corner graphic   Hi,    
Facebook image
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to

Old Testament Hebrew

Entry for Strong's #3068 - יהוה

Word Origin:
from (01961)
Parts of Speech:
Proper Name
Word Definition  [ Brown-Drivers-Briggs | Strong ]
Brown-Driver-Briggs' Definition

Jehovah = “the existing One”

1) the proper name of the one true God

1a) unpronounced except with the vowel pointings of H136

Frequency / Word  [ Book | Word ]
Verse Results
KJV (6519)NAS (6824)HCS (6494)
1 Samuel240
2 Samuel125
1 Kings211
2 Kings227
1 Chronicles144
2 Chronicles307
1 Samuel240
2 Samuel129
1 Kings212
2 Kings228
1 Chronicles144
2 Chronicles307
1 Samuel319
2 Samuel144
1 Kings252
2 Kings275
1 Chronicles175
2 Chronicles382
Brown-Driver-Briggs Expanded Definition
[ יהוה c. 6823 i.e. יַהְוֶה

proper name, of deity Yahweh, the proper name of the God of Israel — (

1ᵑ0 יְהוָֺה C518 (Qr אֲדֹנָי), or יֱהוִֺה305 (Qr אֱלֹהִים), in the combinations אדני יהוה & יהוה אדני (see אֲדֹנֶי), and with preposition בַּיהוָֺה, לַיהוָֺה, מֵיהוָֺה (Qr בַּאדֹנָי, לַאדֹנָי, מֵאדֹנָי), do not give the original form. ᵐ5 and other Vrss follow the Qr. On the basis of Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 24:11 יהוה was regarded as a nomen ineffabile (see Philo de Vita Mosis iii. 519,529), called by the Jews הַשֵּׁם and by the Samaritans שׁימא. The pronunciation Jehovah was unknown until 1520, when it was introduced by Galatinus; but it was contested by Le Mercier, J. Drusius, and L. Capellus, as against grammatical and historical propriety (compare Bö§ 88). The traditional Ἰαβέ of Theodoret and Epiphanius, the יָֿהוּ, יְהוֺֿ of compound proper name and the contracted form יָהּ all favour יַהְוֶךְ (compare יַהֲלֹמ֑וּן Psalm 74:6; תַּהֲרוּ Isaiah 33:11), see Lag Sym i.14 Baud Studien i.179 ff.; Dr Stud.Bib.i.1ff. For Jeve see Sta ZAW 1881,346 De ib.1882,173f. & Gn. Excurs. ii.

2 on literature of interpretations see Nes Eg.67 Dr l.c. — Many recent scholars explain יַהְוֶה as Hiph`il of היה (=היה) the one bringing into being, life-giver (compare חַוָּה Genesis 3:20) Schr HSch; giver of existence, creator, Kue Tiele; he who brings to pass (so already Le Clerc), performer of his promises, Lag, Nes Eg.88 (but Nes Eg.91inclines to Qal as RS Brit. & For. Ev. Rev see below); or from היה he who causes to fall, rain or lightning RS OTJC.ed.1,423; om.ed.2,245, compare We Skizzen iii.175; ' Fäller,' destroying foes, Sta G.i.429 (dubiously). But most take it as Qal of הוה (= היה); the one who is: i.e. the absolute and unchangeable one, Ri; the existing, ever living, as self-consistent and unchangeable, Di; or the one ever coming into manifestation as the God of redemption, De Oehl; compare also RS Brit. & For. Ev. Revelation 1876, he will be it, i.e all that his servants look for (compare Ew infr), he will approve himself (give evidence of being, assert his being Drl.c.17)). ** Theories of non-Hebrew or non-Semitic origin, opposed (in their older forms) by BauRel. i. 181ff. (see especially 230); Dl Pa 162ff. claimed Babylonian origin for יהו, against this Kue national Religions, etc., Note iv (Eng. Trans. 329 ff.) Jastr JBL xiil {1894}, 103f. compare Hpt BAS i. 170 N; Dl Babel u. Bibel, 46f., 73f. makes same claim for יהוה, against this see especially Hirsch ZAW xxiil {1903}, 355 ff. Zim KATS. 465 ff.; Spiegelb ZMG:liii {1899}, 633ff. proposes (improbable) Egyptian etymology for יהוה; further discussions see in Kö EB NAMES, § 112and n.3. 'Jehovah' found in Jacob (? Johannes) Wessel († 1480), according to Schw ThLZ, 1905, Colossians 612.

I.יהוה is not used by E in Genesis , but is given Exodus 3:12-15 as the name of the God who revealed Himself to Moses at Horeb, and is explained thus : אֶהְיֶה עִמָּ֑ךְ I shall be with thee ( Exodus 3:12), which is then implied in אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה I shall be the one who will be it Exodus 3:14 a (i.e: with thee Exodus 3:12) and then compressed into אֶהְיֶה Exodus 3:14 b (i.e. with thee Exodus 3:12), which then is given in the nominal form יהוה He who will be it Exodus 3:15 (i.e. with thee Exodus 3:12). compare Ew BTh ii. 337,338 RS l.c., Proph. 385 ff. Other interpretations are: I am he who I am, i.e. it is no concern of yours (Le Clerc Lag Psalt.Hieron.156); I am (this is my name), inasmuch as I am (אֲשֶׁר = כִּי; AE JDMich We JD Th xxi, 540 = compare Hexateuch 72); Di and others I am who I am, he who is essentially unnameable, inexplicable, — E uses יהוה sparingly by the side of אלהים and האלהים in his subsequent narrative. The Ephraimitic writers in Judges Samuel Kings use it in similar proportions. P abstains from the use of יהוה until he gives an account of its revelation to Moses Exodus 6:3; but subsequently uses it freely. He gives no explanation of its meaning. He represents that אֵל שַׁדַּי was the God of the patriarchs. J uses יהוה from the beginning of his narrative, possibly explaining it, Genesis 21:83 by אלעולם, the evergreen tamarisk being a symbol of the ever-living God; compare De Genesis 21:33. Elsewhere יהוה is the common divine name in pre-exilic writers, but in post-exilic writers gradually falls into disuse, and is supplanted by אלהים and אדני. In Job it is used 31t. in prose parts, and Job 12:9 (a proverb); not elsewhere in the poem. Chronicles apart from his sources prefers אלהים and האלהים. Daniel uses יהוה only in chap. 9 (7t.); Ecclesiastes not at all. In the Elohistic group of Psalm 42-83it is used 39t. (see אלהים) . It occurs as the name of Israel's God MI18. It is doubtful whether it was used by other branches of the Shemitic family, compare COT Genesis 2:4 b Dl Pa 158 ff. Dr Stud. Bib. i. 7 ff.

II:1.יהוה is used with אלהים and suffixes, especially in D;

a. with אֱלֹהֶיךָ in the Ten Words Exodus 20:2-12 (5t.) = Deuteronomy 5:6-16; in the law of worship of J E, Exodus 23:19; Exodus 34:24,26; in D 234t.; Joshua 1:9,17; Joshua 9:9,24 (D2); elsewhere Genesis 27:20; Exodus 15:26 (JE), Judges 6:26; Samuel & Kings 20t.; 1 Chronicles 11:2; 1 Chronicles 22:11,12; 2 Chronicles 9:8 (twice in verse); 2 Chronicles 16:7; Isaiah 7:11; Isaiah 37:4 (twice in verse); Isaiah 41:13; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 51:15; Isaiah 55:5; Jeremiah 40:2 + (3t.); Hosea 12:10; Hosea 13:4; Hosea 14:2; Amos 9:15; Psalm 81:11.

b. with אֱלֹהֵיכֶם in D 46t.; D228t.; H 15t.; P 15t.; elsewhere Exodus 23:25 (E); Exodus 8:24; Exodus 10:8,16,17 (JE); Judges 6:10; 1 Samuel 12:12,14; 2 Kings 17:39; 2 Kings 23:21; 1 Chronicles 22:18 + (10t. Chronicles) Psalm 76:12; Jeremiah 13:16 + (5t.) Ezekiel 20:5,7,19,20; Joel 2:13 + (6t.) Zechariah 6:15.

c. with אֱלֹהֵינוּ in D 23t.; in D25t.; Exodus 8:6 (JE) Exodus 3:18; Exodus 5:3; Exodus 8:22; Exodus 8:23; Exodus 10:25,26 (E) Judges 11:24; 1 Samuel 7:8; 1 Kings 8:57,59,61,65; 2 Kings 18:22; 2 Kings 19:10 = Isaiah 36:7; Isaiah 37:20; 1 Chronicles 13:2 + (15t. Chronicles) Micah 4:5; Micah 7:17; Isaiah 26:13; Jeremiah 3:22 + (17t.) Psalm 20:8; Psalm 90:17 (?;Baer אֲדנָֹי); Psalm 94:23; Psalm 99:5; Psalm 99:8; Psalm 99:9 (twice in verse); Psalm 105:7; Psalm 106:47; Psalm 113:5; Psalm 122:9; Psalm 123:2; Daniel 9:10,13,14.

d. with אֱלֹהֵיהֶם Exodus 10:7 (J) Exodus 29:46 (twice in verse); Leviticus 26:44 (P) Judges 3:7; Judges 8:34; 1 Samuel 12:9; 1 Kings 9:9; 2 Kings 17:7,9,14,16,19; 2 Kings 18:12; 2 Chronicles 31:6; 33:17; 34:33; Nehemiah 9:3 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 9:4; Jeremiah 3:21; Jeremiah 22:9; Jeremiah 30:9; Jeremiah 43:1 (twice in verse); Jeremiah 50:4; Ezekiel 28:26; Ezekiel 34:30; Ezekiel 39:22,28; Hosea 1:7; Hosea 3:5; Hosea 7:10; Zephaniah 2:7; Haggai 1:12 (twice in verse); Zechariah 9:16; Zechariah 10:6.

e. with אֱלֹהָיו Numbers 23:21 (E) Exodus 32:11 (J) Leviticus 4:22 (P) Deuteronomy 17:19; Deuteronomy 18:7; 1 Samuel 30:6; 1 Kings 5:17; 1 Kings 11:4; 1 Kings 15:3,4; 2 Kings 5:11; 2 Kings 16:2; 2 Chronicles 1:1 13t. Chronicles; Micah 5:3; Jeremiah 7:28; Psalm 33:12; Psalm 144:15; Psalm 146:5; Jonah 2:2.

f. with אֱלֹהַי Numbers 22:18 (JE) Deuteronomy 4:5; Deuteronomy 18:16; Deuteronomy 26:14; Joshua 14:8,9; 2 Samuel 24:24; 1 Kings 3:7; 1 Kings 5:18; 1 Kings 5:19; 1 Kings 8:28; 1 Kings 17:20,21; 1 Chronicles 21:17; 1 Chronicles 22:7; 2 Chronicles 2:3; 2 Chronicles 6:19; Ezra 7:28; Ezra 9:5; Psalm 7:2; Psalm 7:4; Psalm 13:4; Psalm 18:29; Psalm 30:3; Psalm 30:13; Psalm 35:24; Psalm 40:6; Psalm 104:1; Psalm 109:26; Isaiah 25:1; Jeremiah 31:18; Daniel 9:4,20; Jonah 2:7; Habakkuk 1:12; Zechariah 11:4; Zechariah 13:9; Zechariah 14:5.

g. with אֱלֹהַיִךְ Isaiah 60:9; Jeremiah 2:17,19; Jeremiah 3:13; Micah 7:10; Zephaniah 3:17.

h. with אלהים, probably always due to later editors, or to a Qr which has crept into the text Genesis 2:4 b — Genesis 3:23 (J, 20t. either אלהים inserted by R P as Di De; or יהוה inserted by J in an older source); Exodus 9:30 (J, but not in ᵐ5⅏; Samaritan אדני יהוה; possibly ᵑ0 from earlier Qr, & from later Qr); 2 Samuel 7:22,25 (ᵐ5אדני יהוה and 1 Chronicles 17:20-23only יהוה); 1 Chronicles 17:16,17 (but 2 Samuel 7:18,19 אדני יהוה) 1 Chronicles 28:20; 1 Chronicles 29:1; 2 Chronicles 1:9; 6:41 (twice in verse); 2 Chronicles 6:42; 26:18 (but in the original Psalm 132:8 stood יהוה (so ), or else no divine name); Psalm 72:18 (the late doxology) Psalm 84:12 (but it makes the line too long); Jonah 4:6. For the combinations with other divine names see those names.

2 the phrase אֲנִי יהוה is noteworthy: —

a. after אמר either alone Exodus 6:2,29 (P) or before relative and other clauses: Genesis 28:13 (J) Genesis 15:7 (R) Exodus 6:6 (P) with אלהיכם Judges 6:10; Ezekiel 20:5.

b. after ידע כי (α) Exodus 7:17; Exodus 8:18; Exodus 10:2 (J); Exodus 7:5; Exodus 14:4,18 (P); 1 Kings 20:13,28; Jeremiah 24:7; Ezekiel 6:7 48t. Ezekiel; (β) with אלהיכם Exodus 6:7; Exodus 16:12; Deuteronomy 29:5 (P) Exodus 20:20; Joel 4:17; (γ) with אלהיהם Exodus 29:46 (P) Ezekiel 28:26; Ezekiel 34:30; Ezekiel 39:22,28; (δ) before relative and other clauses Isaiah 45:3; Isaiah 49:23,26; Isaiah 60:16; Ezekiel 7:9; Ezekiel 17:24; Ezekiel 21:10; Ezekiel 22:22; Ezekiel 35:12; Ezekiel 36:36; (ε) with various forms of קדשׁ Exodus 31:13 (P) Ezekiel 20:12; Ezekiel 37:28; Ezekiel 39:7; (ζ) with דברתי Ezekiel 5:13; Ezekiel 17:21, compare ׳יֵדְעוּ אשׁר אני י Ezekiel 20:26.

c. after כִּי in various combinations Leviticus 11:44,45; Numbers 35:34 (P), Leviticus 20:7,26; Leviticus 21:8,15,23; Leviticus 22:16; Leviticus 24:22; Leviticus 25:17; Leviticus 26:1,44 (all H); Exodus 15:26 (R) Isaiah 41:13; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 61:8; Jeremiah 9:23; Ezekiel 12:25; Ezekiel 21:4; Zechariah 10:6; Malachi 3:6.

d. emphatic Exodus 6:8; Exodus 12:12; Leviticus 26:2,45; Numbers 3:13,41,45 (all P); Leviticus 18:5,6,21; Leviticus 19:12,14,16,18,28,30,32,37; Leviticus 21:12; Leviticus 22:2,3,8,30,31,33 (all H) Isaiah 43:15; with אלהיהם Exodus 29:46; with אלהיךָ Isaiah 48:17; with אלהיכם Leviticus 23:43; Leviticus 25:38,55; Numbers 10:10; Numbers 15:41 (twice in verse) (P) Leviticus 18:2,4,30; Leviticus 19:2,3,4,10,25,31,34,36; Leviticus 20:24; Leviticus 23:22; Leviticus 26:13 (all H) Ezekiel 20:7,19; Joel 2:27; with מְקַדֵּשׁ Leviticus 20:8; Leviticus 22:9,32 (H), with דברתי Numbers 14:35 (P) Ezekiel 5:15 + (11t. Ezekiel); with clauses Isaiah 27:3; Isaiah 41:4,17; Isaiah 42:6,8; Isaiah 45:5,6,7,8,18,19,21; Isaiah 60:22; Jeremiah 17:10; Jeremiah 32:27; Ezekiel 14:4,7,9; Ezekiel 34:24; אָנֹכִי יהוה is used in the Ten Words Exodus 20:2,5 = Deuteronomy 5:6,9 cited Psalm 81:11; Hosea 12:10; Hosea 13:4; elsewhere only Exodus 4:11 (J) Isaiah 43:11; Isaiah 44:24; Isaiah 51:15.

3יהוה is also used with several predicates, to form sacred names of holy places of Yahweh יהוה יראה Genesis 22:14 (J); יהוה נסי Exodus 17:15 (E) יהוה שׁלים Judges 6:24 יהוה צדקנו Jeremiah 33:16 (compare Jeremiah 23:6 where it is applied to the Messiah); יהוה שָׁ֑מָּה Ezekiel 48:35. — On combinations such as ׳הַר י, צְבָאוֺת׳י etc., see הַר, צָבָא, etc.

Note. — Bonk ZAW 1891,126 ff. seems to shew that as prefix, in compare proper name, יְהוֺ is the oldest and the latest form and that יוֺ is intermediate, belonging to the earlier post-exilic period until the time of Chronicles; occasional copyists' mistakes being taken into the account.

׳יְהוֺ proper name compounded with, see below יהוה above.

יהוה proper name, of deity, see below הוה.

׳יו = ׳יְהוֺ

proper name compounded with, see below יהוה above: — namely יוֺאָב, יוֺאָח, יוֺאָחָז, יוֺאֵל, יוֺאָשׁ, יוֺיָכִין, יוֺיָקִים, יוֺיָרִיב, יוֺעֵד, יוֺעָשׁ, יוֺקִים, יוֺרָם, יוֺתָם, etc.


Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.
List of Word Forms
בַּ֝יהוָ֗ה בַּ֭יהוָה בַּֽ֭יהוָה בַּֽיהוָ֑ה בַּֽיהוָ֔ה בַּֽיהוָ֖ה בַּֽיהוָ֗ה בַּֽיהוָ֣ה בַּֽיהוָ֤ה בַּֽיהוָ֤ה ׀ בַּֽיהוָ֨ה ׀ בַּֽיהוָה֙ בַּֽיהוָה֮ בַּיהֹוָ֣ה בַּיהוָ֑ה בַּיהוָ֔ה בַּיהוָ֖ה בַּיהוָ֛ה בַּיהוָ֣ה בַּיהוָ֤ה בַּיהוָ֥ה בַּיהוָ֨ה בַּיהוָֽה׃ בַֽיהוָ֔ה בַֽיהוָ֖ה בַֽיהוָ֗ה בַֽיהוָ֣ה בַֽיהוָה֙ בַיהוָ֑ה בַיהוָ֨ה ביהוה ביהוה׃ הֲ־ הַֽיהוָה֙ הֹרִ֣ישׁ ה־ היהוה הריש וְ֝לַֽיהוָ֗ה וְלַֽיהוָ֖ה וַ֖יהוָ֣ה וַ֝יהוָ֗ה וַ֭יהוָה וַֽ֝יהוָ֗ה וַֽ֭יהוָה וַֽיהֹוָ֖ה וַֽיהוָ֔ה וַֽיהוָ֖ה וַֽיהוָ֗ה וַֽיהוָ֛ה וַֽיהוָ֞ה וַֽיהוָ֡ה וַֽיהוָ֣ה וַֽיהוָ֤ה וַֽיהוָ֥ה וַֽיהוָה֙ וַֽיהוָה֮ וַיהוָ֖ה וַיהוָ֗ה וַיהוָ֛ה וַיהוָ֞ה וַיהוָ֣ה וַיהוָ֤ה וַיהוָ֥ה וַיהוָה֙ וּ֝מֵיְהוָ֗ה וּבַֽיהוָ֣ה וּבַיהוָ֥ה וביהוה ויהוה וליהוה ומיהוה יְ֝הֹוָ֗ה יְ֝הוִ֗ה יְ֝הוָ֗ה יְ֝הוָה יְ֠הוִה יְ֠הוָה יְ֭הֹוָה יְ֭הוָה יְּהוָ֑ה יְֽהוָ֗ה יְה֘וָ֤ה יְה֫וָ֥ה יְה֫וָה יְהֹוִ֑ה יְהֹוִ֗ה יְהֹוָ֑ה יְהֹוָ֔ה יְהֹוָ֖ה יְהֹוָ֗ה יְהֹוָ֛ה יְהֹוָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֤ה יְהֹוָ֥ה יְהֹוָ֧ה יְהֹוָ֨ה יְהֹוָֽה׃ יְהֹוָה֙ יְהוִ֑ה יְהוִ֔ה יְהוִ֖ה יְהוִ֗ה יְהוִ֛ה יְהוִ֜ה יְהוִ֣ה יְהוִֽה׃ יְהוִה֒ יְהוִה֙ יְהוָ֑ה יְהוָ֓ה יְהוָ֓ה ׀ יְהוָ֔ה יְהוָ֕ה יְהוָ֖ה יְהוָ֗ה יְהוָ֘ה יְהוָ֛ה יְהוָ֜ה יְהוָ֞ה יְהוָ֡ה יְהוָ֣ה יְהוָ֣ה ׀ יְהוָ֤֨ה יְהוָ֤ה יְהוָ֤ה ׀ יְהוָ֥֣ה יְהוָ֥ה יְהוָ֥ה ׀ יְהוָ֧ה יְהוָ֧ה ׀ יְהוָ֨ה יְהוָ֨ה ׀ יְהוָ֪ה יְהוָ֬ה יְהוָֽה־ יְהוָֽה׃ יְהוָה֒ יְהוָה֙ יְהוָה֩ יְהוָה֮ יֱהֹוִ֡ה יֱהוִ֔ה יהוה יהוה־ יהוה׃ כַּיהוָ֖ה כַּיהוָ֣ה כַּיהוָ֥ה כיהוה לַ֝יהוָ֗ה לַ֠יהוָה לַ֭יהוָה לַֽ֝יהוָ֗ה לַֽ֭יהוָה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה לַֽיהוָ֑ה לַֽיהוָ֔ה לַֽיהוָ֖ה לַֽיהוָ֗ה לַֽיהוָ֛ה לַֽיהוָ֜ה לַֽיהוָ֡ה לַֽיהוָ֣ה לַֽיהוָ֥ה לַֽיהוָ֨ה ׀ לַֽיהוָֽה׃ לַֽיהוָה֒ לַֽיהוָה֙ לַֽיהוָה֮ לַיְהוָה֙ לַיהֹוָ֗ה לַיהֹוָֽה׃ לַיהוָ֑ה לַיהוָ֔ה לַיהוָ֖֣ה לַיהוָ֖ה לַיהוָ֗ה לַיהוָ֛ה לַיהוָ֜ה לַיהוָ֞ה לַיהוָ֡ה לַיהוָ֣ה לַיהוָ֣ה ׀ לַיהוָ֤ה לַיהוָ֥ה לַיהוָ֥ה ׀ לַיהוָ֧ה לַיהוָ֨ה לַיהוָ֪ה לַיהוָֽה׃ לַיהוָה֒ לַיהוָה֙ לַיהוָה֮ ליהוה ליהוה׃ מֵ֭יְהוָה מֵֽיְהוָ֑ה מֵֽיְהוָ֖ה מֵֽיהוָ֔ה מֵֽיהוָ֖ה מֵיְהוָ֑ה מֵיְהוָ֔ה מֵיְהוָ֖ה מֵיְהוָ֤ה מֵיְהוָ֥ה מֵיְהוָֽה׃ מֵיְהוָה֙ מיהוה מיהוה׃ שֶׁיֲהוָ֥ה שיהוה hă hă- hō·rîš hōrîš Yah·weh Yah·weh- Yahweh Yahweh-

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, December 7th, 2016
the Second Week of Advent
Search for…
Choose a letter to browse:
א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ל
מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר ש ת 
Prev Entry
Next Entry
Download the Language Fonts
Below you will find links to the TrueType font(s) used in this resource. Simply right-mouse click the link and save it to your fonts

Once you have finished you might need to close all open browsers and open your fonts directory to initialized the font(s) you just installed.

SIL Ezra Hebrew font
AHL Early Hebrew font
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology