (B.C. 247) ἵνα μὴ ἀντὶ φιλίας ἔχθραν [ποώ ]μεθα. P Tebt II. 302.5 (A.D. 71–2) τυγχάνομεν μερισθ ]ε ̣ν ̣τες ἐκ τοῦ δημοσ [ί ]ου ἀντὶ συντάξεως κτλ. ";instead of a subvention"; (Edd.). This shades into ";in exchange for"; or ";in return for"; : Calder 455 (c. mid. iii/A.D.) τόνδε σε Μυγδονίη Διονύσιον ἀντὶ β [ί ]ου πολλῶν καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης στέμμα, ";thy statue here, a Dionysius (in marble), M. (erected, thus honouring thee with) a crown in return for guarding the life of many and for preserving the peace"; (Ed.). Preisigke 6.23 (A.D. 216)—the writer begs to have the stipulated 7 artabae of wheat ἀντὶ πλειόνων τῶν κλεπέντων. BGU III. 822.12 (iii/A.D.) ὀφείλ [ι ] γάρ μοι ἀντὶ χαλκὸν τῶν ἐνοικίων. Kuhring p. 29 remarks that ὑπέρ has mostly superseded ἀντί.The formula ἀνθ᾽ οὗ with names, as Ἑρμίας ἀνθ᾽ οὗ Ἑρμῆς [ὁ καὶ Εὐδα ]ίμων, BGU IV. 1062.1 (A.D. 236–7), has raised some discussion : see note and reff. There—Crönert took it as ";adoptive son of,"; Viereck (following Wilcken) makes it = ὁ καί. In that case what are we to make of P Lond 1170.727 (iii/A.D.) (= III. p. 102) Ἑκύσεως ἀνθ᾽ οὗ Ἑκύσεως, ";Smith alias Smith";? For ἀνθ᾽ ὧν ";wherefore"; or ";because"; we may quote OGIS 90.35 (the Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἀνθ᾽ ὧν δεδώκασιν αὐτῶι οἱ θεοὶ ὑγίειαν κτλ., similarly 56.19 (the Canopus inscr. of Ptolemy III. B.C. 247–21), P Leid Di. 21 (mid. ii/B.C.) σοὶ δὲ γίνοιτο, ἀνθ᾽ ὧν (= because) πρὸς τὸ θεῖον ὁσίως διάκ [ει ]σαι καὶ τῶν ἱεροδούλων. . . ἀντιλαμβάνῃ, ἐπαφροδίσια χάρις μορφή κτλ. In P Tebt I. 120.43 (i/B.C.) Πακύσι ἀνθ᾽ ὧ (ν) κέχρη (κε) τιμῆ (ς) κτλ., ἀντί has the ordinary commercial sense. P Ryl II. 159.18 (A.D. 31–2) . . ἀνθ᾽ ὧ ̣ν ἔλαβ ̣ε ̣ παρὰ τῆς Τα [χόιτος. . . . . τοῖς δέο ]υσι καιροῖς ";in return for the . . . which he received from T. at the proper times."; The supplement depends on the parallel document P Oxy III. 504.17 (early ii/A.D.), and is seen to be no instance of the conjunctional phrase ἀνθ ὧν.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
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List of Word Forms
ανθ ανθ' ἀνθ' αντ' αντι αντί ἀντὶ αυτής anth anth' anti antì
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