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Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
1 Timothy

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6

Book Overview - 1 Timothy

by Gary H. Everett

STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE EPISTLE OF 1TIMOTHY

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - Church Order and Individual Calling

Structural Theme - The Development of Man's Heart for Christian Service in Response to

Jesus' Role of Redeeming Mankind

Imperative Theme - The Role of the Evangelist is to Transform Man's Heart

Thru Faith in Christ Jesus

INTRODUCTION TO THE PASTORAL EPISTLES

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

The Message of the Pastoral Epistles- The Pastoral Epistles of 1,2Timothy, and Titus were probably written during the latter part of Paul's ministry. We find quotations or allusion to these epistles by some the earliest church fathers, testifying to their familiarity and use by the early Church. While Clement of Rome (A.D 96) makes allusions to these epistles, 1] Ignatius (A.D 35 to 107) 2] and Polycarp (A.D 69 to 155) 3] provide clear quotations from them. Their pastoral character has been identified since the time of the early Church fathers, who described their content as "ecclesiastical discipline" (see the Muratorian Canon [late 2nd cent.], 4] Tertullian [A.D 160-225], 5] and Augustine [A.D 354-430]). 6] Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) called these epistles "virtually a pastoral rule." 7] The title "Pastoral Epistles" was first applied by D. N. Berdot in 1703 , 8] and used again for all three epistles in 1726 by Paul Anton, at which time this title was made popular. 9]

1] Clement of Rome appears to be paraphrasing from 1Timothy in his epistle to the Corinthians, saying, "Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect." (1Clement 29) Clement of Rome appears to be quoting a phrase from Titus 3:1 when he writes, "Ye never grudged any act of kindness, being "ready to every good work.'" (1Clement 2) Clement of Rome use the phrase "with a pure conscience" in a similar way that Paul used it in 2Timothy 1:3 when writing, "The hateful, and those full of all wickedness, were roused to such a pitch of fury, that they inflicted torture on those who served God with a holy and blameless purpose [of heart], not knowing that the Most High is the Defender and Protector of all such as with a pure conscience venerate His all-excellent name; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." (1Clement 45)

2] Ignatius of Antioch alludes to 2Timothy in his epistle to Polycarp, writing, "Please ye Him under whom ye fight, and from whom ye receive your wages. Let none of you be found a deserter." (The Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp 6) He quotes from 2Timothy 2:24 in his epistle to the Ephesians , writing "Wherefore Paul exhorts as follows: ‘The servant of the Lord must not strive, but be gentle towards all men, apt to teach, patient, in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves.'" (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 10) He makes a possible allusion to Titus 1:10, writing, "For there are some vain talkers and deceivers, not Christians, but Christ-betrayers." (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians 6)

3] Polycarp clearly borrows Paul's words in 1Timothy , 10 when writing, "‘But the love of money is the root of all evils.' Knowing, therefore, that ‘as we brought nothing into the world, so we can carry nothing out,' let us arm ourselves with the armour of righteousness; and let us teach, first of all, ourselves to walk in the commandments of the Lord." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 4) He alludes to 2Timothy 4:10, writing, "For they loved not this present world, but Him who died for us, and for our sakes was raised again by God from the dead." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 9)

4] The Muratorian Canon reads, "The second class includes all that are received now: an Epistle to Philemon , one to Titus , and two to Timothy, which though written only from personal feelings and affection, are still hallowed in the respect of the Catholic Church, for (or in) the arrangement of ecclesiastical discipline." See Brooke Foss Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 215.

5] Tertullian writes, "To this epistle [Philemon] alone did its brevity avail to protect it against the falsifying hands of Marcion. I wonder, however, when he received (into his Apostolicon) this letter which was written but to one Prayer of Manasseh , that he rejected the two epistles to Timothy and the one to Titus , which all treat of ecclesiastical discipline." (Against Marcion 521) See Tertullian, Against Marcion, trans. Peter Holmes, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol 3, ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Buffalo, New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1885), 473.

6] Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles: An Introduction and Commentary, in The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, c 1990, 2002), 17.

7] Divi Thomae Aquinatis, in omnes S. Pauli apostolic epistolas commentaria, tom 3, edition nova (Leodii, 1858), 56 (at 1Timothy ). Cited by Raymond F. Collins, 1 & 2Timothy and Titus , in The New Testament Library, eds. C. Clifton Black and John T. Carroll (Louisville, Kentucky, Westminster John Knox Press, 2002), 1.

8] D. N. Berdot characterized one of these epistles as a "pastoral letter" (Pastoral-Brief) in Exercitatio theologica-exegetica in epistulam Pauli ad Titum (1703).

9] Paul Anton (1661-1730) characterized all three epistles as pastoral epistles in 1726. See "Exegetical essays on the Pastoral Epistles of Paul to Timothy and Titus" (1753, 1st pub, 1755, 2nd pub. in Halle).

The title "Pastoral Epistles" is appropriate in that it reveals the most obvious underlying theme of these three Epistles, which is church government, or order, and calling. In the Pastoral Epistles, Paul establishes the order and governance of the New Testament Church. However, I am going to be as bold as to add the small epistle of Philemon to this corpus for the sake of theme structure. Regarding the underlying theme of church leadership, J. Vernon McGee makes an important observation by saying that Paul is not placing emphasis upon the type of church government in these epistles as much as he is focusing upon the character of those involved in leadership; for without godly leadership no form of church government will work. 10]

10] J. Vernon McGee, The First Epistle to Timothy, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Introduction."

Regarding the relation of the Pastoral Epistles to our spiritual journey, we enter into our calling, which is the underlying theme of these Epistles, after the process of indoctrination that takes place in the Church epistles. Song of Solomon , having received Christ Jesus as our personal Lord and Saviour through the Gospels, and having read the Church epistles, which lay down the doctrines of the Church, we must now have godly leadership and some type of order established in our lives. This is what Paul deals with in his pastoral epistles. He tells Timothy and Titus how to select godly leaders and then he explains how to delegate the priorities of church administration and activities to such leaders. Although these the Epistles contain Church doctrine, they place much more emphasis upon how to administer this doctrine in the local congregation. In addition, of these four Epistles, 2Timothy is the most personal, dealing more with private and personal matters, having being written shortly before Paul's death. The other two epistles deal with broader matters that relate to the pastoral leadership of congregations as a whole.

The Lord illustrated the important of Church government to me in a dream on September 3, 2004, in which I was standing in the pulpit of a church congregation that had no pastor. The people were disorderly and misbehaved in the church building where they had gathered. In this dream one particular man came up to me and I immediately recognized the anointing upon him and knew that he was called to be their pastor and that I was to place him over this congregation. While I was trying to introduce him to the people I was constantly interrupted by individuals who would walk up to the platform for various reasons. The gathering had no order and I was not able to accomplish my task. The dream ended when my patience ended and I took firm control over the congregation. During the course of this dream a verse was quickened to me, "Smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered," ( Mark 14:27). In other words, without a shepherd, the sheep will scatter and the flock becomes lost and disorganized. As a result they are subject to the perils of life and are "killed all the day long," ( Romans 8:35-36).

Introductory Material- The introduction to the Pastoral Epistles will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 11] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

11] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 12]

12] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the Pastoral Epistles will provide a discussion on their historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the early Church tradition that Paul wrote the epistles of 1Timothy and Titus close together while he was traveling through Macedonia around A.D 62-64after being released from his first Roman imprisonment, and 2Timothy was written during Paul's second Roman imprisonment around A.D 65-67.

I. Historical Background

One of the most popular views among scholars is to place the setting of the Pastoral Epistles during the period between Paul's first and second Roman captivities. Many agree that the historical events recorded in these Epistles do not fit into the narrative material of the book of Acts , nor in any of Paul's ten other epistles, but rather during Paul's final missionary travels before his martyrdom. However, as a result of this lack of historical evidence, many other scholars in recent years have questioned the genuineness of their authorship. This need not be so; for there are a few references in the New Testament writings, as well as plenty of testimonies from the early Church fathers, that give us some brief glimpses into Paul's ministry during these brief years between his imprisonments. There are numerous references by the early Church fathers that Paul was indeed released from his first imprisonment in Rome, traveled to Spain, and was killed at the hands of Nero during a second imprisonment. It is not possible to be certain as to where and when Paul traveled after his first Roman captivity, but scholars piece some parts together of his missionary work and draw a general picture.

A. Paul's Final Missionary Work in and around Asia, Crete, Macedonia and Achaia - During Paul's first Roman imprisonment he wrote four epistles, one of which expressed his desire to visit the Philemon and the church at Colossi ( Philemon 1:22), and another where he mentions his intent on visiting the Philippians ( Philippians 1:26; Philippians 2:24). In his epistle to the Romans he mentions his intend to visit Spain ( Romans 15:24; Romans 15:28). Since the Pastoral Epistles refer to Paul's visits to Ephesus ( 1 Timothy 1:3, 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:12) and Macedonia ( 1 Timothy 1:3, Titus 3:15), where Philippi was located, scholars are convinced that Paul made these desired visits between his two Roman imprisonments. In addition, these Pastoral Epistles also mention Paul's visits to Crete ( Titus 1:5), Miletus (or Miletum) ( 2 Timothy 4:20) and Troas ( 2 Timothy 4:13) in Asia Minor, Nicopolis ( Titus 3:12) in Greece, and a possible visit to Corinth ( 2 Timothy 4:20). However, there is no mention of a trip to Spain.

One proposed itinerary for Paul after his release from Rome takes him quickly to Crete, where Titus has been planting churches ( Titus 1:5). After some time, Paul departs for Macedonia, remembering his promise to visit the Philippian Church, but passing through Asia Minor first. Trophimus, who had accompanied him, was left at Miletus sick, perhaps because of the ship ride ( 2 Timothy 4:20). Paul then made his way to Ephesus, where he spends some brief time with Timothy. [When Paul traveled to Ephesus it is possible that he visited nearby Colossi. If he did visit Colossi, he would have met with the five Christians whom Paul names in his Epistles to Philemon , and to the Colossians: Epaphras, the founder of the church in Colossae, Philemon , the head of a house church, and his wife Apphia, as well as Archippus, which may be Philemon's Song of Solomon , and finally the beloved runaway slave Onesimus. If Paul did visit Colossi, he would not have neglected to visit the nearby churches in Laodicea and Hierapolis ( Colossians 4:12-13), for these three cities lay in the same valley not more than six miles from each other. At Laodicea Paul would have met Nymphas, whose house served also as a church ( Colossians 4:15). We also read that while Paul was in Ephesus a servant named Onesiphorus ministered unto him ( 2 Timothy 1:18).]

From Ephesus Paul then made his way into Macedonia to visit the churches there, whom he has promised to visit after his release ( Philippians 1:26; Philippians 2:24). He disembarked at Troas, where he left his cloak and books with Carpus ( 2 Timothy 4:13), planning to pick them up on his way back into Asia Minor. We read in 1 Timothy 1:3 where he did indeed visit Macedonia, and very likely Philippi, after leaving Timothy in Ephesus. His mind must have been full of meditations during this journey into Macedonia, so that he sat down at this time and wrote I Timothy and Titus to encourage them and give them inspired thoughts and fresh counsel. He determined to winter in Nicopolis, and thus sent Tychicus or Artemas to Crete, so that Titus could join him in Nicopolis. We do know also that Paul left Erastus at Corinth ( 2 Timothy 4:13). A popular view suggests that the Romans seized Paul in Nicopolis because of Nero's recent decision to persecute the church, having blamed them for the fire that burned Rome. Paul would have been taken directly to Rome, where he was eventually beheaded, according to ancient tradition.

B. Paul's Trip to Spain- Many scholars suggest that Paul never made his return trip back into Asia Minor to visit Timothy, but rather, made haste to go west, perhaps because of the destruction of churches in Rome by Nero, or because of him being arrested while still in Macedonia. From Rome he may have departed for Spain. Therefore, one of the most important questions asked by scholars during this period of Paul's life was, "Did he visit Spain?" We know that Paul had a great passion to reach unto the western corner of the Roman Empire, for he expressed this desire in his epistle to the Romans ( Romans 15:24; Romans 15:28). There is no mention of such a visit in the New Testament Scriptures, but early Church tradition supports this view. Here is a list of references by the early Church fathers that support two Roman imprisonments as well as Paul's visit to Spain:

1. Clement of Rome (c. A.D 96) - Clement of Rome writes that Paul traveled "to the extreme limit of the west." This is popularly understood to be west of Rome, including Spain.

"Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects. Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience." (1Clement 5)

2. The Muratorian Canon (c. A.D 200) - The Muratorian Canon is more specific by saying that Paul "departed for Spain." It reads:

"Luke comprises in detail in his treatise addressed to the most excellent Theophilus the incidents in the lives of the Apostles of which he was an eye witness. As he does not mention either the martyrdom of Peter, or the journey of Paul to Spain, it is clear that these took place in his absence." (Fragments of Casius III.—Canon Muratorianus 2) (ANF 5)

3. Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) - The church historian Eusebius tells us that Paul was released from his first Roman imprisonment and faced a second one that resulted in his martyrdom.

"Festus was sent by Nero to be Felix"s successor. Under him Paul, having made his defense, was sent bound to Rome Aristarchus was with him, whom he also somewhere in his epistles quite naturally calls his fellow-prisoner. And Luke , who wrote the Acts of the Apostles, brought his history to a close at this point, after stating that Paul spent two whole years at Rome as a prisoner at large, and preached the word of God without restraint. Thus after he had made his defense it is said that the apostle was sent again upon the ministry of preaching, and that upon coming to the same city a second time he suffered martyrdom. In this imprisonment he wrote his second epistle to Timothy, in which he mentions his first defense and his impending death." (Ecclesiastical History 2221-2)

"Whence it is probable that Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles at that time, continuing his history down to the period when he was with Paul. But these things have been adduced by us to show that Paul"s martyrdom did not take place at the time of that Roman sojourn which Luke records. It is probable indeed that as Nero was more disposed to mildness in the beginning, Paul"s defense of his doctrine was more easily received; but that when he had advanced to the commission of lawless deeds of daring, he made the apostles as well as others the subjects of his attacks." (Ecclesiastical History 2226-8)

"It Isaiah , therefore, recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day. It is confirmed likewise by Caius, a member of the Church, who arose under Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome. Hebrews , in a published disputation with Proclus, the leader of the Phrygian heresy, speaks as follows concerning the places where the sacred corpses of the aforesaid apostles are laid: ‘But I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church.' And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his epistle to the Romans , in the following words: ‘You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time.' I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed." (Ecclesiastical History 2255-8)

"What do we need to say concerning Paul, who preached the Gospel of Christ from Jerusalem to Illyricum, and afterwards suffered martyrdom in Rome under Nero?" (Ecclesiastical History 312)

4. Athanasius (A.D 296 to 373) - Athanasius, in his Epistle to Dracontius, tells us that Paul's zeal drove him to preach as far as Illyricum, Rome, and Spain.

"This explains why the saint was zealous to preach as far as Illyricum, and not to shrink from proceeding to Rome, or even going as far as the Spains, in order that the more he laboured, he might receive so much the greater reward for his labour." (Personal Letters 49: Epistle to Dracontius 4) (NPF 2 4)

5. Cyril of Jerusalem (A.D 315 to 386) - Cyril of Jerusalem, in his second catechetical lecture upon the Holy Spirit, tells us that Paul preaches as far as Spain.

"With this Holy Spirit Paul also had been filled after his calling by our Lord Jesus Christ. Let godly Ananias come as a witness to what we say, he who in Damascus said to him, The Lord, even Jesus who appeared to thee in the way which thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mayest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. And straightway the Spirit"s mighty working changed the blindness of Paul"s eyes into newness of sight; and having vouchsafed His seal unto his soul, made him a chosen vessel to bear the Name of the Lord who had appeared to him, before kings and the children of Israel, and rendered the former persecutor an ambassador and good servant,--one, who from Jerusalem, and even unto Illyricum, fully preached the Gospel, and instructed even imperial Rome, and carried the earnestness of his preaching as far as Spain, undergoing conflicts innumerable, and performing signs and wonders. Of him for the present enough." (Catechetical Lectures 1726)

6. Epiphanius (A.D 315 to 403) - Epiphanius, in his discussion on the succession of the bishops of the church at Rome, says, "Paul even reached Spain, while Peter made frequent visits to Pontus and Bithynia." (The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Heresy 27: Against Carpocratians 65) 13]

13] The Panarion of Ephiphanius of Salamis, Book I (Sects 1-46), trans. Frank Williams (Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill, c 1978, 1987), 104; S. Epiphanii Episcopi Constantiensis Panaria Eorumque Anacephalaeosis, tomi prioris, pars prior, ed. Franciscus Oehler, in Corporis Haereseogolici, tomus secundus (Berolini:Apud A. Asher et Socios, 1859), 212.

7. Jerome (A.D 342to 420) - Jerome refers to the testimony of the earlier Church fathers and says, "Paul was dismissed by Nero, that the gospel of Christ might be preached also in the West." (Lives of Illustrious Men 5)

8. Theodore of Mopsuestia (A.D 350 to 428) - J. B. Lightfoot tells us that Theodore of Mopsuestia testifies of Paul's first release and second Roman imprisonment whereby he was martyred. He says that Paul was "set free by the judgment of Nero and ordered to depart in safety. After stopping two years at Rome, he departed thence and appears to have preached to many the teaching of godliness. However, coming a second time to Rome, while still stopping there; it happened that by the sentence of Nero he was punished with death for his preaching of godliness." (Argument in Ephesians) 14]

14] J. B. Lightfoot, Biblical Essays (London: MacMillan and Co, 1893), 426. See H. B. Swete, Theodori Episcopi Mopsuesteni in Epistolas B. Pauli Commentarii, vol 1 (Cambridge: the University Press, 1880), 116-117.

9. Theodoret (A.D 393to 466) - J. B. Lightfoot tells us that Theodoret, in his comments on Philippians 1:25, says "and the prediction was fulfilled; for at first he escaped the wrath of Nero." Then, after quoting 2 Timothy 4:16-17 and appealing to the last verses in the Acts , he continues, "Thence (i.e. from Rome) he departed to Spain, and carried the divine gospel to the inhabitants of that part also, and so he returned, and was then beheaded." (Commentary on Philippians 1:25) (PG 82, cols 565D-568A) 15]

15] J. B. Lightfoot, Biblical Essays (London: MacMillan and Co, 1893), 427.

10. Venantius Fortunatus (c 530 to c 610) - Fortunatus, the Latin poet, asserts that Paul went as far as Thule, a possible reference to Ireland, saying, "St. Paul passed over to the Isle of Britain, and to Thule, the extremity of the earth." 16]

16] Andrew N. Dugger and Clarence O. Dodd, A History of the True Religion Traced From 33 A.D. to Date (The Andrew N. Dugger Republishing Project, c 1936, 2003) [on-line]; accessed 8 May 2010; available from http://www.cog 7day.org/about/pdf/truereligion.pdf; Internet; See History of Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America, vol 1, pg 23.

C. Paul's Arrest and Imprisonment - Thus, we have strong evidence from the early Church fathers that Paul was imprisoned in Rome on two occasions, and visited Spain between these two events. During his second Roman imprisonment Paul writes his final epistle to his son Timothy. In this emotional letter he asks Timothy to come to him before winter (perhaps A.D 65-66). We have no records to indicate if Timothy ever made this trip to Rome. It is possible that Hebrews , too, was arrested during the time when Nero rose up against the churches; for we read in Hebrews 13:23, "Timothy is set at liberty; with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you."

If we look for an occasion and reference to Paul being delivered back to Roman prison the second time, the passage in 2 Timothy 4:14-18 serves as a good place to speculate. We have Paul first referring to one of his arch-enemies in the city of Ephesus, a Jew by the name of Alexander the coppersmith ( 1 Timothy 4:14-15), who made great efforts to resist Paul's ministry. He is probably the same person mentioned in Acts 19:33, and was apparently a leader of the Jewish community in Ephesus. He is mentioned in Acts because he was chosen by the Jews in Ephesus to speak to the crowd and appease their anger, but to no avail. Paul mentions a man by this name in his two epistles to Timothy. He is called Alexander the coppersmith and described as a harsh opponent to Paul's work in Ephesus. Such a description seen in Acts 19:33 of a well-spoken Jewish leader in Ephesus fits the description of a possible opponent of Paul's evangelist work in this city.

Following this warning to Timothy about his adversary in 2 Timothy 4:14-18, Paul immediately refers to his trial and defense, as if Alexander had something to do with his arrest. He recalls the painful experience of having everyone forsake him, but finds strength in the way the Lord stood by him and delivered him from the mouth of lions. It is possible that Paul is recalling the events around his second arrest, which may have taken place in Ephesus as a result of the efforts of Alexander the coppersmith. This passage may be referring to the occasion for Paul's arrest.

D. Paul's Death - Early Church tradition tells us that Paul was condemned and executed (probably beheaded) along the Appian Way, where his tomb was still standing in the second century. Tacitus, the Roman historian, tells us about the great fire in Rome, said to be caused by Nero himself on July 19, A.D 64. As a result, Nero laid the blame upon the Christians and began a persecution that extended throughout the Empire by making it a criminal offence to proclaim the Christian faith. It is possible that Paul was arrested as a result of Nero's decree and brought back to Rome to suffer martyrdom. Eusebius places the death of Peter and Paul in the thirteenth year of Nero, 17] while Jerome places it in the fourteenth year. 18]

17] Eusebius writes, "Over all his other crimes, Nero also is the first to carry out a persecution against the Christians, in which Peter and Paul gloriously died at Rome." (Chronicle: Olympiads 211.m) See PG 19 Colossians 544C and PL 27 Colossians 454C.

18] Jerome writes, "He then, in the fourteenth year of Nero on the same day with Peter, was beheaded at Rome for Christ's sake and was buried in the Ostian way, the twenty-seventh year after our Lord's passion." (Lives of Illustrious Men 5)

E. Conclusion- In conclusion, we have less background material for the Pastoral Epistles than in Paul's nine Church epistles. We also see that these Epistles depict a busy apostle, who was energetically setting churches in order that he had previously established, and strengthening new churches that were continually being planted.

II. Authorship and Canonicity

In establishing the authorship of the New Testament writings, one must also deal with the issue of canonicity, since apostolic authority was the primary condition for a book to be accepted into the biblical canon of the early Church. This section will evaluate three phases in the development of the canonicity of the Pastoral Epistles: apostolic authority, church orthodoxy, and catholicity. The first phase of canonization is called apostolic authority and is characterized by the use of the writings of the apostles by the earliest Church father in the defense of the Christian faith (1st and 2nd centuries). The second phase of canonization is called church orthodoxy and is characterized by the collection of the apostolic writings into the distinctive groups of the Gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the Catholic epistles, and their distribution among the churches as the rules of the Christian faith (late 2nd century thru 3rd century). The third phase of canonization is characterized by the general acceptance and use of the books of the New Testament by the catholic church, seen most distinctly in the early Church councils (4th century).

A. Apostolic Authority- Scholars generally agree that the New Testament canon went through several phrases of development in Church history prior to its solidification in the fourth century. F. B. Westcott says the earliest phase is considered the apostolic age in which "the writings of the Apostles were regarded from the first as invested with singular authority, as the true expression, if not the original source, of Christian doctrine and Christian practice." He says the "elements of the Catholic faith" were established during this period in Church history. 19] At this time, the early Christian Greek apologists defended the catholic faith during the rise of the heresies of the second century using the writings that carried the weight of apostolic authority. The Church clung to the books that were either written by the apostles themselves, such as Matthew ,, John , Peter, and Paul, or directly sanctioned by them, such as Mark and Luke , the assistances of Peter and Paul respectively, and the epistles of James and Jude , the brothers of the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, scholars believe apostolic authority was the primary element in selecting the canonical books. This phase is best represented by evaluating the internal evidence of the authorship of these New Testament books and by the external witnesses of the early Church fathers who declare the book's apostolic authorship and doctrinal authority over the Church.

19] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 21. The Muratorian Canon (c. A.D 200) alludes to the criteria of apostolic authority for the New Testament writings, saying, "The Pastor, moreover, did Hermas write very recently in our times in the city of Rome, while his brother bishop Pius sat in the chair of the Church of Rome. And therefore it also ought to be read; but it cannot be made public in the Church to the people, nor placed among the prophets, as their number is complete, nor among the apostles to the end of time." (Fragments of Caius 33) (ANF 5); Corey Keating says, "In the first two centuries, ‘apostolic authority' was the important factor in deciding to keep or reject a particular writing." See Corey Keating, The Criteria Used for Developing the New Testament Canon in the First Four Centuries of the Christian Church (2000); accessed 15 April 2012; available from http://www.ntgreek.org/SeminaryPapers/ChurchHistory/Criteria%20for%20Development%20of%20the%20NT%20Canon%20in%20First%20Four%20Centuries.pdf; Internet.

The fact that Paul declares himself the author of the Pastoral Epistles, along with its internal characteristics that are distinctly Pauline, with its historical illusions that coincide with the book of Acts and other Pauline epistles, and with the fact that all of the church fathers universally accepted this epistle as genuine together make a case for Pauline authorship that no one has been able to tear down in the last two thousand years. The authenticity of the Pastoral Epistles has been attacked in recent years more than any of Paul's other letters. The traditional view of the Pastoral Epistles upholds Pauline authorship. From the time of the early Church fathers until the modern age of higher criticism their authorship and canonicity was never questioned, with the exception of a few heretics of the second century, such as Marcion and perhaps Basilides, who rejected all three. We know that Marcion rejected them, not because of their authenticity, but rather, because of their content. Plummer also tells us that Titan accepted the epistle of Titus as Pauline, but rejected the two to Timothy. Plummer tells us that Origen says some rejected 2Timothy because of its reference to Jannes and Jambres, which are not mentioned in the Old Testament. 20] However, as with Paul's Church Epistles, internal and external evidence gives strong support to Pauline authorship for the Pastoral Epistles.

20] Alfred Plummer, The Pastoral Epistles, in The Expositor's Bible, ed. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), 4.

1. Internal Evidence- Internal evidence strongly supports Pauline authorship of the three epistles traditional labeled Pastoral Epistles.

a) The Author Reveals His Identity- The author's identity is clearly identified within these Epistles.

i) His Name is Paul- The opening salutations of these Epistles declare Pauline authorship.

1 Timothy 1:1, "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope;"

2 Timothy 1:1, "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,"

Titus 1:1, "Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God"s elect, and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness;"

ii) His Indirect Identity - There are many biographical references to the author of the Pastoral Epistles that indirectly identify him as Paul the apostle. He was a preacher of the Gospel and that he walked in the New Testament offices of an apostle to the Gentiles as well as a teacher ( 1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:7, 2 Timothy 1:1; 2 Timothy 1:11, Titus 1:1). He was of a Jewish background by serving his forefathers ( 2 Timothy 1:3). He refers to Timothy and Titus as his "true sons in the faith" ( 1 Timothy 1:2, Titus 1:4), as his "beloved son" ( 2 Timothy 1:2), and who were in a ministry position that required them to obey the author's charges ( 1 Timothy 1:3; 1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 2:1; 1 Timothy 5:21; 1 Timothy 6:13, 2 Timothy 4:1, Titus 1:5). His ministry took him to Macedonia, Ephesus ( 1 Timothy 1:3; 1 Timothy 3:14; 1 Timothy 4:13), Rome ( 2 Timothy 1:17), Troas ( 2 Timothy 4:13), Miletus ( 2 Timothy 4:20) and Crete ( Titus 1:5). He was familiar with the Mosaic Law ( 1 Timothy 1:5-11) and other Old Testament passages ( 1 Timothy 2:13-14; 1 Timothy 5:18, 2 Timothy 3:8), as well as the Grecian culture ( Titus 1:12). He experienced a divine, personal calling into the ministry ( 1 Timothy 1:12). His former lifestyle was characterized as a blasphemer and a persecutor of the Church, and as a violent person ( 1 Timothy 1:13). He looks upon himself as the chief of sinners ( 1 Timothy 1:15), whom God would use as an example of His marvelous saving grace to mankind ( 1 Timothy 1:16). Thus, he was a person well-known by the early Church, whose life and ministry served as an example to the early church congregations ( 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2). He held authority over the churches of Asia ( 2 Timothy 1:15) and walked with enough authority over these early churches to deliver undisciplined church members over to Satan ( 1 Timothy 1:20), and to charge Timothy and Titus on how to appoint bishops and deacons ( 1 Timothy 3:1-13, Titus 1:5-9). He walked with an anointing and authority to lay hands upon those who were being put into the ministry ( 2 Timothy 1:6). Luke was one of his faithful co-workers ( 2 Timothy 4:11). His zeal for the Lord moved him to endure much hardship for Christ and for others ( 2 Timothy 2:10-13; 2 Timothy 3:10-11), and he gives one example of the harm did to him by Alexander the coppersmith ( 2 Timothy 4:14). He was imprisoned for the sake of the Gospel ( 2 Timothy 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 2:9). He makes a reference to his legal defense in a Roman court ( 2 Timothy 4:16) and to his impending death because of his faith in Christ ( 2 Timothy 4:6). Also, the names and places that the author refers to in the Pastoral Epistles match the life and ministry of Paul and his coworkers recorded in other New Testament writings. We find the names of his co-workers and friends, Timothy, Titus ,, Luke , Apollos, Tychicus, Trophimus, Demas, Mark , Pricilla and Aquila in both sets of Pauline Epistles. And we have the places of Miletus, Ephesus, Troas, Macedonia and Corinth in common with other New Testament writings. These Pastoral Epistles show Paul establishing bishops in their diocese, while later on in early Church history these dioceses became fixed. We also know that the references in the Pastoral Epistles to heresies as well as church polity are in line with a first-century writing. In summary, all the historical and chronological references in the Pastoral Epistles are able to coincide with what we know of Paul's ministry in the Scriptures. We know from these Epistles that Paul was a close companion of Timothy and Titus , that his ministry took him throughout many regions of the Roman Empire, that he was well-versed in the Mosaic Law and the Grecian culture, and that his life and zeal for the Lord brought him many hardships, including imprisonment and finally martyrdom.

b) The Vocabulary and Style are Pauline- The number of similar words found in Luke -Acts and in the Pastoral Epistles has led some modern scholars, such as Lock and Guthrie, 21] to suggest that Luke wrote these three epistles as Paul's amanuensis (secretary) with the liberty of using much of his own vocabulary. However, many scholars note that the tone and sentiment of the Pastoral Epistles are clearly Pauline. For example, the opening salutations are characteristic of Pauline writings. Also, the author's general attitude towards the Jewish opponents and Mosaic Law are the same as other Pauline writings. Other similarities in sentiment are seen in how the writer also breaks into rapturous praise of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and of his office as a minister of Christ, and of allusions to his own conversion and office as an apostle to the Gentiles.

21] Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grover, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990), 647-648.

c) Doctrine Is Pauline - Walter Lock argues in support of Pauline authorship that the doctrines contained within these Epistles are essentially Pauline. 22] He also notes that there are many points of contact between the Pastorals and Paul"s farewell address to the Ephesian elders in Acts 20:17-38. 23] The doctrinal teachings of the Pastoral Epistles clearly flow with the other Pauline epistles in the character and temperament of these teachings. References to the Second Coming, to public worship and others in these epistles are clearly Pauline

22] Walter Lock, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles (I & II Timothy and Titus), in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, c 1924, 1959), xxvi.

23] Walter Lock, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles (I & II Timothy and Titus), in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, c 1924, 1959), 1, 7, 18.

2. External Evidence - The Church fathers were in universal agreement as to the Pauline authorship of the thirteen epistles New Testament epistles authored under his name. Thus, external evidence supports Pauline authorship of the book of Romans without exception.

It is easy to see how canonicity is a testimony to Pauline authorship when we understand that the debates of the early Church fathers to accept the general epistles of 2Peter, 2,3John, and Jude was simply a debate about their authorship. Apostolic authorship meant that the works were authentic, and thus, authoritative. It was the writing's apostolic authority that granted its inclusion into the New Testament canon. Therefore, canonicity was based upon apostolic authority, and this apostolic authority was based upon the authenticity of the writing, and its authenticity was based upon the fact that it was a genuine work of one of the apostles or one who was serving directly under that apostolic authority.

B. Church Orthodoxy- The second phase in the development of the New Testament canon placed emphasis upon Church orthodoxy, or the rule of faith for the catholic Church. F. B. Westcott says, "To make use of a book as authoritative, to assume that it is apostolic, to quote it as inspired, without preface or comment, is not to hazard a new or independent opinion, but to follow an unquestioned judgment." 24] The early Church fathers cited these apostolic writings as divinely inspired by God, equal in authority to the Old Testament Scriptures. They understood that these particular books embodied the doctrines that helped them express the Church's Creed, or generally accepted rule of faith. As F. B. Westcott notes, with a single voice the Church fathers of this period rose up from the western to the eastern borders of Christendom and became heralds of the same, unified Truth. 25] This phase is best represented in the writings of the early Church fathers by the collection of the apostolic writings into the distinctive groups of the Gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the Catholic epistles, and their distribution among the churches as the rules of the Christian faith (late 2nd century thru 3rd century). These collected works of the apostles were cited by the church fathers as they expounded upon the Christian faith and established Church orthodoxy. We will look at two aspects of the development of Church Orthodoxy: (1) the Patristic Support of Authenticity, Authority, and Orthodoxy and (2) Early Versions.

24] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan anc Co, 1875), 12.

25] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan anc Co, 1875), 331.

1. Patristic Support of Authenticity, Authority, and Orthodoxy- External evidence for Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles from the early Church fathers is strong. They are included in all ancient manuscripts, versions, and canonical lists (with the single exception of The Muratorian Canon) in the same order in which they appear in the New Testament.

The authorship of the Pastoral Epistles have never been doubted by any of the early Church fathers, and are quoted by most of them. The early Church fathers make direct statements declaring Pauline authorship, as well as direct quotes, strong allusions and weak allusions. Direct quotes are word for word citations from this book, strong allusions are apparent paraphrases, and weak allusions are words or phrases that appear to come from this book. In fact, there are more quotes from these Epistles than any other Pauline writings, excluding Romans and 1Corinthians. We find paraphrases in the some of the earliest writings of Clement of Rome (c. A.D 95), Ignatius of Antioch (c. A.D 112), Polycarp of Smyrna (c. A.D 112) and Theophilos of Antioch (c. A.D 180). Some suggest that these Epistles are alluded to in the writings of The Epistle of Barnabas (A.D 70-130), Hermas (A.D 115-140), The Didache (A.D 80-100) and Diogenetus (A.D 150), Justin Martyr (A.D 100-165), Heracleon (fl. c 145-180) and others. Irenaeus (A.D 130-200) was the first to quote them directly by mentioning these epistles along with his citations. By the close of the second century the Fathers were quoting them as unanimously accepted by the Church. The writings of the early Church fathers provide strong support for Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles. 26] Thus, the Pastoral Epistles were used by the Church fathers to establish Church orthodoxy.

26] There are many other citations available from the early Church fathers that I have not used to support the traditional views of authorship of the books of the New Testament. Two of the largest collections of these citations have been compiled by Nathaniel Lardner (1684-1768) in The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, 10 vols. (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829, 1838), and by Jacques Paul Migne (1800-1875) in the footnotes of Patrologia Latina, 221vols. (Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1844-55) and Patrologia Graecae, 161vols. (Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1857-66).

a) Clement of Rome (A.D 96) - Clement of Rome appears to be paraphrasing a phrase from 1 Timothy 2:8 in his epistle to the Corinthians.

"Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect." (1Clement 29)

1 Timothy 2:8, "I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting."

Clement of Rome appears to be quoting a phrase from Titus 3:1.

"Ye never grudged any act of kindness, being "ready to every good work.'" (1Clement 2)

Titus 3:1, "Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work,"

Clement of Rome use the phrase "with a pure conscience" in a similar way that Paul used it in 2 Timothy 1:3.

"The hateful, and those full of all wickedness, were roused to such a pitch of fury, that they inflicted torture on those who served God with a holy and blameless purpose [of heart], not knowing that the Most High is the Defender and Protector of all such as with a pure conscience venerate His all-excellent name; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." (1Clement 45)

2 Timothy 1:3, "I thank God, whom I serve from my forefathers with pure conscience, that without ceasing I have remembrance of thee in my prayers night and day;"

b) Ignatius of Antioch (A.D 35 to 107) - Ignatius of Antioch alludes to 2 Timothy 2:4 in his epistle to Polycarp.

"Please ye Him under whom ye fight, and from whom ye receive your wages. Let none of you be found a deserter." (The Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp 6)

2 Timothy 2:4, "No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier."

He quotes from 2 Timothy 2:24 in his epistle to the Ephesians.

"Wherefore Paul exhorts as follows: ‘The servant of the Lord must not strive, but be gentle towards all men, apt to teach, patient, in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves.'" (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 10)

2 Timothy 2:24, "And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient,"

He makes a possible allusion to Titus 1:10.

"For there are some vain talkers and deceivers, not Christians, but Christ-betrayers" (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians 6)

Titus 1:10, "For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision:"

c) The Didache (A.D 80 to 100) - The Didache, or The Teachings of the Twelve Apostles, was a short early Christian manual on morals and Church practice. The Gospel of Matthew is used extensively throughout the sixteen chapters of this ancient manual, particularly from the Sermon on the Mount (See The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations) (ANF 7). The Didache makes an allusion to 1Timothy and Titus on the appointment of bishops and deacons.

"Appoint, therefore, for yourselves, bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek, and not lovers of money…" (The Didache 12)

1 Timothy 3:2, "A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;"

Titus 1:7, "For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre;"

d) Polycarp (A.D 69 to 155) - Polycarp clearly borrows Paul's words in 1 Timothy 6:7; 1 Timothy 6:10 and 2 Timothy 4:10.

"‘But the love of money is the root of all evils.' Knowing, therefore, that ‘as we brought nothing into the world, so we can carry nothing out,' let us arm ourselves with the armour of righteousness; and let us teach, first of all, ourselves to walk in the commandments of the Lord." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 4)

1 Timothy 6:10, "For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows."

1 Timothy 6:7, "For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out."

"I exhort you all, therefore, to yield obedience to the word of righteousness, and to exercise all patience, such as ye have seen [set] before your eyes, not only in the case of the blessed Ignatius, and Zosimus, and Rufus, but also in others among yourselves, and in Paul himself, and the rest of the apostles. [This do] in the assurance that all these have not run in vain, but in faith and righteousness, and that they are [now] in their due place in the presence of the Lord, with whom also they suffered. For they loved not this present world, but Him who died for us, and for our sakes was raised again by God from the dead." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 9)

2 Timothy 4:10, "For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia."

He alludes to 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:8 and 2 Timothy 2:12.

"Pray also for kings, and potentates, and princes, and for those that persecute and hate you." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 12)

1 Timothy 2:1-2, "I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty."

"They must not be slanderers, double-tongued, or lovers of money, but temperate in all things, compassionate, industrious, walking according to the truth of the Lord, who was the servant…" (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 5)

1 Timothy 3:8, "Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre;"

"…and that if we live worthily of Him, ‘we shall also reign together with Him.'" (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 5)

2 Timothy 2:12, "If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:"

e) Justin Martyr (A.D 100 to 165) - Justin Martyr alludes to Titus 3:4 in his Dialogue with Trypho.

"Further, I hold that those of the seed of Abraham who live according to the law, and do not believe in this Christ before death, shall likewise not be saved, and especially those who have anathematized and do anathematize this very Christ in the synagogues, and everything by which they might obtain salvation and escape the vengeance of fire. For the goodness and the loving-kindness of God, and His boundless riches, hold righteous and sinless the man who, as Ezekiel tells, repents of sins; and reckons sinful, unrighteous, and impious the man who fails away from piety and righteousness to unrighteousness and ungodliness. Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ said, ‘In whatsoever things I shall take you, in these I shall judge you.'" (Dialogue of Justin 47)

Titus 3:4, "But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,"

f) Athenagoras (2nd c.) - Athenagoras, a Christian apologist of the second century, alludes to 1 Timothy 2:2.

"And this is also for our advantage, that we may lead a peaceable and quiet life, and may ourselves readily perform all that is commanded us." (A Plea for the Christians 37)

1 Timothy 2:2, "For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty."

g) Theophilus of Antioch (later 2nd c.) - Theophilus of Antioch quotes from 1 Timothy 2:1-2, calling it "the divine word."

"Moreover, concerning subjection to authorities and powers, and prayer for them, the divine word gives us instructions, in order that ‘we may lead a quiet and peaceable life.'" (Theophilus to Autolycus 314) (ANF 2)

1 Timothy 2:1-2, "I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty."

Theophilus of Antioch also quotes from Titus 3:5 when discussing a theme that is in harmony with Titus 3:3-7.

"Moreover, the things proceeding from the waters were blessed by God, that this also might be a sign of men"s being destined to receive repentance and remission of sins, through the water and laver of regeneration, as many as come to the truth, and are born again, and receive blessing from God." (Theophilus to Autolycus 216) (ANF 2)

Titus 3:5, "Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;"

h) Tatian (A.D. c 160) - Tatian, a second century Christian apologist, alludes to 1 Timothy 6:16.

"O Prayer of Manasseh , but finite and bounded; and beyond them are the superior worlds which have not a change of seasons, by which various, diseases are produced, but, partaking of every happy temperature, have perpetual day, and light unapproachable by men below." (Address of Titian to the Greeks 20)

1 Timothy 6:16, "Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honour and power everlasting. Amen."

i) The Muratorian Canon (late 2nd c.) - The Muratorian fragment, an ancient Latin document dated around A.D 200, is considered the earliest attempt at listing the canonical books of the New Testament. 27] In it, we find the following testimony of Pauline authorship for the Pastoral Epistles.

27] "Muratorian Canon," in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, revised, eds. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 950.

"He [Paul] wrote, besides these, one to Philemon , and one to Titus , and two to Timothy, in simple personal affection and love indeed; but yet these are hallowed in the esteem of the Catholic Church, and in the regulation of ecclesiastical discipline." (Fragments of Caius 3: Canon Muratorianus 2) (ANF 5)

j) Irenaeus (A.D 130 to 200) - Irenaeus quotes all three Pastoral Epistles by name in his book Against Heresies and credits them to the apostle Paul ( 1 Timothy 1:4, 2 Timothy 4:21, Titus 3:10, and others).

"Inasmuch as certain men have set the truth aside, and bring in lying words and vain genealogies, which, as the apostle says, ‘minister questions rather than godly edifying which is in faith,' and by means of their craftily-constructed plausibilities draw away the minds of the inexperienced and take them captive, [I have felt constrained, my dear friend, to compose the following treatise in order to expose and counteract their machinations.]" (Against Heresies 1.preface 1)

"The blessed apostles, then, having founded and built up the Church, committed into the hands of Linus the office of the episcopate. Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy." (Against Heresies 333)

"Why, then, did the Lord not form the covenant for the fathers? Because ‘the law was not established for righteous men.' But the righteous fathers had the meaning of the Decalogue written in their hearts and souls, that Isaiah , they loved the God who made them, and did no injury to their neighbour." (Against Heresies 4163)

"If, on the other hand, these men did not know it, then how is it that, while you express yourselves in the same terms as do those who knew not the truth, ye boast that yourselves alone possess that knowledge which is above all things, although they who are ignorant of God [likewise] possess it? Thus, then, by a complete perversion of language, they style ignorance of the truth knowledge: and Paul well says [of them, that [they make use of] ‘novelties of words of false knowledge.'" (Against Heresies 2147)

" John , the disciple of the Lord, preaches this faith, and seeks, by the proclamation of the Gospel, to remove that error which by Cerinthus had been disseminated among men, and a long time previously by those termed Nicolaitans, who are an offset of that "knowledge" falsely so called, that he might confound them, and persuade them that there is but one God, who made all things by His Word;" (Against Heresies 2111)

"But as many as separate from the Church, and give heed to such old wives" fables as these, are truly self-condemned; and these men Paul commands us, ‘after a first and second admonition, to avoid.'" (Against Heresies 1163)

Irenaeus refers to Titus 3:10 when describing how John the apostle and Polycarp refused to even dialogue with the heretics of their day, but rather went out from their presence in haste.

"There are also those who heard from him that John , the disciple of the Lord, going to bathe at Ephesus, and perceiving Cerinthus within, rushed out of the bath-house without bathing, exclaiming, "Let us fly, lest even the bath-house fall down, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within." And Polycarp himself replied to Marcion, who met him on one occasion, and said, "Dost thou know me?" "I do know thee, the first-born of Satan." Such was the horror which the apostles and their disciples had against holding even verbal communication with any corrupters of the truth; as Paul also says, "A man that is an heretic, after the first and second admonition, reject; knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself." (Against Heresies 334)

k) Clement of Alexandria (A.D 150 to 215) - Clement of Alexandria clearly notes that Paul is the author of all three Pastoral Epistles as he quotes from them using his name as the author.

"…therefore, the apostle says, ‘In everything approving ourselves as the servants of God; as poor, and yet making many rich; as having nothing, yet possessing all things. Our mouth is opened to you.' ‘I charge thee,' he says, writing to Timothy, ‘before God, and Christ Jesus, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things, without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality.'" (The Stromata 11)

"‘Thou, therefore, be strong,' says Paul, ‘in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. And the things which thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also.' And again: ‘Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.'" (The Stromata 11)

"…others, Epimenides the Cretan, whom Paul knew as a Greek prophet, whom he mentions in the Epistle to Titus , where he speaks thus: ‘One of themselves, a prophet of their own, said, The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. And this witness is true.'" (The Stromata 114)

Clement of Alexandria repeatedly quotes from I and 2Timothy in The Stromata and tells us that the heretics rejected these writings because their errors were refuted by them.

"Convicted by this utterance, the heretics reject the Epistles to Timothy." (The Stromata 211)

l) Tertullian (A.D 160 to 225) - Tertullian quotes frequently from all three Pastoral Epistles. When Tertullian writes his treatise On The Resurrection of the Flesh, he begins to quote from the Pauline epistles extensively and he uses Paul's name often. In chapter 23, he quotes from 1Timothy as one of Paul's writings. In The Prescription Against Heresies, Tertullian refers to both of Paul's letters to Timothy.

"Similarly, concerning Onesiphorus, does he (Paul) also write to Timothy: ‘The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy in that day;' unto which day and time he charges Timothy himself ‘to keep what had been committed to his care, without spot, unrebukable, until the appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ: which in His times He shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings and Lord of lords,' speaking of (Him as) God." (On The Resurrection of the Flesh 23)

"On this point, however, we dwell no longer, since it is the same Paul who, in his Epistle to the Galatians , counts ‘heresies' among ‘the sins of the flesh,' who also intimates to Titus , that ‘a man who is a heretic' must be ‘rejected after the first admonition,' on the ground that ‘he that is such is perverted, and committeth sin, as a self-condemned man.'" (The Prescription Against Heresies 6)

"…because Paul addressed even this expression to Timothy: ‘O Timothy, guard that which is entrusted to thee;' and again: ‘That good thing which was committed unto thee keep.' What is this deposit? Is it so secret as to be supposed to characterize a new doctrine? or is it a part of that charge of which he says, ‘This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy?' and also of that precept of which he says, ‘I charge thee in the sight of God, who quickeneth all things, and before Jesus Christ who witnessed a good confession under Pontius Pilate, that thou keep this commandment?'" (The Prescription Against Heresies 25)

"Such also as ‘forbid to marry' he (Paul) reproaches in his instructions to Timothy." (The Prescription Against Heresies 33)

m) Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) - Eusebius tells us that Paul wrote his second epistle to Timothy from Rome.

"After the martyrdom of Paul and of Peter, Linus was the first to obtain the episcopate of the church at Rome. Paul mentions him, when writing to Timothy from Rome, in the salutation at the end of the epistle." (Ecclesiastical History 321)

2 Timothy 4:21, "Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren."

Eusebius quotes Hegesippus, taking words from 1 Timothy 6:20.

"But when the sacred college of apostles had suffered death in various forms, and the generation of those that had been deemed worthy to hear the inspired wisdom with their own ears had passed away, then the league of godless error took its rise as a result of the folly of heretical teachers, who, because none of the apostles was still living, attempted henceforth, with a bold face, to proclaim, in opposition to the preaching of the truth, the ‘knowledge which is falsely Song of Solomon -called.'" (Ecclesiastical History 3328)

1 Timothy 6:20, "O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called:"

Plummer notes that Eusebius places all three Pastoral Epistles among the accepted canon, and not among the questionable books. 28]

28] Alfred Plummer, The Pastoral Epistles, in The Expositor's Bible, eds. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1891), 6.

"Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed." (Ecclesiastical History 335)

"Since we are dealing with this subject it is proper to sum up the writings of the New Testament which have been already mentioned. First then must be put the holy quaternion of the Gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles. After this must be reckoned the epistles of Paul; next in order the extant former epistle of John , and likewise the epistle of Peter, must be maintained. After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Apocalypse of John , concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings. (Ecclesiastical History 3251-2)

2. Manuscript Evidence - Paul's epistles are found in numerous early Greek manuscripts. One of the earliest manuscripts, the Chester Beatty codex (p 46), which was probably written in Egypt near the end of the second century, contains eight Pauline epistles ( Romans , 1 & 2 Corinthians ,, Galatians ,, Ephesians ,, Philippians ,, Colossians , 1Thess) and the epistle of Hebrews. 29] It probably contained the entire Pauline corpus in its original collection. There are a number of third century manuscripts that contain portions of the Pauline corpus, and a number of fourth century manuscripts that originally contained the entire New Testament (Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Sinaiticus). These ancient manuscripts containing the collective body of Pauline epistles testify to the fact that the Church at large circulated these writings as a part of its orthodox faith.

29] Philip W. Comfort, and David P. Barrett, eds, The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts (Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc, c 1999, 2001), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "P 46 (P. Chester Beatty II + P. Mich. Inv 6238)."

Perhaps the most notable concern over the canonicity of the Pastoral Epistles arises out of their absence from the Chester Beatty Papyrus (P46). 30] In defense it must be stated that this important document, dated about the middle of the third century, has not been fully preserved, and the last pages of this very ancient manuscript, which would have contained the Pastoral Epistles, is missing. Song of Solomon , despite these few exceptions, these Epistles were clearly accepted by the early Church at large.

30] C. Sumner Wemp, The First Epistle of Timothy, in KJV Bible commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1994, 1997, "Introduction."

3. Early Versions- The earliest translations of the New Testament, written when the canon was being formed, included the Pauline epistles; 31] the Old Latin (2nd to 4th c), the Coptic (3rd to 4th c), the Peshitta (4th c), the Armenian (5th c), the Georgian (5th c), and the Ethiopic (6th c). 32] The Pauline epistles would not have been translated with the other New Testament writings unless it was considered a part of the orthodox beliefs of the Church at large.

31] Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (Oxford: University Press, 1968), 69-86.

32] The Old Latin Bible manuscripts of the fifth century, Codex Bezae (Gospels, Acts , Catholic epistles), Codex Claromontanus (Pauline epistles), and Codex Floriacensis ( Acts , Catholic epistles, Revelation) were used prior to Jerome's Vulgate (beginning A. D 382), and these Old Latin manuscripts testify to the canonization of the twenty-seven books of the New Testament at an early date. See Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds, The Greek New Testament, Third Edition (United Bible Societies, c 1966, 1968, 1975), xxxi-xxxiv.

C. Catholicity- The third and final phase of New Testament canonicity placed emphasis upon the aspect of catholicity, or the general acceptance of the canonical books. F. B. Westcott says, "The extent of the Canon, like the order of the Sacraments, was settled by common usage, and thus the testimony of Christians becomes the testimony of the Church." 33] This phase is best represented in the period of Church councils of the fourth century as bishops met and agreed upon a list of canonical books generally accepted by the catholic Church. However, approved canons were listed by individual Church fathers as early as the second century. These books exhibited a dynamic impact upon the individual believers through their characteristic of divine inspiration, transforming them into Christian maturity, being used frequently by the church at large. We will look at two testimonies of catholicity: (1) the Early Church Canons, and (2) Early Church Councils.

33] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 12.

4. Early Church Canons- Early Church canons and versions support the Pastoral Epistles as a part of the body of Pauline epistles. They are listed in one of the earliest canons, that of The Muratorian Canon, as one of Paul's thirteen New Testament epistles (A.D 180) (Fragments of Caius 3: Canon Muratorianus 2) (ANF 5). They are found in every canonical list thereafter: Apostolic canon (c 300), 34] and the Cheltenham canon (c 365-390). 35] Some of the early Church fathers provided canonical lists in their writings. Tertullian (A.D 160-225) tells us that Marcion the heretic rejected them in his Instrumentum (A.D 140). 36] Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) includes them in his list of "acknowledged books." 37] Athanasius gives us a canonical list includes them (c 367). 38] Cyril of Jerusalem (A.D 315-386) includes them in his list. 39]

34] See Constitutions of the Holy Apostles 74785 (ANF 7)

35] Glen Davis, "The Cheltenham Canon," [on-line]; accessed 9 May 2010; available from http://www.ntcanon.org/Cheltenham_Canon.shtml; Internet; See Erwin Preuschen, Analecta: Krzere texte zur Geschichte der Alten Kirche und des Kanons, zusammengestellt von Erwin Preuschen (Leipzig: Mohr, 1893), 138-40; See Bruce M. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament: Its Origin, Development, and Significance (Oxford: University Press, 1987), 231-232.

36] Tertullian writes, "To this epistle [Philemon] alone did its brevity avail to protect it against the falsifying hands of Marcion. I wonder, however, when he received (into his Apostolicon) this letter which was written but to one Prayer of Manasseh , that he rejected the two epistles to Timothy and the one to Titus , which all treat of ecclesiastical discipline. His aim, was, I suppose, to carry out his interpolating process even to the number of (St. Paul"s) epistles." (Against Marcion 521)

37] See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 331-7; 324-25.

38] Athansius, Festal Letters 395 (Easter, 367) (NPF 2 4)

39] See Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures 436 (NPF 2 7)

2. Early Church Councils- The earliest major Church councils named the Pauline epistles as authentic writings; Nicea (c 325-40), Hippo (393), Carthage (397), and Carthage (419). This would not have been done unless the church at large believed them to be canonical.

During the fourth century, the Roman emperor Constantine was converted to Christianity and ordered Eusebius to produce fifty copies of the Scriptures. 40] The production and distribution of these Bibles, along with the Church synods that followed, served to confirm the twenty-seven books of the New Testament as canonical and authoritative. The early Church traditions of authorship and authenticity became firmly embedded within their canonicity. Therefore, citations of the New Testament Scriptures and later manuscript evidence after this period of Church history only serve to repeat traditions that had already become well-known and established among the churches of the fourth century.

40] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, fourth edition (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 422-426.

C. Arguments Against Pauline Authorship- Despite this overwhelming testimony to Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistle, modern scholarship has built a strong case against it based primarily upon internal evidence. C. Sumner Wemp tells us that skepticism towards Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles began to grow with the rise of higher criticism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as did many other books in the Scriptures at this time. We find these initial attacks coming from the German theology school of scholars. 41] Philip Schaff tells us that Schleiermacher led the way in 1807 by attacking 1Timothy. This was followed by "DeWette…Bauer (1835)…Schwegler (1846), Hilgenfeld (1875), Mangold, Schenkel, Hausrath, Pfleiderer (both in his Paulinismus and in his Commentary in the Protestanten-Bibel, 1874), Holtzmann (1880); also by Ewald, Renan (L'Église chrétienne, pp 85 sqq.), and Sam. Davidson (Introd., revised ed, II:21 sqq.)." 42] Thus, we see how this view originated from Germany, and made its way into Britain and U.S. theological circles.

41] C. Sumner Wemp, The First Epistle of Timothy, in KJV Bible commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1994, 1997, "Introduction."

42] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 371.

C. Sumner Wemp say that there are three views held by scholars today regarding these three epistles: "(1) those who hold to Pauline authorship (such as Godet, Lightfoot, Alford, Lange, Schaff, Ramsay, etc.); (2) those who believe that these epistles should be placed in the second century and consequently are not to be considered Pauline in any sense of the word (such as Baur, Hatch, Goodspeed, etc.); and (3) those who take a mediating position claiming that while these letters were not written by Paul, they do contain some genuine Pauline fragments (such as Ewald, Harnack, Moffatt, etc.)." 43] However, it would be highly unlikely that the early Church father would have preserved "scraps" of Pauline writings, and still less likely that the early Church would have incorporated into the New Testament canon any later, non-canonical, non-apostolic writings, which lacked the authority of the other New Testament books.

43] C. Sumner Wemp, The First Epistle of Timothy, in KJV Bible commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1994, 1997, "Introduction."

Regarding the view that these Epistles are a second century writing, today many modern scholars maintain that these Epistles are pseudepigraphical, that Isaiah , they were written pseudonymously some time after Paul's death, dating them around the turn of the second century. They suggest that someone wrote them later in order to combat the rise in Gnosticism in the second century. However, we have an account from Tertullian where the early Church fathers expelled an elder from his ecclesiastical office for writing pseudonymously, 44] showing that this practice was unacceptable to the early Church. The fact that this person's name remains hidden in history makes it less likely to have occurred.

44] Tertullian writes, "But if the writings which wrongly go under Paul's name, claim Thecla's example as a licence for women's teaching and baptizing, let them know that, in Asia, the presbyter who composed that writing, as if he were augmenting Paul's fame from his own store, after being convicted, and confessing that he had done it from love of Paul, was removed from his office." (On Baptism 17)

The primary reasons for many modern critics to reject Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles is listed by Plummer and others, and are found to largely rest entirely upon speculations from internal evidence; for their external testimony is insurmountable. Here is a summary of issues discussed by Donald Guthrie. 45]

45] Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grover, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990), 612-621.

1. The Historical Argument- It is a fact that all three Pastoral Epistles contain historical allusions to the life and ministry of Paul the apostle. It is also true that some scholars find it difficult to fit the narrative material of these epistles within the book of Acts and the other Pauline epistles. Therefore, some modern scholars take this information and come to the conclusion that these Epistles hold a later date of writing. A few others, such as J. A. T. Robinson, fit these three Epistles within the book of Acts by randomly assigning them dates within Paul's three missionary journeys. However, this argument for a later date of writing is countered by suggesting that these events happened within a few years after Paul's release from his first Roman imprisonment. This conservative view has the support of the early Church fathers, who strongly testify of two Roman imprisonments.

2. The Linguistic Argument- Scholars argue for a late date using the fact that the Pastoral Epistles contain a large amount of unique phraseology and vocabulary not found in other Pauline writings. But this argument for a later date of writing is countered by showing a similar amount of diversity within other Pauline epistles, such as Galatians. Such broader studies reveal that there is not as much uniqueness within the Pastoral Epistles as it first appears. In addition, one must consider the fact that the common phraseology within the three Pastoral Epistles is dictated by a common subject and similar historical background. In addition, such arguments against Pauline authorship based upon linguistics do not take into account the possible use of an amanuensis, who would have injected his own vocabulary and style. Also, most of the words that occur only once in these Epistles can be found in the LXX and in extra-biblical Greek literature, showing that these words were a part of the vocabulary of the Greek at that time of the first century. In summary, there just simply is not enough written material within these three Epistles to draw any definitive statistical conclusions that could result in claims of a second-century document.

3. The Ecclesiastical Argument- Some scholars argue for a later date of writing by saying that the Church order described within the Pastoral Epistles is of a later date than Paul's time. They state that Paul had little or no interest in organizing churches, and that it would take time to develop such order. This argument is countered by stating that there is no reason to doubt that such church order existed during Paul's time. In fact, Paul is more preoccupied with church order in the Pastoral Epistles, while placing emphasis upon Church doctrine in his other epistles. We know from the Scriptures there was some form of church order that existed in every church that Paul planted; for the Church Epistles contain references to elders, overseers, deacons, widows those that rule among them. We read about deacons in Acts 6:1, about widows in Acts 9:39; Acts 9:41 and 1 Corinthians 7:8, about apostles and elders during the first Jerusalem Council in Acts 15:1-21, and about "bishops and deacons" in Philippians 1:1, and there are elders in the church of Ephesus in Acts 20:17. Also, Paul tells the Romans that "he that ruleth, with diligence" ( Romans 12:8), and Paul tells the Thessalonians "to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord" ( 1 Thessalonians 5:12), and Paul lists for the Corinthians the offices in the Church as "apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues" ( 1 Corinthians 12:28). Thus, there is no lack of church order within the book of Acts and the other Pauline epistles.

4. The Doctrinal Argument- The erroneous doctrines attacked within the Pastoral Epistles are thought by some scholars to be of a later date than Paul's time. This argument is largely based upon the absence of characteristic Pauline doctrines seen in the other nine Church Epistles. This argument is countered by the fact that the Pastoral Epistles were not intended on laying down Church doctrine, but rather, establishing the order in which Church doctrine was to be administered within local congregations. Some skeptics believe that these Epistles were primarily intended on combating Gnosticism. There is no reason to doubt that such issues existed during Paul's time, but the fact is Paul was countering Jewish traditions more than Gnosticism in these three Epistles. We find just such arguments in Paul's epistle to the Colossians. Throughout these epistles, Paul constantly referred to "the faith, "the deposit," and "sound teaching" as a way of referring to sacred Church doctrine.

Plummer adds that the authenticity of the three Pastoral Epistles stands or falls together, so closely are they linked in subject matter. They must stand or fall based upon the assumption of two Roman imprisonments; for if Paul was martyred during his first imprisonment, then critics would find a strong foothold to question their authenticity. 46] However, all evidence supports two imprisonments.

46] Alfred Plummer, The Pastoral Epistles, in The Expositor's Bible, eds. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1891), 8.

III. Date and Place of Writing

Up until recent years with the rise of higher criticism, it is the commonly held view that Paul the apostle wrote the three Pastoral Epistles between his two Roman imprisonments. The epistles of 1Timothy and Titus were written close together while Paul was traveling through Macedonia around A.D 62-64after being released from his first Roman imprisonment, and 2Timothy was written during Paul's second Roman imprisonment around A.D 65-67. However, a large group of scholars now debate this traditional view with a variety of newly formed theories.

A. Date of Writing - There are a number of views as to the date of writing of 1Timothy and Titus. Some date them during Paul's third missionary journey as early as A.D 58, while the majority of scholars date them between his two Roman imprisonments around A.D 64.

1. A.D 64 - The conservative view is to date 1Timothy and Titus between Paul's first and second Roman imprisonments, perhaps three or four years after his first release, and to date 2Timothy during his second Roman imprisonment. We then must look for the date of his first imprisonment and find it dated as early as A.D 59-61, with others dating it A.D 60-62, 61-63,62-64. However, the dating of his second imprisonment is even less clear. The early Church fathers unanimously testify to Paul's death at the hands of Nero, who committed suicide in June of A.D 68. Since Paul asked Timothy to come before winter ( 2 Timothy 4:21) we cannot date 2Timothy after the autumn of A.D 67. Therefore, most scholars place 1Timothy and Titus around A.D 62-66. Many conservative scholars give all three Pastoral Epistles a date of around A.D 64.

Because of internal evidences within the Pastoral Epistles, most conservative scholars believe that they were all three written within a short period of time of each other. (1) For example, when we compare 1Timothy and Titus , we see enough similarity to conclude that Paul wrote these two epistles within a short time of each other, just as we conclude because of similarities with epistles of Ephesus and Colossians. Both of these Pastoral Epistles list the qualifications of a bishop in a similar manner, with their content emphasizing the establishment of Church doctrine and order in the local churches. (2) In addition, the issues and challenges that Timothy faced in his second epistle agree with what may be inferred from 1Timothy and Titus , making Timothy's two epistles similar enough to suggest a close date of writing. (3) One third internal support for dating these Epistles within a few years of Paul's first imprisonment and close together is because of the names associated with Paul. In the years leading up to Paul's first imprisonment, there are twenty-two individuals who are mentioned that worked with Paul (Apollos, Aquila, Priscilla, Aristarchus, Demas, Epaphras or Epaphroditus, Erastus, Gaius, Justus, Lucius, Luke ,, Mark , Onesimus, Secundus, Silas, Sopater, Sosthenes, Sylvanus, Timothy, Titus , Trophiraus and Tychicus). Of these, eleven are mentioned in the Pastoral Epistles (Apollos, Aquila, Priscilla, Demas, Erastus, Luke ,, Mark , Timothy, Titus , Trophiraus and Tychicus). Nine new individuals are mentioned (Artemas, Carpus, Claudia, Crescens, Eubulus, Linus, Onesiphorus, Pudens and Zenas). This proportion of change suggests a three or four period between Paul's first imprisonment and the writing of the Pastoral Epistles. With these internal witnesses, almost all commentators date them close together.

Some scholars assume that the winter Paul refers to in Titus 3:12 and 2 Timothy 4:20 are the same, and draw an itinerary for Paul as a result. He could have traveled from Crete, to Miletus, to perhaps Ephesus, Macedonia, Nicopolis, and finally to Rome. This would suggest that Titus was written first, followed by 1Timothy and later 2Timothy. However, the information provided is much too brief and vague to confirm any itinerary, or which epistle was written first.

In summary, the design of these three Epistles, their subject matter, phraseology, and references to certain events all indicate a date that is distinct from and later than the other Pauline writings. The foresight of Paul's own martyrdom, his work in Crete, the comments of foreboding evils coming upon the Church, the new people mentioned by name that are unique to these epistles and the unique vocabulary and phrases all serve to place them in a somewhat difference setting than Paul's Church Epistles.

2. A.D 58 - Having said all of that, there is a second view held by a number of other conservative scholars who date 1Timothy and Titus during Paul's third missionary journey and 2Timothy during his first Roman imprisonment about the same time Paul wrote his four Prison Epistles. This view was proposed as early as the times of Theodoret of Cyrrus (A.D 393-466). 47] Scholars refer to 1 Timothy 1:3 where Paul tells Timothy to remain in Ephesus while he goes into Macedonia as the time when Paul departed Ephesus during his third missionary journey after three years of work in that important city. We do know from the book of Acts (see Acts 20:1) that Paul left Ephesus as a result of the uproar and departed immediately into Macedonia. This would have taken place around A.D 58 or 59. Their argument is based upon the views that:

47] Theodoret writes, "I will show, says Hebrews , the order of the apostle's epistles: The blessed Paul wrote fourteen epistles; but I do not think that he assigned them that order which we now have in our Bibles. The epistle written by the divine Paul to the Romans , stands first in order; nevertheless, it is the last of those which were sent from Asia, Macedonia, and Achaia: the two epistles first written are, the two epistles to the Thessalonians; next, the two epistles to the Corinthians: the fifth, in order of time, is the first to Timothy; the next, is that to Titus: the epistle to the Romans is the seventh…The last of all his epistles is the second to Timothy. This is the order of the epistles in point of time." (PG 82cols 37-44) Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol 5 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 17; See Joh. Ed. Hunter, Critical and Exegetical Hand-book to the Epistles to Timothy and Titus , trans. David Hunter, in Critical and Exegetical Hand-book to the New Testament, ed. Heinrich August Wilhelm Meyer (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1890), 10.

a) There is only one record of Paul ever departing Ephesus for Macedonia. However, the objection is that Paul sent Timothy and Erastus ahead of him before this departure ( Acts 19:22). Therefore, he could not have left Timothy in Ephesus on this occasion. We know from 2 Corinthians 1:1 that Timothy was with Paul when he wrote his second epistle to the Corinthians while in Macedonia, which verifies that Timothy was not left in Ephesus at this time.

b) There is no historical evidence that Paul ever visited Ephesus after his first Roman imprisonment.

c) This early date during Paul's third missionary journey fits the character of the first epistle to Timothy. For example, it is clear from 1 Timothy 1:3 that the work was left unfinished. When Paul passed by Ephesus on his final trip to Jerusalem, there were clearly elders appointed in the church who met Paul in Miletus. However, the objection can be raised that the errors mentioned in 1Timothy had not yet penetrated the church of Ephesus when Paul first departed during his third missionary journey. Such errors would have taken time to develop, of which Paul prophetically warned the church elders in Acts 20:29-30.

d) Timothy was a young man at the time Paul wrote his first epistle to him. However, the objection is seen in that Paul was much older than Timothy, and a span of six or eight years between these two proposed dates would not have changed Paul's description of Timothy's youth.

e) Paul intended to return unto Ephesus shortly ( 1 Timothy 3:14). This implies that Paul had left some work undone and intended to return as soon as the circumstances were favorable. When he later met with the elders in Miletus he stated that they would see his face no more ( Acts 20:25). However, the objection is that when Paul left Ephesus for Macedonia and Achaia he intended on going directly to Jerusalem and then Rome. Thus, on the occasion when Paul left Ephesus on his third missionary journey, he had no intention of returning to Ephesus shortly thereafter. However, Hug, in his Introduction to the New Testament, argues that Paul had plenty of time to depart briefly and return to Ephesus during his three-year stay there, and thus fulfill Paul's statement in 1 Timothy 3:14 of a quick return.

3. Second Century - For those scholars who reject Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles and for some who yield to fragmentary Pauline authorship, there arises the suggestion that they are the work of a Paulinist who took the liberty to use the prestige and authority of Paul's name for the purpose of combating the evils of his day. Such scholarship dates these Epistles during the second century when Gnosticism was at its peak.

In addition, there is testimony for dating 2Timothy during Paul's second imprisonment. It is clearly a prison epistle when noting 2 Timothy 1:8, "Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner." We have evidence from 2 Timothy 1:16-17 that it was written from Rome, for Paul refers to a visit from Onesiphorus while he was in Rome, and the persons saluting Timothy were in Rome ( 2 Timothy 4:21). We can suggest from 2 Timothy 4:7 that it was written a short time before his death. But, if we examine the text further, the evidence weighs towards a second imprisonment rather than the first.

1. The Tone of the Prison Epistles and the Pastoral Epistles are Different- The tone of the Pastoral Epistles, written during Paul's first imprisonment, shows Paul expecting to be released from prison ( Philippians 2:24, Philemon 1:22), while that of 2Timothy shows that Paul had no expectation of such a release ( 2 Timothy 4:6).

2. The People Mentioned in the Prison Epistles and the Pastoral Epistles are Different - The fact that the names of those individuals involved with Paul's ministry in the Prison Epistles are very different that those mentioned in the Pastoral Epistles implies a different period in Paul's life and ministry. In particular, Timothy was with Paul when writing the Prison Epistles ( Colossians 1:1, Philemon 1:1), but 2Timothy reveals that he is absent ( 2 Timothy 4:9; 2 Timothy 4:21). In the former Epistles Demas was with Paul ( Colossians 4:14, Philemon 1:24), but in 2Timothy he had forsaken Paul ( 2 Timothy 4:10). In the former Epistles Mark was also with Paul ( Colossians 4:10), but in 2Timothy Paul orders him to come with Timothy ( 2 Timothy 4:11).

3. Paul's References to His Travels in 2Timothy Do Not Fit His Third Missionary Journey- The fact that Paul tells Timothy that he left Erastus at Corinth and Trophimus at Miletum suggest a recent visit to those two cities. But when Paul first traveled to Rome, it had been years since his last visit to Corinth or Miletum. This implies that Paul wrote 2Timothy during a second trip to Rome after having traveled again after his first release. Thus, Paul's reference to the cloke that he left at Troas with Carpus makes more sense, being something that took place not long before Paul wrote to Timothy.

Since early Church tradition places Paul's martyrdom shortly before Nero's suicide in June A.D 68, it is likely that Paul wrote this second Epistle to Timothy in the fall of 67 urging him to come before the winter of 67-68.

B. Place of Writing - The places of writing differ among the three Pastoral Epistles.

1. The Epistle of 1Timothy Probably Written From Macedonia or Laodicea- We have indications in 1 Timothy 1:3 that Paul probably wrote his first epistle to Timothy from Macedonia, where he had planted churches in Philippi, Thessalonica and Berea, though the text allows a later time of writing. We know from 1 Timothy 1:3 that Timothy received this epistle while serving in the church of Ephesus.

1 Timothy 1:3, "As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine,"

Theodoret of Cyrrus (A.D 393-466) writes, "I think the fifth to write (was) the first one to Timothy. For after indeed the earlier one he says thus, ‘Just as I besought you to abide in Ephesus, while I go into Macedonia. And the history of the (book) of Acts teaches us also, when he first left for Macedonia… after this I think he wrote the one to Titus; for in those (epistles) while he was still living in those parts, he announced that he would overtake them. [PG 82col 40B-40D] (author's translation)

In his argument to the first epistle of Timothy, Euthalius (5th c.) writes, "This one he sent from Laodicea." (PG 85 Colossians 780C) (author's translation)

In the Synopsis of Sacred Scripture, Pseudo-Athanasius (4th-6th c.) gives a summary of 1Timothy, saying, "This one he sends from Macedonia." (PG 28 Colossians 425A) (author's translation)

Ebedjesu (d 1318), the Syrian bishop, reflects medieval tradition by saying Paul wrote his first epistle to Timothy from the city of Laodicia of Pisidia. 48]

48] Ebedjesu writes, "Besides these there are fourteen epistles of the great Apostle Paul…the First Epistle to Timothy, also written from Laodicia of Pisidia, and sent by the hands of Luke." See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol 4 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 321; George Percy Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals, vol 2 (London: Joseph Masters, 1852), 362.

John Calvin (1509-1564) tells us that Laodicea is the traditional place of writing for 1Timothy, but he believes Paul wrote this epistle either before arriving in Ephesus or after making this trip. His argument is that Paul never visited Laodicea, according to Colossians 2:1, "For I would that ye knew what great conflict I have for you, and for them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh." 49]

49] John Calvin, Commentary on the First Epistle to Timothy, trans. William Pringle (Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1856), 16.

Euthalius, an unknown deacon of the fifth century, is believed to have provided the testimonies for the subscriptions to the Pauline epistles found in the Authorized Version (1611). 50] However, not all of these subscriptions match the comments of Euthalius (compare the differences in 1,2Corinthians and 2Thessalonians). Thus, the committee of the Authorized Version probably relied on various sources for their subscriptions. A subscription attached to this epistle of 1Timothy in the Authorized Version (1611) reads, "The first to Timothie was written from Laodicea, which is the chiefest citie of Phrygia Pacatiana." 51]

50] Matthew George Easton, "Subscriptions," in Easton's Bible Dictionary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, c 1897), in The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).

51] The Holy Bible: A Facsimile in a reduced size of the Authorized Version published in the year 1611, ed. Alfred William Pollard (Oxford: The University Press, 1911).

2. The Epistle of Titus Probably Written From Nicopolis of Macedonia- As to the place of writing for Titus , the text gives us no clear indication of Paul's location at that time. However, we do know from Titus 1:5 that Titus was in Crete when he received his letter.

Titus 1:5, "For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city, as I had appointed thee:"

At some point in Paul"s trip to Nicopolis in Greece, Paul wrote this epistle to Titus ( Titus 3:12). It appears to be written in the fall of the year, just before winter approaches ( Titus 3:12).

Titus 3:12, "When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter."

The epistle of Titus may have been written from Ephesus or Macedonia, but it was most likely written during this same period of time that Paul wrote 1Timothy.

Theodoret of Cyrrus (A.D 393-466) writes, "I think the fifth to write (was) the first one to Timothy. For after indeed the earlier one he says thus, ‘Just as I besought you to abide in Ephesus, while I go into Macedonia. And the history of the (book) of Acts teaches us also, when he first left for Macedonia… after this I think he wrote the one to Titus; for in those (epistles) while he was still living in those parts, he announced that he would overtake them. [PG 82col 40B-40D] (author's translation)

In his argument to the epistle of Titus , Euthalius (5th c.) writes, "This one he sent from Nicopolis, for there he spent the winter." (PG 85 Colossians 785C) (author's translation)

In the Synopsis of Sacred Scripture, Pseudo-Athanasius (4th-6th c.) gives a summary of Titus , saying, "This one he sends from Nicopolis; for there he wintered." (PG 28 Colossians 428A) (author's translation)

Ebedjesu (d 1318), the Syrian bishop, reflects medieval tradition by saying Paul wrote his epistle to Titus from the city of Nacapolis. 52]

52] Ebedjesu writes, "Besides these there are fourteen epistles of the great Apostle Paul…the Epistle to Titus , written at Nicapolis, and sent by the hands of Epaphroditus." See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol 4 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 321; George Percy Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals, vol 2 (London: Joseph Masters, 1852), 362.

A subscription attached to this epistle of Titus in the Authorized Version (1611) reads, "It was written to Titus ordained the first bishop of the church of the Cretians, from Nicopolis of Macedonia." 53]

53] The Holy Bible: A Facsimile in a reduced size of the Authorized Version published in the year 1611, ed. Alfred William Pollard (Oxford: The University Press, 1911).

3. The Epistle of 2Timothy Probably Written During Paul's Second Imprisonment in Rome - Early Church tradition tells us that Paul wrote his second epistle to Timothy during his second Roman imprisonment, just before his death. In addition, the early church historian Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) tells us that Paul wrote his second epistle to Timothy while suffering his second imprisonment in Rome (Ecclesiastical History 321). Eusebius also says that there are clear references in this epistle to Paul"s deliverance from his first Roman imprisonment ( 2 Timothy 4:16-18) and to his pending death during his second imprisonment ( 2 Timothy 4:6) (Ecclesiastical History 2221-2).

"After the martyrdom of Paul and of Peter, Linus was the first to obtain the episcopate of the church at Rome. Paul mentions him, when writing to Timothy from Rome, in the salutation at the end of the epistle." (Ecclesiastical History 321)

"And Luke , who wrote the Acts of the Apostles, brought his history to a close at this point, after stating that Paul spent two whole years at Rome as a prisoner at large, and preached the word of God without restraint. Thus after he had made his defense it is said that the apostle was sent again upon the ministry of preaching, and that upon coming to the same city a second time he suffered martyrdom. In this imprisonment he wrote his second epistle to Timothy, in which he mentions his first defense and his impending death. (Ecclesiastical History 2221-2)

Eusebius refers to 2 Timothy 4:21 in this quote to justify his statement.

2 Timothy 4:21, "Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren."

John Chrysostom (A.D 347-406) testifies that Paul write 2Timothy from Rome.

"And the Epistle to Timothy, he sent also from Rome, when in prison; which seems to me, too, to be the last of all the Epistles; and this is plain from the end: For I am now ready to be offered, he says, and the lime of my departure is at hand. But that he ended his life there, is clear, I may say, to every one." 54]

54] John Chrysostom, Homilies of S. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, on the Epistle of S. Paul the Apostle to the Romans , in A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, Anterior to the Division of the East and the West, vol 7 (Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1841), 3.

Theodoret of Cyrrus (A.D 393-466) writes, "And last of all he wrote the second one to Timothy…he wrote from Rome." 44A] (PG 82cols 37B to 44A) (author's translation)

In his argument to the second epistle of Timothy, Euthalius (5th c.) writes, "This one he sent again from Rome." (PG 85 Colossians 784B) (author's translation)

In the Synopsis of Sacred Scripture, Pseudo-Athanasius (4th-6th c.) gives a summary of 2Timothy, saying, "This one he sends again from Rome." (PG 28 Colossians 425C) (author's translation)

Ebedjesu (d 1318), the Syrian bishop, reflects medieval tradition by saying Paul wrote his second epistle to Timothy from the city of Rome. 55]

55] Ebedjesu writes, "Besides these there are fourteen epistles of the great Apostle Paul…the Second to Timothy, written from Rome, and sent by the hands of Luke , the Physician and Evangelist." See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol 4 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 321; George Percy Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals, vol 2 (London: Joseph Masters, 1852), 362.

John Calvin (1509-1564) is an exception to this tradition, telling us that Paul wrote his second epistle to Timothy while in Ephesus ( Acts 18:18-19, 2 Timothy 4:19). 56]

56] John Calvin, Commentary on the Second Epistle to Timothy, trans. William Pringle (Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1856), 179.

2 Timothy 4:19, "Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus."

Acts 18:18-19, "And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for he had a vow. And he came to Ephesus, and left them there: but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews."

A subscription attached to this epistle of 2Timothy in the Authorized Version (1611) reads, "The second epistle unto Timotheus, ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians , was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time." 57]

57] The Holy Bible: A Facsimile in a reduced size of the Authorized Version published in the year 1611, ed. Alfred William Pollard (Oxford: The University Press, 1911).

There is internal evidence to support the popular early Church tradition that Paul wrote 2Timothy from Rome.

a) Paul makes a reference to his presence in Rome in 2 Timothy 1:17, as well as a number of references to his imprisonment ( 2 Timothy 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:17; 2 Timothy 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:6; 2 Timothy 4:16-17).

2 Timothy 1:16-17, "The Lord give mercy unto the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: But, when he was in Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me."

b) The statement in 2 Timothy 2:17 that "I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion," mostly likely is a reference to his first release under Nero. The fact that Paul sends greetings from Linus, who became bishop of Rome, further suggests that Paul wrote from Rome. And Paul's statement in 2 Timothy 4:6-8 that his death was near tells us that Paul wrote at the end of his life. We can only assume that Timothy received this final epistle while still in Ephesus.

c) Paul's first imprisonment as Luke described it in Acts 28 was much milder than the one Paul describes in 2Timothy. For example, during his first imprisonment Paul had the liberty to dwell in his own hired house, receiving many friends ( Acts 28:20). In addition, he was guarded by one soldier, having been given preferential treatment ( Acts 28:16). In contrast, Paul's description of his imprisonment in 2Timothy refers to his chains ( 2 Timothy 1:16-18), suffering trouble, as an evil doer, even unto bonds ( 2 Timothy 2:9), impending death by execution ( 2 Timothy 4:6-8) and a fiery trial that frightened his friends and condemned him. ( 2 Timothy 4:16-17). We see a picture of Paul standing by himself with railing accusations coming against him, and no one to testify in his behalf; because to do so would have brought the same judgment upon such a witness as a support of the Christian faith. This would explain why all forsook him.

d) Paul's request for his coat, the books and parchments left behind at Troas in 2 Timothy 4:13 could not have been a reference to his visit there in Acts 20:5-6, since as long as seven or eight years would have expired. This is a reference to a relatively recent trip to Troas.

e) The occasion of leaving Trophimus at Miletum sick in 2 Timothy 4:20 could not correspond with Paul's visit there in Acts 20:15; for they were together again in Jerusalem in Acts 21:29 not long after passing by Miletum.

f) Paul's statement in 2 Timothy 4:20 that Erastus abode at Corinth implies a recent visit there where he left Erastus. But during Paul's first imprisonment, it had been years since he had visited the city of Corinth.

We can only guest Timothy's whereabouts when Paul wrote his second epistle to him.

a) Paul's statement, "Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus," in 2 Timothy 4:19 suggests to us that Timothy was in Ephesus at the time Paul wrote to him. This is because we know that Prisca and Aquila were residents of this city, and that Onesiphorus ministered to Paul in Ephesus ( 2 Timothy 1:16-18).

b) The references to Hymenaeus in 2 Timothy 2:17 and earlier in 1 Timothy 1:20 suggests that this was the same Hymenaeus of Ephesus. His association with Alexander in 1 Timothy 1:20 further suggests that this was Alexander the coppersmith of 2 Timothy 4:14 and the same Alexander that came forward to condemn Paul during the Ephesian riot ( Acts 19:33-34).

c) The fact that Paul directs Timothy to pass through Troas on his way to Rome in 2 Timothy 4:13 suggests that he would be coming from Asia Minor. We know that Paul had passed through Troas on his way to and from Ephesus ( Acts 20:5, 2 Corinthians 2:12) on a number of occasions.

d) Paul's comment in 2 Timothy 4:12 of having sent Tychicus to Ephesus has raised doubts as to Ephesus being Timothy's location. However, scholars such as J. B. Lightfoot say that Paul could have easily made such a comment to Timothy as a way of explaining that Tychicus was on his way to relieve him of his duties at Ephesus. 58]

58] J. B. Lightfoot, "St. Paul's History After the Close of Acts ," in Biblical Essays (London: MacMillan and Co, 1893), 435.

e) The errors and problems that Paul addresses in 2Timothy are similar to those mentioned in 1Timothy, thus, suggesting that Paul is referring to the same church in Ephesus.

f) The subscription at the end of 2Timothy in the Authorized Version (1611) reads, "The second Epistle vnto Timotheus, ordeined the first Bishop of the Church of the Ephesians , was written from Rome, when Paul was brought before Nero the second time." 59] However, scholars place little or no weight upon these late subscriptions.

59] The Holy Bible, an Exact Reprint Page for Page of the Authorized Version Published in the Year MDCXI (Oxford: The University Press, 1833).

In light of these testimonies, Timothy was either in Ephesus, or based in this city while moving about the region when Paul wrote his final letter to him.

IV. Recipient(s)

Our immediate observation regarding the recipients of the Pastor Epistles is to conclude that they are written to individuals who have been given divine authority over churches under Paul's leadership, thus they are personal in content. Plummer wisely notes that these Epistles are addressed in a broader sense to anyone delegated as a leader over a local congregation. 60] In these Epistles the minister who is called by God is given special instructions and charges, which are not given to the laity, or those outside the "ministry." Everything that Paul the apostle says in the Pastoral Epistles is not for the common laity, but directed to church leaders. A dedicated church leader must make greater sacrifices since he has greater requirements in the Christian faith. Thus, there was a need to give special instructions for those specialized in the ministry so that they could fulfill their callings. Paul had left Timothy to oversee the church of Ephesus, and presumably the other churches in this region of Asia Minor. He had left Titus on the island of Crete to set those churches in order. Song of Solomon , although the Pastoral Epistles are primarily addressed to individuals who were called into the ministry, their secondary recipients are directed towards all who are called into the ministry.

60] Alfred Plummer, The Pastoral Epistles, in The Expositor's Bible, eds. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1891), 4.

V. Occasion

God often uses difficult occasions in our lives to cause us to evaluate, organize and present our positions in the face of adversity. We clearly see this taking place on a number of occasions in Paul's career as an apostle to the Gentiles. We see one occasion in the life of Paul, when after years of defending the Gospel of Jesus Christ in synagogues and to Greek minds, he found the need to write to the church at Rome and put into an organized presentation an exposition of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, which he had presented and defended many times throughout his career. This need took place in Corinth prior to the return from his third missionary journey. He wrote the epistle of Romans not knowing if he would live long enough to visit them; for he knew by many prophecies that great adversities awaited him upon his return to Palestine. Yet, God used this gloomy event to make Paul aware of his need to put into writing an orderly account of God's plan of redemption for mankind through the proclamation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul forever embedded for us a lengthy exposition of the Gospel in his epistle to the Romans.

Another such occasion brought about the writing of the Pastoral Epistles. As Paul's evangelistic ministry and church planting expanded over the years, the Lord allowed certain events in the life of Paul to move him towards establishing a clear definition of the New Testament Church, particularly those planted outside of Jewry. With the doctrines of the New Testament Church set in writing in the nine Church Epistles, a new need arises in the life of Paul after being released from his first Roman imprisonment, in which he found himself in a place where was now unable to take authority, but rather, had to delegate church authority to other faithful co-workers. It had been his instinct for years to take the reins of authority himself and deal directly with adversity. The occasion of writing these Pastoral Epistles must have been a season when Paul wondered if anyone could perform this task with his same zeal and enthusiasm. But, such are the seasons of all of our lives. We must and shall go through these changes, which often cause us to restructure our lives as we hand over our responsibilities to others. If we will yield to God's plan for our lives, such times of seeming defeat or loss will be turned into great achievements by God. The churches established by Paul lacked the order and leadership needed, and menacing sects were creeping in to gain positions of influence and authority. This is the background for what occasioned the writing of the Pastoral Epistles; for without these pressures Paul would never have set down to write these blessed Epistles, which have been used for two thousand years to set countless churches in order.

1 Timothy - If we look for a specific occasion to Paul's writing the first epistle to Timothy, we have to read no further than the third verse of this same epistle to Timothy. Paul had been with him in Ephesus, and was now departing into Macedonia. The concerns that Paul had for the church of Ephesus dealt largely with the issue of false doctrines and heresies; for it appears that false teachers had invaded the church and were trying to take leadership positions within this strategic church. The epistles of 1Timothy and Titus are full of references that indicate Jewish traditions as well as Greek philosophies were threatening to take root within the teachings of this church. We find evidences of Jewish heresies in phrases such as "endless genealogies" ( 1 Timothy 1:4), "desiring to be teacher of the law" ( 1 Timothy 1:7), "there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision" ( Titus 1:10), "Jewish fables, and commandments of men" ( Titus 1:14) and "foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law" ( Titus 3:9). There are references to Greek philosophy and Gnosticism in phrases such as "forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats" ( 1 Timothy 4:3) and "avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called" ( 1 Timothy 6:20). Paul the apostle was determined to combat these enemies of the Cross and decided to keep Timothy at Ephesus to set it in order, both in doctrine and in practice. Paul's intense concern for sound doctrine within this church was well founded; for Eusebius tells us that as soon as the apostles had died, godless error began to rise in the Church.

"But when the sacred college of apostles had suffered death in various forms, and the generation of those that had been deemed worthy to hear the inspired wisdom with their own ears had passed away, then the league of godless error took its rise as a result of the folly of heretical teachers, who, because none of the apostles was still living, attempted henceforth, with a bold face, to proclaim, in opposition to the preaching of the truth, the ‘knowledge which is falsely Song of Solomon -called.'" (Ecclesiastical History 3328)

Titus - We find within the epistle of Titus the events that occasioned its writing. Paul had left Titus in Crete to set the church in order ( 1 Timothy 1:5). But Titus was not to remain there for long. Paul needed him to depart soon and meet with him in Nicopolis, perhaps for a further assignment. Paul would send Artemas or Tychicus to relieve him of his post so that he could depart ( 1 Timothy 3:12). At this time Titus was also to assist Zenas and Apollos on their journeys ( 1 Timothy 3:13).

2 Timothy - The words that Paul lays down to Timothy in this second epistle were written during the closing days of his life. He is in Roman imprisonment for the second time and expects to lose his appear before Caesar and be condemned to die ( 2 Timothy 4:6-8), probably being arrested as a part of Nero's persecution against the Church after the burning of Rome. Paul's friends in Asia have deserted him, Demas, Crescens, and Titus had left, Tychicus has been sent to Ephesus, probably to relieve Timothy so that he could come quickly to Rome, and Luke alone remained with him. In this letter Paul is asking Timothy to come before winter, perhaps in anticipation of his own execution ( 2 Timothy 4:9). The reason for this request may lie in the fact that his other co-workers had gone away, and Luke alone was with him ( 2 Timothy 4:11). The fact that he may not arrive in time compels Paul to give Timothy some last warnings about heresies that would be coming against the Church. It appears to be a gloomy time from an earthly perspective; but Paul's eyes were no longer on this world; for he was now focused upon Heaven, his eternal home. Thus, Paul the aged, sits down to write tender words of encouragement to the young man to whom he wants to hand over much of the work of the ministry. Tychicus was probably the bearer of this second epistle to Timothy. His arrival in Ephesus must have brought tears of joy to Timothy, as he heard reports of Paul's condition, and sat down in a solitary place to quietly read and meditate upon the words of this letter.

Many young men in the ministry have been deeply moved and greatly encouraged to press on for Jesus through the words of this epistle. This letter from Paul, an aged servant of God, to Timothy, a young minister, comes as an exhortative word of encouragement for him. It is a word of encouragement for ministers today as they struggle with the challenges of the ministry.

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 61]

61] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the early church, the authors of the New Testament epistles chose to write to various groups of believers using the literary style of the formal Greco-Roman epistle, which contains a traditional salutation, the body, and a conclusion. Thus, the New Testament epistles are assigned to the literary genre called "epistle genre," In the introductory section of literary style, a comparison will be made of the Pauline epistles, as well as a brief look at the grammar and syntax of the Pastoral Epistles.

VI. Comparison of the Pastoral Epistles

The three epistles of I and 2Timothy and Titus form a distinct group of epistles known as the Pastoral Epistles. The two epistles of 1Timothy and Titus are similar in that Paul gives instructions and exhortations concerning the oversight of two local congregations. In them Paul places much emphasis upon the details of church administration. However, 2Timothy is much more personal in its entirety, as Paul opens his heart to one of his dearest companions in the faith and speaks of his impending death. However, all three epistles have both personal as well as pastoral content that make them unique to the New Testament.

A. Comparison of Subject Matter: The Similarities of 1Timothy and Titus - We can find similar passages in the epistles of 1Timothy and Titus , which supports the view that they were written by the same person at approximately the same time under similar circumstances. Compare:

1 Timothy 1:2-3, with Titus 1:4-5;

1 Timothy 1:4, with Titus 1:14; Titus 3:9;

1 Timothy 4:12, with Titus 3:7; Titus 2:15;

1 Timothy 3:2-4, with Titus 1:6-8

B. Comparison of Subject Matter: Practical Rather than Doctrinal - Paul places emphasis within the Pastoral Epistles upon practical advice for setting the church in order so that the leadership is equipped to combat false doctrines and teachers. Unlike the Church Epistles, which emphasize doctrine, these Epistles focus upon the establishment of sound doctrine within the churches. Paul encourages these young ministers to perform their pastoral duties.

In addition, three false teachings are mentioned within 1Timothy:

1. Forbidding to marry ( 1 Timothy 4:3)

2. Abstaining from foods ( 1 Timothy 4:3)

3. Godliness is a way to gaining riches ( 1 Timothy 6:5)

Also, in 2 Timothy 2:17-18, some were teaching that the resurrection was past already.

2 Timothy 2:17-18, "And their word will eat as doth a canker: of whom is Hymenaeus and Philetus; Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some."

C. Comparison of Subject Matter: Occasional - We find that all three Pastoral Epistles are occasional in their subject matter, dealing with specific situations faced by Paul, Timothy and Titus. But of the three epistles, 2Timothy is the most personal, as it is believed to be some of the last words of Paul to his beloved co-worker.

D. Comparison of Subject Matter: A Scarcity of Old Testament References - There is a noticeable scarcity of Old Testament citations within the Pastoral Epistles. This is in fact due to the occasional nature of these Epistles, which did not necessitate the teaching of doctrine. One scholar suggests that it may also be due to the fact that he left his books and parchments behind ( 2 Timothy 4:13). There are at least two Old Testament quotes within these three Epistles. We find a quote from Deuteronomy 25:4 in 1 Timothy 5:18, and a quote from Numbers 16:5 in 2 Timothy 2:19. In addition, we perhaps find a paraphrase from Numbers 16:26 in 2 Timothy 2:19.

VII. Grammar and Syntax

E. Grammar and Syntax: Many Unique Vocabulary Words and Phrases - The Pastoral Epistles are characterized with many unique vocabulary words and phrases.

1. Unique Vocabulary Words - Anyone who has labored to read through the Gospels of the New Testament in the Greek text, as I have done, and then through Paul's Church Epistles, begins to feel as if they now grasp most of the Greek vocabulary; until they begin reading in the Pastoral Epistles. It is as if such dedicated scholars have to start all over learning the Greek vocabulary because of so many new and infrequently used words that are encountered. Bible scholars recognize that the three Pastoral Epistles are different in their style and vocabulary from Paul"s earlier writings. Everett Harrison 62] and Barry Smith 63] tell us that of the 902Greek words used in these Epistles, 54are proper names, and of the other 848 words, 306, or thirty-six percent, do not occur in Paul's other ten epistles. Of these 306 words that are unique to the Pastoral Epistles, 175 are hapaxlegomena, or words that only occur once in the New Testament. They found 131words not found in Paul's other epistles, but shared by other New Testament writers.

62] Everett F. Harrison, Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, c 1964, 1971), 358.

63] Barry D. Smith, "Religious Studies 1023: The New Testament and Its Context- Paul's Pastoral Epistles," (Crandall University, 2009) [on-line]; accessed 10 May 2010; available from http://www.abu.nb.ca/courses/NTIntro/1Tim.htm; Internet.

However, this need not detract from Pauline authorship. Such numerical counts do not take into account issues such as the difference in the subject matter and circumstances of these epistles from his earlier epistles and the change of a person's writing style that occurs through time and the possible use of different people serving as Paul's amanuensis (secretary). In fact, the number of similar words found in Luke -Acts and in the Pastoral Epistles has led some modern scholars to suggest that Luke wrote these three Epistles with the liberty of using much of his own vocabulary. However, many scholars note that the tone and sentiment of the Pastoral Epistles are clearly Pauline. For example, the opening salutations are characteristic of Pauline writings. Also, the author's general attitude towards the Jewish opponents and Mosaic Law are the same as other Pauline writings. Other similarities in sentiment are seen in how the writer also breaks into rapturous praise of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and of his office as a minister of Christ, and of allusions to his own conversion and office as an apostle to the Gentiles. The doctrinal teachings of the Pastoral Epistles flow with the other Pauline epistles in the character and temperament of these teachings. References to the Second Coming, to public worship and others in these epistles are clearly Pauline.

2. Unique Phrases- Some of the unique phrases to the Pastoral Epistles are

"O man of God" ( 1 Timothy 6:11) and "the man of God" ( 2 Timothy 3:12),

"doctrines of devils" ( 1 Timothy 4:1), "sound doctrine" ( 1 Timothy 1:10, 2 Timothy 4:3, Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1), "good doctrine" ( 1 Timothy 4:6), "the doctrine which is according to godliness" ( 1 Timothy 6:3), "sound words" ( 2 Timothy 1:13), "sound in the faith" ( Titus 1:13; Titus 2:2), "sound speech" ( Titus 2:8), which stand in contrast to "canker, fables, endless genealogies, profane and old wives" fables, idle, tattlers also and busybodies, vain jangling, idle talk, profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called,

"great is the mystery of godliness" ( 1 Timothy 3:16), and

"this is a faithful saying" ( 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 4:9, 2 Timothy 2:11, Titus 3:8).

In addition, there are a number of statements that ring out as hymns to the soul:

"that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners" ( 1 Timothy 1:15)

"God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory." ( 1 Timothy 3:16)

"It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him: If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us: If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself." ( 2 Timothy 2:11-13)

E. Grammar and Syntax: Frequently Used Words - There are a number of words used frequently throughout the Pastoral Epistles, which also reflect their theme. William MacDonald lists some of the most frequently used words in these epistles:

1. Instruction ( διδασκαλία) (G 1319) - Used 15 times [ 1 Timothy 1:10; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 4:6; 1 Timothy 4:13; 1 Timothy 4:16; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Timothy 6:1; 1 Timothy 6:3, 2 Timothy 3:10; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 4:3, Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1; Titus 2:7; Titus 2:10].

2. Paul uses a family of words to refer to a godly lifestyle on 13occasions:

Godliness ( ευσέβεια) (G 1250) - Used 10 times [ 1 Timothy 2:12; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7-8; 1 Timothy 6:3; 1 Timothy 6:5-6; 1 Timothy 6:11, 2 Timothy 3:5, Titus 1:1 ].

To act godly ( εὐσεβέω) (G 1251) - Used 1time [ 1 Timothy 5:4].

Godly ( εὐσεβω̂ ς) (G 1253) - Used 2times [ 2 Timothy 3:12, Titus 2:12].

3. Deny ( ἀρνέομαι) (G 720) - Used 6 times [ 1 Timothy 5:8, 2 Timothy 2:12-13; 2 Timothy 3:5, Titus 1:16; Titus 2:12].

4. Paul uses a family of words to describe "sober minded" on at least 13occasions:

sober-minded ( σωφρονέω 1) (G 4993) [ Titus 2:6],

sober ( σωφρονίζω 1) (G 4994) [ Titus 2:4],

a sound mind ( σωφρονισμός 1) (G 4995) [ 2 Timothy 1:7],

soberly ( σωφρόνως 1) (G 4996) [ Titus 2:12],

sober-minded ( σωφροσύνη 2) (G 4997) [ 1 Timothy 2:9; 1 Timothy 2:15],

sober, ( σώφρων 4) (G 4998) [ 1 Timothy 3:2, Titus 1:8; Titus 2:2; Titus 2:5],

sober ( νηφαλέος 3) (G 3524) [ 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 3:11, Titus 2:2].

5. Faith- Paul described various attitudes which men had taken or would take toward faith:

a) Some suffered shipwreck concerning the faith ( 1 Timothy 1:19).

b) Some would depart from the faith ( 1 Timothy 4:1).

c) Some would deny the faith ( 1 Timothy 5:8).

d) Some would cast off their first faith ( 1 Timothy 5:12).

e) Some would stray from the faith ( 1 Timothy 6:10).

f) Some missed the mark concerning the faith ( 1 Timothy 6:21).

6. Good (things) - Paul uses the word "good" on many occasions:

A good conscience ( 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Timothy 1:19).

The law is good ( 1 Timothy 1:8).

A good warfare ( 1 Timothy 1:18).

Prayer is good ( 1 Timothy 2:3).

Good works ( 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 5:10; 2 Timothy 2:21; 2 Timothy 3:17; Titus 1:16; Titus 2:7; Titus 2:14; Titus 3:1; Titus 3:8; Titus 3:14).

Good behavior ( 1 Timothy 3:2).

Good testimony ( 1 Timothy 3:7).

A good standing ( 1 Timothy 3:13).

Every creature is good ( 1 Timothy 4:4).

A good minister ( 1 Timothy 4:6).

Good doctrine ( 1 Timothy 4:6).

Piety is good ( 1 Timothy 5:4).

The good fight of faith ( 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7).

Good confession ( 1 Timothy 6:13).

Good foundation ( 1 Timothy 6:19).

Good thing ( 2 Timothy 1:14; Titus 2:3; Titus 3:8).

A good soldier ( 2 Timothy 2:3).

Good people ( 2 Timothy 3:3; Titus 1:8; Titus 2:5).

Good fidelity ( Titus 2:10). 64]

64] William MacDonald, The First Epistle to Timothy, The Second Epistle to Timothy, and The Epistle to Titus , in Believer's Bible Commentary, ed. Arthur Farstad (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Introduction: V. Background and Themes of the Pastoral Epistles."

The theme in the Pastoral Epistles that is indicated by its vocabulary is that Paul is instructing Timothy on how to guide and instruct the congregation into a Godly lifestyle so that they will not be deceived by false teachings that deny the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 65]

65] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the Pastoral Epistles, an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to these book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal their theological framework. This introductory section will sum up their theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the Pastoral Epistles for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of these books. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

VIII. Purpose

1Timothy and Titus - The epistles of 1,2Timothy and Titus are called Pastoral Epistles because of the nature of their content. Paul is writing to instruct and encourage younger ministers who were overseeing churches that had been planted during his ministry. Their primary pastoral duties were to defend sound doctrine and maintain church discipline. Paul had already laid down the Church doctrines in his nine Church epistles. Now, he is explaining how these doctrines are to be the central focus of the local church. We see this emphasis in 1 Timothy 3:15 where Paul states his central purpose in writing, "that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth." In other words, Paul is explaining to Timothy (and we may include Titus) the office and ministry of church leadership, which is to establish the church as the central foundation for truth for all societies in all places, both in doctrine and in practice. Their conduct as leaders will necessitate and involve (1) setting the churches in order by electing leaders ( 1 Timothy 3:14-16, Titus 1:5), and (2) adhering to sound doctrine ( 1 Timothy 1:3), and (3) discussing the roles of each group of church members, and (4) conducting their lives as an example for others to follow. As a result, these two epistles define the role and function of the Church in society; for the Church is to serve as God's primary way of bringing redemption to mankind and reestablishing his role on planet earth, which was lost when man fell in the Garden of Eden. Thus, these Epistles are more practical than doctrinal as Paul aimed to strengthen and encourage these two young men, as well as reinforce their position of leadership, as they faced opposition within and outside the churches. These documents would serve as written testimony of their divine authority to oversee these churches.

In addition, we know that Paul had a secondary purpose of summoning Titus to meet him in Nicopolis at the arrival of Artemas or Tychicus ( Titus 3:10).

2 Timothy - Paul's second epistle to Timothy had a different purpose than the other two Epistles. His primary purpose was to exhort young Timothy to remain strong and steadfast in the faith in order to fulfill his divine calling. In his secondary purpose Paul expressed his longing to see him ( 2 Timothy 1:4) and gave occasional instructions for Timothy to make haste to come visit him in prison ( 2 Timothy 4:9; 2 Timothy 4:13; 2 Timothy 4:21). This second epistle is especially written to encourage him, because the task has been a hard one for young Timothy. It is not easily to set a church in order. Paul knew this; he had been there. So he tells Timothy to endure this hardness like a good soldier. Thus, we find a number of verses where Paul exhorts young Timothy to preach and teach the Word of God with boldness:

2 Timothy 1:6, "Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands."

2 Timothy 1:8, "Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel according to the power of God;"

2 Timothy 3:14, "But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them;"

IX. Thematic Scheme

Introduction- Each book of the Holy Scriptures contains a three-fold thematic scheme in order to fulfill its intended purpose, which is to transform each child of God into the image of Jesus Christ ( Romans 8:29). The primary, or foundational, theme of a book offers a central claim that undergirds everything written by the author. The secondary, or structural theme, of the book supports its primary theme by offering reasons and evidence for the central "claim" made by the author as it fully develops the first theme. Thus, the secondary theme is more easily recognized by biblical scholars than the other two themes because they provide the literary content of the book as they navigate the reader through the arguments embedded within the biblical text, thus revealing themselves more clearly. 66] The third theme is imperative in that it calls the reader to a response based upon the central claim and supporting evidence offered by the author. Each child of God has been predestined to be conformed into the image and likeness of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Scriptures, and they alone, have the power to accomplish this task. This is why a child of God can read the Holy Scriptures with a pure heart and experience a daily transformation taking place in his life, although he may not fully understand what is taking place in his life. In addition, the reason some children of God often do not see these biblical themes is because they have not fully yielded their lives to Jesus Christ, allowing transformation to take place by the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit. Without a personal relationship with the Holy Spirit, a child of God is not willing to allow Him to manage his life and move him down the road that God predestined as his spiritual journey. This journey requires every participant to take up his cross daily and follow Jesus, and not every believer is willing to do this. In fact, every child of God chooses how far down this road of sacrifice he is willing to go. Very few of men and women of God fulfill their divine destinies by completing this difficult journey. In summary, the first theme drives the second theme, which develops the first theme, and together they demand the third theme, which is the reader's response.

66] For an excellent discussion on the use of claims, reasons, and evidence in literature, see Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, The Craft of Research (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003).

A. Primary Theme of the Pastoral Epistles (Church Order and Individual Calling) - Introduction- The central theme of the Holy Bible is God's plan of redemption for mankind. This theme finds its central focus in the Cross, where our Lord and Saviour died to redeem mankind. The central figure of the Holy Scriptures is the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, the Cross is the place where man meets God and where we die to our selfish ambitions and yield our lives to the God who created all things. Therefore, the Holy Scriptures are not intended to be a precise record of ancient history. Rather, its intent is to provide a record of God's divine intervention in the history of mankind in order to redeem the world back to Himself through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on Calvary.

Every book of the Holy Bible makes a central claim that undergirds the arguments or message contained within its text. For example, the central claim of the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 6:4, "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD," to which all additional material is subordinate. The bulk of the material in the Old Testament is subordinate in that it serves as reasons and evidence to support this central claim. This material serves as the secondary theme, offering the literary structure of the book. In addition, the central claim calls for a response, which is stated in the following verse, "And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." ( Deuteronomy 6:5) Such a response is considered the third, imperative theme that runs through every book of the Holy Scriptures.

This central claim is the primary, or foundational, theme and is often obscured by the weight of evidence that is used to drive the central message, which weight of evidence makes up the secondary theme; and thus, it contains more content than the primary theme. Therefore, the secondary themes of the books of the Holy Scripture are generally more recognizable than the primary theme. Nevertheless, the central claim, or truth, must be excavated down to the foundation and made clearly visible in order to understand the central theme driving the arguments contained within the book. Only then can proper exegesis and sermon delivery be executed.

1. The Central Themes of the New Testament Epistles: Sanctification of the Believer- There are twenty-one epistles in the New Testament, which the early Church recognized as having apostolic authority so that they were collected into one body, circulated among the churches, an eventually canonized. While the Gospels emphasize the redemptive work of the Lord Jesus Christ in the process justification of the believer, New Testament epistles emphasize the redemptive plan of the Holy Spirit as He works in the process of sanctification for each believer. Thus, the work of sanctification serves as the underlying theme of all twenty-one epistles. In addition, each one emphasizes a different aspect of this divine process of sanctification and they are organized together so that the New Testament is structured to reflect the part of our spiritual journey called sanctification In order to express this structure, each of these epistles have different themes that are woven and knitted together into a unified body of teachings which will bring the believer through the process of sanctification and ready for the rapture of the Church into a place of rest in the glorious hope revealed in the book of Revelation. Therefore, the New Testament epistles were collected together by topic by the early Church.

Of the twenty-one epistles, there are thirteen Pauline epistles and eight designated as General, or Catholic, epistles. We can organize these twenty-one epistles into three major categories: (1) there are epistles that emphasize Church doctrine, which are the nine Pauline epistles of Romans to 2Thessalonians; (2) there are those that deal with Church order and divine service, which are 1,2Timothy, Titus and Philemon; 67] and (3) there are those that stress perseverance in the Christian faith, which are Hebrews and the seven General Epistles. 68] Within Hebrews and the General Epistles, we note that the first three epistles exhort the believer to persevere under persecutions, which come from without the Church ( Hebrews ,, James , 1Peter), while the other five epistles emphasis perseverance against false doctrines, which come from within ( 2 Peter , 1, 2, 3 John , Jude).

67] For the sake of developing thematic schemes, the epistle of Philemon will be grouped with the Pastoral Epistles as did the Church fathers.

68] For the sake of developing thematic schemes, the epistle of Hebrews will be grouped with the General Epistles, although many of the early Church fathers followed the tradition of grouping it with the Pauline epistles.

2. The Central Theme of the Pastoral Epistles: Church Order and Divine Service - Paul's pastoral letters of 1,2Timothy, Titus and Philemon establish the order and leadership of the Church. We find quotations or allusion to these epistles by some the earliest church fathers, testifying to their familiarity and use by the early Church. While Clement of Rome (A.D 96) makes allusions to these epistles, 69] Ignatius (A.D 35 to 107) 70] and Polycarp (A.D 69 to 155) 71] provide clear quotations from them. Their pastoral character has been identified since the time of the early Church fathers, who described their content as "ecclesiastical discipline" (see the Muratorian Canon [late 2nd cent.], 72] Tertullian [A.D 160-225], 73] and Augustine [A.D 354-430]). 74] Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) called these epistles "virtually a pastoral rule." 75] The title "Pastoral Epistles" was first applied by D. N. Berdot in 1703 , 76] and used again for all three epistles in 1726 by Paul Anton, 77] at which time this title became popular.

69] Clement of Rome appears to be paraphrasing from 1Timothy in his epistle to the Corinthians, saying, "Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect." (1Clement 29) Clement of Rome appears to be quoting a phrase from Titus 3:1 when he writes, "Ye never grudged any act of kindness, being "ready to every good work.'" (1Clement 2) Clement of Rome use the phrase "with a pure conscience" in a similar way that Paul used it in 2Timothy 1:3 when writing, "The hateful, and those full of all wickedness, were roused to such a pitch of fury, that they inflicted torture on those who served God with a holy and blameless purpose [of heart], not knowing that the Most High is the Defender and Protector of all such as with a pure conscience venerate His all-excellent name; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." (1Clement 45)

70] Ignatius of Antioch alludes to 2Timothy in his epistle to Polycarp, writing, "Please ye Him under whom ye fight, and from whom ye receive your wages. Let none of you be found a deserter." (The Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp 6) He quotes from 2Timothy 2:24 in his epistle to the Ephesians , writing "Wherefore Paul exhorts as follows: ‘The servant of the Lord must not strive, but be gentle towards all men, apt to teach, patient, in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves.'" (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 10) He makes a possible allusion to Titus 1:10, writing, "For there are some vain talkers and deceivers, not Christians, but Christ-betrayers." (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians 6)

71] Polycarp clearly borrows Paul's words in 1Timothy , 10 when writing, "‘But the love of money is the root of all evils.' Knowing, therefore, that ‘as we brought nothing into the world, so we can carry nothing out,' let us arm ourselves with the armour of righteousness; and let us teach, first of all, ourselves to walk in the commandments of the Lord." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 4) He alludes to 2Timothy 4:10, writing, "For they loved not this present world, but Him who died for us, and for our sakes was raised again by God from the dead." (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 9)

72] The Muratorian Canon reads, "The second class includes all that are received now: an Epistle to Philemon , one to Titus , and two to Timothy, which though written only from personal feelings and affection, are still hallowed in the respect of the Catholic Church, for (or in) the arrangement of ecclesiastical discipline." See Brooke Foss Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 215.

73] Tertullian writes, "To this epistle [Philemon] alone did its brevity avail to protect it against the falsifying hands of Marcion. I wonder, however, when he received (into his Apostolicon) this letter which was written but to one Prayer of Manasseh , that he rejected the two epistles to Timothy and the one to Titus , which all treat of ecclesiastical discipline." (Against Marcion 521) See Tertullian, Against Marcion, trans. Peter Holmes, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol 3, ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Buffalo, New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1885), 473.

74] Donald Guthrie, The Pastoral Epistles: An Introduction and Commentary, in The Tyndale New Testament Commentaries (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, c 1990, 2002), 17.

75] Divi Thomae Aquinatis, in omnes S. Pauli apostolic epistolas commentaria, tom 3, edition nova (Leodii, 1858), 56 (at 1Timothy ). Cited by Raymond F. Collins, 1 & 2Timothy and Titus , in The New Testament Library, eds. C. Clifton Black and John T. Carroll (Louisville, Kentucky, Westminster John Knox Press, 2002), 1.

76] D. N. Berdot characterized one of these epistles as a "pastoral letter" (Pastoral-Brief) in Exercitatio theologica-exegetica in epistulam Pauli ad Titum (1703).

77] Paul Anton (1661-1730) characterized all three epistles as pastoral epistles in 1726. See "Exegetical essays on the Pastoral Epistles of Paul to Timothy and Titus" (1753, 1st pub, 1755, 2nd pub. in Halle).

Thus, we have three witnesses of Church order and discipline, Timothy, Titus and Philemon. However, each of these epistles stresses a separate aspect of a believer's divine calling and Church order. The foundational theme of the Pastoral Epistles reflects the phase of our spiritual journey which I entitle "divine calling and church order." We are initially justified through faith in Christ Jesus, as the Gospels emphasize. We then go through a process of sanctification by the work of the Holy Spirit within us. The New Testament epistles stress this three-fold process of sanctification. In the first phase of sanctification we must be indoctrinated into the Word of God, as is stressed in the first nine Pauline Church Epistles. The second phase of sanctification focuses upon setting our lives in order as we place ourselves within a local church congregation and begin serving, as is stressed in Pastoral Epistles. The third phase of sanctification is our perseverance, as is stressed in the eight General Epistles, in which we must make the decision to endure persecutions and fulfill our individual callings. The final phase of our spiritual journey is glorification, in which we enter Heaven, as emphasized in the book of Revelation.

B. Secondary Theme of the Pastoral Epistles (The Development of Man's Three-Fold Make-up for Christian Service) - Introduction- The secondary themes of the books of the Holy Scriptures support the primary themes by offering reasons and evidence for the central "claim" of the book made by the author. Thus, the secondary themes are more easily recognized by biblical scholars than the other two themes because they provide the literary structure of the book as they navigate the reader through the arguments embedded within the biblical text, thus revealing themselves more clearly. For example, the central claim of the Pentateuch declares that the Lord God of Israel is the only God that man should serve, and man is to love the Lord God with all of his heart, mind, and strength, a statement found in the Shema of Deuteronomy 6:4-5, which is the foundational theme of the Old Testament. The books of Hebrew poetry provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his heart as its secondary theme. The books of the prophets provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his mind as its secondary theme, as he set his hope in the coming of the Messiah to redeem mankind. The historical books provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his strength as its secondary theme.

The central claim of the four Gospel writers is that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, which is the foundational theme of this division of the Holy Scriptures. In addition, each Gospel writer offers evidence as its secondary theme to support his claim. The Gospel of John offers the five-fold testimony of God the Father, John the Baptist, the miracles of Jesus, the Old Testament Scriptures, and the testimony of Jesus Christ Himself as its secondary theme. Matthew expounds upon the testimony of the Old Testament Scriptures as its secondary theme; Mark expounds upon the testimony of the miracles of Jesus as its secondary theme; Luke expounds upon the testimony of John the Baptist and other eye-witnesses and well as that of the apostles in the book of Acts as its secondary theme.

The central claim of the Pauline Church Epistles is that the Gospel of Jesus Christ alone how the power to redeem and transform man into the image of Jesus, which is the foundational theme of this division of the Holy Scriptures. The epistle of Romans supports this claim by offering evidence of mankind's depravity and God's plan of redemption to redeem him as its secondary theme. The epistles of Ephesians and Philippians expound upon the role of God the Father in His divine foreknowledge as their secondary theme; the epistles of Colossians and Galatians expound upon the role of Jesus Christ as the head of the Church as their secondary theme; the epistles of 1, 2 Thessalonians , 1, 2Corinthians expound upon the role of the Holy Spirit in sanctifying the believers as their secondary theme.

The central claim of the Pastoral Epistles is that believers must serve God through the order of the New Testament Church. The epistles of 1, 2Timothy expound upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a pure heart, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Titus expounds upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a renewed mind, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Philemon expounds upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a genuine lifestyle, which is its secondary theme.

The central claim of the General Epistles is that believers must persevere in the Christian faith in order to obtain eternal redemption. The epistles of Hebrews ,, James , and 1Peter modify this theme to reflect perseverance from persecutions from without the Church. The epistle of Hebrews expounds upon the High Priesthood of Jesus Christ, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of James expounds upon a lifestyle of perseverance through the joy of the Holy Spirit, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of 1Peter expounds upon our hope of divine election through God the Father, which is its secondary theme. The epistles of 2Peter, 1, 2, 3, John and Jude reflect perseverance from false doctrines from within. The epistle of 2Peter expounds upon growing in the knowledge of God's Word with a sound mind, which is its secondary theme. The epistles of 1, 2, 3John expound upon walking in fellowship with God and one another with a pure heart, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Jude expounds how living a godly lifestyle with our bodies, which is its secondary theme.

The Apocalypse of John , though not considered an epistle, emphasizes the glorification of the Church, giving believers a vision of the hope that is laid up before them as a source of encouragement for those who persevere until the end. The central claim of the book of Revelation is that Jesus Christ is coming to take His Bride the Church to Glory. The secondary theme supports this claim with the evidence of Great Tribulation Period.

1. The Secondary Themes of Pastoral Epistles- Regarding the phase of our spiritual journey called "divine calling and church order" the Pastoral Epistles have distinctive themes related to the foundational theme. We have four witnesses of Church order and discipline in the Pastor Epistles. Each of these epistles stresses a separate aspect of this redemptive theme. I and 2Timothy emphasize the aspect of our calling when we serve the Lord Jesus with all of our hearts. Titus emphasizes the aspect of our calling when we serve the Lord with all of our mind. Philemon emphasizes the aspect of our calling when we serve the Lord with all of our strength.

a) 1,2Timothy (The Development of Man's Heart for Christian Service in Response to Jesus' Role of Redeeming Mankind) - The first epistle of Timothy emphasizes the order of the church corporately when it assembles, while the second epistle of Timothy emphasizes individual order, or one's individual gifts and calling. These two epistles reflect the aspect of our spiritual journey of growing up spiritually by serving well in our local church with a pure heart, always motivated by love, as is stressed in 1Timothy. As we do Song of Solomon , we are able to realize our individual callings into a particular work within the body of Christ, as is stressed in 2Timothy. Thus, we have an emphasis placed upon a man's spirit, or heart, as a part of his development in Christian service and calling as he fulfills the redemptive role of the Jesus Christ to bring men to a saving knowledge of the Saviour.

(1) 1 Timothy - In Paul's first epistle to Timothy he gives this young minister the basics of how to set a church in order so that the individual members would be able to conduct themselves appropriately in the house of God. New Christians do not know how to conduct themselves unless they are taught how to do this. Here was a young church, which Paul was teaching Timothy how to set in order. He was to first and foremost found it upon prayer. (Note that Jesus set the temple in order by driving out the moneychangers and saying that God's house must be a house of prayer.) Secondly, Timothy was instructed on to how to find elders and deacons by looking for certain qualifications that they must meet. Thirdly, Paul explained to Timothy how to train upcoming leaders in the true doctrines of the Church. Paul also dealt with three other important issues before closing this first epistle; the role of widows, the role of elders and leaders, and the role of the rich and the poor.

(2) 2 Timothy - Paul writes his first epistle to young Timothy in order to instruct him in how to set the church at Ephesus in order so that it can fulfill its corporate calling. In contrast, Paul's second epistle to Timothy emphasizes individual order, or one's individual gifts and calling. For young Timothy, it was a charge to fulfill his calling as an evangelist, in which he was told to handle the Word of God properly and to deliver it to faithful men who will in turn hand it down faithfully for generations to come. We find two key verses stating this theme in 2 Timothy 2:15, "Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth," and in 2 Timothy 4:2, "Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine." Paul knew that Timothy would need to endure hardship in order to fulfill his divine calling, so he makes three references to his need to do so ( 1 Timothy 1:8; 1 Timothy 2:3; 1 Timothy 4:5). In addition, Paul weaves within his final charge to Timothy some words of encouragement because he knows that the task is hard. It is not easily to set a church in order. Paul knew this; for he had been there. So he tells Timothy to endure this hardness like a good soldier, to follow the rules that Paul has laid down like a good athlete and to expect a wonderful harvest like a farmer.

Since the secondary theme of 1,2Timothy emphasizes the spirit of Prayer of Manasseh , Paul makes a number of references to Timothy's spirit. He opens this epistle by telling Timothy to "stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands" ( 2 Timothy 1:6), and he closes it by saying, "The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit." ( 2 Timothy 4:22)

b) Titus (The Development of Man's Mind for Christian Service in Response to God the Father's Role of Redeeming Mankind) - In our calling we must establish sound doctrine in the minds of the congregation. This sound doctrine will prepare them for the phase of their spiritual journey called perseverance, as His chosen people serve the Lord in expectation of His Second Coming. Therefore, the epistle of Titus places emphasis upon a sound mind, and reveals to us how our minds must be prepared in order to enter into our individual callings, in contrast to 1,2Timothy, which emphasizes a pure heart. Thus, we have an emphasis placed upon a man's mind as a part of his development in Christian service and calling as he fulfills the redemptive role of the God the Father in effecting divine election by instilling the knowledge of God's Word and a hope of eternal life. Note the many references to the teaching of sound doctrine in the book of Titus:

Titus 1:9, "Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers."

Titus 1:13, "This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith;"

Titus 2:1, "But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:"

Titus 2:2, "That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience."

Titus 2:8, "Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you."

c) Philemon (The Development of Man's Body [His Actions] for Christian Service in Response to the Holy Spirit's Role of Redeeming Mankind) - In the epistle of Philemon Paul exhorts a church leader called Philemon to continue serving as an example of faith and love in his conduct. A great test of his willingness to obey and serve the Lord was in receiving back a runaway slave called Onesimus as a brother in Christ. Thus, we have the emphasis placed upon a man's actions as a part of his development in Christian service and calling as he fulfills the redemptive role of the Holy Spirit to effect sanctification and love within his local congregation.

C. Third Theme (Imperative) Theme of the Pastoral Epistles- The Crucified Life of the Believer (Divine Service) - Introduction- The third theme of each book of the New Testament is a call by the author for the reader to apply the central truth, or claim, laid down in the book to the Christian life. It is a call to a lifestyle of crucifying the flesh and taking up one's Cross daily to follow Jesus. Every child of God has been predestined to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ ( Romans 8:29), and every child of God faces challenges as well as failures in the pursuit of his Christian journey. For example, the imperative theme of the Old Testament is that God's children are to serve the Lord God with all of their heart, mind, and strength, and love their neighbour as themselves ( Deuteronomy 6:4-5).

The child of God cannot fulfill his divine destiny of being conformed into the image of Jesus without yielding himself and following the plan of redemption that God avails to every human being. This 4-fold, redemptive path is described in Romans 8:29-30 as predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. The phase of justification can be further divided into regeneration, indoctrination, divine service, and perseverance. Although each individual will follow a unique spiritual journey in life, the path is the same in principle for every believer since it follows the same divine pattern described above. This allows us to superimpose one of three thematic schemes upon each book of the Holy Scriptures in order to vividly see its imperative theme. Every book follows a literary structure that allows either (1) the three-fold scheme of Father, Song of Solomon , and Holy Spirit: or (2) the scheme of spirit, soul, and body of man; or (3) the scheme of predestination, calling, justification (regeneration, indoctrination, divine service, and perseverance), and glorification in some manner.

1. The Third, Imperative Theme of the Pastoral Epistles- The third theme of the Pastoral Epistles involves the response of the recipient to God's divine calling revealed in its primary and secondary themes, which states that a believe fulfills his divine calling by preparing himself spiritually, mentally, and physically. As believers we are to live a crucified life daily through obedience to the divine calling given in these epistles. Song of Solomon , this third theme places an emphasis on how to apply the instructions laid down in the epistles to the Christian life. It is a life of crucifying the flesh and taking up our Cross daily to follow Him, since we have been predestined to be conformed to the image of God's Son ( Romans 8:29).

a) 1,2Timothy- In 1,2Timothy our crucified lifestyle is manifested as God's servant fulfills the office of an evangelist. Paul refers to God as Saviour throughout the Pastoral Epistles. In 1Timothy the emphasis is on God's will that all men be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth ( 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 2:3-4). The role of the evangelist is to transform man's hearts through faith in Christ Jesus.

b) Titus - In Titus our crucified lifestyle is manifested as God's servant fulfills the office of a teacher; for in this Epistle Paul emphasizes the teaching ministry, and even refers to Apollos, whose ministry seems to be that of a teacher ( 1 Corinthians 3:6). The role of the teacher is to transform man's mind into the knowledge of God the Father's plan of redemption.

c) Philemon - In Philemon our crucified lifestyle is manifested as God's servant fulfills the office of a church elder, bishop or pastor. The role of the pastor is to lead men into submitting their bodies into a life of sanctification by the work of the Holy Spirit, which is called the love walk.

1 Timothy 1:15, "This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief."

1 Timothy 2:3-4, "For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour; Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth."

1 Corinthians 3:6, "I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase."

Every child of God has been predestined to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ ( Romans 8:29). The Pastoral Epistles emphasize one aspect of this conformity through the crucified life of faith and obedience in Him.

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Figure 1 - The Themes of the Pastoral Epistles

D. Summary- Finally, it is important to note that the Pastoral Epistles do not establish Church doctrine, for this was laid down in the Pauline Church Epistles. They may refer to doctrine, but they do not establish or add to it.

INTRODUCTION TO THE EPISTLE OF 1TIMOTHY

(See "Introduction to the Pastoral Epistles" for a discussion on items I through IX.)

X. Literary Structure of 1Timothy

The literary structure of the epistle of 1Timothy must follow the thematic scheme of the book. It is important to note that such a breakdown of this book of the Holy Bible was not necessarily intended by the original author, but it is being used as a means of making the interpretation easier. It is hoped that this summary can identify the underlying themes of the book, as well as the themes of its major divisions, sections and subsections. Then individual verses can more easily be understood in light of the emphasis of the immediate passages in which they are found.

The structure of the book of 1Timothy is built around Paul's statement in 1 Timothy 1:5, which declares that "the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned." After this introduction ( 1 Timothy 1:1-20), Paul charges Timothy to set the church in order by leading the congregation into a walk of love. The charge to pray creates within the members a pure heart ( 1 Timothy 2:1-15). The appointment and training of godly leadership ( 1 Timothy 3:1 to 1 Timothy 4:16) gives the congregation the opportunity to model themselves like their leaders, who are to conduct their lives with a good conscience ( 1 Timothy 5:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19). Thus, Paul's opening charge for Timothy to teach sound doctrine ( 1 Timothy 1:3-20) establishes the pure faith within the lives of the congregation, and failure to do this causes many to err from the true faith of the Christian life ( 1 Timothy 6:20-21).

I. Introduction ( 1 Timothy 1:1-20) - Paul greets Timothy with an opening salutation ( 1 Timothy 1:1-2) and then gives him some introductory remarks about his divine commission, which is to set in order the church in Ephesus ( 1 Timothy 1:3-20).

The passage of Scripture in 1 Timothy 1:1-20 serves as an introduction for the rest of this Epistle in that everything else that Paul tells young Timothy is based upon the initial charge and instructions laid down in this introduction. In this passage Paul explains to Timothy why he is writing to him and, therefore, sets the theme and gives us the background for the rest of the epistle in which Paul gives Timothy more specific charges in his oversight over the church at Ephesus. Paul explains that there were those who were confidently teaching false doctrines in this church and were missing the whole point of teaching Church doctrine, which was to bring mankind to redemption and guide them into walking in love in their newly found Christian life. Thus, we are given the background of how false teachers were threatening to deteriorate the sound doctrine that Paul had worked so hard to establish in the church of Ephesus and now understand the occasion for writing to Timothy.

After opening the Epistle with his customary salutation ( 1 Timothy 1:1-2) Paul gives Timothy his initial commission of establishing sound doctrine in the Church, which he will expound upon and develop during the rest of this Epistle ( 1 Timothy 1:3-7). He then explains the true purpose of the Law, which does not contradict, but rather supports the proclamation of the Gospel, with which Paul was entrusted ( 1 Timothy 1:8-11). He then gives Timothy an example from his own calling and ministry as one who has been converted by and maintained sound doctrine ( 1 Timothy 1:12-17). He then charges Timothy to stand and fight to establish this doctrine in the Church and gives him an example from his ministry ( 1 Timothy 1:18-20).

In this passage of Scripture Paul will give much attention to the dangers of veering off of the path of sound doctrine. Thus, Paul warns Timothy how some have turned aside to "vain jangling" ( 1 Timothy 1:6-7) and later reminds him of two men who have taken that course of failure ( 1 Timothy 1:19-20). The reason such individuals fall away is because they refuse to follow the straight course that Paul and Timothy have established in the churches. This refusal to follow is because of rebellion and pride. Such rebellion has split churches and done great harm throughout the centuries. This is the reason why the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ today is divided into so many denominations around the world. Paul refers to this evil work in Galatians 1:19 as strife, seditions and heresies" when he lists the works of the flesh. Song of Solomon , this was the very thing that Paul was having young Timothy confront and deal with before it became rooted in the church and before some deviated people took control of the congregation.

A. Salutation ( 1 Timothy 1:1-2) - 1 Timothy 1:1-2 is called the salutation and is found in all thirteen of Paul's New Testament epistles and is used as an introduction to his letters. Paul wrote his salutations as a signature of authenticity ( 2 Thessalonians 3:17) just like we place our signature today at the end of a document. He may have written entire epistles as indicated in Philemon 1:19. However, there are indications in six of his epistles that Paul used an amanuensis to write most of his letters (see Romans 16:22, 1 Corinthians 16:21, Galatians 6:11, Colossians 4:18, 2 Thessalonians 3:17, Philemon 1:19).

2 Thessalonians 3:17, "The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is the token in every epistle: so I write."

1 Timothy 1:1-2 contains the salutation to this Pastoral Epistle. As with the other Pauline epistles, it makes reference to the underlying theme of this epistle, which is Paul's charge to Timothy to set the church of Ephesus in hope of saving himself and those who hear him ( 1 Timothy 4:16). Thus, Paul opens this epistle with a reference to God our Saviour and Jesus Christ our hope.

B. Paul's Commission to Timothy ( 1 Timothy 1:3-20) - In order to establish and organize the church in Ephesus there has to be sound leadership. Thus, the appointment and development of godly leadership was Paul's primary charge in this Epistle to young Timothy; for without Timothy's presence in Ephesus, strong-willed individuals would rise up and take positions of leadership. For example, within any society or group of people, it is natural for leadership to arise. In the case of the Church, there would be those who "desired to be teachers of the law" ( 1 Timothy 1:7), whether they were qualified or not. Such selfish desires stand in contrast to those who "desire the office of a bishop" from a pure heart. In other words, there will be those who want to be leaders, but are not qualified. Thus, it was Timothy's job to put down such self-appointment, and to scope out godly leadership. In this passage of Scripture Paul gives Timothy his initial charge ( 1 Timothy 1:3-4), explains the goal of the commandment ( 1 Timothy 1:5-7), points out the purpose of the Gospel amidst conflicting error ( 1 Timothy 1:8-11), testifies to Timothy how God also entrusting him with the care of the Gospel ( 1 Timothy 1:12-17), and commissions Timothy with the custodianship of the Gospel ( 1 Timothy 1:18-20). Within these last two verses Paul gives Timothy an example of how to deal with adversaries.

1. Paul's Initial Charge ( 1 Timothy 1:3-11) - In 1 Timothy 1:3-11 Paul explains to Timothy why he left him in Ephesus when he traveled to Macedonia. He left this young man behind to set this church in order by establishing sound doctrine. For Timothy to be able to establish sound doctrine he was going to have to prevent other doctrines from being taught in the church ( 1 Timothy 1:3-4). Paul then explains that the goal of church doctrine was to bring the believers into a walk of love ( 1 Timothy 1:5); for sound doctrine was necessary for divine training towards walking in perfect love. Unfortunately, some teachers had strayed from this goal and their teachings were causing confusion and doubt among the congregation, being filled with useless knowledge that caused questions, rather than edifying the believer ( 1 Timothy 1:6-7). Paul then takes a moment to the original purpose and intent of the Law ( 1 Timothy 1:8-11), which was to discipline the ungodly.

a) The Commission ( 1 Timothy 1:3-4) - In 1 Timothy 1:3-4 Paul gives Timothy his initial charge to remain in Ephesus in order to establish the believers in the doctrines of Jesus Christ.

b) The Goal of the Commandment ( 1 Timothy 1:5-7) - In 1 Timothy 1:5-7 Paul reminds Timothy of the original purpose and intent of the Mosaic Law, which is to instruct people to love God with all of one's heart and to love his neighbor as himself. Jesus quoted the Shema, the heart of the Law found in Deuteronomy 6:4-5, which summed up the Law of Moses as man's requirement to walk in love towards God and others ( Mark 12:29-31).

c) The Purpose of the Law ( 1 Timothy 1:8-11) - In 1 Timothy 1:8-11 Paul takes a moment to divert his focus upon the Law in order to explain its purpose. He feels the need to quickly clarify the fact that the Law has a good use ( 1 Timothy 1:8), even though it has been misused in the Church, and he was certainly not meaning in the previous verses that it should be discarded by the Church because of abuse. He must explain that the Law was made to expose man's sinful nature ( 1 Timothy 1:9-10). Therefore, his Gospel is in accordance with the Law and not contrary to it ( 1 Timothy 1:11); for it brings hope and redemption to mankind, delivering them from their sinful depravity. Paul makes a similar statement in Romans 3:20 in defining the role of the Law in the light of the Gospel of Jesus Christ by saying that "by the Law is the knowledge of sin". In other words, the Law reveals man's sinful nature because no Israelite was every able to keep it to the letter. He tells us in Galatians 3:24 that the Law served as our schoolmaster in order to bring us to Christ. This means that it reveals the sinful nature of mankind and showed him his need for redemption.

Romans 3:20 "Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin."

Galatians 3:24, "Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith."

Now, if someone teaches the Law, it should not be taught so as to cause fruitless discussions and questions, but the Law should be taught in order to instruct the disobedient and wicked in the ways of righteousness. Therefore, in this passage of Scripture in 1 Timothy 1:8-11 Paul lists the manifold vices of such people who reject the law. He appears to be listing the sins of the heart, then sins of the body followed by sins of the mind.

1. Sins of the heart - "the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane."

2. Sins of the body - "murderers of fathers and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers."

3. Sins of the mind - "for liars, for perjured persons."

2. Paul as an Example of a Genuine Minister: Paul Explains His Calling in Light of the Goal of the Law and the Gospel ( 1 Timothy 1:12-17) - In the first chapter of 1Timothy Paul builds his case for the charge that he is handing over to young Timothy, which is to set the church in Ephesus in order. After having explained the goal of the commandments ( 1 Timothy 1:3-7) and the purpose of the Law ( 1 Timothy 1:8-11), Paul reminds young Timothy of his own divine calling and charge from the Lord Jesus Christ ( 1 Timothy 1:12-17), which was to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles ( 1 Timothy 1:11). He will use himself as an example of someone faithful to his divine commission. He will explain to Timothy his divine calling in the light of the goal of the Law and of the Gospel, which is to redeem mankind from sin. This is why he will call God by the name "our Saviour, who wishes all men to be saved" ( 1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3-4). After having listed at length the characteristics of depraved humanity ( 1 Timothy 1:8-11), Paul sees how much grace and mercy was bestowed upon him as he reflects back upon his past life before Christ. He gives God thanks and ends these comments on his calling by giving praise and glory to God for saving him and calling him into the ministry ( 1 Timothy 1:17). Thus, Paul reflects upon his own calling in 1 Timothy 1:12-17 in order to give himself as an example to Timothy in order to encourage him to remain faith, and to help him see the seriousness of such a calling. These statements of humility and dependence upon the grace of God serve as an example for young Timothy, who is about to take on the greatest challenge of his ministerial career. He must keep himself humble as well, and walk in love towards those he oversees. In the midst of Paul's charge to Timothy ( 1 Timothy 1:3-20), Paul is setting before Timothy the love walk, referred to in 1 Timothy 1:5.

Paul ended his opening statement in 1 Timothy 1:3-7 to Timothy by saying, "Desiring to be teachers of the law; understanding neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm." This must have reminded Paul of his zeal as a Pharisee while persecuting the Church of Jesus Christ. Song of Solomon , after taking a short digression to explain the purpose of the Law in 1 Timothy 1:8-11, he mentions his divine calling ( 1 Timothy 1:12), then reflects upon his former lifestyle as a persecutor of the Church ( 1 Timothy 1:13) and God's abundant grace to save him ( 1 Timothy 1:14). He understood that he was the chief of sinners ( 1 Timothy 1:15), and that God saved him as an example to display His abundance mercy towards mankind ( 1 Timothy 1:16). However, Paul does not show a proud heart that is lifted up and despiteful sinful man. Rather, he speaks in humility. Having listed the sins of mankind in verses 9-10 he then places himself under the same grace and merry of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. After reflecting how God saved him by his grace Paul then reflects upon his divine visitations in God's holy presence ( 2 Corinthians 12:1) and attempts to declare God's unspeakable glory in human terms ( 1 Timothy 1:17).

2 Corinthians 12:1, "It is not expedient for me doubtless to glory. I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord."

What do we have that has not been graciously given to us by God; nothing that we have deserved?

1 Corinthians 4:7, "For who maketh thee to differ from another? and what hast thou that thou didst not receive? now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it?"

It is possible that Paul pauses here in 1 Timothy 1:17 to give praise and glory and honor to God because he is reflecting back upon a divine visitation or visit to Heaven where Jesus Christ spoke to him about his calling to the Gentiles. It is very possible that the words Paul speaks in 1 Timothy 1:12-16 are words that Jesus Christ spoke to him during one of these divine encounters when the Gospel was entrusted to him ( 1 Timothy 1:11). This diversion of thought is needed to reconfirm Paul's divine authority in his commission to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles to young Timothy; for Paul is about to commission Timothy in the same way that he was commissioned by God.

3. Paul Gives Timothy an Example of Spiritual Warfare ( 1 Timothy 1:18-20) - In 1 Timothy 1:18-20 Paul gives young Timothy the charge to be strong and fight the spiritual warfare that was necessary to set the church of Ephesus in order. He then gives Timothy an example of how to context for the faith by mentioning two men well known to both of them, Hymenaeus and Alexander, who were false teachers. Paul warred spiritual warfare with them by turning them over to Satan for the destruction of their flesh. Within the context of this epistle, in which Paul combats Jewish teachings that miss the mark of godly edifying, these two men could have been Jews who opposed the work in Ephesus rather than Christians who fell away from their faith in Christ. It is also possible that Paul is referring to two former Christians who had strayed from the faith and fallen into error, but many believe Paul was referring to Alexander the Jew who is mentioned in Acts 19:33-34, who stood up to publicly oppose Paul's work in Ephesus.

II. Setting the Church In Order ( 1 Timothy 2:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19) - 1 Timothy 2:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19 is the body of the epistle in which Paul gives Timothy specific instructions on how to set the church in order. Young believers do not know how to conduct themselves unless they are taught how to do this; thus, Paul places a special emphasis on respect and reverence upon the house of God, because it is a place dedicated to God. A new believer has to learn how to conduct himself in church since it is a new and sacred experience for him.

After Timothy is given his commissions and told how to appoint leadership ( 1 Timothy 1:3-20), Paul gives him three things to do in order to set qualified and trained leadership over the church of Ephesus. First, Timothy is to establish this church by calling the congregation to corporate prayer, where godly men will be identified ( 1 Timothy 2:1-15). This instruction includes the role of women role in the church. In a new church with new converts, women can dress very immodestly, so Paul is telling Timothy to set these issues straight so that prayer is not hindered. (Note that Jesus set the temple in order by driving out the moneychangers and saying that God's house must be established as a house of prayer [ Matthew 21:12-13].) These times of corporate prayer will help Timothy identify those with a pure heart. Second, Timothy was instructed to appoint and train elders and deacons by giving them certain qualifications to meet ( 1 Timothy 3:1 to 1 Timothy 4:16). Timothy will begin to look for those who qualify as leaders out of the faithful who follow him in corporate prayer and exhibit a pure heart, and appoint them as bishops and deacons ( 1 Timothy 3:1-13). Finally, he will train those whom he has chosen to be future leaders ( 1 Timothy 3:14 to 1 Timothy 4:16). Thus, the steps to becoming a church leader are to first become a man of prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:1-15). As the desire for the ministry grows, a person will allow the Lord to develop his character so that he can qualify for the office of a bishop ( 1 Timothy 3:1-13). Finally, this person is to train himself unto godliness ( 1 Timothy 3:14 to 1 Timothy 4:16). We see this same method of selecting and training leaders in the life and ministry of our Lord Jesus Christ. He left home and called many to follow Him. For those who did forsake all and followed Him, Jesus chose twelve, whom He then trained for the work of the ministry. The third aspect of setting the church in order is regarding those church members who do not aspire to leadership positions of bishops and deacons. Thus, Paul gives Timothy guidelines on how to set in order additional roles of each member of the congregation ( 1 Timothy 5:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19). The passage on corporate prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:1-15) will emphasize the spiritual aspect of the congregation as the members prepare their hearts before the Lord. The passage on the appointment and training of church leadership ( 1 Timothy 3:1 to 1 Timothy 4:16) will emphasize the mental aspect of the congregation as certain members train for the ministry. The passage on the role of additional members ( 1 Timothy 5:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19) will emphasize the physical aspect as they yield themselves to a godly lifestyle.

A. The First Order: Corporate and Personal Prayer with a Pure Heart (Emphasis on Heart Preparing Its Before God) ( 1 Timothy 2:1-15) - The first step of setting a church in order while halting self-appointments among ambitious, self-centered church members is to bring the congregation together in corporate and personal prayer; for it is in such gatherings that purity of heart is developed and where godly leadership will soon arise. Thus, Paul tells Timothy to begin setting the church in order by calling them together for corporate prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:1-15). Paul explains to him what they are to pray about ( 1 Timothy 2:1-2) and why they are to pray for men ( 1 Timothy 2:3-8). Here is a place where men's hearts are exposed and made known, when the church enters into the presence of the Lord through prayer. Those who will hear Timothy will immediately obey this charge of corporate prayer, and those who are self-seeking will avoid such events, or show themselves as ineffective in such times of prayer. Timothy will then be able to scope out such individuals whose heart is pure. He will identify those who have lifted their hands in prayer from a pure heart ( 1 Timothy 2:9), and who have their wives standing with them in submission ( 1 Timothy 2:10-15).

1. The Purpose of Prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:1-7) - The first order and priority of the Church is prayer. In fact, Jesus Christ made a comment on its priority within the Church by saying, "My house shall be called of all nations the house of prayer." ( Matthew 21:13, Mark 11:17)

Since the theme of the first epistle of Timothy is the divine service and church order, we must interpret 1 Timothy 2:1-7 to teach that all church members are called to pray. This is the first calling within a new believer's life, is the call to come together in prayer with fellow believers. I remember this desire to join in corporate prayer as a young believer. Thus, prayer is for all members in the church to become involved in and not just for some individuals. It is our initial calling on our journey to individual callings.

With this calling and responsibility God delegates authority to the Church. It is important to note that God would not have called a Church to pray for the leaders of its nation unless the Church had been given divine authority over this nation to determine the outcome of its leadership. For example, when the nation of Israel cried out for a king like the other nations around them in 1 Samuel 8:1-22, God yielded to their cry and told Samuel to anoint Saul as their first king. Thus, the nation's prayer determined their leadership. When the children of Israel cried out in the midst of Egyptian bondage, God harkened unto their cry and raised up Moses as their deliverer and took them out from under the rule of Egyptian government.

In addition, corporate prayer touches the hearts and lives of every member of society, so that the Church becomes the instrument by which God changes a society and eventually a nation. Thus, prayer is the first priority of the Church, because without good government and a peaceful society, the Church would live under persecution and would have difficulty establishing further order in the society in which God placed it.

In addition, when this passage tells us that it is God's will that all men be saved ( 1 Timothy 2:4), it implies that there is a way for the church to conduct itself so that all men under their influence can be saves. This procedure is laid out in this passage of Scripture in 1 Timothy 2:1-7, which is prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:1-6) and the preaching of the Gospel ( 1 Timothy 2:7). In other words, God has made a way for all men to be saved, and it is through this first order of prayer mixed with the preaching of the Gospel that Paul is giving to Timothy.

2. The Attitude of Prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:8-15) - Within the context of setting in order the Church assembly, Paul makes a distinction between the roles of men and women so that each will have the proper attitude in prayer. Thus, in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 shows the order of the family as man being the head of the woman. God has ordained two institutions on earth, the family and the Church. Both are designed to work together and to be a part of everyone's lives. When a man sets himself in order within the institution of the Church, and is also able to bring his wife and family in order within the Church, he is then putting himself in a position for the next discussion, which is Church leadership ( 1 Timothy 3:1-13). Thus, we see a sequence of events in the life of individuals regarding their roles within the local church assembly.

B. The Appointment and Training of Church Leaders (Emphasis on Renewing of the Mind) ( 1 Timothy 3:1 to 1 Timothy 4:16) - 1 Timothy 3:1 to 1 Timothy 4:16 gives a lengthy discourse on how to identify and train members for the offices of bishops and deacons, the primary leaders in a local congregation. This passage will emphasize the renewing of the mind for Christian leadership.

1. The Appointment of Church Leaders: A Good Conscience ( 1 Timothy 3:1-13) - In 1 Timothy 3:1-13 Paul deals with church leadership as the second aspect of setting a local church congregation in order. In this passage he discusses the qualifications of bishops ( 1 Timothy 3:1-7) and deacons ( 1 Timothy 3:8-13) within the local church congregation. Once Timothy has seen certain individuals who have followed him in corporate prayer, whose hearts are pure, he now begins to work with them on issues of character. He will identify those who are living by a good conscience so that their character among the congregation will one day be instilled into the laity.

This discussion of the appointment of church leadership in 1 Timothy 3:1-13 naturally follows the sequence that Paul has laid out in the previous passages. When a man sets himself in order within the institution of the Church by joining in corporate and private prayer ( 1 Timothy 2:1-8), and is also able to bring his wife and family in order within the Church ( 1 Timothy 2:9-15), he is then putting himself in a position for the next calling that involves a person's relationship with the church assemble, which is Church leadership ( 1 Timothy 3:1-13). For when a person fulfills his first two roles within a congregation, God will call him to the next level, which is leadership. We can imagine young Timothy calling the congregation to prayer. Those in attendance would be viewed by him as believers whose heart was right with God, and who had a passion for the things of God. It would be out of this group that Timothy would look for potential leaders. Thus, we see a sequence of events in the life of individuals regarding their roles within the local church assembly. There are two levels of leadership; the bishop and the deacon. Later, in his second epistle to young Timothy, Paul will deal with some of the manifold aspects of church leadership.

a) The Qualifications of Bishops ( 1 Timothy 3:1-7) - 1 Timothy 3:1-7 lists the qualifications of bishops.

b) The Qualifications of Deacons ( 1 Timothy 3:8-13) - 1 Timothy 3:8-13 lists the qualifications of deacons in the church. The office of the deacon was instituted in Acts 6:1-7, with seven men being appointed to minister to the widows. The office of the deacon is mentioned in Philippians 1:1. Phebe is generally considered a deaconess in Cenchrea ( Romans 16:1). Otherwise, there are only allusions to this office in the New Testament ( Romans 12:7, 1 Corinthians 12:28, 1 Peter 4:11). Thus, it is not known how far reaching the office of the deacon extended under Paul's ministry.

Philippians 1:1, "Paul and Timotheus, the servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons:"

Romans 16:1, "I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea:"

Romans 12:7, "Or ministry, let us wait on our ministering: or he that teacheth, on teaching;"

1 Corinthians 12:28, "And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues."

1 Peter 4:11, "If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen."

2. The Training of the Leaders: A Sincere Faith ( 1 Timothy 3:14 to 1 Timothy 4:16) - The next stage in setting a church in order is to train those who have been called out as bishops and deacons. Paul first establishes the purpose and function of the Church on earth by saying that it is "the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth" ( 1 Timothy 3:15), placed upon this earth to reveal the "mystery of the Gospel of Jesus Christ" ( 1 Timothy 3:16). Thus, 1 Timothy 3:14-16 establishes our faith. However, there are those who will depart from this foundation of faith in Christ because of seducing spirits that deceive men with doctrines of devils ( 1 Timothy 4:1-5). Therefore, Timothy is to teach sound doctrine by "reading, to exhortation, to doctrine" ( 1 Timothy 4:6-16). It is in the continuation of teaching sound doctrine that a sincere faith is developed among the leadership as well as laity.

a) Defining the Role of the Church ( 1 Timothy 3:14-16) - In 1 Timothy 3:14-16 Paul defines the role of the New Testament Church, which is to stand as the pillar of divine truth in pagan societies.

b) Warnings of Apostasy ( 1 Timothy 4:1-5) - In 1 Timothy 4:1-5 Paul prophesies of a coming apostasy within the Church in the last days. Why is this passage on apostasy in 1 Timothy 4:1-5 following 1 Timothy 3:14-16 in which Paul states his purpose for writing this first epistle to young Timothy, which is to set the church in order while he is absent? Because when these times come, it will be important to know how to live godly in Christ Jesus when people begin to depart from the faith and live worldly. It takes a strong Christian to not be moved away the Word of God when many others have left the faith.

Paul knew what it was like to contend with the doctrines of men, such as those who adhered to extreme asceticism, which taught, "Touch not, taste not, handle not," ( Colossians 2:20-23).

Colossians 2:20-23, "Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances, (Touch not; taste not; handle not; Which all are to perish with the using;) after the commandments and doctrines of men? Which things have indeed a shew of wisdom in will worship, and humility, and neglecting of the body; not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh."

Paul knew the burdensome rules and regulations of strict Judaism, which reduced everyday life to a ritual. Paul contended with these Judaistic beliefs within the Church in Acts 15:1-41. This passage says that they "had no small dissension and disputation with them" ( Acts 15:2).

Acts 15:2, "When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question."

Jesus contended with the Pharisees about their distorted views of tithing because they "made clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but their inward part is full of ravening and wickedness." Song of Solomon , Jesus said in Luke 11:41 to "give alms as you are able and all things become clean." In other words, they were to serve the Lord with their act of tithing so that would serve as an act of worship and sanctification in their lives.

Luke 11:41, "But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and, behold, all things are clean unto you."

This passage in 1 Timothy 4:1-5 clear shows that the apostasy will take place with some of those within the Church, who initially embraced the Faith. This passage is actually a prediction of the fragmentation of the Church into denominations and religion sects and cults that will take place, especially in these last days before the Coming of Jesus Christ. Never before have there been so many cults and denominations using the name of Christ. There will be a progression of events that take place in their lives to gradually lure them away from Christ Jesus as their Saviour. They will first "give place" to other information ( 1 Timothy 4:1). This will leads to them "speaking lies in hypocrisy" ( 1 Timothy 4:2). Finally, their conscience will "become seared" so that they no longer are able to discern the voice of the Holy Spirit, and between right and wrong ( 1 Timothy 4:2). The sad part is that these former believers have been deceived in such a way that they believe they are still in the way of righteousness. They will form doctrines that deny all fleshly pleasures, such as marriage and foods for the body ( 1 Timothy 4:3). In 1 Corinthians 8:1 to 1 Corinthians 11:34 Paul gave a lengthy discourse to the Corinthian church about idolatry and foods offered unto idols. This was on extreme view of how to deal with the flesh, which was by satisfying it with all manner of sinful acts. Now, the deception that Paul predicts in 1 Timothy 4:1-5 will take the opposite extreme position of totally denying marriage and sex, as well as certain foods. Thus, Paul tells Timothy to keep this truth balanced so as not to fall in the ditch on either side of the extreme. He says that marriage and foods are sanctified by God when they are received and used as a gift and blessing from God ( 1 Timothy 4:4-5). Thus, we see progression of someone becoming indoctrinated into demonic doctrines induced by seducing spirits. They are no longer able to receive the indoctrination from the Word of God by servants of God. Their ears and mind hear words of seduction and they give place to it within their hearts ( 1 Timothy 4:1). Their mouth then speaks these doctrines that they have embraced ( 1 Timothy 4:2). This process of indoctrination causes them to deny what their pure consciences have been telling them so that it becomes dysfunctional, or "seared" ( 1 Timothy 4:2). Their lying words progress into false teachings as they endeavour to indoctrinate others ( 1 Timothy 4:3). Paul mentions such people in his second epistle to Timothy, by saying, "For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears;" ( 2 Timothy 4:3) Paul wants this process of indoctrination to work for good in the lives of the believers, but he explains to Timothy how Satan can use the process of indoctrination to work for evil and cause some to be lost.

c) Exhortation to Teach Sound Doctrine ( 1 Timothy 4:6-16) - After defining the role of the New Testament Church as the pillar and ground of truth in society ( 1 Timothy 3:14-16), and warning Timothy of apostasy ( 1 Timothy 4:1-5), Paul exhorts him to teach sound doctrine. Paul tells him to focus on reading, exhortation, and doctrine, and to stir up the gifts within him.

C. The Role of Additional Members of the Congregation (Emphasis on the Body Yielding to a Godly Lifestyle) ( 1 Timothy 5:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19) - In 1 Timothy 5:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19 Paul teaches Timothy how to set in order and minister to the rest of the members of his congregation, those who do not qualify as bishops and deacons. Paul focuses upon the different age groups, the old and the young, to those holding different church offices, from the widows to the teachers, and to different social classes, the rich and the poor. Paul first deals with those who hold secondary church offices, which are the widows who dedicate themselves to prayer ( 1 Timothy 5:1-16), and the elders ( 1 Timothy 5:17-25). He then deals with the laity by focusing on the poor and the rich classes ( 1 Timothy 6:1-19). Thus, we see Paul addressing these groups of people in the order of honour they are bestowed by a society. Genuine widows are given the greatest honor, even in churches today, followed by church elders, then the poor, with the last being given to the rich.

Paul then teaches Timothy how to set in order and minister to the rest of the members of his congregation, those who will not qualify as bishops and deacons. Paul focuses upon the different age groups, the old and the young, to those holding different church offices, from the widows to the teachers, and to different social classes, the rich and the poor. Paul first deals with those who hold church offices, which are the widows who dedicate themselves to prayer ( 1 Timothy 5:1-16), and the elders ( 1 Timothy 5:17-25). He then deals with the laity by focusing on the poor and the rich classes ( 1 Timothy 6:1-19). Thus, we see Paul addressing these groups of people in the order of honour they are bestowed by a society. Genuine widows are given the greatest honor, even in churches today, followed by church elders, then the poor, with the last being given to the rich.

1. How To Set in Order the Widows ( 1 Timothy 5:1-16) - Paul first tells Timothy the qualifications of true widows and their duties, which is the lowest office of the church, for they give themselves to prayer night and day ( 1 Timothy 5:17-25). He will also address the issue of elderly men and women in a local congregation.

2. How To Set in Order the Elders ( 1 Timothy 5:17-25) - Paul then deals with the duties and discipline of church elders, which is the highest and noblest office in the church, for they labour in the word and doctrine. Paul teaches Timothy how to deal with disciple and rewards for church leaders.

a) Rewarding Elders ( 1 Timothy 5:17-18) - Honor those who lead well.

b) Discipline for Elders ( 1 Timothy 5:19-20) - Do not listen to a bunch of gossip by individuals about them, but only if two or three witnesses verify the truth. Then charge them of their sin before all, so others may fear.

c) Fulfill Office Without Partiality ( 1 Timothy 5:21-22) - Timothy must be strong in character to not show partiality when implementing Paul's charges regarding elders.

d) Insertion for Paul's Health ( 1 Timothy 5:23) - Paul inserts a note for Timothy"s sake. In qualifying for these offices of church leadership with strict requirements, Paul speaks of not being given to much wine for the leaders of the church, but use it in moderation ( 1 Timothy 3:3; 1 Timothy 3:8 and Titus 1:7). For the sake of Timothy's health, Paul advises him to use a little for medical reasons. It will not be wrong under these circumstances.

e) Closing Statement ( 1 Timothy 5:24-25) - In 1 Timothy 5:24-25 Paul makes a closing statement about the task given to Timothy. He notes that the sins of some will be known and judged here in this life, but other sins will be hidden until Judgment Day. Likewise, good deeds are obvious in this life, but others will not be known until Judgment Day.

3. Slavery and Wealth ( 1 Timothy 6:1-19) - In 1 Timothy 6:1-19 Paul finally deals with the laity, particularly with two related subjects, which is the difficult issue of slavery within the local church members and with earthly riches; for it is the pursuit of earthly wealth that drives the corrupt institution of slavery. He gives responsibility to the rich and the poor members of every congregation. Paul first discusses the duties of the slaves ( 1 Timothy 6:1-2), then the duties of the rich ( 1 Timothy 6:3-19).

After giving Timothy charges concerning the slaves within the local assembly ( 1 Timothy 6:1-2), Paul explains the dangers of greed and charges the rich. Those who reject Paul's counsel regarding slavery do so because of greed for earthly gain (3-10). Thus, in 1 Timothy 6:11-16 Paul charges Timothy to pursue godliness instead of earthly gain. Finally, Paul follows these warnings with charges to them that do have riches to use their riches to honor God ( 1 Timothy 6:17-19).

a) Paul Addresses Slavery ( 1 Timothy 6:1-2) - In 1 Timothy 6:1-2 Paul addresses the issue of slavery, but does so from the perspective of upholding Church order and doctrine. In his epistles to the Corinthians, Ephesians and Colossians Paul spoke to the church members on how to conduct themselves in these relationships. However, in 1Timothy Paul bases these charges on the need to uphold the doctrine of God, which is the underlying theme of the Pastoral Epistles.

b) Warnings about Those Who Reject Godly Counsel ( 1 Timothy 6:3-10) - In 1 Timothy 6:3-10 Paul warns young Timothy about those who reject sound doctrine.

c) Paul Warns Timothy to Pursue Righteousness Instead of Earthly Riches ( 1 Timothy 6:11-16) - In 1 Timothy 6:11-16 Paul warns Timothy to pursue righteousness instead of earthly riches.

d) Paul's Instructions Regarding the Rich ( 1 Timothy 6:17-19) - In 1 Timothy 6:17-19 Paul gives Timothy instructions regarding another difficult issue to deal with in the local congregation, and that is the role of the rich.

III. Conclusion ( 1 Timothy 6:20-21) - 1 Timothy 6:20-21 contains Paul's conclusion to his letter to Timothy by giving him a closing charge to be faithful to everything that he has been entrusted with. Paul's opening charge for Timothy was to teach sound doctrine ( 1 Timothy 1:3-20) that establishes the pure faith within the lives of the congregation, and failure to do this causes many to err from the true faith of the Christian life ( 1 Timothy 6:20-21).

XI. Outline of Book of 1Timothy

The following outline is a summary of the preceding literary structure; thus, it reflects the theological framework of the epistle of 1Timothy: its purpose, its three-fold thematic scheme, and its literary structure. As a result, this outline offers sermon sections that fit together into a single message that can be used by preachers and teachers to guide a congregation or class through the epistle of 1Timothy. This journey through 1Timothy will lead believers into one aspect of conformity to the image of Christ Jesus that was intended by the Lord, which in this book of the Holy Scriptures is to prepare Christians as God's servants to fulfill the office of an evangelist.

I. Introduction— 1 Timothy 1:1-20

A. Salutation— 1 Timothy 1:1-2

B. Paul's Commission to Timothy— 1 Timothy 1:3-20

1. Paul's Initial Charge— 1 Timothy 1:3-11

a) The Commission— 1 Timothy 1:3-4

b) The Goal of the Commandment— 1 Timothy 1:5-7

c) The Purpose of the Law— 1 Timothy 1:8-11

2. Paul as an Example of a Genuine Minister— 1 Timothy 1:12-17

3. Paul Commissions Timothy — 1 Timothy 1:18-20

II. Setting the Church In Order— 1 Timothy 2:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19

A. The First Order: Corporate & Personal Prayer— 1 Timothy 2:1-15

1. The Purpose of Prayer— 1 Timothy 2:1-7

2. The Attitude of Prayer— 1 Timothy 2:8-15

B. The Second Order: Appointing & Training Church Leaders— 1 Timothy 3:1 to 1 Timothy 4:16

1. The Appointment of Church Leaders— 1 Timothy 3:1-13

a) The Qualifications of Bishops— 1 Timothy 3:1-7

b) The Qualifications of Deacons— 1 Timothy 3:8-13

2. The Training of Church Leaders— 1 Timothy 3:14 to 1 Timothy 4:16

a) Defining the Role of the Church— 1 Timothy 3:14-16

b) Warnings of Apostasy— 1 Timothy 4:1-5

c) Exhortation to Teach Sound Doctrine— 1 Timothy 4:6-16

C. The Third Order: the Roles of the Congregation— 1 Timothy 5:1 to 1 Timothy 6:19

1. How to Set In Order the Widows— 1 Timothy 5:1-16

2. How to Set In Order the Elders— 1 Timothy 5:17-25

a) Rewarding Elders — 1 Timothy 5:17-18

b) Discipline for Elders — 1 Timothy 5:19-20

c) Fulfill Office Without Partiality — 1 Timothy 5:21-22

d) Insertion for Paul's Health — 1 Timothy 5:23

e) Closing Statement — 1 Timothy 5:24-25

3. Paul Addresses Slavery and Wealth— — 1 Timothy 6:1-19

a) Paul Addresses Slavery— 1 Timothy 6:1-2

b) Warnings About Those Who Reject Godly Counsel— 1 Timothy 6:3-10

c) Paul Warns Timothy to Pursue Righteousness— 1 Timothy 6:11-16

d) Paul's Instructions Regarding the Rich— 1 Timothy 6:17-19

III. Closing Charge— 1 Timothy 6:20-21

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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EXEGESIS AND COMMENTS

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Friday, October 18th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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