Old & New Testament Greek
a primary particle
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Pr governing gen.: — orig. sense, over against. (Cf. Skt. a/nti 'opposite', 'facing', Lat. ante, etc.) USAGE:
I of Place, opposite, over against, formerly quoted from several places of Hom., as Il. 21.481 ἀντὶ ἐμεῖο (where now ἀντί' ἐμεῖο, i.e. ἀντία) Τρώων ἄνθ' ἑκατόν (i.e. ἄντα) 8.233; so ἄντ' Αἴαντος (i.e. ἄντα) 15.415, cf. Od. 4.115, Hes. Op. 727; but ἀντί is so used in X. An. 4.7.6, IG 2.835 c-l 68; αἱ ὀπαὶ αἱ γιγνόμεναι ἀ. τόρμων mortises facing tenons, Hero Bel. 97.5; ἀντὶ μαιτύρων in the presence of witnesses, Leg.Gort. 1.40; ἀντὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἡμῶν Eudox. Ars 18.
II of Time, ἀντὶ νυκτός the same night, SIG 1025.43 (Cos); ἀντὶ ϝέτεος GDI 2561 A 45 (Delph.); ἀντ' ἐνιαυτοῦ IG 5(2).266.8 (Mantinea, i B.C.); ἀνθ' ἡμέρας· δι' ὅλης τῆς ἡμέρας, Hsch.; cf. ἀντετοῦς.
1. instead, in the place of, Ἕκτορος ἀντὶ πεφάσθαι Il. 24.254; ἀντὶ γάμοιο τάφον Od. 20.307; so later πολέμιος ἀντὶ φίλου καταστῆναι Hdt. 1.87; ἀντὶ ἡμέρης νὺξ ἐγένετο Id. 7.37; ἀντὶ φωτῶν σποδός A. Ag. 434; τὸν πόλεμον ἀντ' εἰρήνης μεταλαμβάνειν Th. 1.120, cf. 4.20, 7.75; βασιλεύειν ἀντί τινος X. An. 1.1.4; also ἀντὶ ἄρχεσθαι ὑπ' ἄλλων ἄρχειν ἁπάντων Hdt. 1.210, cf. 6.32, 7.170 (where the usual constr. would be ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄρχεσθαι, cf. Th. 7.28, X. Cyr. 6.2.19, etc.); ὀργίλοι ἀντὶ θυμοειδοῦς γεγένηνται Pl. R. 411c: sts. used elliptically, ἦ 'τολμήσατ' ἀντ' ἐμοῦ δοῦναί τινι; i.e. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐμοὶ δοῦναι, S. Ph. 369, cf. OC 448, Ar. Av. 58.
2. in Hom. often to denote equivalence, ἀντί νυ πολλῶν λαῶν ἐστιν ἀνήρ he is as good as many men, Il. 9.116; ἀντὶ κασιγνήτου ξεῖνος.. τέτυκται a guest is as much as a brother, Od. 8.546; ἀντί τοί εἰμ' ἱκέταο I am as a suppliant, Il. 21.75, cf. 8.163; so later τοῦτό σφι ἀντὶ λουτροῦ ἐστί serves as a bath, Hdt. 4.75; ὑπάρχειν ἀντὶ τῶν ἔνδον to be as hostages for.., Th. 2.5; δουλεύειν ἀντὶ ἀργυρωνήτων just like bought slaves, D. 17.3; ἀντὶ [πλεύμονος] βράγχια Arist. PA 669a4.
3. to denote exchange, at the price of, in return for, σοὶ δὲ θεοὶ τῶνδ' ἀντὶ χάριν.. δοῖεν Il. 23.650; νῆσον ἀντὶ χρημάτων παρέλαβον for money paid, Hdt. 3.59; ἀντ' ἀργυρίου ἀλλάξασθαι Pl. R. 371d; ἀμείβειν τι ἀντί τινος Pi. P. 4.17, cf. E. Or. 646, 651; ἀντὶ ποίας εὐεργεσίας; Lys. 6.40, etc.; τί δ' ἐστὶν ἀνθ' οὗ..; S. Ant. 237; ὄνειδος ἀνθ' ὅτου Id. OC 967; δοίην ἀντ' ἀνιῶν ἀνίας grief for grief, Thgn. 344; ἀντ' ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθοῖσι βρύοις A. Supp. 966: — hence ἀνθ' ὧν wherefore, A. Proverbs 31:1-31, S. OT 264, Th. 6.83, Luke 12:3; ἀντὶ τούτου therefore, Ephesians 5:31; but ἀνθ' ὧν also for ἀντὶ τούτων ὄτι.., because, S. Ant. 1068, Ar. Pl. 434; ἀντὶ τοῦ; wherefore? why? S. OT 1021; also ἀνθ' ὧν ὅτι ἦτε.. instead of being as you were.., LXX De. 28.62.
4. for the sake of, Pl. Mx. 237a, Arist. EN 1110a21; with Verbs of entreaty, like πρός c. gen., ἀντὶ παίδων ἱκετεύομέν σε S. OC 1326.
5. to mark comparison, ἓν ἀνθ' ἑνός one set against the other, compared with it, Pl. R. 331b, Lg. 705b; χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος, i.e. ever-increasing grace, John 1:16; in preference to, ἀφνεὸν βούλεται ἀντ' ἀγαθοῦ Thgn. 188; ἀντὶ αὐλοῦ καὶ ἀντὶ κιθάρας ὁ ἦχος ἀκούεται Demetr. Eloc. 71; αἱρεῖσθαί τι ἀντί τινος Isoc. 9.3, D. 1.1, cf. X. Lac. 9.1: even after Comparatives, πλέον ἀντὶ σοῦ S. Tr. 577; μείζον' ὅστις ἀντὶ τῆς αὑτοῦ πάτρας φίλον νομίζει Id. Ant. 182; so (esp. after a neg.) ἄλλος ἀντ' ἐμοῦ A. Pr. 467, S. Aj. 444, Ar. Nu. 653; δόξαν ἀντὶ τοῦ ζῆν ἠγαπηκώς Plu. Alex. 42.
POSITION: ἀντί rarely follows its case, as in Il. 23.650, A. Ag. 1277, Ig 5(1).1119 (Geronthrae, iv B.C.), AP 7.715 (Leon.); but the Gramm. hold that it never suffers anastrophe.
IN COMPO S. it signifies,
1 over against, opposite, as ἀντιβαίνω, ἀντίπορος.
2. against, in opposition to, as ἀντιλέγω, ἀντίβιος.
3. one against another, mutually, as ἀντιδεξιόομαι.
4. in return, as ἀντιβοηθέω.
5. instead of, as ἀντιβασιλεύς, ἀνθύπατος.
6. equal to, like, as ἀντίθεος, ἀντίπαις, ἀντίδουλος.
7. corresponding, counter, as ἀντίφορτος, ἀντίτυπος.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
(before , ; elsewhere neglecting elision) a preposition followed by the genitive (answering to the Latin ante
and the German prefixes ant-
), in the use of which the N. T. writings coincide with the Greek ( Winer
's Grammar, 364 (341));
1. properly, it seems to have signified over against, opposite to, before, in a local sense (Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram., p. 412; (cf. Curtius, § 204)). Hence,
2. indicating exchange, succession, for, instead of, in place of (something).
a. universally, instead of: , Luke 11:11; to serve as a covering, 1 Corinthians 11:15; , James 4:15 ( with the infinitive often in Greek writings ( Winer s Grammar, 329 (309); Buttmann, 263 (226))).
b. of that for which anything is given, received, endured: Matthew 5:38; Matthew 17:27 (to release me and thyself from obligation); Hebrews 12:2 (to obtain the joy; cf. Bleek, Lünemann, or Delitzsch at the passage); of the price of sale (or purchase): Hebrews 12:16; , Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45. Then c. of recompense: , Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9,( Wisdom of Solomon 11:16 (15)). equivalent to , for that, because: Luke 1:20; Luke 19:44; Acts 12:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:10 (also in secular authors (examples in Wetstein (1752) on Luke 1:20); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 710; ( Winer s Grammar, 364 (342), cf. 162 (153); Buttmann, 105 (92)); Hebrew אֲשֶׁר תַּחַת, Deuteronomy 21:14; 2 Kings 22:17).
d. of the cause: wherefore, Luke 12:3; for this cause, Ephesians 5:31.
e. of succession to the place of another: in place of Herod, Matthew 2:22 ( 1 Kings 11:44; Herodotus 1,108; Xenophon, an. 1,1, 4). grace in the place of grace, grace succeeding grace perpetually, i. e. the richest abundance of grace, John 1:16 ( Theognis, verse 344 (yet cf. the context verse 342 (vss. 780,778, Welcker edition); more appropriate are the references to Philo, i. 254, Mang. edition (de poster. Caini § 43, vol. ii. 39, Richter edition), and Chrysostom de sacerdot. l. 6c. 13 § 622)).
3. As a prefix, it denotes a. opposite, over against: , .
b. the mutual efficiency of two: , , .
c. requital: , .
d. hostile opposition: .
e. official substitution instead of: .<1> 1>
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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List of Word Forms
ανθ ανθ' ἀνθ' αντ' αντι αντί ἀντὶ αυτής anth anth' anti antì
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