Old & New Testament Greek
a primary particle
Parts of Speech:
Word Definition [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
‑ תֹּם (tome)
Aeol., Thess., Arc., Cypr. ἀπύ Sapph. 44, cf. 78, Alc. 33, Theoc. 28.16, IG 12(2).6.45 (Mytil.), ἀπυδόμεναι ib.9(2).594 (Larissa), 5(2).6 (Tegea), etc.: — Pr usually with Gen. but v. infr. B. (Cf. Skt. ápa, Lat. ab, Umbr. ap-ehtre 'ab extra', Goth. af, O E. af, cef, of, etc.) Orig. sense, from. [ ᾰπο: where ἀπο is found in before v or liquids (as ἀπὸ ἕθεν Il. 6.62, ἀπὸ νευρῆς 11.664, Hes. Sc. 409) ἀπαί was sometimes written in later texts, cf. Eust. 625.11: — ᾱ metri gr. in compds., such as ἀπονέεσθαι.]
I OF PLACE, the earliest, and in Hom. the prevailing sense:
1 of Motion, from, away from, ἐσσεύοντο νεῶν ἄπο καὶ κλισιάων Il. 2.208; pleonastic, ἀ. Τροίηθεν ib. 24.492; ἀπ' οὐρανόθεν 8.365 (later with Advbs., ἀπὸ ἔμπροσθεν LXX Ecclesiastes 1:10, etc.); strengthd., ἐκτὸς ἀ. κλισιης Il. 10.151; also ἀπ' αἰῶνος νέος ὤλεο, implying departure from life, ib. 24.725; opp. ἐξ, of relatively superficial motion, λαμβάνομεν οὔτε ἐκ τῆς γῆς οὐδέν, οὔτ' ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκιῶν X. Mem. 2.7.2; similarly of the cause or ground, ἐξ ὧν προηγώνισθε καὶ ἀφ' ὧν εἰκάζω Th. 4.126: — freq. of warriors fighting from chariots, etc., οἱ μὲν ἀφ' ἵππων, οἱ δ' ἀ. νηῶν.. μάχοντο Il. 15.386; ἀφ' ἵππων μάρνασθαι Od. 9.49; so ἡ μάχη ἦν ἀφ' ἵππων Hdt. 1.79; λαμπὰς ἔσται ἀφ' ἵππων on horse back, Pl. R. 328a; ἀφ' ἵππου θηρεύειν X. An. 1.2.7; ἀ. νεῶν πεζομαχεῖν Th. 7.62; ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶν αἰρόμενος τοὺς ἱστοὺς ἀ. τούτων ἐσκοπεῖτο X. HG 6.2.29; ὀμμάτων ἄπο.. κατέσταζον γένυν, of tears, E. Hec. 240: joined with ἐκ, ἐκ Κορίνθου ἀ. τοῦ στρατοπέδου Pl. Tht. 142a.
2. of Position, away from, far from, μένων ἀ. ἧς ἀλόχοιο Il. 2.292 (cf. ἀπ' ἀνδρὸς εἶναι to live apart from a man or husband, Plu. CG 4); κεκρυμμένος ἀπ' ἄλλων Od. 23.110; μοῦνος ἀπ' ἄλλων h.Merc. 193; ἀπ' ὀφθαλμῶν, ἀπ' οὔατος, far from sight or hearing, Il. 23.53, 18.272, cf. 22.454; ἀ. θαλάσσης ᾠκίσθησαν Th. 1.7, cf. 46; αὐλίζεσθαι ἀ. τῶν ὅπλων Id. 6.64; ἀπ' οἴκου εἶναι Id. 1.99; σπεύδειν ἀ. ῥυτῆρος far from, i.e. without using the rein, S. OC 900; in Hom. freq. strengthd., τῆλε ἀ..., νόσφιν ἀ..., Il. 23.880, 5.322; in measurement of distances, ὅσον ιέ στάδια ἀ. Φυλῆς X. HG 2.4.4, etc.; but later the numeral follows ἀ., πηγὰς ἔχων ἀ. μ σταδίων τῆς θαλάσσης D.S. 4.56; ἀ. σταδίων κ τῆς πόλεως Plu. Ph 4; κατεστρατοπέδευσεν ἀ. ν σταδίων fifty stades away, Id. Oth. 11, cf. D.Chr. 17.17.
3. of the mind, ἀ. θυμοῦ away from, i. e. alien from, my heart, Il. 1.562; ἀ. δόξης 10.324; οὐ.. ἀ. σκοποῦ οὐδ' ἀ. δόξης Od. 11.344; ἀ. τοῦ ἀνθρωπείου τρόπου Th. 1.76; οὐδὲν ἀ. τρόπου not without reason, Pl. R. 470b; οὐκ ἀ. σκοποῦ, καιροῦ, Id. Tht. 179c, 187e; οὐκ ἀ. γνώμης S. Tr. 389; οὐκ ἀ. τοῦ πράγματος D. 24.6; μάλα πολλὸν ἀπ' ἐλπίδος ἔπλετο A.R. 2.863.
4. in pregnant sense, with Verbs of rest, previous motion being implied (cf. ἐκ), ἀνὰ δ' ἐβόασεν.. ἀ. πέτρας σταθείς E. Tr. 523; ἀ.τῆς ἐμῆς κεφαλῆς τὴν [ἐκείνου] κεφαλὴν ἀναδήσω, i. e. taking the chaplet off my head, and placing it on his, Pl. Smp. 212e: with Verbs of hanging, where ἐκ is more common, ἁψαμένη βρόχον ἀ. μελάθρου Od. 11.278.
5. with the Article, where the sense of motion often disappears, οἱ ἀ. τῶν οἰκιῶν φεύγουσιν, i.e. οἱ ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις φεύγουσιν ἀπ' αὐτῶν, X. Cyr. 7.5.23; οἱ ἀ. τῶν πύργων.. ἐπαρήξουσι ib. 6.4.18; αἴρειν τὰ ἀ. τῆς γῆς Pl. Cra. 410b; αἱ ἵπποι αἱ ἀ. τοῦ ἅρματος v.l. in Hdt. 4.8; ὁ Ἀθηναῖος ὁ ἀ. τοῦ στρατεύματος X. An. 7.2.19; τὸν ἀ. γραμμᾶς κινεῖ λίθον Theoc. 6.18.
6. partitive, λαχὼν ἀ. ληΐδος αἶσαν part taken from the booty, a share of it, Od. 5.40; αἴρεσθαι ἀ. τῶν καλπίδων Ar. Lys. 539; ἀ. ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι παίδων εἷς μοῦνος Hdt. 6.27; ὀλίγοι ἀ. πολλῶν Th. 7.87, cf. A. Pers. 1023.
7. Math., of figures described upon a base, κῶνον ἀναγράφειν ἀ. κύκλου Archim. Sph.Cyl. 1.19, etc.; τὸ ἀ. τῆς AB τετράγωνον the square on AB, Euc. 1.47, cf. 48; εἴδεα ἀ... Archim. Spir. 10, 11.
8. ἀ. ἀνθρώπου ἕως γυναικός man and woman, LXX 1 Esdras 9:40; ἀ. ἀρσενικοῦ ἕως θηλυκοῦ ib. Numbers 5:3.
9. from being, instead of, ἀθανάταν ἀ. θνατᾶς.. ἐποίησας Βερενίκαν Theoc. 15.106.
10. privative, free from, without, ἀ. πάσης ἀκαθαρσίας PLips. 16.19 (ii A. D.); ἀ. ζημίας PTeb 420.4 (iii A. D.).
II OF TIME, from, after, Hom. only in Il. 8.54 ἀ. δείπνου θωρήσσοντο rising up from, i.e. after, cf. Hdt. 1.133; ἀ. δείπνου εἶναι or γενέσθαι, Id. 1.126, 2.78, 5.18, al.; ἀ. τοῦ σιτίου πίνειν Hp. Salubr. 5; ἀ. τῶν σίτων διαπονεῖσθαι X. Lac. 5.8; in narrative, τὸ ἀ. τούτου or το̄δε, from this point onwards, Hdt. 1.4, 2.99; ἀ. τούτου τοῦ χρόνου Id. 1.82, X. An. 7.5.8; τὸ ἀπ' ἐκείνου Luc. Tox. 25; ἡμέρῃ δεκάτῃ ἀφ' ἧς.. Hdt. 3.14, etc.; δευτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ ἀ. τῆς ἐμπρήσιος Id. 8.55, cf. X. An. 1.7.18, etc.; ἀφ' οὗ χρόνου Id. Cyr. 1.2.13; more often ἀπ' or ἀφ' οὗ, Hdt. 2.44, Th. 1.18, etc.; ἀφ' οὗπερ A. Pers. 177; ἀφ' ἧς Plu. Pel. 15; εὐθὺς ἀ. παλαιοῦ, ἀ. τοῦ πάνυ ἀρχαίου, of olden time, Th. 1.2, 2.15; ἀπ' ἀρχᾶς Pi. P. 8.25, etc.; ἀ. γενεᾶς X. Cyr. 1.2.8; ἀφ' ἑσπέρας from the beginning of evening, i.e. at eventide, Th. 7.29; ἀ. πρώτου ὕπνου ib. 43; ἀ. μέσων νυκτῶν Ar. V. 218; ἀπ' ἀγροῦ fresh from field-work, Mark 15:21; cf. Mark 7:4; ἀ. νουμηνίας X. An. 5.6.23; χρονίζειν ἀ. τοῦ καιροῦ tarry beyond the time, LXX 2 Samuel 20:5; ἀ. τέλους ἐννέα μηνῶν at the end of.., ib. 24.8; γενόμενος ἀ. τῆς ἀρχῆς Plu. Caes. 5: hence ἀ. ἀγωνοθετῶν an εχ-ἀγωνοθέτης, IG 3.398; ἀ. λογιστῶν POxy. 1103.3 (iv A. D.); οἱ ἀ. ὑπατείας, = consulares, Hdn. 7.1.9, etc.; but ἀ. τινος the freedman of.., IG 5(2).50.59(Tegea, ii A. D.), cf.ib.5(1).1391 (Andania), 1473.
III OF ORIGIN, CAUSE, etc.:
1 of that from which one is born, οὐ γὰρ ἀ. δρυός ἐσσι οὐδ' ἀ. πέτρης not sprung from oak or rock, Od. 19.163; γίγνονται δ' ἄρα ταί γ' ἔκ τε κρηνέων ἀ. τ' ἀλσέων 10.350, cf. S. OT 415, OC 571, etc.: sts. ἀπό denotes remote, and ἐκ immediate, descent, τοὺς μὲν ἀ. θεῶν, τοὺς δ' ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν θεῶν γεγονότας Isoc. 12.81, cf. Hdt. 7.150; πέμπτη ἀπ' αὐτοῦ γέννα A. Pr. 853; τρίτος ἀ. Διός third in descent from Zeus, Pl. R. 391c; οἱ ἀ. γένους τινός his descendants, Plu. Them. 32; Περσέως ἀφ' αἵματος E. Alc. 509: of the place one springs from, ἵπποι.. ποταμοῦ ἄπο Σελλήεντος Il. 2.839. cf. 849; Ἡρακλεῖδαι οἱ ἀ. Σπάρτης Hdt. 8.114, cf. Th. 1.89, etc.; τοὺς ἀ. Φρυγίας X. Cyr. 2.1.5, etc.:hence, metaph. of things, Χαρίτων ἄπο κάλλος ἔχουσαι Od. 6.18; θεῶν ἄπο μήδεα εἰδώς ib. 12; γάλα ἀ. βοός A. Pers. 611; μῆνις ἀφ' ἡμῶν Id. Eu. 314; ἡ ἀφ' ὑμῶν τιμωρία Th. 1.69; ὁ ἀ. τῶν πολεμίων φόβος fear inspired by the enemy, X. Cyr. 3.3.53. of persons, οἱ ἀ. τῆς χώρας, τῆς πόλεως, country folk, towns folk, Plb. 2.6.8, 5.70.8; and so of connexion with the founder or leader of a sect, οἱ ἀ. Πυθαγόρου Luc. Herm. 14; οἱ ἀ. Πλάτωνος Plu. Brut. 2; οἱ ἀ. τοῦ περιπάτου, ἀ. τῆς Στοᾶς, etc., Luc. Cont. 6; generally οἱ ἀ. φιλοσοφίας καὶ λόγων philosophers and learned men, ibid.; οἱ ἀ. σκηνῆς καὶ θεάτρου stage players, Plu. Sull. 2; οἱ ἀ. τῆς βουλῆς Id. Caes. 10, etc.; ὁ ἀφ' ἑστίας παῖς, v. ἑστία; ἀπ' ἐξωμίδος with only an ἐξωμίς, S.E. P. 1.153.
2. of the material from or of which a thing is made, εἵματα ἀ. ξύλου πεποιημένα Hdt. 7.65; ἀπ' ὄμφακος τεύχειν οἶνον A. Ag. 970, cf. S. Tr. 704; ὅσσα ἀ. γλυκερῶ μέλιτος Theoc. 15.117; ἔνδυμα ἀ. τριχῶν καμήλου Matthew 3:4 : hence στέφανος ἀ. ταλάντων ἑξήκοντα of or weighing 60 talents, Decr. ap. D. 18.92, cf. Plb. 24.1.7, IG 2.555.10, al.: hence of value, θύεν αἶγα ἀ. δραχμᾶν εἴκοσι GDI 3707 (Cos); κρᾶσις ἀ. τε τῆς ἡδονῆς συγκεκραμένη καὶ ἀ. τῆς λύπης Pl. Phd. 59a; so, by an extension of this use, εἰδεχθής τις ἀ. τοῦ προσώπου ugly of countenance, Thphr. Char. 28.4; θῆλυν ἀ. χροιῆς Theoc. 16.49; σεμνὸς ἀ. τοῦ σχήματος Luc. DMort. 10.8.
3. of the instrument from or by which a thing is done, τοὺς.. πέφνεν ἀπ' ἀργυρέοιο βιοῖο by arrow shot from silver bow, Il. 24.605; τόξου ἄπο κρατεροῦ ὀλέκοντα φάλαγγας 8.279; ἐμῆς ἀπὸ χειρός 10.371, 11.675; so ἀ. χειρὸς ἐργάζεσθαι μεγάλα Luc. Hist.Conscr. 29; γυμνάζεσθαι ἀ. σκελῶν, χειρῶν, τραχήλου, X. Lac. 5.9; μάχεσθαι ἀ. ἄκοντος Str. 17.3.7; ἡ ἀ. τοῦ ξίφους μάχη D.S. 5.29; βάπτειν τὸν δάκτυλον ἀ. τοῦ αἵματος LXX Leviticus 4:7.
4. of the person from whom an act comes, i.e. by whom it is done, οὐδὲν μέγα ἔργον ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο Hdt. 1.14; ζήτησιν ἀ. σφέων γενέσθαι Id. 2.54; ἐπράχθη οὐδὲν ἀπ' αὐτῶν ἔργον ἀξιόλογον Th. 1.17, cf. 6.61; ἀ. τινος ὄνασθαι Pl. R. 528a, etc.; so τἀπ' ἐμοῦ, τἀπὸ σοῦ, E. Tr. 74, S. OC 1628; τὰ ἀ. τῶν Ἀθηναίων Th. 1.127; in later Greek freq. of the direct agent, Plb. 1.34.8, Str. 5.4.12, D.H. 9.12, Luke 9:22, J. AJ 20.8.10, etc.; in codd. this may sts. be due to confusion with ὑπό, but cf. PMag.Par. 1.256, BGU 1185.26 (Aug.), SIG 820.8(Ephesus, i A. D.), etc.
5. of the source from which life, power, etc., are sustained, ζῆν ἀπ' ὕλης ἀγρίης Hdt. 1.203; ἀ. κτήνεων καὶ ἰχθύων ib. 216; ἀ. πολέμου Id. 5.6; ἀπ' ἐλαχίστων χρημάτων X. Mem. 1.2.14; ἀ. τῆς ἀγορᾶς Id. An. 6.1.1; τρέφειν τὸ ναυτικὸν ἀ. τῶν νήσων Id. HG 4.8.9, cf. Th. 1.99; ἀ. τῶν κοινῶν πλουτεῖν Ar. Pl. 569, cf. D. 24.124; ἀ. μικρῶν εὔνους.. γεγένησαι Ar. Eq. 788, cf. D. 18.102; ἀφ' ὥρας ἐργάζεσθαι quaestum corpore facere, Plu. Tim. 14.
6. of the cause, means, or occasion from, by, or because of which a thing is done, ἀ. τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διὸς ποιεῦσι Hdt. 2.42; ἀ. τινος ἐπαινεῖσθαι, θαυμάζεσθαι, ὠφελεῖσθαι, Th. 2.25, 6.12, X. Cyr. 1.1.2; ἀ. τῶν ξυμφορῶν διαβάλλεσθαι Th. 5.17; τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν ἔχειν ἀ. τινος Id. 1.46; ἀ. λῃστείας τὸν βίον ἔχειν X. An. 7.7.9; ἀπ' αὐτῶν τῶν ἔργων κρίνειν D. 2.27; ἀ. τοῦ πάθους in consequence of.., Th. 4.30; βλάπτειν τινὰ ἀ. τινος Id. 7.29; κατασκευάσαντα τὸ πλοῖον ἀφ' ὧν ὑπελάμβανε σωθήσεσθαι D. 18.194; τρόπαιον ἀ. τινος εἱστήκει on occasion of his defeat, Id. 19.320; τλήμων οὖσ' ἀπ' εὐτόλμου φρενός A. Ag. 1302, cf. 1643; ἀ. δικαιοσύνης by reason of it (v. l. for ὑπό), Hdt. 7.164; ἀ. τῶν αὐτῶν λημμάτων on the same scale of profits, D. 3.34, etc.; for ὅσον ἀ. βοῆς ἕνεκα, v. ἕνεκα: hence in half adverbial usages, ἀ. σπουδῆς in earnest, eagerly, Il. 7.359; ἀ. τοῦἴσου, ἀ. τῆς ἴσης, or ἀπ' ἴσης, equally, Th. 1.99, 15, D. 14.6, etc.; ἀπ' ὀρθῆς καὶ δικαίας τῆς ψυχῆς Id. 18.298; ἀ. ἀντιπάλου παρασκευῆς Th. 1.91; ἀ. τοῦ προφανοῦς openly, ib. 35; ἀ. τοῦ εὐθέος straightforwardly, Id. 3.43; ἀ. τοῦ αὐτομάτου of free-will, Pl. Prt. 323c; ἀ. γλώσσης by word of mouth, Hdt. 1.123 (but also, from hearsay, A. Ag. 813); ἀ. στόματος Pl. Tht. 142d; ἀπ' ὄψεως at sight, Lys. 16.19; ἀ. χειρὸς λογίζεσθαι on your fingers, Ar. V. 656; πεύθομαι δ' ἀπ' ὀμμάτων νόστον A. Ag. 988; ὀμμάτων ἄπο in the public gaze, E. Med. 216; ἀ. τοῦ κυάμου ἄρχοντας καθίστασθαι X. Mem. 1.2.9; ἡ βουλὴ ἡ ἀ. τοῦ κυάμου Th. 8.66, cf. IG 1.9; τοὺς ἀ. τοῦ κυάμου δισχιλίους ἄνδρας Arist. Ath. 24.3; τριηράρχους αἱρεῖσθαι ἀ. τῆς οὐσίας Decr. ap. D. 18.106; ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ from oneself, on one's own account, Th. 8.6, etc.; ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ γνώμης Id. 4.68; ἀ. συνθήματος, ἀ. παραγγέλματος, by agreement, by word of command, Hdt. 5.74, Th. 8.99; ἀ. σάλπιγγος by sound of trumpet, X. Eq.Mag. 3.12 (s.v.l.); ἐπίτροπος ἀ. τῶν λόγων, = Lat. procurator a rationibus, Ann.Epigr.. 1913.143a (Ephesus, ii A. D.).
1. of the object spoken of, τὰ ἀ. τῆς νήσου οἰκότα ἐστί the things told from or of the island.., Hdt. 4.195, cf. 54, 7.195; νόμος κείμενος ἀ. τῶν τεχνῶν Ar. Ra. 762. in Arc., Cypr., ἀπύ takes dat., ἀπὺ τᾷ [ἁμέρᾳ ] IG 5(2).6 (Tegea); ἀπὺ τᾷ ζᾷ Inscr.Cypr. 135.8 H. (Idalion).
2. in later Greek ἀπό is found c. acc., PLond. 1.124.30 (iv/v A. D.). in Hom. frequent with Verbs in tmesi, as Il. 5.214, etc., and sts. in Prose, as Hdt. 8.89.
IN COMPO S.: 1 asunder, as ἀποκόπτω, ἀπολύω, ἀποτέμνω: and hence, away, off,
Thayer's Expanded Definition
down), preposition with the genitive (Latin a
, German von
(cf. English of, off
signifying now separation, now origin. On its use in the N. T., in which the influence of the Hebrew מִן
is traceable, cf. Winer
s Grammar, 864 f (342), 369ff (346ff); Buttmann
, 321ff (276ff). (On the neglect of elision before words beginning with a vowel see Tdf.
Proleg., p. 94; cf. Winer
s Grammar, § 5,1a.; Buttmann
, p. 10f; WH
's Appendix, p. 146.) In order to avoid repetition we forbear to cite all the examples, but refer the reader to the several verbs followed by this preposition. , then, is used:
I. of separation; and
1. of local separation, after verbs of motion from a place (of departing, fleeing, removing, expelling, throwing, etc., see , , , , , , etc.): , Luke 22:41; , Matthew 5:29f; ( L T Tr WH ) , Matthew 7:4; ( L WH Tr text (which see I. a.)) , Mark 16:9; , Luke 1:52.
2. of the separation of apart from the whole; where of a whole some part is taken: , Matthew 9:16; , Luke 24:42 ( R G, but Tr brackets the clause); , John 21:10; fragments of the ship, Acts 27:44; , Acts 5:2; , Acts 2:17; , Luke 6:13; , Matthew 27:21; , namely, ( R. V. whom certain of the children of Israel did price (cf. , 2c.); but others refer this to II:2d. aa. at the end, which see), Matthew 27:9 ( , namely, , 1 Maccabees 7:33); after verbs of eating and drinking (usually joined in Greek to the simple genitive of the thing (cf. Buttmann, 159 (139); Winer's Grammar, 198f (186f)): Matthew 15:27; Mark 7:28; , Luke 22:18 (elsewhere in the N. T. ).
3. of any kind of separation of one thing from another by which the union or fellowship of the two is destroyed;
a. after verbs of averting, loosening, liberating, ransoming, preserving: see , , , , , , , , , , , , etc.
b. after verbs of desisting, abstaining, avoiding, etc.: see , , , , , , etc.
c. after verbs of concealing and hindering: see , , .
d. Concise constructions (cf. especially Buttmann, 322 (277)): , Romans 9:3 (see under the end); to wash away the blood from the stripes, Acts 16:33; by repentance to turn away from wickedness, Acts 8:22; by death to be freed from a thing, Colossians 2:20; to be corrupted and thus led away from singleness of heart, 2 Corinthians 11:3; heard and accordingly delivered from his fear, Hebrews 5:7 (others, heard for, i. e. on account of his godly fear (cf. II:2b. below)).
4. of a state of separation, i. e. of distance; and a. of distance of place, — of the local terminus from which: Matthew 23:34; Matthew 24:31, etc.; after , Matthew 8:30; Mark 12:34; John 21:8; after , see 2; , Mark 15:38; , Matthew 27:55, etc. (cf. Buttmann, 70 (62); Winer's Grammar, § 65,2). According to later Greek usage it is put before nouns indicating local distance: John 11:18 ( about fifteen furlongs off); John 21:8; Revelation 14:20 ( Diodorus 1:51 (also 1,97; 4,56; 16,443; 17,112; 18,40; 19,25, etc.; cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 5): Josephus, b. j. 1,3, 5 , Plutarch, Aem. Paul c. 18,5 , vit. Oth c. 11,1 , vit. Philop c. 4,3 ); cf. Winer s Grammar, 557f (518f); (Buttmann, 153 (133)).
b. of distance of Time — of the temporal terminus from which (Latin inde a): , Matthew 9:22; Matthew 17:18; John 19:27; , Matthew 22:46; John 11:53; ( ) Acts 20:18; Philippians 1:5 ( L T Tr WH ); , Acts 15:7; , Luke 8:43; Romans 15:23; and , Luke 1:70, etc.; , Matthew 19:4,8, etc.; , Matthew 13:35 ( L T Tr WH omit ), etc.; , Romans 1:20; from a child, 2 Timothy 3:15; , Luke 2:36; (namely, ) since, Luke 7:45; Acts 24:11; 2 Peter 3:4; , Colossians 1:6,9; equivalent to (cf. Buttmann, 82 (71); 105 (82)), Luke 13:25; Luke 24:21; Revelation 16:18 ( Herodotus 2,44; and in Attic); after , Luke 13:7 T Tr WH; from the present, henceforth, Luke 1:48; Luke 5:10; Luke 12:52; Luke 22:69; Acts 18:6; 2 Corinthians 5:16; , Matthew 4:17; Matthew 16:21; Matthew 26:16; Luke 16:16; since last year, a year ago, 2 Corinthians 8:10; 2 Corinthians 9:2; , Acts 28:23; cf. Winer s Grammar, 422 (393); (Buttmann, 320 (275)); Lob. ad Phryn., pp. 47,461.
c. of distance of Order or Rank — of the terminus from which in any succession of things or persons: (namely, ) , Matthew 2:16 ( , Numbers 1:20; 2Esdr. 3:8); Matthew 1:17; , Jude 1:14; , Acts 8:10; Hebrews 8:11; , Matthew 20:8; Luke 23:5; Luke 24:27; John 8:9; Acts 8:35; Acts 10:37.
II. of origin; whether of local origin, the place whence; or of causal origin, the cause from which.
1. of the place whence anything Isaiah , comes, befalls, is taken;
a. after verbs of coming; see , , etc.: ( L Tr WH ) namely, , Mark 7:4; () , Luke 22:43 ( L brackets WH reject the passage); namely, , Hebrews 12:25, etc.; of the country, province, town, village, from which anyone has originated or proceeded (cf. Winer s Grammar, 364 (342); Buttmann, 324 (279)): Matthew 2:1; Matthew 4:25; John 1:44 (John 1:45>); John 11:1>; , Galatians 4:24. Hence, or a native of, a man of, some place: the Nazarene, Matthew 21:11; , Mark 15:43; John 19:38 (here G L Tr WH omit ); , Acts 10:23; the Italians, Hebrews 13:24 (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 66,6). A great number of examples from secular writings are given by Wieseler, Untersuch. üb.
d. Hebräerbr. 2te Hälfte, p. 14f.
b. of the party or society from which one has proceeded, i. e. a member of the sect or society, a disciple or votary of it: , Acts 12:1; , Acts 15:5 (as in Greek writings: , , etc.).
c. of the material from which a thing is made: , Matthew 3:4 ( Winer s Grammar, 370 (347); Buttmann, 324 (279)).
d. tropically, of that from or by which a thing is known: , Matthew 7:16,20 (here Lachmann , etc.) ( Lysias in Andocides (<405 b.c.="">) § 6; Aeschines adverb Tim., p. 69, Reiske edition); to learn from the example of anyone, Matthew 11:29; Matthew 24:32; Mark 13:28; but in Galatians 3:2; Colossians 1:7; Hebrews 5:8, means to learn from one's teaching or training (cf. Buttmann, 324 (279)
c.; Winer s Grammar, 372 (348)).
e. after verbs of seeking, inquiring, demanding: , Luke 12:20 ( Tr WH ); , 1 Thessalonians 2:6 (alternating there with (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 50,2)); , Luke 11:50f; see .
2. of causal origin, or the Cause; and a. of the material cause, so called, or of that which supplies the material for the maintenance of the action expressed by the verb: so those verbs.
b. of the cause on account of which anything is or is done, where commonly it ran be rendered for (Latin prae, German vor): , Luke 19:3; , John 21:6 ( Judith 2:20); , Acts 22:11; (here many would bring in Hebrews 5:7 ( Winer s Grammar, 371 (348); Buttmann, 322 (276)), see I:3d. above).
c. of the moving or impelling cause (Latin ex, prae; German aus, vor), for, out of: , Matthew 13:44; for fear, Matthew 14:26; Matthew 28:4; Luke 21:26. Hebraistically: (מִן יָרֵא), Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:4; (מִן נוּס), to flee for fear of one, John 10:5; Mark 14:52 ( R G, but L Tr marginal reading brackets ); Revelation 9:6; cf. and Winer s Grammar, 223 (209f).
d. of the efficient cause, viz. of things from the force of which anything proceeds, and of persons from whose will, power, authority, command, favor, order, influence, direction, anything is to be sought; aa. in general: by force of the sleep, Acts 20:9; , Matthew 12:38; , 2 Corinthians 3:18 (from the glory which we behold for ourselves (cf. Winer's Grammar, 254 (238)) in a mirror, goes out a glory in which we share, cf. Meyer at the passage); by the Spirit of the Lord (yet cf. Buttmann, 343 (295)), ibid.; destruction proceeding from the (incensed, wrathful) countenance of the Lord, 2 Thessalonians 1:9 (on this passage, to be explained after Jeremiah 4:26 the Sept., cf. Ewald); on the other hand, , Acts 3:20 (19); ( Rec. ) , Revelation 9:18. , , , an expression especially common in John , of himself (myself, etc.), from his own disposition or judgment, as distinguished from another's instruction (cf. Winer's Grammar, 372 (348)): Luke 12:57; Luke 21:30; John 5:19,30; John 11:51; John 14:10; John 16:13; John 18:34 ( L Tr WH ); 2 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Corinthians 10:7 ( T Tr WH (see A. I:1c.)); of one's own will and motion, as opposed to the command and authority of another: John 7:17f, 28; John 8:42; John 10:18 ( Numbers 16:28); by one's own power: John 15:4; by one's power and on one's own judgment: John 8:28; examples from secular authors are given in Kypke, Observ. i., p. 391. (Cf. (others, see A. I:1f.) , Acts 21:23 WH text) after verbs of learning, knowing, receiving, is used of him to whom we are indebted for what we know, receive, possess (cf. Winer s Grammar, 370 (347) n., also De verb. comp. etc. Part ii., p. 7f; Buttmann, 324 (279); Meyer on 1 Corinthians 11:23; per contra Lightfoot on Galatians 1:12): , Acts 9:13; 1 John 1:5; , Mark 15:45; , Matthew 17:25; 1 John 2:27; 1 John 3:22 L T Tr WH; , 1 John 4:21; 2 Corinthians 2:3, etc.; , 1 Corinthians 11:23; , Acts 28:21; respecting see above, II:1d.; after the manner of the received from my forefathers (cf. Winer s Grammar, 372 (349); Buttmann, 322 (277)), 2 Timothy 1:8. , 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 4:5; or , from God, the author, bestower, Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; Galatians 1:3, and often; , Philippians 1:28. etc., constituted an apostle by authority and commission, etc. (cf. Winer's Grammar, 418 (390)), Galatians 1:1. after , Matthew 16:21; (akin to this, according to many, is Matthew 27:9 , R. V. marginal reading whom they priced on the part of the sons of Israel; but see in I:2 above). bb. When is used after passives (which is rare in the better Greek authors, cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 222ff; ( Buttmann, 325 (280); Winer's Grammar, 371 (347f))), the connection between the cause and the effect is conceived of as looser and more remote than that indicated by , and may often be expressed by on the part of (German von Seiten) ( A. V. generally of]: approved (by miracles) according to God's will and appointment, Acts 2:22; the cause of my temptation is to be sought in God, James 1:13; ( T Tr WH ) by your fraud, James 5:4; , Luke 17:25; ( , Luke 7:35 according to some; see , 2); by the will and direction of God, Revelation 12:6; ( Rec. , (see )) , Luke 6:18 (whose annoyance by diseases ((?) cf. Luke 6:17) proceeded from unclean spirits ( A. V. vexed (troubled) with, etc.)); , by touching the flesh, Jude 1:23; (add Luke 1:26 T Tr WH, ( R G L ) .) As in secular authors, so also in the N. T. the manuscripts sometimes vary between and : e. g. in Mark 8:31; ( Luke 8:43); Acts 4:36; (Acts 10:17,33; 15:4>); Romans 13:1; (Romans 15:24>); Revelation 9:18; see Winer s Grammar, 370f (347f); Buttmann, 325f (280f); (cf. Vincent and Dickson, Modern Greek, 2nd edition, Appendix, § 41). 405>
III. Phrases having a quasi-adverbial force, and indicating the manner or degree in which anything is done or occurs, are the following: , from your hearts, i. e. willingly and sincerely, Matthew 18:35; in part, 2 Corinthians 1:14; 2 Corinthians 2:5; Romans 11:25; Romans 15:24; namely, either with one voice, or or with one consent, one mind, Luke 14:18 (cf. Kuinoel at the passage; ( Winer's Grammar, 423 (394); 591 (549f); yet see Lob. Paralip., p. 363)).
IV. The extraordinary construction (for Rec. ) , Revelation 1:4, finds its explanation in the fact that the writer seems to have used the words . as an indeclinable noun, for the purpose of indicating the meaning of the proper name יהוה; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 10,2at the end; (Buttmann, 50 (43)).
V. In composition indicates separation, liberation, cessation, departure, as in , , , , , , ; finishing and completion, as in , ; refers to the pattern from which a copy is taken, as in , , etc.; or to him from whom the action proceeds, as in , , etc.
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT
In this and the other prepositions of very wide and general use we have not pretended to any fullness : they would afford abundant material for a fair-sized treatise. We only notice such special uses as we have remarked in our reading, and have therefore passed over most of the common and obvious uses. On ἀπό there are some illustrations in Proleg. which may be recalled with some additions. There is the partitive use (pp. 102, 245), still current in MGr : so P Petr III. 11.20 (B.C. 234) ἀφείσθ [ω ] ἀπὸ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων μοι [σ ]ω ̣μάτω ̣ν [ἐλ ]εύθερα Δ. καὶ ᾽Α ib. II. 11 (I).5 (= Selections p. 7) (iii/B.C.) ἀπὸ τούτου τὸ μὲν ἥμυσυ. . . τὸ δὲ λοιπόν κτλ. P Tebt II. 299.13 (c. A.D. 50) ἀπολυσίμ [ο ]υ ἀπὸ ἀνδ [ρῶν πεντή ]κοντα ";one of the 50 exempted persons"; (Edd.), P Iand 8.6 (ii/A.D.) διεπεμψάμην σοι. . ἀ [πὸ τοῦ ο ]ἴνου Κνίδια τρία, etc. To Kuhring’s scanty exx. (p. 37) for ἀπό of agent (cf. Proleg. pp. 102, 246) add Syll 655.8 (A.D. 83) συντετηρημένα ἀπὸ βασιλέων καὶ Σεβαστῶν, P Lond 1173.12 (A.D. 125) (= III. p. 208) ἕως πεισθῇς ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, P Flor II. 150.6 (A.D. 267) ἀ. τῶν μυῶν κατεσθιόμενα, BGU IV. 1185.26 (Augustus or earlier) μηδὲ κατακαλεῖσθαι ἀπὸ μηδεν (ός). It is universal in MGr, but its very limited use in papyri and NT suggests that in the Hellenistic period it had only local currency. Various uses under the general heading of source are collected in Kuhring p. 35 f. : add the remarkable BGU IV. 1079.25 (A.D. 41) (= Selections p. 40) ὡς ἂν πάντες καὶ σὺ βλέπε σατὸν ἀπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ";like everybody else, you too must beware of the Jews."; The familiar NT idiom (Mark 8:15 al) may be translation Greek still, but it is evidently possible enough in vernacular untouched by Semitic influence. Kuhring’s instances cover the categories of cause, authorship, receipt, inheritance, but not instrument : there are numerous exx. of καθαρὸς ἀπό and the like (once regarded as Semitism!). Sometimes the καθαρός is dropped, and ἀπό is practically = ἄνευ : see Kuhring p. 53 f., and add P Lips I. 16.19 (A.D. 138) πα [ρ ]αδ [ώσω σο ]ι σὺν ταῖς ἐφαιστώσαις θ [ύραις ] κ [αὶ ] κλεισὶ καὶ ἀπὸ πάσης ἀκαθαρσίας : on P Fay 345 the edd. note ";cf. CPR 38.21, BGU I. 39.21, etc., where these phrases occur without καθαρός."; Not that καθαρός is really to be supplied : the privative ἀπό, as Kuhring calls it, is quite naturally developed, Cf. P Tebt II. 420.4 (iii/A.D.) ἀπὸ ζημίας ";blameless."; In P Oxy VIII. 1103.3 (A.D. 360) a certain Eutrygius is called ἀπὸ λογιστῶν ";ex-logistes"; : Prof. Hunt notes ";On the titular use of ex and ἀπό see Mommsen Ephem. Epigr. v. p. 128–9, and cf. e.g. 133.4 ἀπὸ ὑπάτων [A.D. 550], 893.2 ἀπὸ μειζόνων [vi/vii A.D.], P [Lond] 233.5 [= II. p. 273—A.D. 345] ἀπὸ ἐπάρχων, P Flor I. 71 passim [iv/A.D.]."; On its relations with ἐκ, παρά and ὑπό see Proleg. p. 237 : add Preisigke 997 and 998, two προσκυνήματα from the same place, dated respectively A.D. 4 and A.D. 16–7, with ὑπὸ χειμῶνος ἐλασθείς in the first and ἀπὸ χιμῶνος ἐλασθείς in the other. We may further note the idiomatic use of ἀπό in Mark 7:4 ἀπ᾽ ἀγορᾶς, 15.21 ἀπ᾽ ἀγροῦ, ";fresh from market,"; ";from field-work,"; which is well illustrated by such phraseology as that in Syll 567 (ii/A.D.), a tariff prescribing the number of days of ceremonial impurity following certain acts, described as τὰ ἐκτός : thus ἀπὸ τυροῦ ἡμέ (ρας) α ̄, ἀπὸ φθορείων ἡμε (ρῶν) μ ̄, ἀπὸ κήδους [οἰκ ]είου ἡμε (ρῶν) μ ̄, ἀπὸ συνουσίας νομίμου they may enter the shrine the same day after washing and anointing. Cf. Deissmann BS p. 227. Among phrases with ἀπό we may note one in P Ryl II. 157.21 (A.D. 135) εἰ χρεία γείνοιτο [ποτίσαι ἐ ]ν ̣ ἀναβάσει [q.v.] ἀπὸ ποδὸς τὴν αὐτὴν νοτίνην μερίδα, ";if need arises at the inundation to water the same southern portion by foot."; It seems clear that this refers to the same method of irrigation which appears in Deuteronomy 11:10 (LXX ὅταν σπείρωσιν τὸν σπόρον καὶ ποτίζωσιν τοῖς ποσὶν αὐτῶν ὡσεὶ κῆπον λαχανίας) : see Driver in loc. The editors in their note cite a papyrus with ἀπὸ ποδὸς ποτισ [μ ]οῦ. In ἁλιεῖς ἀπὸ ποδός (BGU I. 220, 221, III. 756) the sense is different, perhaps ";from the bank"; (lit. ";on foot";). In P Rein 18.41 (B.C. 108) we note μέχρι [ἂν ἀπὸ ] τοῦ σπόρου γένηται ";until he has finished his sowing."; For ἀπό denoting matter or material, as Matthew 3:4, cf. Priene 117.72 (i/B.C.) στεφανῶσα [ι. . . στεφ ]άνῳ χρυσέωι ἀπὸ χρυσοῦ. The phrase ἀπὸ μέρους may be provisionally illustrated by P Ryl II. 133.17 (A.D. 33) αὐθάδως κατέσπασεν ἀπὸ μέρους ";ventured to pull it partly down"; : see further under μέρος. On ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνο ̣ς we gave some parallels under αἰών : add Preisigke 176.4 (A.D. 161–80) πρώτου τῶν ἀπ᾽ αἰῶνος. Ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν is illustrated by Deissmann BS p. 253, and ἀπὸ τοῦ βελτίστου ib. 93 : add P Tebt I. 5.89 (B.C. 118), II. 282.8 (late ii/B.C.), P Fay 12.6 (B.C. 103), See further Proleg. p. 9 for Revelation 1:4, on which more may be said under εἰμί. Rossberg’s dissertation systematically illustrates papyrus usages of ἀπό, as far as its date (1908) allows : it ought perhaps to be observed that the extracts are not always correctly transcribed. There is an elaborate dissertation on later uses of ἀπό in composition by K. Dieterich in Ind. Forsch. xxiv. pp. 87–158, on which cf. Fränkel, Wochenschr. f. klass. Philol., 1909, p. 369 ff.
[Supplemental from 1930 edition]
For ἀπό, as in Hebrews 13:24, cf. P Meyer p. 12, n.2.
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (671)||NAS (34)||HCS (582)
|KJV (671)||NAS (34)||HCS (582)
List of Word Forms
ΑΠ ΑΠ' ἀπ' απ΄ ΑΠΟ από ἀπό ἀπὸ αφ αφ' ἀφ' εκ εξ επ' εφ' ἐφ' και ὑπὸ AP AP' aph aph' APO apó apò eph eph' hypo hypò upo
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