Old & New Testament Greek
from the particle au [perhaps akin to the base of (109
) through the idea of a baffling wind] (backward)
Word Definition [ Thayer's | Strong's ]
(Cret. ἀϝτός GDI 4976, al.), αὐτή, αὐτό (also αὐτόν Leg.Gort. 3.4, al.), reflexive Pron., self: —
I in oblique cases used for the personal Pron., him, her, it: — with Art., ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό (also ταὐτόν), etc., the very one, the same. I self, myself, thyself, etc., acc. to the person of the Verb: freq. joined with ἐγώ, σύ, etc. (v. infr. 10),
1 one's true self, the soul, not the body, Od. 11.602; reversely, body, not soul, Il. 1.4; oneself, as opp. others who are less prominent, as king to subject, 6.18; Zeus to other gods, 8.4; bird to young, 2.317; man to wife and children, Od. 14.265; warrior to horses, Il. 2.466, or to weapons, 1.47; shepherd to herd, Od. 9.167, cf. Il. 1.51; Trojans to allies, 11.220; seamen to ships, 7.338: generally, whole to parts, ib. 474; so later ἡ σίδη καὶ αὐτὴ καὶ τὰ φύλλα Thphr. HP 4.10.7, cf. X. Ath. 1.19, Pl. Grg. 511e, etc.; αὐτή τε Μανδάνη καὶ τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα X. Cyr. 1.3.1; αὐ. τε καὶ τὰ ποιήματα βουλόμενος ἐπιδεῖξαι Pl. R. 398a: abs., the Master, as in the Pythag. phrase Αὐτὸς ἔφα, Lat. Ipse dixit; so τίς οὗτος.. ; — Αὐτός, i.e. Socrates, Ar. Nu. 218; ἀναβόησον Αὐτόν ib. 219; ἀνοιγέτω τις δώματ'· Αὐτὸς ἔρχεται the Master, Id. Fr. 268, cf. Pl. Prt. 314d, Thphr. Char. 2.4, Men. Sam. 41: αὐ. ἀϋτεῖ Theoc. 24.50: neut., αὐτὸ σημανεῖ the result will show, E. Ph. 623; αὐτὸ δηλώσει D. 19.157; αὐτὰ δηλοῖ Pl. Prt. 329b; αὐτὸ διδάξει ib. 324a; esp. αὐτὸ δείξει Cratin. 177, Pl. Hp.Ma. 288b, cf. Tht. 200e; in full, τάχ' αὐτὸ δείξει τοὔργον S. Fr. 388; τοὔργον τάχ' αὐτὸ δείξει Ar. Lys. 375; redupl., αὐτός θ' ὁ χρήσας αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ μαρτυρῶν A. Eu. 798; of things, the very, ὑπὸ λόφον αὐτόν, i.e. just, exactly under.., Il. 13.615; πρὸς αὐταῖς ταῖς θύραις close by the door, Lys. 12.12; αὐτὸ τὸ δέον the very thing needed, X. An. 4.7.7; αὐτὸ ὃ μάλιστα ἔδει ῥηθῆναι Pl. R. 362d; αὐτὸ τὸ περίορθρον the point of dawn, Th. 2.3; αὐτὰ τὰ ἐναντία the very opposite, X. Mem. 4.5.7; αὐτὰ τὰ χρήσιμα καὶ ἀναγκαῖα D.H. Th. 23; even, οὔ μοι μέλει ἄλγος οὔτ' αὐτῆς Ἑκάβης Il. 6.451; εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν 2.597. — In these senses αὐτός in Prose either precedes both the Art. and Subst., or follows both, e.g. αὐτὸς ὁ υἱός or ὁ υἱὸς αὐτός. The Art. is sts. omitted with proper names, or Nouns denoting individuals, αὐτὸς Μένων X. An. 2.1.5; αὐτὸς βασιλεύς ib. 1.7.11.
2. of oneself, of one's own accord, ἀλλά τις αὐ. ἴτω Il. 17.254; σπεύδοντα καὶ αὐτὸν ὀτρύνεις 8.293; καταπαύσομεν· οἱ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ παυέσθων Od. 2.168; ἥξει γὰρ αὐτά S. OT 341; also, in person, τῶν πραγμάτων ὑμῖν.. αὐτοῖς ἀντιληπτέον D. 1.2.
3. by oneself or itself, alone, αὐτός περ ἐών although alone, Il. 8.99; αὐτὸς ἐγείναο παῖδ', i.e. without a mother, 5.880, cf. Hes. Th. 924; ἀνακομισθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐς Φάληρον by himself, Hdt. 5.85; αὐτοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν we are by ourselves, i.e. among friends, Ar. Ach. 504, cf. Th. 472, Pl. Prm. 137b, Herod. 6.70, Plu. 2.755c, Luc. DDeor. 10.2; αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἀνδράσι.. ἢ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις X. An. 2.3.7; ἄνευ τοῦ σίτου τὸ ὄψον αὐτὸ ἐσθίειν Id. Mem. 3.14.3; τὸν τρίβωνα ὃν αὐτὸν φορεῖ Thphr. Char. 22.13 (prob.); αὐτὰ γὰρ ἔστιν ταῦτα these and no others, Emp. 21.13, al.: strengthd., αὐτὸς κτήσατο οἶος himself alone, Od. 14.450; αὐτὸς μόνος, v. μόνος II; αὐτὸς καθ' αὑτόν, v. ἑαυτοῦ.
4. in Philosophy, by or in itself, of an abstract concept or idea, δίκαιον αὐτό Pl. Phd. 65d; αὐτὸ τὸ ἕν Id. Prm. 143a, al., cf. Arist. Metaph. 997b8: neut., αὐτό is freq. in this sense, attached to Nouns of all genders, οὐκ αὐτὸ δικαιοσύνην ἐπαινοῦντες ἀλλὰ τὰς ἀπ' αὐτῆς εὐδοκιμήσεις Pl. R. 363a; less freq. with Art., τί ποτ' ἐστὶν αὐτὸ ἡ ἀρετή Id. Prt. 360e; more fully, εἰ αὐτὸ τοῦτο πατέρα ἠρώτων, ἆρα ὁ πατήρ ἐστι πατήρ τινος, ἢ οὔ; Id. Smp. 199d; ἀδελφός, αὐτὸ τοῦτο ὅπερ ἔστιν the ideal, abstract brother, ibid.e: later, in compos., αὐτοαγαθόν, αὐτοάνθρωπος, etc. (q. v.), cf. Arist. Metaph. 1040b33; less freq. agreeing with the Subst., ἵνα αὐτὴ δικαιοσύνη πρὸς ἀδικίαν αὐτὴν κριθείη Pl. R. 612c, etc.; doubled, ἐκ τῆς εἰκόνος μανθάνειν αὐτήν τε αὐτήν, εἰ καλῶς εἴκασται its very self, Id. Cra. 439a.
5. in dat. with Subst., in one, together, ἀνόρουσεν αὐτῇ σὺν φόρμιγγι he sprang up lyre in hand, Il. 9.194; αὐτῇ σὺν πήληκι κάρη helmet and all, 14.498, cf. Od. 13.118; αὐτῷ σὺν ἄγγει E. Ion 32, cf. Hipp. 1213; also without σύν, αὐτῇ κεν γαίῃ ἐρύσαι Il. 8.24: so freq. in Prose and Poetry, αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσι men and all, Hdt. 6.93; αὐτοῖσι συμμάχοισι allies and all, A. Pr. 223 (lyr.); αὐτοῖς μελάθροις διακναιομένους E. Med. 164: with Art., αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπ' ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτόν Hdt. 2.47; αὐτοῖσι τοῖς πόρπαξι Ar. Eq. 849, etc.; αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἵπποις κατακρημνισθῆναι X. Cyr. 1.4.7.
6. added to ordinal Numbers, e.g. πέμπτος αὐτός himself the fifth, i. e. himself with four others, Th. 1.46, cf. 8.35, X. HG 2.2.17, Revelation 17:11, etc.: — αὐτός always being the chief person.
7. freq. coupled with οὗτος, τοῦτ' αὐτό ἐστι τὸ ζητηθέν Pl. Plt. 267c, etc.; αὐτὸ τοῦτο μόνον Id. Grg. 500b; also λεγόντων ἄλλο μὲν οὐδέν.. αὐτὰ δὲ τάδε Th. 1.139; πόλεις ἄλλας τε καὶ αὐτὸ τοῦτο τὸ Βυζάντιον X. An. 7.1.27; ταῦτα ἥκω αὐτὰ ἵνα.. Pl. Prt. 310e.
8. καὶ αὐτός himself too, Od. 7.73, 14.45, X. An. 5.5.9, etc.
9. repeated in apodosi for emphasis, αὐτὸς ἐπαγγειλάμενος σώσειν.. αὐτὸς ἀπώλεσεν Lys. 12.68, cf. A. Fr. 350, X. An. 3.2.4.
10. in connexion with the person. Pron., ἐγὼν αὐτός Od. 2.194; σέθεν αὐτοῦ Il. 23.312; νωΐτερον αὐτῶν 15.39 (always divisim in Hom.); folld. by an enclit. Pron., αὐτόν μιν Od. 4.244; so αὐτὸν γάρ σε δεῖ Προμηθέως A. Pr. 86; also αὐτὸς ἔγωγε Pl. Phd. 59b, etc.: — after Hom. in the oblique cases αὐτός coalesces with the Pron., ἐμαυτοῦ, σεαυτοῦ (these not in Alc. or Sapph., A.D. Pron. 80.10 sqq.), ἑαυτοῦ, etc. (q. v.). with person. Pron. omitted, αὐτός.. ἧσθαι λιλαίομαι, for ἐγὼ αὐτός, Il. 13.252; αὐτὸν ἐλέησον, for ἐμὲ αὐτόν, 24.503; αὐτῶν γὰρ ἀπωλόμεθ' ἀφραδίῃσιν Od. 10.27; in 2.33 οἱ αὐτῷ is simply a strengthd. form of οἱ; and so in Att., when σὲ αὐτόν, ἐμοὶ αὐτῷ, etc., are read divisim, they are emphatic, not reflexive; in this case αὐτός generally precedes the person. Pron., cf. X. Cyr. 6.2.25 with 6.1.14. with the reflexive ἑαυτοῦ, αὑτοῦ, etc., to add force and definiteness, αὐτὸς καθ' αὑτοῦ A. Th. 406; αὐτοὶ ὑφ' αὑτῶν ib. 194; αὐτοὶ καθ' αὑτούς X. Mem. 3.5.4; αὐτὸ καθ' αὑτό Pl. Tht. 201e; sts. between the Art. and reflex. Pron., τοῖς αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ πήμασιν βαρύνεται A. Ag. 836, cf. Pr. 762; τούς γ' αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ πολεμίους S. Aj. 1132: also κατ' αὐτὺ (Boeot. for αὐτοὶ) αὐτῶν IG 7.3172.121 (Orchom. Boeot.). αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶν with possess. Pron., πατρὸς κλέος ἠδ' ἐμὸν αὐτοῦ Il. 6.446; θρῆνον.. ἐμὸν τὸν αὐτῆς A. Ag. 1323; ἐχθρὸς ὢν τοῖς σοῖσιν αὐτοῦ S. OT 416; τοῖς οἷσιν αὐτοῦ ib. 1248; αὐτῶν σφετέρῃσιν ἀτασθαλίῃσιν Od. 1.7; τοῖς ἡμετέροις αὐτῶν φίλοις X. An. 7.1.29. αὐτὸς ἑαυτοῦ with Comp. and Sup. Adj., αὐτὸς ἑωυτοῦ ῥέει πολλῷ ὑποδεέστερος Hdt. 2.25; τῇ εὐρυτάτη ἐστὶ αὐτὴ ἑωυτῆς Id. 1.203.
11. αὐτός for ὁ αὐτός, the same, Il. 12.225, Od. 8.107, 16.138, Pi. N. 5.1 (never in Trag.), and in later Prose, αὐταῖς ταῖς ἡμέραις IG 14.966 (ii A. D.), cf. Luke 23:12.
12. Comp. αὐτότερος Epich. 5: Sup. αὐτότατος his very self, Ar. Pl. 83: neut. pl. αὐτότατα dub. in Phld. Piet. 80. Adv., Comp. αὐτοτέρως Gal. 18(2).431.
II he, she, it, for the simple Pron. of 3 pers., only in oblique cases (exc. in later Gk., Luke 4:15, etc.), and rarely first in a sentence, Pl. La. 194e, and later, Ephesians 2:10, etc.: rare in , Il. 12.204 (where Hdn. treated it as enclitic), and mostly emphatic, ib. 14.457, Od. 16.388; so in Trag., E. Hel. 421: in Prose, to recall a Noun used earlier in the sentence, ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν βασιλέα.. οὐκ οἶδα ὅ τι δεῖ αὐτὸν ὀμόσαι X. An. 2.4.7; πειράσομαι τῷ πάππῳ.. συμμαχεῖν αὐτῷ Id. Cyr. 1.3.15; ἄνδρα δὴ.. εἰ ἀφίκοιτο εἰς τὴν πόλιν, προσκυνοῖμεν ἂν αὐτόν Pl. R. 398a; after a Relative, ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται.. ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ Il. 1.218; οὓς μὴ εὕρισκον, κενοτάφιον αὐτοῖς ἐποίησαν X. An. 6. 4.9, cf. 1.9.29; esp. where a second Verb requires a change of case in the Pron., οἳ ἂν ἐξελεγχθῶσι.. ὡς προδότας αὐτοὺς ὄντας τιμωρηθῆναι Id. An. 2.5.27; ἐκεῖνοι οἷς οὐκ ἐχαρίζονθ' οἱ λέγοντες οὐδ' ἐφίλουν αὐτούς D. 3.24; in subdivisions, ὅσοι.. οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν.. X. Cyr. 1.1.1, cf. Pl. Chrm. 168e; later, pleonastically after a Relative, ὧν ὁ μὲν αὐτῶν Call. Epigr. 43, cf. Luke 3:16, Revelation 7:2, etc.: in S. Ph. 316 αὐτοῖς is emphatic 'in their own persons'.
III with Art. ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό, and Att. contr. αὑτός, αὑτή, ταὐτό and ταὐτόν (as required by the metre, cf. S. OT 734 with 325, and in Prose to avoid hiatus): gen. ταὐτοῦ, dat. ταὐτῷ, pl. neut. ταὐτά; Ion. ὡυτός, τὠυτό: —
1. the very one, the same, rare in Hom., Il. 6.391, Od. 7.55, 326; ὁ αὐ. εἰμι τῇ γνώμῃ Th. 3.38, cf. 5.75; ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ. αἱ γνῶμαι ἔφερον Id. 1.79: c. dat., to denote sameness or agreement, esp. in Prose, τὠυτὸ ἂν ὑμῖν ἐπρήσσομεν Hdt. 4.119; τὸν αὐτὸν χῶρον ἐκλιπὼν ἐμοί A. Ch. 543; ὁ αὐτὸς τῷ λίθῳ the same as the stone, Pl. Euthd. 298a; ἐν ταὐτῷ εἶναί τινι to be in the place with.., X. An. 3.1.27; προσίεσθαί τινα ἐς ταὐτὸ ἑαυτῷ to have a person meet one, ib. 30, cf. A. Ch. 210; κατὰ ταὐτὰ τῷ Νείλῳ Hdt. 2.20; τῇ αὐτῇ.. καί Id. 4.109; τὴν αὐτὴν διάνοιαν καὶ κατ' ἐκείνην ἡλικίαν Isoc. 5.83; ὁ αὐτός.. ὥσπερ Pl. Phd. 86a; ἐς ταὐτὸν ἀλλήλοις face to face, Jul. Or. 2.5a0.
2. in later Greek, the said, the above-named, Ἡρώδης ὁ αὐ. PLille 23.8 (iii B. C.), etc. Adverbial phrases:
1 αὐτὸ μόνον simply, merely, Ph. 2.252, etc.; αὐ. μόνον ἐργάτης Luc. Somn. 9; αὐ. μόνον τὸ ὄνομα τῆς φωνῆς A.D. Synt. 22.20.
2. αὐτό as Adv., = ἄρτι, Epigr.Gr. 540.1 (Thrace).
3. αὐτὸ τοῦτο as Adv., PGrenf. 1.114 (ii B. C.), 2 Peter 1:5; τῆς αὐτὸ τοῦτο κινουμένης σφαίρας Iamb. Comm.Math. 17.
4. with Preps., ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό added together, making a total, PLond. 2.196.37 (ii A. D.); κατὰ τὸ αὐτό together, at the same time, Acts 14:1, etc.; but κατ' αὐτό just then, Hdn. 1.12.3.
1 of or by oneself, self-.., as in αὐτοδίδακτος, αὐτογνώμων, αὐτόματος: and so, independently, as in αὐτοκράτωρ, αὐτόνομος.
2. hence, as a second self, very.., bodily, as with proper names, Αὐτοθαΐς.
3. in the abstract, the ideal, v. supr. 1.4.
4. precisely, as in αὐτόδεκα.
5. rarely with reflex. sense of ἀλλήλων, as in αὐτοκτονέω.
6. in one piece with, together with, as in αὐτόκωπος, αὐτοχείλης, αὐτόπρεμνος, αὐτόρριζος.
7. by itself: hence, only, as in αὐτόξυλος, αὐτόποκος. — For αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶς, etc., v. the respective Arts.
Thayer's Expanded Definition
, , , pronoun ("derived from the particle with the added force of a demonstrative pronoun. In itself it signifies nothing more than again, applied to what has either been previously mentioned or, when the whole discourse is looked at, must necessarily be supplied." Klotz ad Devar.
ii., p. 219; (see Vanicek
, p. 268)). It is used by the Biblical writings both of the O. T. and of the N. T. far more frequently than the other pronouns; and in this very frequent and almost inordinate use of it, they deviate greatly from secular authors; cf. Buttmann
, § 127,9. (On classic usage cf. Hermann, Opuscc. i. 308ff, of which dissertation a summary is given in his edition of Viger, pp. 732-736.)
I. self, as used (in all persons, genders, numbers) to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence.
1. When used to express Opposition or Distinction, it is added a. to the subjects implied in the verb, the personal pronouns , , , etc., being omitted: Luke 5:37 ( the wine, as opposed to the skins); Luke 22:71 ( we ourselves, opposed to witnesses whose testimony could have been taken); John 2:25 ( , opposed to testimony he might have called for); John 4:42 (we ourselves, not thou only); John 9:21 ( T Tr WH omit); Acts 18:15 ( ); Acts 20:34; Acts 22:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:9, etc.; with a negative added, 'he does not himself do this or that,' i. e. he leaves it to others: Luke 6:42 (, viz., thou, ); Luke 11:46 (, viz., ye, ), Luke 11:52>; John 18:28; 3 John 1:10. With the addition of to indicate that a thing is ascribed to one equally with others: Luke 14:12 ( ); Luke 16:28; Acts 2:22 ( G L T Tr WH omit ); John 4:45; John 17:19,21; Philippians 2:24, etc. In other passages is added to a subject expressly mentioned, and is placed after it; and in translation may be joined to the predicate and rendered likewise: Luke 1:36 ( thy kinswoman herself also, i. e. as well as thou); Matthew 27:57 ( ( L T Tr WH text ) ); Luke 23:51 ( R G); Mark 15:43; Acts 8:13 ( ); Acts 15:32; 21:24>; 1 John 2:6; Galatians 2:17; Hebrews 13:3.
b. it is added to subjects expressed, whether to pronouns personal or demonstrative, or to nouns proper or common: John 3:28 ( ye yourselves bear witness, not only have I affirmed); Acts 20:30 ( from among your own selves, not only from other quarters); Romans 15:14 ( I of myself also, not only assured by report, cf. Romans 1:8>); 1 Corinthians 5:13 ( from your own society, opposed to them that are without, of whose character God must be the judge); 1 Corinthians 7:35; 1 Corinthians 11:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:9; , Acts 24:20; (masculine), Acts 25:25; Jesus himself, personally, opposed to those who baptized by his command, John 4:2; , opposed to those who believed on him on account of his miracles, John 2:24; Jesus himself, not others only, John 4:44; , opposed to the doctors of the law, whose decision did not seem quite to agree with the words of David, Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42; , opposed to his ministers, 2 Corinthians 11:14; , God himself, not another, Revelation 21:3; , the heavenly things themselves (i. e. sanctuary), opposed to its copies, Hebrews 9:23 (see , 1c.).
c. it is used to distinguish one not only from his companions, disciples, servants — as Mark 2:25 ( ); John 2:12; John 4:53; John 18:1 — but also from things done by him or belonging to him, as John 7:4 ( ( L Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading )); 1 Corinthians 3:15 ( , ); Luke 24:15 ( () , Jesus himself in person, opposed to their previous conversation about him).
d. self to the exclusion of others, i. e. he etc. alone, by oneself: Mark 6:31 ( ye alone, unattended by any of the people; cf. Fritzsche at the passage); John 14:11 ( ( WH marginal reading )); Romans 7:25 ( I alone, unaided by the Spirit of Christ; cf. Romans 8:2); 2 Corinthians 12:13 ( , unlike the other preachers of the gospel); Revelation 19:12; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 733iii.; Matth. § 467,5; Kühner, § 468 Anm. 2; ( Jelf, § 656,3); with the addition of (as often in Attic writings): John 6:15.
e. self not prompted or influenced by another, i. e. of oneself of one's own accord: John 16:27 (so even Homer, Iliad 17,254; and among Attic writings especially Xenophon). 2. When it gives Prominence, it answers a. to our emphatic Hebrews , she, it: Matthew 1:21 ( HE and no other); Matthew 5:4-10 (); Matthew 6:4> ( R G); Matthew 17:5> ( ); Luke 6:35; Luke 17:16; Luke 24:21; John 9:21 ( ( T Tr WH omit) ... ... ); Acts 10:42 ( L text Tr text WH ); Galatians 4:17 (); Ephesians 2:10 (); Colossians 1:17; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:5; James 2:6f. So in Greek writings also from Homer down; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 734v. It is used with the same force after relative sentences, where Greek prose uses : Matthew 12:50 ( ..., , where in Mark 3:35 ); Matthew 26:48; Mark 14:44; cf. Buttmann, 107f (94 f). Less emphatically, is put before subjects, serving to recall them again: Matthew 3:4 ( now Hebrews , whom I spoke of, John); Mark 6:17 ( ); Romans 8:16 ( ).
b. it points out some one as chief, leader, master of the rest (often so in Greek, as in the well-known phrase of the Pythagoreans, (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 22,3, 4and, p. 150 (142))): of Christ, Matthew 8:24; Mark 4:38; Mark 6:47; Mark 8:29; Luke 5:16; Luke 9:51; Luke 10:38; of God, Luke 6:35; Hebrews 13:5; 1 John 4:19 (not Lachmann).
c. it answers to our very, just, exactly (German eben, gerade): Romans 9:3 ( I myself, the very man who seems to be inimical to the Israelites); 2 Corinthians 10:1 (I myself, who bore myself lowly in your presence, as ye said); , John 5:36; often in Luke or , , in that very day, hour, season: Luke 2:38; Luke 10:21; Luke 12:12; Luke 13:1,31; Luke 20:19; Luke 23:12; Luke 24:13,33; Acts 16:18. In the writings of Paul this very thing: Galatians 2:10; 2 Corinthians 7:11; Philippians 1:6; for this very purpose, on this very account: Romans 9:17; Romans 13:6; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 6:22; Colossians 4:8; and in the same sense ( for this very thing) the simple accusative (as in Attic, cf. Matth. § 470,7; Kühner, 2:267 Anm. 6; Winer's Grammar, § 21 N. 2) , 2 Corinthians 2:3 (but see Meyer at the passage), and , 2 Peter 1:5 (Lachmann reads here ).
d. even, Latin vel, adeo (in Homer; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 733ii.): , Romans 8:21; , 1 Corinthians 11:14; ( Tr omits; L WH brackets ) , 1 Corinthians 15:28; even Sarah herself, although a feeble old woman, Hebrews 11:11 (yet WH marginal reading reads the dative ; see , 1).
II. has the force of a simple personal pronoun of the third person, answering to our unemphatic Hebrews , she, it; and that 1. as in classic Greek, in the oblique cases, him, her, it, them, etc.: numberless instances — as in the genitive absolute, e. g. , , etc.; or in the accusative with infinitive, , Romans 1:20; or after prepositions, , , etc.; or where it indicates the possessor, ; or a person as the (direct or indirect) object of an active verb, as , Matthew 7:9; , Matthew 10:12; , Matthew 26:44; , Luke 1:22; , Luke 4:41; , John 1:5. But see below. 2. Contrary to Greek usage, in the N. T. even in the nominative it is put for a simple personal pronoun of the third person, where the Greeks say or , or use no pronoun at all. This has been convincingly shown by Buttmann, 107ff (93ff); and yet some of the examples adduced by him are not decisive, but either must be or can be referred to the usage illustrated under I:1; — those in which is used of Christ, apparently to I:1b. But, in my opinion, the question is settled even by the following: , Matthew 14:2; Mark 14:15; Luke 1:22; Luke 15:14; so too in the Sept. (cf. Thiersch, De Pentat. vers. Alex., p. 98); Sirach 49:7; Tobit 6:11; , Mark 2:8 ( in Griesbach); Luke 9:36; Luke 14:1; Luke 22:23; , Luke 11:14 ( Tr marginal reading WH omits; Tr text brackets). Whether and also are so used, is doubtful; cf. Buttmann, 109 (95).
3. Sometimes in the oblique cases the pronoun is omitted, being evident from the context: Mark 6:5 (, namely, ); John 3:34 (, namely, ); John 10:29 ( , namely, ); Acts 13:3 (, namely, ); Revelation 18:21 (, namely, ), etc.
4. Not infrequently in the oblique cases is added to the verb, although the case belonging to this very verb has preceded: Matthew 8:1 ( ( L Tr WH genitive absolutely) ); Matthew 4:16; Matthew 5:40; Matthew 8:23,28 ( R G); Matthew 9:28; 25:29> ( (om. by L T Tr WH) ... ); Matthew 26:71> ( R G L brackets T); Mark 5:2 ( R G); Mark 9:28> ( R G); John 15:2 ( ... ); Acts 7:21 ( R G); James 4:17; Revelation 2:7; Revelation 6:4 ( L Tr marginal reading brackets); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 22,4a.; Buttmann, 142 (125). Doubtless the writer, while writing the earlier words with the intention of joining them to the leading verb to follow, marked off these very words as a clause by themselves, as if they formed a protasis; and Song of Solomon , when he came to the leading verb, he construed it just as though it were to form an apodosis.
5. By a Hebraism is used redundantly in relative sentences: , Mark 7:25; , 1 Peter 2:24 ( R G T, but Tr marginal reading brackets ); especially in the Apocalypse: , Revelation 3:8 (according to the true text); , Revelation 7:2; add Revelation 7:9; Revelation 13:12; Revelation 17:9; far more often in the Sept.; rare in Greek writings (from Callimachus (<260 b.c.="">) epistle 44); cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 709; ( Buttmann, § 143,1); Winer s Grammar, § 22,4b. where add to the examples Herodian, 8,6, 10 (5 Bekker) . But to this construction must not be referred Matthew 3:12 , nor 1 Peter 2:24 . For in the latter passage is in contrast with us, who must otherwise have paid the penalty of our sins; and in the former the sense Isaiah , 'he holds his winnowing-shovel in his hand.'
6. Very often is used rather laxly, where the subject or the object to which it must be referred is not expressly indicated, but must be gathered especially from some preceding name of a province or city, or from the context: Matthew 4:23 ( , i. e. of the Galilaeans); Acts 8:5 ( , i. e. ); Acts 20:2 (, i. e. the inhabitants ); 2 Corinthians 2:13 (, i. e. the Christians of Troas); Matthew 19:2 ( , i. e. their sick); 1 Peter 3:14 ( , i. e. of those who may be able you, 1 Peter 3:13); Luke 23:51 ( , i. e. of those with whom he had been a ); Hebrews 8:8 ( ( L T WH Tr marginal reading ; see ) i. e. ); Luke 2:22 ( . of the purification prescribed by the law of Moses to women in child-bed); John 8:44 ( , i. e. of the liar; cf. Baumg.-Crusius and Meyer at the passage). By this rather careless use of the pronoun it camo about that at length alone might be used for : Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14,17 (here T WH Tr marginal reading ); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 22,3; Buttmann, § 127,8. 7. Sometimes, in relative sentences consisting of several members, the second member is not joined to the first by the relative , but by a loose connection proceeds with ; as, Luke 17:31; Acts 3:13 (By ( L T WH omit; Tr brackets )); 1 Corinthians 8:6 ( , for ); 2 Peter 2:3. This is the usage likewise of Greek as well as of Hebrew; cf. Winer s Grammar, 149 (141); (Buttmann, 283 (243)); Bernhardy (1829), p. 304.
III. , , , with the article, the same;
1. without a noun: , immutable, Hebrews 1:12; Hebrews 13:8 ( Thucydides 2,61); : — , Matthew 5:46 ( R G T WH text, 47 L T Tr WH); Luke 6:33; , to profess the same opinion, 1 Corinthians 1:10; , not in the same manner but reproached him with the same, cast on him the same reproach, Matthew 27:44 ( , Sophocles Oed. Colossians 1002). : Acts 15:27; Romans 2:1; Ephesians 6:9. ( Rec.st passim ) ( Hesychius , ), to the same place, in the same place: Matthew 22:34; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1; 1 Corinthians 11:20; 1 Corinthians 14:23 ( Psalm 2:2; 2 Samuel 2:13; 3 Maccabees 3:1; Susanna 14); together: Luke 17:35; Acts 3:1 ( L T Tr WH join it to Acts 2; 1 Corinthians 7:5); ( Vulg. simul), together: Acts 14:1 (for יַחַד, Exodus 26:24; 1 Kings 3:18; examples from Greek writings are given by Kypke, Observations, ii., p. 69ff). Like adjective of equality is followed by the dative: , 1 Corinthians 11:5 ( Wisdom of Solomon 18:11; 4 Maccabees 8:5; 10:2,13; and often in Greek writings, cf. Winer's Grammar, 150 (141)).
2. With a noun added: Matthew 26:44; Mark 14:39 ( ); Luke 6:38 ( R G L marginal reading) ( ); Philippians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 1:10 ( ); 1 Corinthians 12:4 ( ), etc. (with the force of a substantive: the same kind) , 1 Peter 5:9. (Cf. .) 260>
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Vocabulary of the Greek NT
The weakening of the old distinction between αὐτὸς ὁ and ὁ αὐτός , especially in Luke, is noted in Proleg. p. 91, and paralleled from Hellenistic. We may add (cf. Einleitung p. 145 f.) Syll 807.1 (ii/A.D.) αὐταῖς ταῖς ἡμέραις , where Dittenberger remarks ";expectaveris ταῖς αὐταῖς ,"; OG1S 383.14 (Antiochus of Commagene, i/B.C.) τὴν αὐτήν τε κρίσιν , for which Ditt. desiderates ταύτην τὴν κρίσιν , P Hib I. 39.6 (B.C. 265) αὐτὸς Ὧρος ";the said H.,"; P Lille I. 23.8 (B.C. 221) οὗ μ [ισ ]θωτὴς Ἡρώδ [ης ] ὁ αὐτός ";ce même H.,"; P Oxy VI. 892.3 (A.D. 338) τῆς αὐτῆς πόλεως , ib. VIII. 1119.8 (A.D. 254) τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀμφοδογραμματέως ";the said a."; : all these seem to be practically identical, with αὐτός differing little from ἐκεῖνος . The combination αὐτὸ τοῦτο may be illustrated by P Grenf I. 1.14 (literary, ii/B.C.) ";for this reason"; (Ed.) as in 2 Peter 1:5, P Ryl II. 77.39 (A.D. 192) καὶ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἀσφαλίσομαι ";I will certify these very facts"; (Edd.), P Oxy VIII. 1119.11 (see above) ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ καὶ τὸν νυνεὶ φύλαρχον δοκεῖν ἀγνοεῖν αὐτὰ ταῦτα [. . .
For the phrase ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό = ";together,"; as apparently in Luke 17:35, see P Tebt I. 14.20 (B.C. 114), where the ";total"; value of certain property is one talent of copper—ἀξίας ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ χα (λκοῦ ) (ταλάντου ) α ̄ : cf. II. 319.9 (A.D. 248) ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ (ἄρουραι ) ι ̄ε ̄, ";a total of 15 arourae,"; 336.10 (c. A.D. 190), al. This arithmetical use may be applied in Acts 2:47, if we may render ";was daily heaping up the total of . . ."; Κατὰ τὸ αὐτό with the same meaning, as in Acts 14:1, may be illustrated from the early marriage contract P Eleph 1.5 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτό , ";and that we should live together."; In P Eleph 2.6 (B.C. 285–4) κατὰ ταὐτά = ";in the same way."; Vettius Valens, p. 57.28, uses τὸ δ᾽ αὐτό to express the same meaning (ὡσαύτως ).
On the redundant use of unemphatic αὐτός (in oblique cases) see Proleg. p. 84 f. We might add that possessive αὐτοῦ (like ἐμοῦ , etc.) becomes emphatic when placed between art. and noun : e.g. BGU IV. 1098.36 (c. B.C. 17) ἄνευ τῆς αὐτο [ῦ ] γ ̣ν ̣[ώ ]μης , and so ib. 1126.12 (B.C. 8). On the extent to which αὐτός (in oblique cases again) may have enlarged its functions at the expense of ἑαυτοῦ see next article. In MGr it is the personal pronoun ";he"; etc., or means ";this.";
The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder
Frequency / Word / Parsing Lists [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
|KJV (5154)||NAS (282)||HCS (4827)
|KJV (5154)||NAS (282)||HCS (4827)
List of Word Forms
αυτα αὐτά αὐτὰ αυταις αὐταῖς αυτας αὐτάς αὐτὰς αυτη αὐτὴ αὐτῇ αὕτη αυτην αὐτήν αὐτὴν αυτης αὐτῆς αυτο αὐτό αὐτὸ αυτοι αὐτοί αὐτοὶ αυτοις αὐτοῖς αυτον αὐτόν αὐτὸν αὑτὸν αυτος αὐτός αὐτὸς αυτου αὐτοῦ αὑτοῦ αυτους αὐτούς αὐτοὺς αυτω αὐτῷ αυτων αὐτῶν ἑαυτοῦ ἑαυτούς ἑαυτοὺς ἑαυτῶν σου auta autá autà autais autaîs autas autás autàs aute autē autḕ autêi autē̂i auten autēn autḗn autḕn autes autês autēs autē̂s auto autó autò autō autoi autoí autoì autôi autō̂i autois autoîs auton autón autòn autôn autōn autō̂n autos autós autòs autou autoû autous autoús autoùs eauton eautōn eautou eautous haute hautē haúte haútē hauton hautòn hautou hautoû heauton heautôn heautōn heautō̂n heautou heautoû heautous heautoús heautoùs sou
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