Old & New Testament Greek
probably from comparative from (3739
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
as ADVERB of Manner. ὧς and ὥς (with accent), so, thus. ὡς (without accent) of the Relat. Pron. ὅς, as. ὡς Relat. and Interrog., how. ὡς temporal, when. ὡς Local, where, ὡς,
as CONJUNCTION. various usages. ADVERB of Manner: ὥς, Demonstr., = οὕτως, so, thus, freq. in Hom., Il. 1.33, al.; ὢς εἶπ' Sapph. Supp. 20 a. 11 (Epic style); in Ion. Prose, Hdt. 3.13, al.; rare in Att., and almost confined to certain phrases, v. infr. 2, 3; ὥς simply = οὕτως, A. Ag. 930, Th. 3.37, Pl. Prt. 338a; ἀλλ' ὣς γενέσθω E. Hec. 888, al.
2. καὶ ὧς even so, nevertheless, Il. 1.116, al.; οὐδ' ὧς not even so, 7.263, Od. 1.6, al., Hdt. 6.76; οὐδέ κεν ὧς Il. 9.386: the phrases καὶ ὧς, οὐδ' ὧς, μηδ' ὧς, are used in Trag. and Att., S. Ant. 1042, Th. 1.74, 7.74; also later, PCair.Zen. 19.10 (iii B. C., unaccented), UPZ 146.40 (ii B. C.), GDI 1832.11 (Delph., ii B. C.), IG 22.850.17 (iii B. C.); κἂν ὧς, εἴπερ μέλει σοι, ἀπόστειλόν μοί τινα POxy. 120.11 (iv A. D.); δουλεύων καθὼς καὶ ὧς GDI 2160 (Delph., ii B. C.); Thess. καὶ οὗς IG 9(2).234.1 (iii B. C.); for this phrase the accentuation ὧς is prescribed by Hdn.Gr.2.932, al., cf. A.D. Synt. 307.16, and is found in good Mss. of Homer; for the remaining uses under this head (Aa. 1, 3, 4) the accentuation ὥς is prescribed by the same grammarians.
3. in Comparisons, ὥς.., ὡς.., so.. as.., etc.; and reversely ὡς.., ὣς.., as.. so, Il. 1.512, 14.265, etc.; in Att., Pl. R. 530d; also ὥς τε.. ὣς.., as.. thus.., h.Cer. 174 - 6, E. Ba. 1066 - 8; οἷα.. ὥς Id. El. 151 - 5; ὥσπερ.., ὣς δὲ.. (in apodosi) Pl. Prt. 326d.
4. thus, for instance, Od. 5.129, h.Ven. 218; ὥς shd. be accented in Od. 5.121, 125. ὡς, Relat., as, Hom., etc.; prop. relat. to a demonstr. Adv., which is freq. omitted, κινήθη δ' ἀγορὴ ὡς κύματα μακρὰ θαλάσσης, i. e. οὕτως, ὡς.., Il. 2.144 (φὴ Zenod.): it is relat. not only to the regular demonstr. Advs. ὥς (ὧς), τώς, ὧδε, οὕτως, αὕτως, but also to ταύτῃ, Pl. R. 365d, etc. We find a collat. Dor. form ὥ (q. v.); cf. ὥτε.
I in similes, freq. in Hom., Il. 5.161, al.; longer similes are commonly introduced by ὡς ὅτε, ὡς δ' ὅτε, ἤριπε δ', ὡς ὅτε πύργος [ἤριπε] 4.462: ἤριπε δ', ὡς ὅτε τις δρῦς ἤριπε 13.389, cf. 2.394; so later, Emp. 84.1, etc.; ὡς ὅτε θαητὸν μέγαρον, πάξομεν Pi. O. 6.2: ὡς ὅτε is rare in short similes, Od. 11.368: ὡς is folld. by indic. pres., Il. 9.4, 16.364: also by aor., 3.33 sq., 4.275, 16.823, al.; also by subj. pres. or aor., 5.161, 10.183, 485, 13.334 (sts. ὡς δ' ὅτ' ἄν, 11.269, 17.520); cf. ὥστε A: — the Verb is sts. omitted with ὡς, but may be supplied from the context, ἐνδούπησε πεσοῦσ', ὡς εἰναλίη κήξ (sc. πίπτει) Od. 15.479, cf. 6.20; θεὸς δ' ὣς τίετο δήμῳ Il. 5.78; οἱ δὲ φέβοντο.., βόες ὣς ἀγελαῖαι Od. 22.299: where ὡς follows the noun to which it refers, it takes the accent; so in Com., Ἀριστόδημος ὥς Cratin. 151, cf. Eub. 75.6; v. infr. H.
2. like as, just as, ὡς οὗτος κατὰ τέκν' ἔφαγε.., ὣς ἡμεῖς κτλ. Il. 2.326, v. supr. Aa. 3.
3. sts. in the sense as much as or according as, ἑλὼν κρέας ὥς (i. e. ὅσον) οἱ χεῖρες ἐχάνδανον Od. 17.344; ὦκα δὲ μητρὶ ἔννεπον ὡς (i. e. ὅσα) εἶδόν τε καὶ ἔκλυον h.Cer. 172; τῶν πάντων οὐ τόσσον ὀδύρομαι.. ὡς ἑνός Od. 4.105; τόσον.. ὡς Il. 4.130; so in Trag., σοὶ θεοὶ πόροιεν ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω S. OC 1124; ὡς ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔστιν ὑμῶν ὅστις ἐξ ἴσου νοσεῖ Id. OT 60; in Prose, ὡς δύναται as much as he can, Democr. 278; τὸ ῥῆμα μέμνημαι ὡς εἶπε Aeschin. 3.72; ὡς μή = ὅσον μή, νέμεν ὅτι ἃν (= ἂν) βόλητοι ὡς μὴ ἰν τοῖ περιχώροι IG 5(2).3.9 (Tegea, iv B. C.); cf. Ab. 11.2 infr.
4. sts. after Comp., compared with, hence than, μᾶλλον πρέπει οὕτως ὡς.. Pl. Ap. 36d; ἅ γε μείζω πόνον παρέχει.. οὐκ ἂν ῥᾳδίως οὐδὲ πολλὰ ἂν εὕροις ὡς τοῦτο Id. R. 526c; οὐδενὸς μᾶλλον φροντίζειν ὡς.. Plb. 3.12.5, cf. 7.4.5, 11.2.9, Plu. Cor. 36: μᾶσσον ὡς is dub. in A. Pr. 629, and [ἢ] shd. perh. be inserted in Lys. 7.12,31; cf. ὥσπερ IV.
II with Adverbial clauses:
1 parenthetically, in qualifying clauses, ὡς ἔοικε, etc., Pl. Smp. 176c, etc.: in these cases γε or γοῦν is freq. added, ὡς γοῦν ὁ λόγος σημαίνει as at any rate the argument shows, Id. R. 334a; in some phrases c. inf., v. infr. B. 11.3. An anacoluthon sts. occurs by the Verb of the principal clause being made dependent on the parenthetic Verb, ὡς δὲ Σκύθαι λέγουσι, νεώτατον ἁπάντων ἐθνέων εἶναι (for ἦν) τὸ σφέτερον Hdt. 4.5, cf. 1.65; ὡς ἐγὼ ἤκουσα, εἶναι αὐτόν Id. 4.76; ὡς γὰρ.. ἤκουσά τινος, ὅτι.. X. An. 6.4.18 codd.; ἁνὴρ ὅδ' ὡς ἔοικεν οὐ νεμεῖν (for οὐ νεμεῖ, ὡς ἔοικε), S. Tr. 1238.
2. in elliptical phrases, so far as.. (cf. supr. Ab. 1.3) ὡς ἐμοί Id. Aj. 395 (lyr.); so ὥς γε ἐμοὶ κριτῇ Ael. VH 2.41 and ὥς γ' ἐμοὶ χρῆσθαι κριτῇ E. Alc. 801; ὡς ἐμῇ δόξῃ X. Vect. 5.2; ὡς ἀπ' ὀμμάτων (sc. εἰκάσαι) to judge by eyesight, S. OC 15: esp. in such phrases as οὐκέτι πολλὸν χωρίον, ὡς εἶναι Αἰγύπτου Hdt. 2.8; οὐδὲ ἀδύνατος, ὡς Αακεδαιμόνιος for a Lacedaemonian, Th. 4.84, cf. D.H. 10.31; ὡς ἀνθρώποις Alcmaeon 1; φρονεῖ.. ὡς γυνὴ μέγα for a woman, S. OT 1078; πιστός, ὡς νομεύς, ἀνήρ ib. 1118; μακρὰν ὡς γέροντι.. ὁδόν Id. OC 20, cf. 385, Ant. 62, etc.; ὡπλισμένοι ὡς ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἱκανῶς X. An. 4.3.31; also with ἄν, μεγάλα ἐκτήσατο χρήματα, ὡς ἂν εἶναι Ῥοδῶπιν Hdt. 2.135 codd. (ἂν secl. Krüger, Ῥοδώπιος cj. Valck.): — for ὡς εἰπεῖν and the like, v. infr. B. 11.3.
3. ὡς attached to the object of the Verb, as, ἑωυτὸν ὡς ἐχθρὸν λυπέει Democr. 88; ἔλαβεν ἀμφοτέρους ὡς φίλους ἤδη X. Cyr. 3.2.25; ἐν οἰκήματι ᾧ ὡς ταμιείῳ ἐχρῆτο Pl. Prt. 315d. — For the similar usage of ὡς with Participles and Prepositions, v. infr. c.
III with Adverbs: with the Posit., ὡς ἀληθῶς truly, Pl. Phdr. 234e (cf. ἀληθής 111.1b: as if Adv. of τὸ ἀληθές) ; ὡς ἑτέρως in the other way, ib. 276c, D. 18.212 (Adv. of ὁ ἕτερος; v. ἕτερος v. 2) (v. infr. D. 1.1); ὡς ἠπίως, ὡς ἐτητύμως, S. El. 1438 (lyr.), 1452; ὡς ὁμοίως SIG 708.34 (Istropolis, ii B. C.), LXX 4 Maccabees 5:21; 4 Maccabees 5:1 Enoch 5.3, IG 7.2725.16 (Acraeph., ii A. D.); ὡς ἐναλλάξ Vett.Val. 215.9, 340.2; ὡς παντελῶς Id. 184.26; ὡς ἄλλως Isa 7.27, D. 6.32; ὡς ἐνδεχομένως PPetr. 2p.53 (iii B. C.); in ὣς αὔτως (v. ὡσαύτως) we have the Adv. of ὁ αὐτός, but the ὥς retains its demonstr. force, as does ὁ in Homer; ὡς ἀληθῶς, ὡς ὁμοίως, and ὡς παντελῶς may be modelled on ὣς αὔτως, with which they are nearly synonymous; so also ὡς ἑτέρως and ὡς ἐναλλάξ, which are contrasted with it. with Advbs. expressing anything extraordinary, θαυμαστῶς or θαυμασίως ὡς, ὑπερφυῶς ὡς, v. sub vocc.; ὡς is sts. separated by several words from its Adv., as θαυμαστῶς μοι εἶπες ὡς παρα' δόξαν Pl. Phd. 95a; ὑπερφυῶς δὴ τὸ χρῆμα ὡς δύσγνωστον φαίνεται Id. Alc. 2.147c, cf. Phd. 99d. with the Sup., as much as can be, ὡς μάλιστα Th. 1.141, etc.: ὡς ῥᾷστα as easily as possible, A. Pr. 104; ὡς πλεῖστα Democr. 189; ὠς τάχιστα as quickly as possible, Alc. Supp. 4.15, etc.; more fully expressed, ὡς δυνατὸν ἄριστα Isoc. 12.153; ὡς ἐδύναντο ἀδηλότατα Th. 7.50; μαχομένους ὡς ἂν δυνώμεθα κράτιστα X. An. 3.2.6; ὡς οἷόν τε βελτιστον Pl. R. 403d; ὡς ἀνυστὸν κάλλιστα Diog. Apollon. 3: ὡς and ὅτι are sts. found together, where one is superfluous, ὡς ὅτι μάλιστα Pl. Lg. 908a; βοῦν ὡς ὅτι κάλλιστον IG 22.1028.17 (ii/i B. C.); v. infr. G. with Comp., ὡς θᾶσσον Plb. 1.66.1, 3.82.1. in the phrases ὡς τὸ πολύ, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ, Pl. R. 330c, 377b; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖον for the more part, commonly, ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον Th. 2.34; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος, ὡς πλήθει, Pl. R. 364a, 389d; ὡς τὸ ἐπίπαν Hdt. 7.50, etc.; ὡς τὰ πολλά Ael. NA 12.17.
2. with Adjs., Posit., ὑπερφυεῖ τινι.. ὡς μεγάλῃ βλάβῃ Pl. Grg. 477d. with Sup., ὡς ἄριστοι τὰς φύσεις Id. Ti. 18d; ὅπως ὡς βέλτισται ἔσονται Id. Grg. 503a; ὡς ὅτι βέλτιστον Id. Smp. 218d. separated from the Adj. by a Pr, ὡς ἐς ἐλάχιστον Th. 1.63, cf. D. 18.246; ὡς ἐν βραχυτάτοις Antipho 1.18; ὡς ἐν ἐχυρωτάτῳ ποιεῖσθαι X. Cyr. 1.6.26, etc. Relat. and Interrog., how, μερμήριζε.. ὡς Ἀχιλῆα τιμήσειε Il. 2.3, cf. Pl. R. 365a; ἐβουλεύοντο ὡς.. στήσονται Hdt. 3.84, etc.; οἷα δεῖ λέγειν καὶ ὥς Arist. EN 1128a1; ὡς πέπραται how, i. e. at what price the goods have been sold, PCair.Zen. 149 (iii B. C.); so οὐκ ἔσθ' ὡς.. (for the more usu. ὅπως) nowise can it be that.., S. Ant. 750; οὐκ ἔσθ' ὡς οὐ.., Id. Ph. 196 (anap., Porson for οὐκ ἔστιν ὅπως ου) ; οἶσθ' ὡς πόησον; by a mixture of constructions for ὡς χρὴ ποιῆσαι or ὡς ποιήσεις, Id. OT 543, cf. Hermipp. 43, Men. 916; οἶσθ' ὡς μετεύξει is f.l. in E. Med. 600 (μέτευξαι Elmsley); similarly, οἶσθα.. ὡς νῦν μὴ σφαλῇς S. OC 75.
2. ὡς ἂν ποήσῃς however (in whatever way) thou mayest act, Id. Aj. 1369, cf. Pl. Smp. 181a; αὐτῷ ὥς κεν ἅδῃ, τὼς ἔσσεται A.R. 3.350. Temporal, when, with past tenses of the indic., ἐνῶρτο γέλως.., ὡς ἴδον Il. 1.600: with opt., to express a repeated action, whenever, ὡς.. ἐς τὴν Μιλησίην ἀπίκοιτο Hdt. 1.17: rarely c. subj., to denote what happens under certain conditions, τῶν δὲ ὡς ἕκαστός οἱ μειχθῇ, διδοῖ δῶρον Id. 4.172, cf. 1.132; later, ὡς ἄν c. subj., when, PCair.Zen. 251 (iii B. C.), 1 Corinthians 11:34, etc.; ὥς κα Berl.Sitzb. 1927.170 (Cyrene); ὡς ἂν τάχιστα λάβῃς τὴν ἐπιστολήν as soon as.. PCair.Zen. 241.1 (iii B. C.), cf. LXX 1 Kings 9:13, John 3:8 : in orat. obliq. c. inf., Hdt. 1.86, 96, al.: expressed more forcibly by ὡς.. τάχιστα, some word or words being interposed, ὡς γὰρ ἐπετρόπευσε τάχιστα as soon as ever.., Id. 1.65; ὡς δὲ ἀφίκετο τάχιστα X. Cyr. 1.3.2: less freq. ὡς τάχιστα stand together, Aeschin. 2.22: but this usage must be distd. from signf. Ab.111.1c: folld. by demonstr., ὡς εἶδ', ὣς ἀνεπᾶλτο Il. 20.424; ὡς ἴδεν, ὥς μιν ἔρως πυκινὰς φρένας ἀμφεκάλυψεν 14.294; also ὡς.., ἔπειτα 3.396; Κρονίδης ὥς μιν φράσαθ' ὣς ἐόλητο θυμὸν ἀνωΐστοισιν ὑποδμηθεὶς βελέεσσι Κύπριδος Mosch. 2.74; the second ὣς is repeated, ἁ δ' Ἀταλάντα ὡς ἴδεν, ὣς ἐμάνη, ὣς ἐς βαθὺν ἅλατ' ἔρωτα Theoc. 3.41 (ὣς = εὐθέως, Sch.vet.), cf. 2.82; in Bion 1.40 the clauses with ὡς all belong to the protasIsa
2. ὡς appears to be f.l. for ἕως in ὡς ἂν αὑτὸς ἥλιος.. αἴρῃ S. Ph. 1330, ὡς ἂν ᾖς οἷόσπερ εἶ Id. Aj. 1117; cf. ὥσπερ 111.1: but in later Gr. = ἕως, while, ὡς τὸ φῶς ἔχετε John 12:35-36; ὡς καιρὸν ἔχομεν Galatians 6:10, cf. Epigr.Gr. 646a5 (p.529); also until, τίθεται ἐπὶ ἀνθράκων ὡς ἀναξηρανθῇ PLeid.X. 89 B.; ἔα ἀφρίζειν τὴν πίσσαν ὡς οὗ ἐκλείπῃ ib.37B.; cf. EM 824.43 (conversely ἕως for ὡς final, v. ἕως (B) A. 1.4). Local, where, in dialects, Theoc. 1.13, 5.101, 103, IG 9(2).205.4 (Melitea, iii B. C.), SIG 685.63, al. (Cretan, ii B. C.), IG 12(1).736.5 (Camirus), GDI 5597.8 (Ephesus, iii B. C.).
ὡς as CONJUNCTION:
I with Substantive clauses, to express a fact, = ὅτι, that.
II with Final clauses, to express an end or purpose, = ἵνα, ὅπως, so that, in order that. III Consecutive, = ὥστε, so that. Causal, since, because. I with Substantive Clauses, with verbs of learning, saying, etc., that, expressing a fact, γνωτὸν.., ὡς ἤδη Τρώεσσιν ὀλέθρου πείρατ' ἐφῆπται Il. 7.402, cf. Od. 3.194, etc.: in commands, προεῖπεν ὡς μηδεὶς κινήσοιτο X. HG 2.1.22: with Verbs of fear or anxiety, c. fut. indic., μηκέτ' ἐκφοβοῦ, μητρῷον ὥς σε λῆμ' ἀτιμάσει ποτέ S. El. 1427, cf. X. Cyr. 6.2.30; μὴ φοβοῦ ὡς ἀπορήσεις ib. 5.2.12, cf. D. 10.36; a sentence beginning with ὡς is sts., when interrupted, resumed by ὅτι, and vice versa, X. Cyr. 5.3.30, Pl. R. 470d, Hp.Ma. 281c; so ὡς with a finite Verb passes into the acc. and inf., Hdt. 1.70, 8.118: both constructions mixed in the same clause, ἐλογίζετο ὡς.. ἧττον ἂν αὐτοὺς ἐθέλειν.. X. Cyr. 8.1.25, cf. HG 3.4.27: after primary tenses (incl. historic pres.) ὡς is folld. by indic., after historic tenses by opt. (sts. by indic., both constructions in ὑπίσχοντο.. ἀμυνέειν, φράζοντες ὡς οὔ σφι περιοπτέη ἐστὶ ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπολλυμένη
Thayer's Expanded Definition
(by mistake) in Matthew 24:38
; cf. Winer
s Grammar, 462 (431); Chandler
§ 934, and references in Ebeling, Lex. Homer
, under the word, p. 494 b bottom), an adverbial form of the relative pronoun , , which is used in comparison, as, like as, even as, according as, in the same manner as,
etc. (German wie
); but it also assumes the nature of a conjunction, of time, of purpose, and of consequence. On its use in the Greek writings cf. Klotz ad Devar.
2:2, chapter xxxv., p. 756ff; (Liddell and Scott, under the word).
I. as an adverb of comparison;
1. It answers to some demonstrative word (, or the like), either in the same clause or in another member of the same sentence (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53,5): ... , John 7:46 ( L WH omit; Tr brackets etc.); 1 Corinthians 3:15; 1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 9:26; Ephesians 5:28,33; James 2:12; ... ( T Tr WH omit (cf. English as should a man cast etc.)) ... , so etc. ... as if etc. Mark 4:26; ... , Acts 8:32; Acts 23:11; 1 Corinthians 7:17; 2 Corinthians 11:3 ( R G); 1 Thessalonians 5:2; () followed by subjunctive ((cf. , II:2a. at the end)) ... , 1 Thessalonians 2:7f; ... , Romans 5:15 (here WH brackets ),18; 2 Corinthians 1:7 L T Tr WH; 2 Corinthians 7:14>; ( T Tr WH ) ... ( L G , Rec. ), Luke 17:28-30; ... , Acts 11:17; sometimes in the second member of the sentence the demonstrative word (, or the like) is omitted and must be supplied by the mind, as Matthew 8:13; Colossians 2:6; ... (where might have been expected ( Winer s Grammar, as above; Buttmann, § 149,8c.)), Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2 (here G T Tr WH omit; L brackets the clause); Acts 7:51 (Lachmann ); Galatians 1:9; Philippians 1:20 (see , II:1a.); to this construction must be referred also 2 Corinthians 13:2 , , as when I was present the second time, so now being absent ((cf. p. 317a top); others render (cf. R. V. marginal reading) as if I were present the second time, even though I am now absent).
2. with the word or words forming the comparison is so subjoined to a preceding verb that must be mentally inserted before the same. When thus used refers a. to the manner (`form') of the action expressed by the finite verb, and is equivalent to in the same manner as, after the fashion of; it is joined in this way to the subject (nominative) of the verb: Matthew 6:29; Matthew 7:29; Matthew 13:43; 1 Thessalonians 2:11; 2 Peter 2:12; Jude 1:10, etc.; to an accusative governed by the verb: as , Matthew 19:19; Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31,33; Luke 10:27; Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8; add, Philemon 1:17; Galatians 4:14; (here many (cf. R. V. marginal reading) would bring in also Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37 (cf.
c. below)); or to another oblique case: as Philippians 2:22; to a substantive, with a preposition: as , John 7:10 ( Tdf. omits ); , James 5:5 ( R G; others omit ); , Hebrews 11:29; add, Matthew 26:55; Mark 14:48; Luke 22:52; Romans 13:13; Hebrews 3:8; when joined to a nominative or an accusative it can be rendered like, (like) as (Latin instar, veluti): Matthew 10:16; Luke 21:35; Luke 22:31; 1 Corinthians 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:4; 2 Timothy 2:17; James 1:10; 1 Peter 5:8; 2 Peter 3:10; (see , 1b. . under the end), Romans 4:17.
b. joined to a verb makes reference to the 'substance' of the act expressed by the verb, i. e. the action designated by the verb is itself said to be done , in like manner (just) as, something else: John 15:6 (for is itself the very thing which is declared to happen (i. e. the unfruitful disciple is 'cast forth' just as the severed branch is 'cast forth')); 2 Corinthians 3:1 (Lachmann ()); generally, however, the phrase is employed ( Winer's Grammar, § 53,5), 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Corinthians 16:10 (here WH text omits ); Ephesians 2:3; 1 Thessalonians 5:6 ( L T Tr WH omit ); 2 Timothy 3:9; Hebrews 3:2; 2 Peter 3:16.
c. makes reference to similarity or equality, in such expressions as , i. e. 'to be like' or 'equal to' one, Matthew 22:30; Matthew 28:3; Mark 6:34; Mark 12:25; Luke 6:40; Luke 11:44; Luke 18:11; Luke 22:26; Romans 9:27; 1 Corinthians 7:7,29-31; 2 Corinthians 2:17; 1 Peter 1:24; 2 Peter 3:8; , that thy benefaction may not be like something extorted by force, Philemon 1:14; , Matthew 10:25; Matthew 18:3; Luke 22:26; Romans 9:29; 1 Corinthians 4:13; 1 Corinthians 9:20-22 (in 9:22 T Tr WH omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets ); Galatians 4:12; , 1 Corinthians 7:8; , Luke 15:19; passages in which , , (or ) is left to be supplied by the reader: as , Revelation 1:15; , namely, , Revelation 2:18; namely, , Matthew 17:20; Luke 17:6; add, Revelation 4:7; Revelation 9:2,5, 7-9,17; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 13:2; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 20:8; Revelation 21:21; Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37 (many (cf. R. V. marginal reading) refer these last two passages to a. above); Acts 10:11; 11:5>, etc.; before one must sometimes supply , 'something like' or 'having the appearance of' this or that: thus , i. e. something having the appearance of ( R. V. as it were) a sea, Revelation 4:6 G L T Tr WH; Revelation 8:8; 9:7; 15:2> (so in imitation of the Hebrew כְּ, cf. Deuteronomy 4:32; Daniel 10:18; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 648b ( Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 2)); passages where the comparison is added to some adjective: as, , Matthew 12:13; , Matthew 17:2; Mark 9:3 ( R L); add, Hebrews 12:16; Revelation 1:14; Revelation 6:12; Revelation 8:10; Revelation 10:9; Revelation 21:2; Revelation 22:1.
d. so makes reference to the quality of a person, thing, or action, as to be equivalent to such as, exactly like, as it were. German als; and . to a quality which really belongs to the person or thing: , Matthew 7:29; Mark 1:22; , John 1:14; add (( L T Tr WH in Matthew 5:48; Matthew 6:5,16)); Acts 17:22; Romans 6:13 (here L T Tr WH ); Romans 15:15>; 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 7:25; 2 Corinthians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 11:16; Ephesians 5:1,8, 15; Colossians 3:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Timothy 5:1; 2 Timothy 2:3; Titus 1:7; Philemon 1:9,16 (where cf. Lightfoot); Hebrews 3:5; Hebrews 6:19; Hebrews 11:9; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 1:14,19; 1 Peter 2:2,5, 11; 1 Peter 3:7; 1 Peter 4:10,15, 19 ( R G); 2 Peter 1:19; 2 John 1:5; James 2:12; Revelation 1:17; Revelation 5:6; Revelation 16:21; Revelation 17:12, etc.; namely, , as one who is not running etc. 1 Corinthians 9:26; concisely, and namely, , borrowed from the neighboring , 2 Corinthians 2:17; or after verbs of esteeming, knowing, declaring, etc. ( Winer's Grammar, §§ 32,4b.; 59,6): as, after , , Romans 8:36; 1 Corinthians 4:1 (where precedes); 2 Corinthians 10:2; , 2 Thessalonians 3:15; , Matthew 14:5; Matthew 21:26,46 (but here L T Tr WH read (cf. , I:1f.)) ( , Ev. Nicod. c. 5); , 1 Corinthians 4:9; (or (which see)), Mark 4:31; , passive, Luke 16:1; , passive, James 2:9; , passive, Philippians 2:7 (8). . to a quality which is supposed, pretended, reigned, assumed: , Romans 3:7; , Luke 6:22; add, 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 2 Corinthians 6:8-10; 2 Corinthians 11:15; 2 Corinthians 13:7; 1 Peter 2:12; frequently it can be rendered as if, as though, Acts 3:12; Acts 23:15,20; Acts 27:30; 1 Corinthians 5:3; 2 Corinthians 10:14; 2 Corinthians 11:17; Colossians 2:20; Hebrews 11:27; Hebrews 13:3; , namely, , 2 Thessalonians 2:2.
3. with the genitive absolute presents the matter spoken of — either as the belief of the writer, 2 Corinthians 5:20; 2 Peter 1:3; or as someone's erroneous opinion: 1 Corinthians 4:18; 1 Peter 4:12; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 65,9; (Buttmann, § 145,7; especially § 144,22). In general, by the use of the matter spoken of is presented — either as a mere matter of opinion: as in namely, , Romans 9:32 (where it marks the imaginary character of the help the Israelites relied on, they thought to attain righteousness in that way ( A. V. as it were by works)); — or as a purpose: , that, as they intended, he might go to the sea, Acts 17:14, cf. Meyer at the passage; Winer s Grammar, 617 (573 f) (but L T Tr WH read , as far as to etc.); — or as merely the thought of the writer: Galatians 3:16; before , 2 Corinthians 11:21; — or as the thought and pretence of others: also before , 2 Thessalonians 2:2: cf. Winer s Grammar, as above; (Buttmann, § 149,3; on in 2 Corinthians 5:19 ( A. V. to wit) see Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann's Grammar, at the passages cited (cf. Esther 4:14; Josephus, contra Apion 1,11, 1and Müller's note; Liddell and Scott, under the word, G. 2; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 7)); , as if, as though, 2 Corinthians 10:9 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 310 (291); but cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 1, and see , IV.).
4. has its own verb, with which it forms a complete sentence;
a. with a finite verb is added by way of illustration, and is to be translated as, just as (Latin sicut, eo modo quo): Ephesians 6:20; Colossians 3:18; Colossians 4:4; 1 Peter 3:6; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 2:28 (Revelation 2:27>) (this example is referred by some (cf. R. V. marginal reading) to 2a. above); Revelation 6:13; 9:3; 18:6> (here ; the example seems to belong under 2b. above). in phrases in which there is an appeal—either to the O. T. ( ), Mark 1:2 (here T Tr WH ); Mark 7:6>; Luke 3:4; Acts 13:33; or in general to the testimony of others, Acts 17:28; Acts 22:5; Acts 25:10; Romans 9:25; 1 Corinthians 10:7 R G (cf. , b.). in phrases like or , etc.: Matthew 1:24; Matthew 26:19; Matthew 28:15; Luke 14:22 (here T Tr text WH ); Titus 1:5; likewise, Matthew 8:13; Matthew 15:28; Revelation 10:7; namely, , Matthew 26:39. in short parenthetic or inserted sentences: , Mark 10:1; , Luke 3:23; , 1 Peter 5:12; , Acts 2:15; , Revelation 2:24; ( R. V. howsoever ye might be led) utcunque agebamini (cf. Buttmann, § 139,13; 383 f (329); Winer's Grammar, § 42,3a.), 1 Corinthians 12:2. serves to add an explanatory extension (and is rendered in A. V. how (that)): Acts 10:38; ... , etc. 2 Corinthians 7:15; , , Luke 22:61; , , Acts 11:16 ( Xenophon, Cyril 8,2, 14; an. 1,9, 11); cf. Bornemannt Schol. ad Luc., p. 141.
b. is used to present, in the form of a comparison, a motive which is urged upon one — as , ( R G ) . (for which Luke 11:4 gives ), Matthew 6:12 — or which actuates one, as ... , 2 Timothy 1:3 (for the dear remembrance of Timothy moves Paul's gratitude to God); (cf. John 19:33 (cf. II.
a. below)); in these examples has almost the force of a causal particle; cf. Klotz ad Devar. 2:2, p. 766; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. IV.; Winer s Grammar, 448 (417)).
c. adds in a rather loose way something which serves to illustrate what precedes, and is equivalent to the case is as though ( R. V. it is as when): Mark 13:34, where cf. Fritzsche, p. 587; unless one prefer, with Meyer, et al., to make it an instance of anantapodoton (cf. A. V. 'For the Son of Man is as a man' etc.); see , a. at the end.
5. according as: Romans 12:3; 1 Corinthians 3:5; Revelation 22:12.
6. , like the German wie, after verbs of reading, narrating, testifying, and the like, introduces that which is read, narrated, etc.; hence, it is commonly said to be equivalent to (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 765); but there is this difference between the two, that expresses the thing itself, the mode or quality of the thing (hence, usually rendered how) (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 53,9; (Meyer on Romans 1:9; cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I.)): thus after , Mark 12:26 (where T Tr WH ); Luke 6:4 (here Tr WH brackets ; L text reads ); , Luke 24:6 ( L marginal reading ); , Luke 23:55; , Jude 1:5 (here (not ) is the particle), 7 (others regard here as introducing a confirmatory illustration of what precedes ( A. V. even as etc.); cf. Huther, or Brückner's DeWette, ad loc.); , Acts 10:38; Romans 11:2; 1 Thessalonians 2:11; , Acts 10:28 (here many (cf. R. V. marginal reading) connect with the adjective immediately following (see 8 below)); Acts 20:18,20>; , Luke 8:47; , Luke 24:35; , Romans 1:9 (here others connect with the word which follows it (cf. 8 below)); Philippians 1:8.
7. before numerals denotes nearly, about: as, , Mark 5:13; add, Mark 8:9; Luke 2:37 (here L T Tr WH ); Luke 8:42>; John 1:39(40); ( John 4:6 L T Tr WH); John 6:19 (here Lachmann ); John 11:18; ( John 19:39 G L T Tr WH); John 21:8>; Acts 1:15 ( Tdf. ); John 5:7,(36 L T Tr WH); John 13:18 (yet not WH text); cf. , I:2f.), 20; John 19:34 ( WH ); Revelation 8:1 (כְּ, 1 Samuel 11:1; 1 Samuel 14:2, etc.); for examples from Greek writings see Passow, under the word, vol. ii., p. 2631 b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, E; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 3).
8. is prefixed to adjectives and adverbs, and corresponds to the Latin quam, how, German wie (so from Homer down): , Romans 10:15; add, Romans 11:33; , 1 Thessalonians 2:10 ( Psalm 72:1<10> (Psalm 73:1>)); with a superlative, as much as can be: , as quickly as possible (very often in secular authors), Acts 17:15; cf. Viger., Hermann edition, pp. 562,850; Passow, 2:2, p. 2631 b bottom; (Liddell and Scott, under Ab. III.).
II. as a particle of time;
a. as, when, since; Latin ut, cum, ( Winer's Grammar, § 41b. 3,1; § 53,8): with the indicative, , Matthew 28:8 (9); Mark 9:21 ( Tr marginal reading ); Luke 1:23,41, 44; Luke 2:15,39; Luke 4:25; Luke 5:4; Luke 7:12; Luke 11:1; Luke 15:25; Luke 19:5,29; Luke 22:66; Luke 23:26; Luke 24:32; John 2:9,23; John 4:1,40,(John 4:45> Tdf.); John 6:12,16; 7:10; 8:7; 11:6,20,29,32 f; 18:6>; (cf. John 19:33 (see I:4b. above)); John 20:11; 21:9>; Acts 1:10; Acts 5:24; Acts 7:23; Acts 8:36; Acts 9:23; Acts 10:7,17, 25; Acts 13:25,29 ( Acts 13:18 WH text (see I:7 above)); Acts 14:5; 16:4,10,15; 17:13; 18:5; 19:9,21; 20:14,18; 21:1,12,27; 22:11,25; 25:14; 27:1,27; 28:4>, ( Homer, Iliad 1,600; 2,321; 3,21; Herodotus 1,65, 80; Xenophon, Cyril 1,4, 4. 8. 20; often in the O. T. Apocrypha especially 1Macc.; cf. Wahl, Clavis apocr. V. T., under the word, IV. e., p. 507f). 10>
b. while, when (Latin dum, quando): Luke 20:37; as long as, while, John (John 9:4> Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading (cf. , I:2)); John 12:35>,(John 12:36>), L T Tr WH ((cf. , as above)); Luke 12:58; Galatians 6:10 (here A. V. as (so R. V. in Luke , the passage cited); T WH read the subjunctive (as we may have etc.); Meyer (on John 12:35; Galatians , the passage cited) everywhere denies the meaning while; but cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. V:2.; Lightfoot on Galatians , the passage cited).
c. , as soon as: with the subjunctive present Romans 15:24 ( A. V. here whensoever); with the 2aorist subjunctive having the force of the future perfect, 1 Corinthians 11:34 ( R. V. whensoever); Philippians 2:23. (Cf. Buttmann, 232 (200); Winer s Grammar, § 42,5a.; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word 6.).
III. as a final particle (Latin ut), in order that, in order to (cf. Glidersleeve in American Journ. of Philol. No. 16, p. 419f): followed by an infinitive ((cf. Buttmann, 244 (210); Winer s Grammar, 318 (299); Krüger, § 65,3, 4), Luke 9:52 L marginal reading WH); Acts 20:24 ( 3 Maccabees 1:2; 4 Maccabees 14:1); , so to say (see , 1a.), Hebrews 7:9 ( L marginal reading ).
IV. as a consecutive particle, introducing a consequence, so that: so (according to the less frequent usage) with the indicative ( Herodotus 1,163; 2,135; Winer's Grammar, 462 (431)), Hebrews 3:11; Hebrews 4:3 (Hebrew אֲשֶׁר, Psalm 94:11<10> (Psalm 95:11>); (but many interpretations question this sense with the indicative (the examples from Herodotus are not parallel), and render in Heb. the passages cited as (so R. V.)). 10>
Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament
adverbial form of the relative prop. ὅς , ἥ , ὅ .
I. As relat. adv. of manner, as, like as, just as, even as;
1. with a demonstrative, like οὅτως , expressed or understood: οὅτως , . . . ὠς , , , , , al.; ὠς . . . οὅτως ,, , , al.; elliptically (sc. οὕτως , οὕτω ), c. nom., , al.; c. acc, , , al.; c. prep., , , , , al.; c. verb., , , , , al.; c. ptcp. (the ptcp. however not having the special force WH. it has in cl.; v. Bl., § 73, 5; 74, 6), , , , al.; freq. implying opinion or belief, ; so esp. c. gen. absol., , , , .
2. Before numerals, about, nearly: , , , al.
3. Before adjectives and adverbs, how: ; , ; c. superl., ὡς τάχιστα , as quickly as possible,
II. As conjunction;
(a) as, when, since: ; , , , al.;
(b) while, when, as long as: , , (Field, Notes, 191); ὡς ἄν (M, Pr., 167, and see ἄν ), , , .
2. Final, in order that; c. inf., in order to (M, Pr., 204n), , , .
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (492)||NAS (157)||HCS (463)
|KJV (492)||NAS (157)||HCS (463)
List of Word Forms
ΩΣ ὡς ὥς ωσεί ὡσεὶ hos hōs hṓs hosei hoseì hōsei hōseì oS ŌS osei ōsei
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