corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.20.04.10
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Encyclopedias

1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Payment of Members

Resource Toolbox

PAYMENT OF MEMBERS . From time to time proposals have been made to reintroduce in the English parliamentary system a practice which is almost universally adopted in other countries, that of paying a state salary to members of the legislative body. In the earlier history of the English parliament the payment of commoners or representatives of the people was for long the practice. They had first been summoned to the great council of the realm in. 1265 in the reign of Henry III. The shires and boroughs they represented~paid them for their services, and reimbursed the expenses they were put to in journeying to and from the place of meeting. In 1322, by a statute of Edward II., the salary of a knight was fixed at 4S. a day, and that of a citizen or burgher at 2S. a day. These payments could be enforced by writs issued after the dissolution of each parliament, and there are many instances of the issue of such writs down to the reign of Henry VIII.; while the last known instance is that of one Thomas King, who in 1681 obtained a writ for his salary against the corporation of Harwich. The practice of the payment of members of parliament gradually fell into desuetude, and in the second parliament of Charles II. strong disapproval was expressed of the practice. Its gradual abandonment was due first to the difficulty of securing representatives in the early parliaments. Men of business were unwilling to detach themselves from their affairs, as travel was slow and dangerous; in addition to the perils of the journey there was the almost certain knowledge that a safe return from parliament would be followed by the ill will of the members neighbors, for every meeting of parliament was but a device on the part of the sovereign for inflicting some new form of taxation, and a refusal to vote such taxation was but to incur the royal displeasure. The towns themselves were equally disinclined to bear the burden of their members maintenance, and some even went so far as to obtain their disfranchisement. In the second place, the growing influence of parliament in the 16th century brought about a revulsion of feeling as to parliamentary services, and the increase in the number of candidates led first to bargaining on their part in the shape of undertaking to accept reduced wages and expenses, and, finally, to forego all. A step further was reached when the constituency bargained as to what it should receive from its representative, resulting in wholesale bribery, which required legislation to end it (see CORRUPT PRACTICES).

In England, the House of Commons has on various occasions carried resolutions in favor of the principle, more especially on the 24th of March 1893 (by 276 votes to 229), and on the 22nd of March 1895 (by 176 to 158). On these occasions the resolutions simply specified an adequate allowance; but on the 7th of March 1906 a resolution was carried (by 348 votes tz 110) in favor of an allowance at the rate of 300 per annum.

Appended are the salaries paid to legisIato~s in various countries in 1910.

BRITISH COLONIES

South Africa.Be fore the South Africa Act 1909, which brought about the union of Cape Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony and the Transvaal, each colony had its own legislature. For purposes of comparison, the salaries which were paid to the members of these state legislatures are given below. The act of 1909 reduced the colonies to the position of dependent provinces, entrusted only with local administration by means of provincial councils. The act of 1909 (~ 76) enacts that the members of provincial councils shall receive such allowances as shall be determined by the governor-general in council. Members of the new South African legislature receive 400 a year, subject to a deduction of 3 a day for each days non-attendance.

Cape ColonyMembers of either house were paid 215. a day, and those residing more than 15 m. from Cape Town an additional 15s. a day, for a period not exceeding 90 days.

Natal.Members of the legislature were not paid, but those residing more than 2 m. from the seat of government received a travelling allowance of LI a day during the session.

Orange River ColonyAt the end of the session each member received 150, and an additional 2 for each day of actual attendance, but not more than 300 in all.

Transvaal Colon y.As in the Orange River Colony.

Canada.Federal government. Members of both houses are paid $2500 per session, but subject to a deduction of $15 a day for each day of non-attendance.

Ontario.Members of the Legislative Assembly are paid mileage and an allowance of $6 a day for 30 days, with a maximum of $1000.

Quebec.L~_Members of the Legislative Assembly are paid $6 a ~ay during the session.

Nova Scotia.Members are paid an indemnity of $500 for the ,iession.

New Brunswick.Members of the Legislative Assembly receive $500 per session and travelling expenses.

Manitoba.Members of the LegisIa~ ive Assembly receive $1000 per session and travelling expenses.

British ColumbiaMembers of the Legislative Assembly receive $1200 per session and travelling expenses.

Prince Edward Island.Members of the Legislative Assembly receive $160 per annum and travelling expenses, with an additional $12 for postage.

Australian Commonwealth.Members of parliament receive 600 per annum.

New South Wales.Members of the Legislative Assembly receive 3o0 per annum, and free travel over all government railways and tramways. They are also given official stamped envelopes for their postage purposes.

Victoria.M embers of the Legislative Assembly receive 300 per annum and free passes over all railways.

Queensland.Members of the Legislative Assembly receive 300 per annum, with travelling expenses.

South A ustralia.Members both of the Legislative Council and of the House of Assembly receive 200 per annum and free passes over all government railways.

Western Australia.Members of the Legislative Council receive 200 a year and free travel on all government railways.

Tasmania.Members of both houses receive f 00 a year and free railway passes.

New Zealand.Members of the Legislative Council are paid 200 per annum. Members of the House of Representatives are paid 25 a month.

UNITED STATES

Federal Government.Senators, representatives or delegates receive $7500 a year, and traveffing expenses.

Alabama.There is a session once in four years, such session being limited to 50 days, during which senators and representatives receive $4 a day and mileage.

Arizona Territory.A biennial session of 60 days duration, d,uring which members of the council and representatives receive $4 a day and mileage.

Arkansas has a biennial session of 60 days duration, for which senators and representatives receive $6 a day and mileage.

Californias legislature meets biennially, but there is no fixed length for the session. Senators and members of the Assembly receive $1000 and mileage for the term.

Colorados session is biennial and limited to 90 days. Senators and representatives receive $7 a day and mileage during session.

Connecticut gives senators and representatives $300 and mileage for their term of two years.

Delaware has biennial sessions of 60 days, and may have extra sessions limited to 30 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day during sessions.

Florida has biennial sessions of 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $6 a day during the session and mileage.

Georgia has annual sessions limited to 50 days. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day and mileage.

Idahos senators and represeptatives receive mileage and $5 a day during the session, which is biennial.

Illinois has a biennial session, for which senators and representatives receive $iooo a year and mileage. For extraordinary sessions they receive $5 a day.

Indiana has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $6 a day and mileage.

Iowa has biennial sessions of unlimited length. Senators and representatives receive $55o for the session, with mileage.

Kansas has biennial sessions limited to 50 days. Senators and representatives receive $3 a day during the session, with mileage.

Kentucky has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $~ a day and mileage.

Louisiana has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day during the session with mileage.

Maines senators and representatives receive $300 a year and mileage. Sessions are biennial and of no fixed length.

Maryland has biennial sessions limited to 90 days. Senators and delegates receive $5 a day during the session and mileage.

Massachusetts has an annual session, for which senators and representatives receive each a lump sum of $750 and mileage.

Michigan has biennial sessions not of fixed length, and senators and representatives are paid $800 a year and mileage.

Minnesota has biennial sessions limited to 90 days. Senators and representatives receive $1 000 a year besides limited travelling expenses.

Mississippi has a session every four years, unlimited in length. Special sessions, also, limited to 30 days, nre held in alternate years. Senators and representatives receive a sum of $400 for each session.

Missouri has biennial sessions of no fixed length. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day for the first 70 days of each session, and $1 a day for each succeeding day.

Montana has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $12 a day during session.

Nebraska has biennial sessions unlimited in length. Senators and representatives are paid $5 a day and mileage (10 cents a mile) for not more than 60 days of any one session. If extraordinary sessions are held the total days paid for must not exceed 100 during the two years for which they sit.

Nevada has biennial sessions limited to 60 days, but special sessions limited to 20 days may be held. Senators and representatives receive $10 a day and mileage during sessions.

New Hampshire has biennial sessions, which last until prorogued by the governor. The duration is usually about three months. Senators and representatives receive $200 for the session and mileage.

New Jersey has an annual session, unlimited in length. Senators and members of the General Assembly receive $500 a year.

New Mexico has biennial sessions of 60 days. Members of the Council and representatives receive $4 a day.

New York has an annual session. Members of the Senate and of the Assembly receive $1500 a year.

North Carolina has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day during the session, and mileage.

North Dakota has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a clay during the session and mileage.

Ohio has biennial sessions not limited in length. Senators and representatives receive $1000 a year.

Oklahoma has biennial sessions. Senators and representatives receive $6 a day for the first 60 daysthereafter $2 a dayand mileage (10 cents a mile).

Oregon has biennial sessions limited to 240 days. Senators and representatives receive $3 a day during the session and mileage.

Pennsylvania has biennial sessions. Senators and representatives receive $1500 for the session with mileage, with an extra allowance of $150 for stationery and postage.

Rhode Island has an annual session unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day during the session.

South Carolina has an annual session unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day for the first 40 days.

South Dakota has biennial sessions of 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 for each days attendance, and travelling expenses.

Tennessee has biennial sessions. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day for not more than 75 days a session and mileage (16 cents a mile). If absent they do not receive pay, unless they are physically unable to be present.

Texas has biennial sessions, unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive mileage and $5 a day for the first 60 days of the session; for succeeding days $2 a day.

Utah has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day during the session, and mileage.

Vermont has biennial sessions unlimited in length. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day during the session and mileage.

Virginia has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and delegates receive $500 for the session and mileage.

Washington has biennial sessions limited to 60 days. Senators and representatives receive $5 a day for each day s attendance and travelling expenses.

West Virginia has biennial sessioi~s limited to 45 days, which can be added to by a two-thirds majority. Senators and delegates receive $4 a day during the session and mileage.

Wisconsin has biennial sessions. Senators and members of the Assembly receive $500 for the session, and travelling expenses at the rate of 10 cents a mile.

Wyoming has biennial sessions limited to 40 days. Senators and representatives receive $8 a day during the session and mileage.

FOREIGN COUNTRIES

Argentina.Both senators (30) and members of the House of Deputies (120) receive floo a year.

Austria.Members of the Lower House (516) receive 16s. 8d. for each days attendance, with travelling expenses.

Belgium.Members of the Chamber of Representatives (166) receive 160 a year and a free pass over railways.

Bolivia.Senators (16) and deputies (69) receive 40 a month during sessions, which last from 60 to 90 days.

Bulgaria.Members of the Legislature receive I6s. a day during the session, which nominally lasts from the i~th of October to the 15th of December.

Denmark.Members both of the Landsthing (66) and of the Folkething (114) receive IIS. id. a day for the first six months of the session, and 6s. 8d. for each additional day of the session. They receive also second-class free passes on all railways.

France.Members of both the Senate (300) and of the Chamber of Deputies (584) receive 600 a year.

German Empire.Members both of the Bundesrat (58) and f the Reichstag (3~i) receive 150 for the session, but have P).INTED ii deducted Li for each days absence. They receive also free passes over the German railways during the session.

Baden pays members of its Second Chamber and such members of the Tipper Chamber as have not got hereditary seats 12s. a day and travelling expenses, but to those members who reside in the capital 9s. a day only.

Bavaria pays members of the Lower House (163) I80 for a regular session. They are also allowed free travel over the government railways.

Hesse.Members of the Second Chamber (50) and nonhereditary members of the Upper Chamber who reside more than i~ m. from the place of meeting receive 9s. a day and 3s. for each night, besides a refund of their travelling expenses.

Prussia.Members of the Lower Chamber (433) receive travelling expenses and diet money (according to a fixed scale) of I5s. a day.

Saxe-Coburg.Members of the Second Chamber residing in Coburg or Gotha receive 6s. a day; other members receive los. a day and travelling expenses.

Sanony.Members of the Second Chamber (82) and nonhereditary members of the Upper Chamber receive I 2s. a day (6s. a day if they live in the place of meeting) and an allowance for travelling.

Wurttemberg.Members of both chambers receive I5s. a day for actual attendance; also free passes over the railways.

Greece.The members (235) receive 72 for the session, also free passes on railway and steamship lines.

Hungary.Members of the House of Representatives (453)

receive 20c a year, with allowance of 66 I3s. for house rent.

Italy.Members of the Legislature receive no payment, although attempts have been made from 1862 onwards to introduce payment of members. It was last brought forward in 1908, the amount suggested being 24s. for every sitting attended.

Japan.Members of the House of Representatives (379) and non-hereditary members of the House of Peers receive 210 a year, besides travelling expenses.

Mexico.Both senators (56) and representatives (340) receive $3000 a year.

Net herlands.M embers of the First Chamber (50) not residing in the Hague receive 16s. 8d. a day during the session; members of the Second Chamber (100) receive 166 a year, besides travelling expenses.

Norway.Members of the Storting (123) receive 13s. 4d. a day during the session, besides travelling expenses.

Paraguay.Both senators and deputies receive 200 a year.

Portugal.Deputies have been unpaid since 1892, but deputies for the colonies, whose homes are in the colonies, receive 20 a month or I3s. 4d. a day during sittings of the Chamber, and Io a month when the Chamber is not sitting.

Rumania.Both senators (120) and deputies (183) receive 16s. 8d. for each day of attendance, besides free railway passes.

Russia.Members of the Duma receive 21s. a day during the session, and travelling expenses.

Servia.Deputies (120) receive 125. a day and travelling expenses.

Spain.Members of the Legislature receive no salary, but deputies on their election receive a railway ticket for 2480 m. travel.

Sweden.Members of both the First Chamber (150) and the Second Chamber (230) receive 66 for each session of 4 months, besides travelling expenses.

SwitzerlandMembers of the State Council are paid by the canton they represent, and their salary varies according to the wealth or liberality of the canton. The salary ranges thus from 125.6d. to 25s. a day, the average of the whole being I6s. a day. Members of the National Council (167) ~e paid from Federal funds. They receive 16s. 8d. a day for each day they are present, with travelling expenses. (T. A. I.)

U_S.,..


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Payment of Members'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/bri/p/payment-of-members.html. 1910.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, April 10th, 2020
Good Friday
There are 2 days til Easter!
ADVERTISEMENT
Search for…
Enter query in the box:
 or 
Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M 
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z 

 
Prev Entry
Payment
Next Entry
Paynter
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology