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Bible Commentaries

Preacher's Complete Homiletical Commentary
Isaiah

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 16 Chapter 17
Chapter 19 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 24
Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28
Chapter 29 Chapter 30 Chapter 31 Chapter 32
Chapter 33 Chapter 34 Chapter 35 Chapter 36
Chapter 37 Chapter 38 Chapter 39 Chapter 40
Chapter 41 Chapter 42 Chapter 43 Chapter 44
Chapter 45 Chapter 46 Chapter 47 Chapter 48
Chapter 49 Chapter 50 Chapter 51 Chapter 52
Chapter 53 Chapter 54 Chapter 55 Chapter 56
Chapter 57 Chapter 58 Chapter 59 Chapter 60
Chapter 61 Chapter 62 Chapter 63 Chapter 64
Chapter 65 Chapter 66

Book Overview - Isaiah

The Preacher's Complete Homiletic

COMMENTARY

ON THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET

Isaiah

VOLUME I & II

By the REV. R. A. BERTRAM

and

The REV. ALFRED TUCKER

NEW YORK

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY

LONDON AND TORONTO

1892

THE PREACHER'S COMPLETE HOMILETIC

COMMENTARY

ON THE BOOKS OF THE BIBLE

WITH CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES, INDEXES, ETC., BY VARIOUS AUTHORS

PREFATORY NOTES

1. IN the preparation of this Commentary, my aim throughout has been evangelical and practical. A study of the Book of Isaiah suggests many historical, critical, and speculative questions, but these I have entirely disregarded. I have asked only, What messages from God has this inspired prophet for the men of this generation? What instruction has he to give us? What warnings? What encouragements? What consolations? To these questions I believe there are answers in the outlines I have myself prepared, and in those I have obtained from other sources.

2. As my work proceeded, my methods somewhat changed. I discovered that I had commenced the Commentary on too large a scale, and that it was in danger of becoming too large and costly. I therefore ceased to append illustrations to the outlines, and contented myself with giving references to illustrations in my "Homiletic Encyclopœdia of Illustrations in Theology and Morals" and my "Dictionary of Poetical Illustrations," using for this purpose the letters H. E. I. and P. D.

3. I also ceased to prepare outlines on all the texts, and limited myself to those most likely to be profitable to ordinary congregations.

4. As I proceeded, I also became more convinced that a book intended to be helpful to many minds should contain the best thoughts of many minds; and therefore, instead of preparing outlines which might be expanded into sermons, I condensed sermons preached by others into outlines. Remembering that I was working for ministers, I stripped the thoughts contained in those sermons of most of their dress, and so the substance of a sermon of twenty pages was frequently placed on a page. The result is that in this volume a hundred and fifty students of Scripture—Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Baptists—combine to offer to their brethren suggestions as to the best practical uses to which the writings of Isaiah may be put to-day.

5. On pp. 447-496 are some valuable outlines obtained too late for insertion in their proper places. Three of them are interesting specimens of Welsh preaching.

ISAIAH

INTRODUCTION

OF ISAIAH, "the evangelical prophet," nothing is known beyond what we are told of him in the Scriptures. Various traditions concerning him are current among the Jews, such as that his father Amoz was brother of King Amaziah, and that he himself died a martyr's death, being sawn asunder by order of Manasseh; but all that is certain is, that he was the son of Amoz; that his prophetic ministry commenced in the reign of Uzziah, and closed in that of Hezekiah (Isa ); that his wife was a prophetess (Isa 8:3), and bare him two sons (Isa 7:3; Isa 8:3); and that he was the author of a portion of the Chronicles of the kings of Judah (2Ch 26:22).

His name signifies The Salvation of the Lord, and this—the salvation which God works for His people from their sins and consequent misery—is the great, though not the exclusive, theme of his prophecy.

The length of his ministry is variously estimated. The lowest estimate would make it comprise forty-nine years, from the last year of Uzziah to the seventeenth of Hezekiah (B.C. 759-710); the highest, sixty-four years, from the fourth year before Uzziah's death to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 762-698).

In the following Commentary it is assumed that the whole of the sixtysix chapters of which the Book of Isaiah is composed, were written by one pen. For clear and conclusive refutations of the theory of a second Isaiah, see the introductions to the Commentaries of Alexander, Delitsch, and Kay, and the article ISAIAH in Smith's, Kitto's, and Fairbairn's Dictionaries of the Bible.

(1.) Being a vision, it will frequently speak of events that are yet future, as if they had already occurred. So in Isa : "Jerusalem is ruined; Judah is fallen." In Isa 5:13 : "Therefore my people are gone into captivity."

(2.) What is seen in vision must be subject to the laws of perspective. One who views the snowy Alps from a distance may see two mountain peaks, which really are many miles apart, as one object. The illustration is imperfect; yet it may serve to explain how, to the eve of a seer, a nearer event may be blended with one that is in the same direction, but vastly more remote; the type, for instance, melting into the antitype, or the interval between the first and second advents of the Messiah being indiscernible.

(3.) It is, as a whole, The Vision;—one vision. It consists, indeed, of various parts; yet from the very outset these represent the same vision. Judah is rebellious; is sentenced to exile: is redeemed; is purified. These elements, on a large scale, compose the book as a whole; and, on a smaller scale, they compose the first chapter. The body is made up of portions similar in quality to itself, and to each other. The visions are greatly diversified in size, form, colouring, and other detail; but in essential characteristics it is one vision.—Dr Kay, in The Speaker's Commentary, vol. v. p. 19.

We cannot fail to assume, as the first condition of Isaiah's peculiar historical greatness, a native power, and a vivacity of spirit which, even among prophets, is seldom to be met with. It is but rarely that we see combined in one and the same spirit the three several characteristics of—first, the most profound prophetic excitement and the purest sentiment; next, the most indefatigable and successful practical activity amidst all perplexities and changes of outward life; and, thirdly, that facility and beauty in representing thought which is the characteristic of the genuine poet; but this threefold combination we find realised in Isaiah as in no other prophet; and from the traces which we can perceive of the unceasing joint-working of these three powers, we must draw our conclusions as to the original greatness of his genius. Both as prophet and as author, Isaiah stands upon that calm, sunny height, which in each several branch of ancient literature one eminently favoured spirit at the right time takes possession of; which seems, as it were, to have been waiting for him; and which, when he has come and mounted the ascent, seems to keep and guard him to the last as its own right man. In the sentiments which he expresses, in the topics of his discourses, and in the manner of expression, Isaiah uniformly reveals himself as the kingly prophet.

In reference to the last-named point, it cannot be said that his method of elaborating thought is elaborate and artificial: it rather shows a lofty simplicity and an unconcern about external attractiveness, abandoning itself freely to the leading and requirement of each several thought; but, nevertheless, it always rolls along in a full stream which overpowers all resistance, and never fails at the right place to accomplish at every turn its object without toil or effort.

The progress and development of the discourse is always majestic, achieving much with few words, which, though short, are yet clear and transparent; an overflowing fulness of thought, which might readily lose itself in the vast and indefinite, but which always at the right time with tight rein collects and tempers its exuberance; to the bottom exhausting the thought and completing the utterance, and yet never too diffuse. This severe self-control is the most admirably seen in those shorter utterances which by briefly-sketched images and thoughts give us the vague apprehension of something infinite, whilst, nevertheless, they stand before us complete in themselves and clearly delineated; e.g., Isa to Isa 9:6, Isa 14:29-32, Isa 18:1-7, Isa 21:11-12; while in the long piece, 28-32, if the composition here and there for a moment languishes, it is only to lift itself up again afresh with all the greater might. In this rich and thickly-crowded fulness of thought and word it is but seldom that the simile which is employed appears apart, to set forth and complete itself (Isa 31:4-5); in general, it crowds into the delineation of the object which it is meant to illustrate, and is swallowed up in it,—ay, and frequently simile after simile; and yet the many threads of the discourse, which for a moment appeared ravelled together, soon disentangle themselves into perfect clearness;—a characteristic which belongs to this prophet alone, a freedom of language which with no one else so easily succeeds.

The versification, in like manner, is always full, and yet strongly marked: while, however, this prophet is so little concerned about anxiously weighing out to each verse its proper number of words, not unfrequently he repeats the same word in two members (Isa , Isa 32:17, Isa 11:5, Isa 19:13), as if, with so much power and beauty in the matter within, he did not so much require a painstaking finish in the outside. The structure of the strophe is always easy and beautifully rounded.

Still the main point lies here,—that we cannot in the case of Isaiah, as in that of other prophets, specify any particular peculiarity, or any favourite colour as attaching to his general style. He is not the especially lyrical prophet, or the especially elegiacal prophet, or the especially oratorical and hortatory prophet, as we should describe a Joel, a Hosea, a Micah, with whom there is a greater prevalence of some particular colour; but, just as the subject requires, he has readily at command every several kind of style and every several change of delineation; and it is precisely this that, in point of language, establishes his greatness, as well as in general, forms one of his most towering points of excellence. His only fundamental peculiarity is the lofty, majestic calmness of his style, proceeding out of the perfect command which he feels he possesses over his subject-matter. This calmness, however, no way demands that the strain shall not, when occasion requires, be more vehemently excited, and assail the hearer with mightier blows; but even the extremest excitement, which does here and there intervene, is in the main bridled still by the same spirit of calmness, and, not overstepping the limits which that spirit assigns, it soon with lofty self-control returns to its wonted tone of equability (Isa to Isa 3:1, Isa 28:11-23, Isa 29:9-14). Neither does this calmness in discourse require that the subject shall always be treated only in a plain level way, without any variation of form; rather, Isaiah shows himself master in just that variety of manner which suits the relation in which his hearers stand to the matter now in hand. If he wishes to bring home to their minds a distant truth which they like not to hear, and to judge them by a sentence pronounced by their own mouth, he retreats into a popular statement of a case drawn from ordinary life (Isa 5:1-6, Isa 28:23-29). If he will draw the attention of the over-wise to some new truth, or to some future prospect, he surprises them by a brief oracle clothed in an enigmatical dress, leaving it to their penetration to discover its solution (Isa 7:14-16, Isa 29:1-8). When the unhappy temper of the people's minds which nothing can amend leads to loud lamentation, his speech becomes for a while the strain of elegy and lament (Isa 1:21-23, Isa 22:4-5). Do the frivolous leaders of the people mock? he outdoes them at their own weapons, and crushes them under the fearful earnest of divine mockery (Isa 28:10-13). Even a single ironical word in passing will drop from the lofty prophet (Isa 27:3, glory). Thus his discourse varies into every complexion: it is tender and stern, didactic and threatening, mourning and again exulting in divine joy, mocking and earnest; but ever at the right time it returns to its original elevation and repose, and never loses the clear ground-colour of its divine seriousness.—Ewald, quoted in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i. pp. 888, 889, article ISAIAH.

APPENDIX

TRANSLATIONS OF THE PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH

TRANSLATIONS, at once accurate and varied, are among the most valuable of all helps in the study of Scripture. It was, therefore, the intention of the compiler of this volume to give in four parallel columns the translations of Isaiah which occur in the Commentaries of Alexander, Delitzsch, and Henderson, and in the Revised English Bible. Considerations of space have, however, compelled him to confine himself to the two first named; and it is believed that these will be acceptable even to those who possess the Commentaries whence they are taken. There they are interwoven with the comments, and a continuous study of them is thus rendered difficult. The divisions and subdivisions in the second column are those given in Delitzsch's Commentary. For a very prompt and generous permission to make this use of that great work, hearty thanks are here accorded to Messrs. T. & T. Clark of Edinburgh.

TRANSLATION

TRANSLATION

OF THE

OF THE

PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH,

PROPHECIES OF ISAIAH,

GENERAL TITLE.—CHAP. Isa

GENERAL TITLE.—CHAP. Isa

The Vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah.

Seeing of Yesha‘-yahu, son of Amoz, which he saw over Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziyahu, Jotham, Ahaz, and Yehizkiyahu, the kings of Judah.

PART I

PROPHECIES RELATING TO THE ONWARD COURSE OF THE GREAT MASS OF THE PEOPLE TOWARDS HARDENING OF HEART.—CHAPS. 1-6

SIN AND SUFFERING.—CHAP. Isa

Opening Address concerning the ways of Jehovah with Hit ungrateful and rebellious nation.—CHAP. Isa , sqq.

2. Hear, O heavens; and give ear, O earth; for Jehovah speaks. Sons I have reared and brought up, and they, even they, have rebelled against me. 3. The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib: Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.

2. Hear, O heavens; and give ear, O earth; for Jehovah speaketh! I have brought up children, and raised them high, and they have fallen away from me. 3. An ox knoweth its owner, and an ass its master's crib: Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.

4. A sinful nation, people heavy with iniquity, a seed of evil doers, sons corrupting themselves! They have forsaken Jehovah; they have treated with contempt the Holy One of Israel; they are alienated back again.

5. Whereupon can ye be stricken any more, (that) ye add revolt? The whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint. 6. From the sole of the foot even to the head, there is not in it a sound place; (it is) wound and bruise and fresh stroke. They have not been pressed, and they have not been bound, and it has not been mollified with ointment. 7. Your land … a waste! Your towns … burnt with fire! Your ground … before you strangers (are) devouring it, and a waste like the over throw of strangers. 8. And the daughter of Zion is left like a booth in a vineyard, like a lodge in a melon field, like a watched city. 9. Except Jehovah of hosts had left unto us a very small remnant, we should have been like Sodom, we should have resembled Gomorrah.

10. Hear the word of Jehovah, ye judges of Sodom; give ear to the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah! 11. For what (end) is the multitude of your sacrifices to me? saith Jehovah. I am full of burnt offerings of rams and the fat of fed beasts, and the blood of bullocks and lambs and be-goats I desire not. 12. When you come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hands to tread my courts? 13. Ye shall not add to bring a vain offering. Incense is an abomination to me; (so are) new-moon and Sabbath, the calling of the convocation: I cannot bear iniquity and holy day. 14. Your new-moons and your convocations my soul hateth; they have become a burden to me, I am weary of bearing (them). 15. And when you spread your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you; also when ye multiply prayer, I am not hearing; your hands are full of blood.

16. Wash you, purify yourselves; remove the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil; 17, learn to do good, seek judgment, redress wrong, judge the fatherless, befriend the widow.

18. Come now, and let us reason together, saith Jehovah. Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; though they be red as crimson, they shall be as wool. 19. If ye consent and hear, the good of the land ye shall eat; 20, and if ye refuse and rebel, by the sword shall ye be eaten: the mouth of Jehovah has spoken it.

4. Woe upon the sinful nation, the guilt-laden people, the miscreant race, the children acting corruptly! They have forsaken Jehovah, blasphemed Israel's Holy One, turned away backwards.

5. Why would ye be perpetually smitten, multiplying rebellion? Every head is diseased, and every heart is sick. 6. From the sole of the foot even to the head there is no soundness in it: cuts, and stripes, and festering wounds; they have not been pressed out, nor bound up, nor has there been any soothing with oil. 7. Your land … a desert; your cities … burned with fire; your field … foreigners consuming it before your eye?, and a desert like overthrowing by strangers. 8. And the daughter of Zion remains like a hut in a vineyard; like a hammock in a cucumber field, as a besieged city. 9. Unless Jehovah of hosts had left us a little of what had escaped, we had become like Sodom, we were like Gomorrah.

10. Hear the word of Jehovah, ye Sodom judges; give ear to the law of our God, O Gomorrah nation! 11. What is the multitude of your slain offerings to me? saith Jehovah. I am satiated with whole offerings of rams, and the fat of stalled calves; and blood of bullocks and sheep and he-goats I do not like. 12. When ye come to appear before my face, who hath required this at your hands, to tread my courts? 13. Continue not to bring lying meat offering; abomination incense is it to me. New-moon and Sabbath, calling of festal meetings … I cannot bear ungodliness and a festal crowd. 14. Your new-moons and your festive seasons my soul hateth; they have become a burden to me; I am weary of bearing them. 15. And if ye stretch out your hands, I hide mine eyes from you; if ye make ever so much praying, I do not hear: your hands are full of blood.

16. Wash, clean yourselves; put away the badness of your doings from the range of my eyes; cease to do evil; 17, learn to do good, attend to judgment, set the oppressor right, do justice to the orphan, conduct the cause of the widow.

18. O come, and let us reason together, saith Jehovah. If your sins come forth like scarlet cloth, they shall become white as snow; if they are red as crimson, they shall come forth like wool! 19. If ye then shall willingly hear, ye shall eat the good of the land; 20, if ye shall obstinately rebel, ye shall be eaten by the sword! for the mouth of Jehovah hath spoken it.

21. How has she become an harlot, the faithful city! full of justice, righteousness lodged in it, and now murderers. 22. Thy silver is become dross, thy wine weakened with water. 23. Thy rulers are rebels and fellows of thieves, every one of them loving a bribe, and pursuing rewards. The fatherless they judge not, and the cause of the widow cometh not unto them.

21. How is she become an harlot, the faithful citadel? she, full of right, lodged in righteousness, and now—murderers. 22. Thy silver has become dross, thy drink mutilated with water. 23. Thy rulers are rebellious and companions of thieves; every one loveth presents, and hunteth after payment; the orphan they right not, and the cause of the widow has no access to them.

24. Therefore, saith the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, the Mighty One of Israel, Ah, I will comfort myself of my adversaries, and I will avenge myself of mine enemies; 25, find I will turn my hand upon thee, and will purge out thy dross like purity (itself), and I will take away all thine alloy. 26. And I will restore thy judges as at first, and thy counsellors as in the beginning, after which thou shalt be called City of Righteousness, a faithful State.

24. Therefore, saying of the Lord, of Jehovah of hosts, of the Strong One of Israel: Ah! I will relieve myself on mine adversaries, and will avenge myself upon mine enemies; 25, and I will bring my hand over thee, and will smelt out thy dross as with alkali, and will clear away all thy lead. 26. And I will bring back thy judges as in the olden time, and thy counsellors as in the beginning; afterwards thou wilt be called City of Righteousness, Faithful Citadel.

27. Zion shall be redeemed in judgment, and her converts in righteousness; 28, and the breaking of apostates and sinners (shall be) together, and the forsaken of Jehovah shall cease. 29. For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, and ye shall be confounded for the gardens ye have chosen; SO, for ye shall be like an oak fading (in) its leaf, and like a garden which has no water; 31, and the strong shall become tow, and his work a spark, and they shall burn both of them together, (there) shall be no one quenching (them).

27. Zion will be redeemed through judgment, and her returning ones through righteousness; 28, and breaking up of the rebellious and sinners together; and those who forsake Jehovah will perish. 29. For they become ashamed of the terebinths, in which ye had your delight; and ye must blush for the gardens, in which ye took pleasure. 30. For ye shall become like a terebinth with withered leaves, and like a garden that hath no water. 31. And the rich man becomes tow, and his work the spark; and they will both burn together, and no one extinguishes them.

THE REIGN OF THE MESSIAH, AND INTERVENING JUDGMENTS ON THE JEWS.—CHAPS. 2-4

THE WAY OF GENERAL JUDGMENT OR THE COURSE OF ISRAEL FROM FALSE GLORY OF THE TRUE.—CHAPS. 2-4

2—1. The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem.

2—1. The word which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw over Judah and Jerusalem.

2. And it shall be in the end of the days, the mountain of Jehovah's house shall be established on the top of the mountains, and exalted from the hills, and all nations shall flow unto it. 3. And many nations shall go and shall say, Come, and let us ascend to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach of us of His ways, and we will go in His paths: for out of Zion shall go forth law, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. 4. And He shall judge between the nations, and decide for many peoples. And they shall beat their swords into plough-shares, and their spears into pruning-hooks. Nation shall not lift op sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

2. And it cometh to pass at the end of the days, the mountain of the house of Jehovah will be set at the top of the mountains, and exalted over hills; and all nations pour unto it. 3. And peoples in multitude go and say, Come, let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the house of the God of Jacob; let Him instruct us out of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: for instruction will go out from Zion, and the word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. 4. And He will judge between the nations, and deliver justice to many peoples; and they forge their swords into coulters, and their spears into pruning-hooks. Nation lifts not up the sword against nation, neither do they exercise themselves in war any more.

5. O house of Jacob, come ye, and let us walk in the light of Jehovah.

5. O house of Jacob, come, let us walk in the light of Jehovah.

6. Because Thou hast forsaken Thy people, the house of Jacob, because they are replenished from the east and (full of) soothsayers like the Philistines, and with the children of strangers they abound. 7. And their land is filled with silver and gold, and there is no end to their treasures; and their land is filled with horses, and there is no end to their treasures. 8. And their land is filled with idols, to the work of their hands they bow down, to that which their fingers have made.

6. For Thou hast rejected Thy people, the house of Jacob; for they are filled with things from the east and are conjurors like the Philistines; and with the children of foreigners they go hand in hand. 7. And their land is filled with silver and gold, and there is no end to their treasures; and their land is filled with horses, and there is no end of their chariots. 8. And their land is filled with—idols; the work of their own hands they worship, that which their own fingers have made.

9. And so the mean man is bowed down, and the great man is brought low, and do not Thou forgive them. 10. Go into the rock, and hide thee in the dust, from before the terror of Jehovah and from the glory of His majesty. 11. The eyes of the loftiness of man are cast down, and the height of man is brought low, and Jehovah alone is exalted in that day.

9. Thus, then, men are bowed down, and lords are brought low; and forgive them—no, that Thou wilt not. 10. Creep into the rock, and bury thyself in the dust, before the terrible look of Jehovah, and before the glory of His majesty. 11. The people's eyes of haughtiness are humbled, and the pride of their lords is bowed down; and Jehovah, He only, stands exalted in that day.

12. For there is a day to Jehovah of hosts upon everything high and lofty, and upon everything exalted, and it shall come down; 13, and upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lofty, and on all the oaks of Bashan; 14, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the elevated hills; 15, and upon every high tower, and upon every fenced wall; 16, and upon all ships of Tarshish, and upon all images of desire. 17. And (thus) shall the loftiness of man be cast down, and the pride of men be brought low, and Jehovah alone exalted in that day [or, so sinks the loftiness of man and bows the pride of men, and Jehovah alone is exalted in that day].

18. And as for the idols the whole shall pass away. 19. And they shall enter into the caves of the rocks and into the holes of the earth, from before the terror of Jehovah and the glory of His majesty when He arises to terrify the earth. 20. In that day shall man cast his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which they have made for him to worship, to the moles and the bats; 21, to go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the fissures of the cliffs, from before the terror of Jehovah, and from the glory of His majesty, in His arising to terrify the earth.

12. For Jehovah of hosts hath a day over everything towering and lofty, and over everything exalted; and it becomes low. 13. As upon all the cedars of Lebanon, the lofty and exalted, so upon all the oaks of Bashan; 14, as upon all mountains, the lofty ones, so upon all hills the exalted ones; 15, as upon every high tower, so upon every fortified wall; 16, as upon all ships of Tarshish, so upon all works of curiosity. 17. And the haughtiness of the people is bowed down, and the pride of the lords brought low; and Jehovah, He alone, stands exalted in that day.

18. And the idols pass utterly away. 19. And they will creep into caves in the rocks, and cellars in the earth, before the terrible look of Jehovah, and before the glory of His majesty, when He ariseth to put the earth in terror. 20. In that day will a man cast away his idols of gold, and his idols of silver, which they made for him to worship, to the moles and to the bats; 21, to creep into the cavities of the stone-blocks, and into the clefts of the rocks, before the terrible look of Jehovah and before the glory of His majesty, when He arises to put the earth in terror.

22. Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils, for wherein is he to be accounted of! 3—1. For, behold, the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, is taking away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water; 2, hero and warrior, judge and prophet, and diviner and elder; 3, the chief of fifty, and the favourite, and the counsellor, and the skilful artificer, and the expert enchanter. 4. And I will give children to be their rulers, and childish things shall govern them. 5. And the people shall act tyrannically, man against man, and man against his fellow. They shall be insolent, the youth to the old man, and the mean man to the noble. 6. When a man shall take hold of his brother in his father's house (saying), Thou hast raiment, a ruler shalt thou be to us, and this ruin under thy hand; 7, in that day he shall lift up his voice, saying, I will not be a healer, and in my house is no bread, and there is no clothing: ye shall not make me a ruler of the people.

22. Oh then, let man go, in whose nose is a breath, for what is he to be estimated at? 3—1. For, behold, the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, takes away from Jerusalem and from Judah supporter and means of support, every support of bread and every support of water; 2, hero and man of war, judge and prophet, and soothsayer and elder; 3, captains of fifty, and the highly distinguished, and counsellors, and masters in art, and those skilled in muttering. 4. And I will give them boys for princes, and caprices shall rule over them. 5. And the people oppress one another, one this and another that; the boy breaks out violently upon the old man, and the despised upon the honoured. 6. When a man shall take hold of his brother in his father's house, Thou hast a coat, thou shalt be our ruler, and take this ruin under thy hand; 7, he will cry out in that day, I do not want to be a surgeon; there is neither bread nor coat in my house: ye cannot make me the ruler of the people.

8. For Jerusalem totters and Judah falls, (because) their tongues and their doings are against Jehovah, to resist His glorious eyes. 9. The expression of their countenance testifies against them, and their sin, like Sodom, they disclose, they hide it not. Woe unto their soul! for they have done evil to themselves. 10. Say ye of the righteous that it shall be well, for the fruits of their doings they shall eat. 11. Woe unto the wicked, ill, for the thing done by his hands shall be done to him. 12. My people! their oppressors are childish, and women rule over them. My people! thy leaders are seducers, and the way of thy paths they swallow up.

8. For Jerusalem is ruined and Judah fallen; because their tongue and their doings are against Jehovah, to defy the eyes of His glory. 9. The look of their faces testifies against them, and their sin they make known like Sodom, without concealing it: woe to their soul! for they do themselves harm. 10. Say of the righteous, that it is well with him; for they will enjoy the fruit of their doings. 11. Woe to the wicked! it is ill; for what his hands have wrought will be done to him. 12. My people, its oppressors are boys, and women rule over it; my people, thy leaders are misleaders, who swallow up the way of thy paths.

13. Jehovah standeth up to plead, and is standing to judge the nations. 14. Jehovah will enter into judgment with the elders of His people and the chiefs thereof. And ye (even ye) have consumed the vineyard, the spoil of the poor is in your houses. 15. What mean ye that ye crush my people, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the Lord Jehovah of hosts.

16. And Jehovah said, Because the daughters of Zion are lofty, and walk with outstretched neck, and gazing with their eyes, and with a tripping walk they walk, and with their feet they make a tinkling, 17, therefore the Lord will make bald the crown of the daughters of Zion, and their nakedness Jehovah will uncover. 18. In that day the Lord will take away the bravery of the ankle-bands, and the cauls, and the crescents, 19, the pendants, and the bracelets, and the veils, 20, the caps, the ankle-chains, and the girdles, and the houses of breath, and the amulets, the rings, and the nose-jewels, 22, the holiday dresses, and the mantles, and the robes, and the purses, 23, the mirrors, and the tunics, and the turbans, and the veils. 24. And it shall be (that) instead of perfume there shall be stench, and instead of a girdle a rope, and instead of braided work baldness, and instead of a full robe a girding of sackcloth, burning instead of beauty. 25. Thy men by the sword shall fall, and thy strength in war. 26. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and being emptied she shall sit upon the ground. Isa . And in that day seven women shall lay hold on one man, saying, We will eat our own bread, and wear our own apparel; only let thy name be called upon us, take thou away our reproach.

13. Jehovah has appeared to plead, and stands up to judge the nations. 14. Jehovah will proceed to judgment with the elders of His people, and its princes. And ye, ye have eaten of the vineyard; prey of the suffering is in your houses. 15. What mean ye that ye crush my people, and grind the face of the suffering? thus saith the Lord of hosts.

16. Jehovah hath spoken: Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk about with extended throat, and blinking with the eyes, walk about with tripping gait, and tinkle with their foot-ornaments:17, the Lord of all makes the crown of the daughters of Zion scabbed, and Jehovah will uncover their shame. 18. On that day the Lord will put away the show of the ankle-clasps, and of the head-bands, and of the crescents; 19, the ear-rings, and the arm-chains, and the light veils; 20, the diadems, and the stepping-chains, and the girdles, and the smelling-bottles, and the amulets; 21, the finger-rings, and the nose-rings; 22, the gala dresses, and the sleeve-frocks, and the wrappers, and the pockets; 23, the hand-mirrors, and the Sindu-cloths, and the turbans, and the gauze mantles. 24. And instead of balmy scent there will be mouldiness, and instead of artistic ringlets a baldness, and instead of the dress-cloak a frock of sack-cloth, branding instead of beauty. 25. Thy men fall by the sword, and thy might in war. 26. Then will her gates lament and mourn, and desolate is she and sits down upon the ground. Isa . And seven women lay hold of one man in that day, saying, We will eat our own bread, and wear our own clothes; only let thy name be named upon us, take away our reproach.

2. In that day shall the Branch of Jehovah be for honour and for glory, and the fruit of the earth for sublimity and beauty, to the escaped of Israel. 3. And it shall be that the left in Zion and the spared in Jerusalem shall be called holy, every one written to life in Jerusalem, 4, when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and the blood guiltiness of Jerusalem shall purge from its midst by a spirit of judgment and a spirit of burning. 5. And Jehovah will create over the whole extent of mount Zion, and over her assemblies, a cloud by day, and smoke and the brightness of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory there shall be a covering; 6, and there shall be a shelter for a shadow by day from heat, and for a covert and for a hiding-place from storm and from rain.

2. In that day will the Sprout of Jehovah become an ornament and glory, and the fruit of the land pride and splendour for the redeemed of Israel. 3. And it will come to pass, whoever is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem, holy will he be called, all who are written down for life in Jerusalem:4, when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged away the blood-guiltinesses of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of sifting. 5. And Jehovah creates over every spot of mount Zion, and over its festal assemblies, a cloud by day, and smoke, and the shining of flaming fire by night; for over all the glory comes a canopy; 6, and it will be a booth for shade by day from the heats of the sun, and for a refuge and covert from storm and from rain.

THE PARABLE OF THE VINEYARD.—CHAP. 5

JUDGMENT OF DEVASTATION UPON THE VINE YARD OF JEHOVAH.—CHAP. 5

Closing Words of the First Cycle of Prophecies.

1. I will sing, if you please, of my friend, my friend's song of his vineyard.

1. Arise, I will sing of my beloved, a song of my dearest touching his vineyard.

My friend had a vineyard in a hill of great fertility; 2, and he digged it up, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with Sorek, and built a tower in the midst of it; and he waited for it to produce grapes, and it produced wild grapes.

My beloved had a vineyard on a fatly-nourished mountain-horn, 2, and dug it up and cleared it of stones, and planted it with noble vines, and built a tower in it, and also hewed out a wine press therein; and hoped that it would bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.

5. And now I will let you know if you please what I am about to do to my vineyard: Remove its hedge, and it shall become a pasture; break down its wall, and it shall become a trampling-place; 6, and I render it a desolation. It shall not be pruned and it shall not be dressed, and there shall come up thorns and briers. And I will lay my commands upon the clouds from raining rain upon it. 7. For the vineyard of Jehovah of hosts is the house of Israel, and the man of Judah is the plant of His pleasures. And He waited for judgment, and behold bloodshed, for righteousness, and behold a cry!

8. Woe to the joiners of house with house, field to field they bring together, even to a failure of place, and ye are made to dwell by yourselves in the midst of the land. 9. In my ears Jehovah of hosts (is saying), Of a truth many houses shall become a desolation, great and good for want of an inhabitant. 10. For ten acres shall make one bath, and a bower of seed shall produce an ephah.

11. Woe to those rising early in the morning to pursue strong drink, delaying in the twilight (until) wine inflames them. 12. And the harp and the viol, the tabret, and the pipe, and wine (compose) their feasts; and the work of Jehovah they will not look at, and the operation of His hands they have not seen.

13. Therefore my people are led captive at unaware

Their nobility are starvelings,

And their multitude are parched with thirst.

14. Therefore Sheol enlarges her appetite,

And gapes immeasurably with her mouth;

And down go her nobility and her multitude,

Her noisy throng, and whoever in her that exultest.

15. The man of mean condition is bowed down,

And the man of rank is brought low;

And the eyes of the haughty are humbled.

16. But Jehovah of hosts is exalted through justice,

And the Holy God is sanctified through righteousness.

17. The lambs shall feed wherever they are driven,

And the waste fields of the rich, strange flocks shall consume.

5. Now then, I will tell you what I will do at once to my vineyard: Take away its hedges, and it shall be for grazing; pull down its wall, and it shall be for treading down; 6, and I will put an end to it: it shall not be pruned nor dragged, and it shall break out in thorns and thistles, and I will command the clouds to rain no rain over it. 7. For the vineyard of Jehovah of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah are the plantation of His delight: He waited for justice, and behold, grasping; for righteousness, and behold, a shriek!

8. Woe unto them that join house to house, who lay field to field, till there is no more room, and ye alone are dwelling in the midst of the land. 9. Into mine ears, Jehovah of hosts: Of a truth many houses shall become a wilderness, great and beautiful ones deserted. 10. For ten yokes of vineyard will yield one painful, and a quarter of seed-corn will produce a bushel.

11. Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning to run after strong drink: who continue till late at night with wine inflaming them! 12. And guitar and harp, kettle drum, and flute, and wine is in their feast; but they regard not the work of Jehovah, and see not the purpose of His hands.

13. Therefore my people are led captive at unaware

Their nobility are starvelings,

And their multitude are parched with thirst.

14. Therefore Sheol enlarges her appetite,

And gapes immeasurably with her mouth;

And down go her nobility and her multitude,

Her noisy throng, and whoever in her that exultest.

15. The man of mean condition is bowed down,

And the man of rank is brought low;

And the eyes of the haughty are humbled.

16. But Jehovah of hosts is exalted through justice,

And the Holy God is sanctified through righteousness.

17. The lambs shall feed wherever they are driven,

And the waste fields of the rich, strange flocks shall consume.

18. Woe to the drawers of iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart-rope; 19, those who say, Let Him speed, let Him hasten His work that we may see; and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw nigh and come, that we may know (it).

18. Woe unto them that draw crime with cords of lying, and sin as with the rope of the waggon; 19, who say, Let Him hasten, accelerate His work, that we may see; and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw near and come, that we may experience it.

20. Woe unto those saying to evil good, and to good evil, putting darkness for light and light for darkness, putting bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter.

20. Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; who give out darkness for light, and light for darkness; who give out bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter.

21. Woe unto the wise in their (own) eyes, and the prudent in their own estimation.

21. Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight.

22. Woe to the mighty men that drink wine, and men of strength that mingle strong drink; 23, justifying the guilty as the result of a bribe, and the righteousness of the righteous they will take from him.

22. Woe unto those who are heroes to drink wine, and brave men to mingle strong drink; 23, who acquit criminals for a bribe, and take away from every one the righteousness of the righteous.

24. Therefore as a tongue of fire devours chaff, and as ignited grass falls away, their root shall be as rottenness, and their blossom as fine dust shall go up. For they have rejected the law of Jehovah of hosts, and the word of the Holy One of Israel they have treated with contempt. 25. Therefore the anger of Jehovah has burned against His people, and He stretched forth His hand against them, and smote them, and the mountains trembled, and their carcass was like sweeping in the midst of the streets.

And lo! darkness! trouble!

And the light is obscured by the gloomy clouds.

—Barnes.

And one shall look unto the earth, and, behold, darkness; even the light is an adversary (or, is anguish); dark is it amidst the clouds thereof.—Kay.

24. Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours stubble, and hay sinks together in the flame, their root will become like mould, and their blossom fly up like dust; for they have despised the law of Jehovah of hosts, and scornfully rejected the proclamation of the Holy One of Israel. 25. Therefore is the wrath of Jehovah kindled against His people, and He stretches His hand over them, and smites them; then the hills tremble, and their carcass become like sweepings in the midst of the streets.

And lo! darkness! trouble!

And the light is obscured by the gloomy clouds.

—Barnes.

And one shall look unto the earth, and, behold, darkness; even the light is an adversary (or, is anguish); dark is it amidst the clouds thereof.—Kay.

THE VISION OF THE MOST HIGH.—CHAP. 6

THE PROPHET'S ACCOUNT OF HIS OWN DIVINE MISSION.—CHAP. 6

1. In the year that king Uzziah died (B.C. 758), I saw also the Lord sitting on a throne high and lifted up, and His skirts filling the palace. 2. Seraphim standing above it. Six wings to each. With two he covers his face, and with two he covers his feet, and with two he flies. 3, And one cried to another, and said,

1. The year that king Uzziah died, I saw the Lord of all sitting upon a high and exalted throne, and His borders filling the temple. 2. Above it stood the seraphim: each one had six wings; with two he covered his face, with two he covered his feet, and with two he did fly. 3. And one cried to the other, and said,

Holy, Holy, Holy! is Jehovah of hosts!

Holy, holy, holy! is Jehovah of hosts!

The fulness of the whole earth is His glory!

Filling the whole earth is His glory.

4. Then stirred the bases of the thresholds at the voice that cried, and the house is filled with smoke.

4. And the foundation of the threshold shook with the voice of them that cried; and the house became full of smoke.

5. And I said, Woe is me, for I am undone! for a man of impure lips am I, and in the midst of a people of impure lips I am dwelling: for the King, Jehovah of hosts, my eyes have seen.

6. Then there flew to me one of the seraphim, and in his hand a live coal; with tongs he took it from off the altar; 7, and he caused it to touch my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips, and thy iniquity is gone, and thy sin shall be atoned for.

5. Then said I, Woe to me! for I am lost; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I am dwelling among a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah of hosts.

6. And one of the seraphim flew to me with a red-hot coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from the altar. 7. And he touched my mouth with it, and said, Behold, this hath touched thy lips, and thine iniquity is taken away; and so thy sin is expiated.

8. And I heard the voice of the Lord saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? And I said, Here am I behold me; send me.

9. And He said, Go and say to this people, Hear indeed, but understand not; and see indeed, but know not. 10. Make fat the heart of this people, and its ears make heavy, and its eyes smear; lest it see with its eyes, and with its ears hear, and its heart understand, and it turn to me, and be healed.

8. Then I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then I said, Behold me here; send me!

9. He said, Go, and tell this people, Hear on, and understand not; and look on, but perceive not. 10. Make ye the heart of this people greasy, and their ears heavy, and their eyes sticky; that they may not see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and their heart understand, and they be converted, and one heal them,

11. And I said, How long, Lord?

11. Then said I, Lord, how long?

PART II.

PROPHECIES RELATING TO THE REIGN OF AHAZ.—CHAPS. 7-12

CONSOLATION OF IMMANUEL IN THE MIDST OF THE ASSYRIAN OPPRESSIONS.—CHAPS. 7-12

Divine sign of the Virgin's wondrous Son.—CHAP. 7

1. And it was in the days of Ahaz, son of Jotham, son of Uzziah, king of Judah, Rezin, king of Aram [or Syria], and Pekah, son of Remaliah, king of Israel, came up to Jerusalem to war against it; and he was not able to war against it. 2. And it was told the house of David, saying, Syria resteth upon Ephraim: and his heart and the heart of the people shook, like the shaking of the trees of a wood before a wind.

1. It came to pass, in the days of Ahaz the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Arama, and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up toward Jerusalem to war against it, and (he) could not make war upon it. 2. And it was told the house of David, Aram has settled down upon Ephraim: then his heart shook, and the heart of the people, as trees of the wood shake before the wind.

3. And Jehovah said to Isaiah son of Amoz, Go out to meet Ahaz, thou and Shear-jashub thy son, to the end of the conduit of the upper pool, to the highway of the fuller's field. 4. And thou shalt say to him, Be cautious and be quiet; fear not, nor let thy heart be soft before these two smoking tails of firebrands, in the heat of the anger of Rezin and Syria and the son of Remaliah. 5. Because Syria has devised evil against thee, also Ephraim and Remaliah's son, saying, We will go up into Judah and vex it, and make a breach in it (thereby subduing it) to our selves, and let us make a king in the midst of it, to wit, the son of Tabeal:7, thus saith the Lord Jehovah, It shall not stand, and it shall not be; 8, because the head of Aram is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rezin, for in yet sixty-and-five years shall Ephraim be broken from (being) a people; 9, for the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is Remaliah's son. If you will not believe (it is) because you are not to be established.

10. And Jehovah added to speak unto Ahaz, saying, 11, Ask for thee a sign from Jehovah thy God, ask deep or high above. 12. And Ahaz said, I will not ask, and I will not tempt Jehovah. 13, And he said, Hear, I pray you, O house of David! is it too little for you to weary men, that you weary my God? 14. Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign. Behold! the virgin pregnant and bringing forth a son, and she calls his name Immanuel. 15. Curds and honey shall he eat until he shall know (how) to reject the evil and choose the good; 16, for before the child shall know (how) to reject the evil and to choose the good, the land, of whose two kings thou art afraid, shall be forsaken.

17. Jehovah will bring upon thee, and on thy people, and on thy father's house, days which have not come since the departure of Ephraim from Judah, to wit, the king of Assyria. 18. And it shall be in that day that Jehovah will whistle for the fly which is in the edge of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee which is in Assyria; 19, and they come and rest all of them in the desolate valleys, and in the clefts of rocks, and in all thorn-hedges, and in all pastures. 20. In that day will the Lord shave, with a razor hired in the parts beyond the river, with the king of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet, and also the beard will it take away. 21. And it shall be in that day (that) a man shall save alive a young cow and two sheep; 22, and it shall be (that) from the abundance of the yielding of milk, he shall eat butter; for butter and honey shall every one eat that is left in the midst of the land. 23. And it shall be in that day (that) every place where there shall be a thousand vines at a thousand silverlings, shall be for thorns and briers. 24. With arrows and with bows shall one go thither, because thorns and briers shall the whole land be; 25, and all the hills which are digged with the hoe, thou shalt not go (even) there for fear of briers and thorns, and they shall be for a sending-place of cattle and a trampling-place of sheep.

3. Then said Jehovah to Isaiah, Go forth now to meet Ahaz, thou and Shear-jashub thy son, to the end of the aqueduct of the upper pool, to the road of the fuller's field; 4, and say unto him, Take heed, and keep quiet; and let not thy heart become soft from these two smoking firebrand stumps! at the fierce anger of Rezin, and Aram, and the son of Remaliah. 5. Because Aram hath determined evil over thee, Ephraim and the son of Remaliah, saying, 6, We will march against Judah, and terrify it, and conquer it for ourselves, and make the son of Tabeal king in the midst of it:7, thus saith the Lord Jehovah, It will not be brought about, and will not take place. 8. For head of Aram is Damascus, and head of Damascus Rezin, and in five-and-sixty years will Ephraim as a people be broken to pieces. 9. And head of Ephraim is Samaria, and head of Samaria the son of Remaliah; if ye believe not, surely ye will not remain.

10. And Jehovah continued speaking to Ahaz as follows:11, Ask thee a sign of Jehovah thy God, going deep down into Hades, or high up to the height above. 12. But Ahaz replied, I dare not ask, and dare not tempt Jehovah. 13. And he spake, Hear ye now, O house of David! Is it too little to you to weary men, that ye weary my God also? 14. Therefore the Lord, He will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin conceives, and bears a son, and calls his name Immanuel. 15. Butter and honey will he eat, at the time that he knows to refuse the evil and choose the good. 16. For before the boy shall understand to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land will be desolate, of whose two kings thou art afraid.

17. Jehovah will bring upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon thy father's house, days such as have not come since the day when Ephraim broke away from Judah—the king of Asshur. 18. And it comes to pass in that day, Jehovah will hiss for the fly which is at the end of the Nile-arms of Egypt, and the bees that are in the land of Asshur; 19, and they come and settle all of them in the valleys of the slopes, and in the clefts of the rocks, and in all the thorn-hedges, and upon all grass-plats. 20. In that day will the Lord shave with a razor, the thing for hire on the shore of the river, with the king of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet: and even the beard it will take away. 21. And it will come to pass in that day, that a man will keep a small cow and a couple of sheep; 22, and it comes to pass, for the abundance of the milk they will give he will eat cream: for butter and honey will every one eat that is left within the land. 23. And it will come to pass in that day, every place where a thousand vines stood at a thousand silverlings will have become thorns and thistles. 24. With arrows and with bows will men go, for the whole land will have become thorns and thistles. 25. And all the hills that were accustomed to be hoed with the hoe, thou wilt not go to them for fear of thorns and thistles; and it has become a gathering-place for oxen, and a treading-place for sheep.

TWO OMENS OF THE IMMEDIATE FUTURE.—CHAP. Isa

1. And Jehovah said to me, Take thee a great tablet, and write upon it with a man's pen, to Maher-shalal-hash-baz. 2. And I (Jehovah) will take to witness for me credible witnessess, to wit, Uriah the priest, and Zechariah, son of Jeberechiah.

3. And I approached unto the prophetess, and she conceived and bare a son, and Jehovah said to me, Call his name Maher-shalal-hash-baz: 4, for before the child shall know (how) to cry, My father, and my mother, they shall take away the wealth of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria before the king of Assyria.

1. Then Jehovah said to me, Take a large slab, and write upon it with common strokes, "In speed spoil, booty hastens;" and I will take to me trustworthy witnesses, Uriyah the priest, and Zecharyahu the son of Yeberechyahu.

3. And I drew near to the prophetess; and she conceived, and bare a son: and Jehovah said to me, Call his name In-speed-spoil-booty-hastens (Maher-shalal-hash-baz):4, for before the boy shall know how to cry, My father, and my mother, they will carry away the riches of Damascus, and the spoil of Samaria, before the king of Asshur.

ESOTERIC ADDRESSES.—CHAP. Isa

A.—Consolation of Immanuel in the coming darkness.—CHAP. Isa to Isa 9:6

5. And Jehovah added to speak to me again, saying—

5. And Jehovah proceeded still further to speak to me, as follows:—

6. Because this people hath forsaken the waters of Shiloah that go softly, and joy with respect to Rezin and the son of Remaliah, 7, therefore, behold! the Lord (is) bringing up upon them the waters of the river, its strong and many waters, to wit, the king of Assyria and all his glory, and it shall come up over all its channels and go over all its banks, 8, and it shall pass over into Judah, overflow and pass through, to the neck shall it reach, and the spreading of its wings shall be the filling of the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel!

6. Forasmuch as this people refuseth the waters of Siloah that go softly, and regardeth as a delight the alliance with Rezin and the son of Remalyahu, 7, therefore, behold! the Lord of all bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, the mighty and the great, the king of Assyria, and all his military power: and he riseth over all his channels, and goeth over all his banks, 8, and presses forward into Judah, overflows and pours onward, till it reaches the neck, and the spreadings out of its wings fill the breadth of thy land, Immanuel.

9. Be wicked and be broken, and give ear all remote parts of the earth! Gird yourselves and be broken; gird yourselves and be broken! 10. Devise a plan, and it shall be defeated; speak a word, and it shall not stand: for God (is) with us.

9. Exasperate yourselves, O nations, and go to pieces; and see it, all who are far off in the earth! Gird yourselves, and go to pieces; gird yourselves, and go to pieces! 10. Consult counsel, and it comes to nought; speak the word, and it is not realised: for with us is God.

11. For thus said Jehovah unto me in strength of hand, and instructed me away from walking in the way of this people, saying, 12, Ye shall not call conspiracy everything which this people calleth conspiracy, and its fear ye shall not fear nor be afraid. 13. Jehovah of hosts, Him shall ye sanctify; and He shall be your fear, and He shall be your dread. 14 And He shall be for a holy thing, and for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to the two houses of Israel; for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 15. And many shall stumble over them, and fall and be broken and be snared, and be taken.

16. Bind up the testimony, seal the law, in my disciples. 17. And I will wait for Jehovah, that hideth His face from the house of Jacob, and will expect Him. 18. Behold, I and the children which Jehovah hath given me are (for) signs and for wonders in Israel from Jehovah of hosts, the (One) dwelling in mount Zion. 19, And when they shall say to you, Seek unto the spirits and to the wizards, the chirpers and the mutterers: should not a people seek to its God, for the living to the dead? 20. To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, (they are they) to whom there is no dawn. 21. And they shall pass through it hardly bestead and hungry: and it shall be that when they are hungry they shall fret themselves, and curse their king and their God, and shall look upward. 22. And to the earth he shall look; and behold distress and darkness, dimness of anguish, and (into) darkness (he shall be) driven. [—Or, The dimness of anguish and of darkness is dispelled.]

9—1. For (there shall) not (be) darkness (for ever) to her who is now distressed. As the former time degraded the land of Zebulon and the land of Naphtali, so the latter glorifies the way of the sea, the bank of the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles.

2. The people, those walking in the dark, have seen a great light: the dwellers in the shadow of death, light has beamed upon them. 3. Thou hast enlarged the nation, Thou hast increased its joy: (they) rejoice before Thee like the joy in harvest, as men rejoice when they divide the spoil; 4, that the yoke of his burden, and the rod of his shoulder, and the staff of the one driving him, Thou hast broken as in the day of Midian. 5. For all the armour of the armed man in the tumult, and the garments rolled in blood, shall be for burning, food of fire. 6. For a son is born to us, a son is given to us, and the government is upon his shoulder, and his name is called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. 7. To the increase of the government and to the peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to establish it and to confirm it, in justice and in righteousness from henceforth and forever. The zeal of Jehovah of hosts shall do this.

11. For Jehovah hath spoken thus to me, overpowering me with God's hand, and instructing me not to walk in the way of this people, saying, 12. Call ye not conspiracy all that this people calls conspiracy; and what is feared by it, fear ye not, neither think ye dreadful. 13. Jehovah of hosts, sanctify Him; and let Him be your fear, and let Him be your terror. 14. So will He become a sanctuary, but a stone of stumbling and a rock of offence (vexation) to both the houses of Israel, a snare and a trap to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 15. And many among them shall stumble, and shall fall; and be dashed to pieces, and be snared and taken.

16. Bind up the testimony, seal the lesson in my disciples. 17. And I will wait upon Jehovah, who hides His face before the house of Jacob, and hope for Him. 18. Behold, I and the children which God hath given me for signs and types in Israel, from Jehovah of hosts, who dwelleth upon mount Zion. 19. And when they shall say to you, Inquire of the necromancers, and of the soothsayers that chirp and whisper:—should not a people inquire of its God? for the living to the dead? 20. To the teaching of God, and to the testimony! If they do not accord with this word, they are a people for whom no morning dawns. 21. And it goes about therein hardly pressed and hungry: and it comes to pass, when hunger befals it, it frets itself, and curses by its king and by its God, and turns its face upward, 22, and looks to the earth, and behold distress and darkness, benighting with anguish, and thrust out into darkness.

9—1. For it does not remain dark where there is now distress: in the first time He brought into disgrace the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, and in the last He brings to honour the road by the sea, the other side of Jordan, the circle of the Gentiles.

2. The people that walk about in darkness see a great light; they who dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them a light shines. 3. Thou multipliest the nation, preparest it great joy; they rejoice before Thee like the joy in harvest, as men rejoice when they share the spoil. 4. For the yoke of its burden and the stick of its neck, the stick of its oppressor, Thou hast broken to splinters, as in the day of Midian, 5. For every boot of those who tramp with boots in the tumult of battle, and cloak rolled in blood, shall be for burning, a food of fire. 6. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given; and the government rests upon His shoulder: and they call His name Wonder, Counsellor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. 7. To the increase of government and to peace without end, upon the throne of David, and over his kingdom, to strengthen it, and to support it through judgment and righteousness from henceforth even for ever. The jealousy of Jehovah of hosts will perform this.

B.—Jehovah's outstretched hand.—CHAP. Isa to Isa 10:4

8. The Lord sent a word unto Jacob, and it came down into Israel. 9. And they know, the people, all of them, Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, in pride and in greatness of heart saying, 10, "Bricks are fallen, and hewn stone will we build; sycamores are felled, and cedars will we substitute." 11. And (now) Jehovah raises up above him the enemies of Rezin, and he will instigate his own enemies:12, Aram before, and Philistia behind, and they devour Israel with open mouth. For all this His wrath does not turn back, and still His hand is stretched out.

13. And the people has not turned to Him that smote them, and Jehovah of hosts they have not sought. 14. And Jehovah has cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and root, in one day. 15. The elder and the favourite, he (is) the head, and the prophet teaching falsehood, he (is) the tail. 16. The leaders of this people have been seducers, and the led of them (are) swallowed up. 17. Therefore the Lord will not rejoice over their young men, and on their orphans and their widows He will not have mercy, for every one of them is profane and an evil-doer, and every mouth (is) speaking folly. For all this His wrath is not turned back, and still is His hand outstretched.

8. The Lord sends out a word against Jacob, and it descends into Israel. 9. And all the people must make atonement, Ephraim and the inhabitants of Samaria, saying in pride and haughtiness of heart, 10, "Bricks are fallen down, and we build with square stones; sycamores are hewn down, and we put cedars in their place." 11. Jehovah raises Rezin's oppressors high above him; and pricks up his enemies:12, Aram from the east, and Philistines from the west; they devour Israel with full mouth. For all this His anger is not turned away, and His hand is stretched out still.

13. But the people turneth not unto Him that smiteth it, and they seek not Jehovah of hosts. 14. Therefore Jehovah rooteth out of Israel head and tail, palm-branch and rush, in one day. 15. Elders and highly distinguished men, this is the head; and prophets, lying teachers, this is the tail. 16. The leaders of this people have become leaders astray, and their followers swallowed up. 17. Therefore the Lord will not rejoice in their young men, and will have no compassion on their orphans and widows: for all together are profligate and evil-doers, and every mouth speaketh blasphemy. With all this His anger is not turned away, land His hand is stretched out still.

18. For wickedness burneth as the fire, thorns and briers it consumes, then kindles in the thickets of the forest, and the roll themselves upward, a column of smoke. 19. In the wrath of Jehovah of hosts the land is darkened, and the people is like food of fire: one another they do not spare. 20. And he tears on the right hand, and is hungry (still), and devours on the left, and (still) they are not satisfied; each the flesh of his (own) arm they devour: 21, Manasseh Ephraim, and Ephraim Manasseh, (and) together they (are) against Judah. For all this His wrath is not turned back, and still His hand (is) stretched out.

18. For the wickedness burneth up like fire: it devours thorns and thistles, and burns in the thickets of the wood; and they smoke upwards in a lofty volume of smoke. 19. Through the wrath of Jehovah of hosts the land is turned into coal, and the nation has become like the food of fire: not one spares his brother. 20. They hew on the right, and are hungry; and devour on the left, and are not satisfied: they devour the flesh of their own arm:21, Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh: these together over Judah. With all this His anger is not turned away, and His hand is stretched out still.

10—1. Woe unto them that decree decrees of injustice, and that write oppression which they have prescribed; 2, to turn aside from judgment the weak, the right of the poor of my people, that widows may be their spoil, and the fatherless they plunder. 3. And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the ruin (which) shall come from far? To whom will you flee for help, and where will you leave your glory? 4. It does not bow beneath the prisoners, and (yet) they shall fall beneath the slain. For all this His wrath is not turned back, and still His hand is stretched out.

10—1. Woe unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and to the writers who prepare trouble; 2, to force away the needy from demanding justice, and to rob the suffering of my people of their rightful claims, that widows may become their prey, and they plunder orphans! 3. And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the storm that cometh from afar? To whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye deposit your glory? 4. There is nothing left but to bow down under prisoners, and they fall under the slain. With all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still.

THE SIN AND THE DOOM OF ASSYRIA. CHAP. Isa

C.—Destruction of the imperial kingdom of the world, and rise of the kingdom of Jehovah in His Anointed.—CHAP. Isa

5. Woe unto Asshur, the rod of my anger, and the staff in their hand is my indignation. 6. Against an impious nation will I send him, and against the people of my wrath I will commission him, to take spoil and to seize prey, and to render it a trampling, like the mire of streets. 7. And he not so will think, and his heart not so will think; for to destroy (is) in his heart, and to cut off nations not a few. 8. For he says, Are not my princes altogether kings? 9. Is not Calno like Carchemish? or (is) not Hamath like Arpad? or (is) not Samaria like Damascus? 10. As my hand hath found the idol-kingdoms, and their images (more) than (those of) Jerusalem and Samaria, 11, shall I not, as I have done to Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her gods?

5. Woe to Asshur, the rod of mine anger, and it is a staff in their hand, mine indignation. 6. Against a wicked nation will I send them, and against the people of my wrath give them a charge, to spoil spoil, and to make prey, to make it trodden down like street-mire. 7. Nevertheless he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; for it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. 8. For he says, Are not my princes altogether kings? 9. Is not Calno as Carchemish, or Hamath as Arpad, or Samaria as Damascus? 10. As my hand hath reached the kingdoms of the idols, and their graven images were more than those of Jerusalem and Samaria; 11, shall I not, as I have done unto Samaria and her idols, do likewise to Jerusalem and her idols?

12. And it shall be that the Lord will cut all his work short at mount Zion and at Jerusalem. (Yes, even there) will I visit on the fruit of the greatness of heart of the king of Assyria, and on the ostentation of his loftiness of eyes. 13. For he saith, By the strength of my hand I have done (all this), and by my wisdom, for I am wise, and I remove the bounds of the nations, and rob their hoards, and bring down, like a mighty man (as I am), the inhabitants. 14. My hand has found the strength of the nations, and like the gathering of eggs forsaken, so have I gathered all the earth, and there was none that moved a wing, or opened a mouth, or chirped.

12. And it will come to pass, when the Lord shall have brought to an end all His work upon mount Zion and upon Jerusalem, I will come to punish over the fruit of the pride of heart of the king of Asshur, and over the haughty look of his eyes. 13. For he hath said, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my own wisdom; for I am prudent: and I removed the bounds of the nations, and I plundered their stores, and threw down rulers like a bull. 14. And my hand extracted the wealth of the nations like a nest: and as men sweep up forsaken eggs, have I swept the whole earth; there was none that moved the wing, and opened the mouth, and chirped.

15. Shall the axe glorify itself above the (person) hewing with it? Or shall the saw magnify itself above the (person) handling it? (This is indeed) like a rod's wielding those who wield it, like a staff's lifting (that which is) no wood. 16. Therefore the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will send upon his fat ones leanness, and under his glory shall burn like the burning of fire. 17. And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame, and it shall burn and devour his thorns and briers in one day. 18. And the glory of his forest and his fruitful field, from soul to body, will He consume, and it shall be like the wasting away of a sick man. 19. And the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, and a child shall write them.

15. Dare the axe boast itself against him that heweth therewith, or the saw magnify itself against him that useth it? As if a staff were to swing those that lift it up, as if a stick should lift up not—wood! 16. Therefore will the Lord, the Lord of hosts, send consumption against his fat men; and under Asshur's glory there burns a brand like a firebrand. 17. And the light of Israel becomes a fire, and His Holy One a flame; and it sets on fire and devours its thistles and thorns in one day. 18. And the glory of his forest and his garden-ground will He destroy, even to soul and flesh, so that it is as when a sick man dieth. 19. And the remnant of the trees of his forest can be numbered, and a boy could write them.

20. And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and the escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no longer continue to lean upon their smiter, but shall lean upon Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, in truth. 21. A remnant shall return, a remnant of Jacob to God Almighty. 22. For though thy people, O Israel, shall be like the sand of the sea, (only) a remnant of them shall return. A consumption is decreed, overflowing (with) righteousness. 23. For a consumption even (the one) determined, (is) the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, making in the midst of all the earth.

20. And it will come to pass in that day, the remnant of Israel, and that which has escaped of the house of Jacob, will not continue to stay itself upon its chastiser, and will stay itself upon Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, in truth. 21. The remnant will turn, the remnant of Jacob, to God the mighty. 22. For if thy people were even as the sea-sand, the remnant thereof will turn: destruction is firmly determined, flowing away righteousness. 23. For the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, completes the finishing-stroke and that which is firmly determined, within the whole land.

24. Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah of hosts, Be not afraid, O my people inhabiting Zion, of Asshur. He shall smite thee with the rod, and shall lift up his staff upon thee in the way of Egypt. 25. For yet a very little, and wrath is at an end, and my anger (shall go forth) to their destruction; 26, and Jehovah of hosts shall raise up against him a scourge like the smiting of Midian at the rock Oreb, and His rod (shall again) be over the sea, and He shall lift it up in the way of Egypt. 27. And it shall be in that day, (that) his burden shall depart from thy shoulder, and his yoke from thy neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of oil.

24. Therefore thus saith the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, My people that dwellest on Zion, be not afraid of Asshur, if it shall smite thee with the rod, and lift up its stick against thee, in the manner of Egypt. 25. For yet a very little while the indignation is past, and my wrath turns to destroy them:26, and Jehovah of hosts moves the whip over it, as He smote Midian at the rock of Oreb; and His staff stretches out over the sea, and He lifts it up in the manner of Egypt. 27. And it will come to pass in that day, its burden will remove from thy shoulder, and its yoke from thy neck; and the yoke will be destroyed from the pressure of the fat.

28. He is come to Aiath—he is passed to Migron—to Michmash he entrusts his baggage. 29. They have passed the pass—in Geba they have taken up their lodging—Ramah trembles; Gibeah of Saul flees. 30. Cry aloud, daughter Gallim; hearken Laishah, (ah) poor Anathoth! 31. Madmenah, wanders; the inhabitants of Gebim flee. 32. Yet to-day in Nob (he is) to stand; (and there) will he shake his hand against the mountain of the house of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.

28. He comes upon Ayyath, passes through Migron; in Michmash he leaves his baggage. 29. They go through the pass: let Geba be our quarters for the night! Ramah trembles; Gibeah of Saul flees. 30. Scream aloud, O daughter of Gallim. Only listen, O Laysha! Poor Anathoth! 31. Madmenah hurries away; the inhabitants of Gebim rescue. 32. He still halts in Nob to-day; swings his hand over the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem.

33. Behold, the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, (is) lopping the branch with terror, and the trees (shall be) felled, and the lofty ones brought low. 34. And He shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and this Lebanon by a mighty one shall fall.

33. Behold, the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, lops down the branches with terrific force; and those of towering growth are hewn down, and the lofty are humbled. 34. And He fells the thickets of the forest with iron; and Lebanon, it falls by a Majestic One.

THE RESTORATION AND DELIVERANCE, ETERNAL SAFETY AND INTERNAL PEACE OF GOD'S OWN PEOPLE.—CHAPS. 11, 12

11—1. And there shall come forth a twig from the stock of Jesse, and a Branch from his roots shall grow. 2. And upon Him shall rest the Spirit of Jehovah, a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and strength, a spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah. 3. And His sense of smelling (shall be exercised) in the fear of Jehovah, and not by the sight of His eyes shall He judge, and not by the hearing of His ears shall He decide; 4, and He shall judge in righteousness the weak, and do justice with equity to the meek of the earth; and shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall slay the wicked. 5. And righteousness shall be the girdle of His loins, and faithfulness the girdle of His reins.

6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and young lion and fatling together, and a little child shall lead them; 7, and the cow and the bear shall feed, together shall their young lie down, and the lion like the ox shall eat straw; 8, and the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and on the den of the basilisk shall the weaned child stretch its hand. 9. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, because the land is full of the knowledge of Jehovah, like the waters covering the sea.

10. And in that day shall the root of Jesse which is set up be for a signal to the nations: unto Him shall the Gentiles seek, and His rest shall be glorious.

11—1. And there cometh forth a twig out of the stump of Jesse, and a shoot from its roots bringeth forth fruit. 2. And the Spirit of Jehovah descends upon Him, spirit of wisdom and understanding, spirit of counsel and might, spirit of knowledge and fear of Jehovah; 3, and fear of Jehovah is fragrance to Him; and He judges not according to outward sight, neither does He pass sentence according to outward hearing; 4, and judges the poor with righteousness, and passes sentence with equity for the humble in the land; and smites the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips He slays the wicked. 5. And righteousness is the girdle of His loins, and faithfulness the girdle of His hips.

6. And the wolf dwells with the lamb, and the leopard lies down with the kid; and calf and lion and stalled ox together: a little boy drives them. 7. And cow and bear go to the pasture; their young ones lie down together: and the lion eats chopped straw like the ox. 8. And the suckling plays by the hole of the adder, and the weaned child stretches its hand to the pupil of the basilisk-viper. 9. They will not hurt or destroy in all my holy mountain: for the land is filled with knowledge of Jehovah, like the waters covering the sea.

10. And it will come to pass in that day: the root-sprout of Jesse, which stands as a banner of the people's, for it will nations ask, and its place of rest is glory.

11. And it shall come to pass in that day, the Lord shall add His hand a second time to redeem the remnants of His people from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. 12. And He shall set up a signal to the nations, and shall gather the outcasts of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah shall He bring together from the four wings of the earth. 13. And the army of Ephraim shall depart, and the enemies of Judah shall be cut off. Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim. 14. And they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea; together they shall spoil the sons of the East; Edom and Moab the stretching out of their hand, and the children of Ammon their obedience. 15. And Jehovah will destroy the tongue of the sea of Egypt, and He will wave His hand over the river, in the violence of His wind, and smite it into seven streams, and make (His people) tread (it) in shoes. 16. And there shall be a highway for the remnant of His people which shall be left, from Assyria, as there was for Israel in the day of his coming up from the land of Egypt.

11. And it will come to pass in that day, the Lord will stretch out His hand a second time to redeem the remnant of His people that shall be left, out of Asshur, and out of Egypt, and out of Pathros, and out of Ethiopia, and out of Elam, and out of Shinar, and out of Hamath, and out of the islands of the sea. 12. And He raises a banner for the nations, and fetches home the outcasts of Israel; and the dispersed of Judah will He assemble from the four borders of the earth. 13. And the jealousy of Ephraim is removed, and the adversaries of Judah are cut off; Ephraim will not show jealousy towards Judah, and Judah will not oppose Ephraim. 14. And they fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines seawards; unitedly they plunder the sons of the East: they seize upon Edom and Moab, and the sons of Ammon are subject to them. 15. And Jehovah pronounces the ban upon the sea-tongue of Egypt, and swings His hand over the Euphrates in the glow of His breath, and smites it into seven brooks, and makes it so that men go through in shoes. 16. And there will be a road for the remnant of His people that shall be left, out of Asshur, as it was for Israel in the day of its departure out of the land of Egypt.

12—1, 2. And thou shalt say in that day, O Lord, I will praise Thee! For Thou wast angry with me, but Thine anger is turned away, and Thou comfortest me. Behold, God is my salvation. I will trust and not be afraid; for my strength and song is Jah Jehovah, and He is become my salvation. 3. And ye shall draw water with joy from the springs of salvation. 4—6. And ye shall say in that day, Praise Jehovah! Call upon His name! Make known among the nations His exploits; remind them that His name is exalted. Praise Jehovah, because He has done a sublime deed. Known is this in all the earth. Cry out and shout, O inhabitant of Zion, for great in the midst of thee is the Holy One of Israel.

12—1, 2. And in that day thou wilt say, I thank Thee, O Jehovah, that Thou wast angry with me: | Thine anger is turned away, and Thou hast comforted me. | Behold, the God of my salvation; | I trust, and am not afraid: | for Jah Jehovah is my pride and song, | and He became my salvation. 3. And with rapture ye will draw water out of the wells of salvation. 4-6. And ye will say in that day, Praise Jehovah, proclaim His name, | make known His doings among the nations, | boast that His name is exalted. | Harp to Jehovah; for He has displayed majesty: | let this be known in all lands. | Shout and be jubilant, O inhabitant of Zion: | for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee.

PART III.

PROPHECIES AGAINST CERTAIN FOREIGN POWERS.—CHAPS. 13-23

COLLECTION OF ORACLES CONCERNING THE HEATHEN.—CHAPS. 13-23

The fall of the Babylonian empire, and the destruction of Babylon.—CHAPS. 13, 14

Oracle concerning the Chaldeans, the heirs of the Assyrians.—CHAP. Isa to Isa 14:17

13—1. The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah, the son of Amoz, saw.

13—1. Oracle concerning Babel, which Isaiah the son of Amoz did see.

2. Upon a bare hill, set up a signal, raise the voice to them, wave the hand, and let them enter the gates of the nobles. 3. I (myself) have given command to my consecrated. Yes, I have called (forth) my mighty ones for (the execution of) my wrath, my proud exulters. 4. The voice of a multitude in the mountains! the likeness of much people! the sound of a tumult of kingdoms of nations gathered! Jehovah of hosts mustering a host of battle! 5. Coming from a distant land, from the end of the heavens, Jehovah and the instruments of His wrath, to lay waste the whole land. 6. Howl, for the day of Jehovah is near! like might from the Almighty it shall come. 7. Therefore all hands shall sink, and every heart of man shall melt. 8. And they shall be confounded, pangs and throes shall seize (them), like the travailing (woman) they shall writhe, each at his neighbour, they shall wonder, faces of flames their faces. 9. Behold the day of Jehovah cometh, terrible, and wrath and heat of anger, to make the land a waste, and its survivors He will destroy from it.

10. For the stars of the heavens and their constellations shall not shed their light, the sun is darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause its light to shine. 11. And I will visit upon the world (its) iniquity, and upon the wicked their iniquity, and I will cause to cease the arrogance of presumptuous sinners, and the pride of tyrants I will humble. 12. And I will make man more scarce than pure gold, and a human being than the ore of Ophir. 13. Therefore I will make the heavens tremble, and the earth shall shake out of its place in the wrath of Jehovah of hosts and in the day of the heat of His anger. 14. And it shall be that like a roe chased, and like sheep with none to gather them—each to his people, they shall turn—and each to his country they shall flee. 15. Every one found shall be stabbed, and every one joined shall fall by the sword. 16. And their children shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes, their houses shall be plundered, and their wives ravished. 17. Behold, I (am) stirring up the Madai who will not regard silver, and (as for) gold they will not take pleasure in it. 18. And bows shall dash boys in pieces, and the fruit of the womb they shall not pity; on children their eye shall not have mercy.

2. On woodless mountain lift ye up a banner, call to them with a loud sounding voice, shake the hand, that they may enter into the gates of princes! 3. I, I have summoned my sanctified ones, also called my heroes to my wrath, my proudly rejoicing ones. 4. Hark, a rumbling on the mountains after the manner of a great people! hark, a rumbling of kingdoms met together! Jehovah of hosts musters an army, 5, those that have come out of a distant land, from the end of heaven: Jehovah and His instruments of wrath, to destroy the whole earth. 6. Howl; for the day of Jehovah is near; like a destructive force from the Almighty it comes. 7. Therefore all arms hang loosely down, and every human heart melts away. 8. And they are troubled: they fall into cramps and pangs; like a woman in labour they twist themselves: one stares at the other; their faces are faces of flame. 9. Behold, the day of Jehovah cometh, a cruel one, and wrath and fierce anger, to turn the earth into a wilderness: and its sinners He destroys out of it.

10. For the stars of heaven, and its Orions, will not let their light shine: the sun darkens itself at its rising, and the moon does not let its light shine. 11. And I visit the evil upon the world, and upon sinners their guilt, and sink into silence the pomp of the proud; and the boasting of tyrants I throw to the ground. 12. I make men more precious than fine gold, and people than a jewel of Ophir. 13. Therefore I shake the heavens, and the earth trembles away from its place, because of the wrath of Jehovah of hosts, and because of the day of His fierce anger. 14. And it comes to pass as with a gazelle which is scared, and as a flock without gatherers: they turn every one to his people, and they flee every one to his land. 15. Every one that is found is pierced through, and every one that is caught falls by the sword. 16. And their infants are dashed to pieces before their eyes, their houses plundered, and their wives ravished. 17. Behold, I rouse up the Medes over them, who do not regard silver, and take no pleasure in gold. 18. And bows dash down young men; and they have no compassion on the fruit of the womb: their eye has no pity on children.

19. And Babylon, the beauty of kingdoms, the ornament, the pride of the Chaldees, shall be like God's overthrowing Sodom and Gomorrah. 20. It shall not be inhabited for ever, and it shall not be dwelt in from generation to generation, neither shall the Arab pitch tent there, neither shall shepherds cause their flocks to lie there. 21. But there shall lie down desert creatures, and their houses shall be filled with howls (or yells), and there shall dwell the daughters of the ostrich, and shaggy beasts shall gambol there. 22. And wolves shall howl in his palaces, and jackals in the temples of pleasure. And near to come is her time, and her days shall not be prolonged.

14—1. For Jehovah will pity Jacob, and will still choose Israel and cause them to rest on their (own) land, and the stranger shall be joined to them, and they shall be attached to the house of Jacob. 2. And nations shall take them and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel shall take possession of them on Jehovah's land for male and female servants—and (thus) they shall be captors of their captors, and rule over their oppressors. 3. And it shall be in the day of Jehovah's causing thee to rest from thy toil, and from thy commotion, and from the hard service which was wrought by thee, 4, that thou shalt raise this song over the king of Babylon, and say—

How hath the oppressor ceased, and the golden (city) ceased! 5. Jehovah hath broken the staff of the wicked, the rod of the rulers, 6, smiting nations in anger by a stroke without cessation, ruling nations in wrath by a rule without restraint. 7. At rest, quiet, is the whole earth. They burst forth into singing. 8. Also the cypresses rejoice with respect to thee, the cedars of Lebanon (saying), Now that thou art fallen, the feller shall not come up against us.

9. Hell from beneath is moved for thee, to meet thee at thy coming; it rouses for thee the giants, all the chief ones of the earth; it raises from their thrones all the kings of the nations. 10. All of them shall answer and say to thee, Thou also art made weak as we, to us are likened! 11. Down to the grave is brought thy pride, the music of thy harps: under thee is spread the worm, thy covering is vermin. 12. How art thou fallen from heaven, Lucifer, son of the morning! felled to the ground, thou that didst lord it over the nations! 13. And (yet) thou badst said in thy heart, The heavens will I mount; above the stars of God will I raise my throne; and I will sit in the mount of meeting, in the sides of the north; 14, I will mount above the cloud-heights; I will make myself like the Most High. 15. But thou shalt only be brought down to hell, to the depths of the pit. 16. Those seeing thee shall gaze at thee, they shall look at thee attentively, (and say), Is this the man that made the earth shake, that made kingdoms tremble, 17, made a world like a desert, destroyed its cities, and its captives did not set free homewards? 18. All kings of nations, all of them, lie in state, each in his house; 19, and thou art cast out from thy grave—like a despised branch, the raiment of the slain, pierced with the sword, going down to the stones of the pit, like a trampled carcass. 20. Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thy land thou hast destroyed, thy people thou hast slain. Let the seed of evil-doers be named no more for ever.

19. And Babel, the ornament of kingdoms, the proud boast of the Chaldeans, becomes like Elohim's overthrowing judgment upon Sodom and Gomorrah. 20. She remains uninhabited for ever, and unoccupied into generation of generations; and not an Arab pitches his tent there, and shepherds do not make their folds there. 21. And there lie beasts of the desert, and horn-owls fill their houses; and ostriches dwell there, and field-devils hop about there. 22. And jackals howl in her castles, and wild dogs in palaces of pleasure; and her time is near to come, and her days will not be prolonged.

14—1. For Jehovah will have mercy on Jacob, and will once more choose Israel, and will settle them down in their own land: and the foreigner will associate with them, and they will cleave to the house of Jacob. 2. And nations take them, and accompany them to their place; and the house of Israel takes them to itself in the land of Jehovah for servants and maid-servants: and they hold in captivity those who let them away captive; and become lords over their oppressors. 3. And it cometh to pass, on the day that Jehovah giveth thee rest from thy plague, and from thy cares, and from the heavy bondage wherein thou wast made to serve, 4, that thou shalt raise such a song of triumph concerning the king of Babel, and say—

How hath the oppressor ceased! the place of torture ceased! 5. Jehovah hath broken the rod of the wicked, the ruler's staff, 6, which smote nations in wrath with strokes without ceasing, subjugated nations wrathfully with hunting that never stays. 7. The whole earth rests, is quiet: they break forth into singing. 8. Even the cypresses rejoice at thee, the cedars of Lebanon: "Since thou hast gone to sleep, no one will come up to lay axe upon as."

9. The kingdom of the dead below is all in uproar on account of thee, to meet thy coming; it stirs up the shades for thee, all the he-goats of the earth; it raiseth up from their throne-seats all the kings of the nations. 10. They all rise up and say to thee, Art thou also made weak like us? Art thou become like us? 11. Thy pomp is cast down to the region of the dead, the noise of the harps: maggots are spread under thee, and they that cover thee are worms. 12. How art thou fallen from the sky, thou star of light, son of the dawn, hurled down to the earth, thou that didst throw down nations from above! 13. And thou, thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend unto heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God, and sit down on the mount of the assembly of gods in the corner of the earth; 14, I will ascend to the heights of the clouds, I will make myself like the Most High 15. Nevertheless, thou wilt be cast down into the region of the dead, into the corner of the pit. 16. They that see thee look, considering thee, look at thee thoughtfully: "Is this the man that set the earth trembling, and kingdoms shaking, 17, that made the world a wilderness, and destroyed its cities, and did not release its prisoners (to their) home?

18. All the kings of the nations, they are all interred in honour, every one in his house:19, but thou art cast away far from thy sepulchre like a shoot hurled away, clothed with slain, with those pierced through with the sword, those that go down to the stones of the pit; like a carcass trodden under feet. 20. Thou art not united with them in burial, for thou hast destroyed thy land, murdered thy people.

21. Prepare for his sons a slaughter, for the iniquity of their fathers. Let them not arise and possess the earth, and fill the face of the world with cities. 22. And I (myself) will rise up against them, saith Jehovah of hosts, and will cut off from Babylon name, and remnant, and progeny, and offspring, saith Jehovah. 23. And I will render it a possession of the porcupine, and pools of water, and will sweep it with the broom of destruction.

The seed of evil-doers will not be named for ever. 21. Prepare a slaughter-house for his sons, because of the iniquity of their fathers! They shall not rise and conquer lands, and fill the face of the earth with cities.

22. And I will rise up against them, saith Jehovah of hosts, and root out in Babel name and remnant, sprout and shoot, saith Jehovah. 23. And I will make it the possession of hedgehogs and marshes of water, and sweep it away with the besom of destruction, saith Jehovah of hosts.

24. Jehovah of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have planned, it has come to pass, and as I have devised it shall stand; 25, to break Assyria in my land, and on my mountains I will trample him; and his yoke shall depart from off them, and his burden from off his back shall depart. 26. This is the purpose that is purposed upon all the earth, and this the hand that is stretched out over all the nations. 27. For Jehovah of hosts hath purposed, and who shall annul? And His hand the one stretched out, and who shall turn it back!

24. Jehovah of hosts hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass; and as I have purposed, that takes place; 25, to break Asshur to pieces in my land, and upon my mountain will I tread him under foot; then his yoke departs from them, and his burden will depart from their neck. 26. This is the purpose that is purposed over the whole earth; and this is the hand that is stretched out over all nations. 27. For Jehovah of hosts hath purposed, and who could bring it to nought? And His hand that is stretched out, who can turn it back?

THE ORACLE CONCERNING PHILISTIA.—CHAP. Isa

28. In the year of the death of King Ahaz, was this burden.

29. Rejoice not, O Philistia, all of thee, because the rod that smote thee is broken, for out of the root of the serpent shall come forth a basilisk, and its fruit a fiery flying serpent. 30. And the first-born of the poor shall feed, and the needy in security lie down, and I will kill thy root with famine, and thy remnant it shall slay.

28. In the year of the death of king Ahaz the following oracle was uttered.

29. Rejoice not so fully, O Philistia, that the rod which smote thee is broken to pieces; for out of the serpent's root comes forth a basilisk, and its fruit is a flying dragon. 30. And the poorest of the poor will feed, and needy ones lie down in peace; and I kill thy root through hunger, and he slays thy remnant.

31. Howl, O gate! cry, O city! dissolved, O Philistia, is the whole of thee; for out of the north a smoke comes, and there is no straggler in his forces. 32. And what shall one answer to the ambassadors of a nation? That Jehovah has founded Zion, and in it the afflicted of His people shall seek refuge.

31. Howl, O gate! cry, O city! O Philistia, thou must melt entirely away; for from the north cometh smoke, and there is no isolated one among his hosts. 32. And what answer do the messengers of the nations bring? That Jehovah hath founded Zion, and that the afflicted of His people are hidden therein.

THE DOWNFALL OF MOAB.—CHAPS. 15, 16

THE ORACLE CONCERNING MOAB.—CHAPS. 15, 16

1. (This is) the burden of Moab, That in a night Ar-Moab is laid waste, is destroyed; that in a night Kir-Moab is laid waste, is destroyed. 2. They go up to the house, and Dibon (to) the high places for weeping. On Nebo and on Medeba Moab howls, on all heads baldness, every beard cut off. 3. In its streets, they are girded with sackcloth; on its roofs and in its squares all of it howls, coming down with weeping. 4. And Heshbon cries and Elealeh—even to Jahaz is their voice heard; therefore the warriors of Moab cry, his soul is distressed in him. 5. My heart for Moab cries out; her fugitives (are fled) as far as Zoar—an heifer of three years old; for he that goes up Luhith with weeping goes up by it, for in the way of Horonaim a cry of destruction they lift up. 6. For the waters of Nimrim (are and) shall be desolations: for withered is the grass, gone is the herbage, verdure there is none. 7. Therefore the remainder of what each one has made, (and their) hoard, over the brook of the willows they carry them away. 8. For the cry goes round the border of Moab; even to Eglaim (is) its howling (heard), and to Beer-Elim its howling. 9. For the waters of Dimon are full of blood; for I will bring upon Dimon additions, on the escaped of Moab a lion; and on the remnant of it.

16—1. Send ye the lamb to the ruler of the land from Sela to the wilderness, to the mountain of the daughter of Zion. 2. And it shall come to pass like a bird wandering, (like) a nest cast out, shall be the daughters of Moab, the fords of Arnon. 3. [Alexander omits the translation of this verse, but comments on it.…] 4. Let my outcasts, Moab, sojourn with thee; be thou a covert to them from the face of the spoiler: for the extortioner is at an end, oppression has ceased, consumed are the tramplers out of the land. 5. And a throne shall be established in mercy; and one shall sit upon it in truth in the tent of David, judging and seeking justice, and prompt in equity.

6. We have heard of the pride of Moab, the very proud, his haughtiness, and his pride, and his wrath, the falsehood of his pretensions. 7. Therefore Moab shall howl for Moab; all of it shall howl; for the grapes of Kir-hareseth shall ye sigh, altogether smitten. 8. For the fields of Heshbon are withered—the vine of Sibmah—the lords of the nations broke down its choice plants—unto Jazer they reached—they strayed into the desert—its oranches—they were stretched out—they reached to the sea. 9. Therefore I will weep with the weeping of Jazer (for) the vine of Sibmah. I will wet thee (with) my tears, Heshbon and (thee) Elealeh! for upon thy fruit and thy harvest a cry has fallen. 10. And taken away is joy and gladness from the fruitful field: and in the vineyards shall no (more) be sung, no (more) be shouted; wine in the presses shall the treader not tread; the cry have I stilled. 11. Therefore my bowels for Moab like the harp shall sound, and my inwards for Kirhares. 12. And it shall come to pass, when Moab has appeared (before his gods), when he has wearied himself (with vain oblations) on the high place, then he shall enter into his sanctuary to pray, and shall not be able (to obtain an answer).

13. This is the word which Jehovah spake concerning Moab of old. 14. And now Jehovah speaks, saying, In three years, like the years of an hireling, the glory of Moab shall be disgraced, with all the great throng, and the remnant shall be small, and few, not much.

15—1. Oracle concerning Moab! for in a night Ar-Moab is laid waste, destroyed; for in a night Kir-Moab is laid waste, destroyed. 2. They go up to the temple-house and Dibon, up to the heights to weep: upon Nebo and upon Medebah of Moab there is weeping: on all heads baldness, every beard is mutilated. 3. In the markets of Moab they gird themselves with sackcloth; on the roofs of the land, and in its streets, everything wails, melting into tears. Heshbon cries, and ‘Elale; even to Jabaz they hear their howling; even the armed men of Moab break out into mourning thereat; its soul trembles within it. 5. My heart, towards Moab it crieth out; its bolts reach to Zoar, the three-year-old heifer. For the mountain-slope of Luhith they ascend with weeping; for on the road to Horonaijim they lift up a cry of despair. 6. For the waters of Nimrim are waste places from this time forth: for the grass is dried up, the vegetation wasteth away, the green is gone. 7. Therefore what has been, spared, what has been gained, and their provision, they carry it over the willow-brook. 8. For the scream has gone round in the territory of Moab; the wailing of Moab resounds to Eglayim, and his wailing to Beçr-Elim. 9. For the waters of Dimon are full of blood: for I suspend over Dimon a new calamity, over the escaped of Moab a lion, and over the remnant of the land.

16—1. Send a land-ruler's tribute of lambs from Sela desert-wards to the mountain of the daughter of Zion. 2. And the daughters of Moab will be like birds fluttering about, a scared nest, at the fords of Arnon. 3. Give counsel, form a decision, make thy shadow like night in the midst of noon: hide the outcasts, do not betray the wanderers. 4. Let mine outcasts tarry in thee, Moab; be a covert to it from before the spoiler. For the extortioner is at an end, desolation has disappeared, treaders down are away from the land. 5. And a throne is established by grace and there sits thereon in truth in the tent of David one judging, and zealous for right, and practised in righteousness.

6. We have heard of the pride of Moab, the very haughty (pride), his haughtiness, and his pride, and his wrath, the falsehood of his speech. 7. Therefore will Moab wail for Moab, everything will wail: for the grape-cakes of Kir-Haraseth will ye whine, utterly crushed. 8. For the fruit-fields of Heshbon have faded away: the vine of Sibmah, lords of the nations its branches smote down; they reached to Jazer, trailed through the desert: its branches spread themselves out wide, crossed over the sea. 9. Therefore I bemoan the vines of Sibmah with the weeping of Jazer; I flood thee with my tears, O Heshbon and Elealeh, that Hdad hath fallen upon thy fruit-harvest and upon thy vintage. 10. And joy is taken away, and the rejoicing of the garden-land; and there is no exulting, no shouting in the vineyards: the treader treads out no wine in the presses; I put an end to the Hdad. 11. Therefore my bowels sound for Moab like a harp, and my inside for Kir-Heres. 12. And it will come to pass, when it is seen that Moab is weary with weeping upon the mountain height, and enters into its sanctuary to pray, it will not gain anything.

13. This is the word which Jehovah spake long ago concerning Moab. And now Jehovah speaketh thus: In three years, like the years of a hireling, the glory of Moab is disgraced, together with all the multitude of the great: a remnant is left, contemptibly small, and not great at all

THE DOOM OF THE ENEMIES OF JUDAH.—CHAPS. 17, 18

THE ORACLE CONCERNING DAMASCUS AND ISRAEL.—CHAP. 17

17—1. The burden of Damascus.

Behold, Damascus is removed from (being) a city, and is a heap, a ruin. 2. Forsaken are the cities of Aroer; for flocks shall they be, and they shall lie down, and there shall be no one making (them) afraid. 3. Then shall cease defence from Ephraim and royalty from Damascus and the rest of Syria. Like the glory of the children of Israel shall they be, saith Jehovah of hosts.

4. And it shall come to pass in that day, the glory of Jacob shall be brought low, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean. 5. And it shall be as one gathers the harvest, the standing corn, and his arm reaps the ears. And it shall be like one collecting ears in the valley of Rephaim. 6. And gleanings shall be left therein like the shaking of an olive-tree, two (or) three berries in the top of a high bough, four (or) five in the branches of the fruit-tree, saith Jehovah, God of Israel.

7. In that day man shall turn to his Maker, and his eyes to the Holy One of Israel shall look. 8. And he shall not turn to the altars, the work of his own hands, and that which his own fingers have made shall be not regard, and the groves of Ashtoreth and the pillars of the sun.

1. The burden of Damascus.

Behold, Damascus must (be taken) away out of the number of the cities, and will be a heap of fallen ruins. 2. The cities of Aroer are forsaken, they are given up to flocks, they lie there without any one scaring them away. 3. And the fortress of Ephraim is abolished, and the kingdom of Damascus; and it happens to those that are left of Aram as to the glory of the sons of Israel, saith Jehovah of hosts.

4. And it comes to pass in that day, the glory of Jacob wastes away, and the fat of his flesh grows thin. 5. And it will be as when a reaper grasps the stalks of wheat, and his arm mows off the ears; and it will be as with one who gathers ears in the valley of Rephaim. 6. Yet a gleaning remains from it, as at the olive-beating: two, three berries high up at the top; four, five in its, the fruit-tree's, branches, saith Jehovah the God of Israel. 7. At that day will man look up to his Creator, and his eyes will look to the Holy One of Israel. 8. And he will not look to the altars, the work of his hands; and what his fingers have made he will not regard, neither the Astartes nor the sun-gods.

9. In that day shall his fortified cities be like what is left in the thickets and the lofty branch, which they leave (as they retire) from before the children of Israel, and (the land) shall be a waste. 10. Because thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, and the rock of thy strength hast not remembered, therefore thou wilt plant plants of pleasantness, and with a strange slip set it. 11. In the day of thy planting thou wilt hedge it in, and in the morning thou wilt make thy seed to blossom, (but) away flies the crop in a day of grief and desperate sorrow.

12. Hark! the noise of many nations! Like the noise of the sea they make a noise. And the rush of peoples! Like the rush of many waters they are rushing. 13. Nations, like the rush of many waters, rush; and he rebukes it, and it flees from afar, and is chased like the chaff of hills before a wind, and like a rolling thing before a whirlwind. 14. At evening-tide, and behold terror; before morning he is not. This be the portion of our plunderers, and the lot of our spoilers.

9. In that day will his fortified cities be like the ruins of the forest and of the mountain top, which they cleared before the sons of Israel: and there arises a waste place. 10. For thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, and hast not thought of the Rock of thy stronghold, therefore thou plantedst charming plantations, and didst set them with strange vines. 11. In the day that thou plantedst, thou didst make a fence; and with the morning dawn thou madest thy sowing to blossom: a harvest heap in the day of deep wounds and deadly sorrow of heart.

12. Woe to the roaring of many nations: like the roaring of seas they roar; and to the rumbling of nations, like the rumbling of mighty waters they rumble! 13. Nations, like the rumbling of mighty waters they rumble; and He threatens it: then it flies far away, and is chased like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, and like a cloud of dust before the gale. 14. At eventide, behold consternation; and before the morning dawn it is destroyed! this is the portion of our plunderers, and the lot of our robbers.

ETHIOPIA'S SUBMISSION TO JEHOVAH.—CHAP. 18.

18—1. Ho! land of rustling wings, which art beyond the rivers of Cush, 2, sending by sea ambassadors, and in vessels of papyrus on the face of the waters. Go, ye light messengers, to a nation drawn and shorn, to a people terrible since it existed and onwards, a nation of double strength and tramplings, whose land the streams divide. 3. All ye inhabitants of the world, and dwellers on the earth, shall see as it were the raising of a standard on the mountains, and shall hear as it were the blowing of a trumpet.

4. For thus said Jehovah to me, I will rest and look on in my dwelling-place, like a serene heat upon herbs, like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest. 5. For before the harvest or the bloom is finished, and the flower becomes a ripening grape, he cuts down the branches with the pruning-knives, and the tendrils he removes, he cuts away. 6. They shall be left together to the wild birds of the mountains, and to the wild beasts of the earth, and the wild birds shall summer thereon, and every wild beast of the earth thereon shall winter.

1. Woe to the land of the whirring of wings, which is beyond the rivers of Cush; 2, that sends ambassadors into the sea, and in boats of papyrus over the face of the waters. Go, swift messengers, to the people stretched out and polished, to the terrible people far away on the other side, to the nation of command upon command and treading down, whose land rivers cut through. 3. All ye possessors of the globe and inhabitants of the earth, when a banner rises on the mountains, look ye: and when they blow the trumpets, hearken! 4. For thus hath Jehovah spoken to me: I will be still, and I will observe upon my throne during clear weather in sunshine, during a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest. 5. For before the harvest, when the blossom falls off, and the fruit becomes the ripening grape: then will He cut off the branches with pruning-hooks; and the tendrils He removes, breaks off. 6. They are left altogether to the birds of prey on the mountains, and to the cattle of the land; and the birds of prey summer thereon, and all the cattle of the land will winter thereon.

7. At that time shall be brought a gift to Jehovah of hosts, a people drawn out and shorn, and from a people terrible since it hath been and onward, a nation of double power and trampling, whose land streams divide, to the place of the name of Jehovah of hosts, mount Zion.

7. At that time will there be offered as a homage to Jehovah of hosts a nation stretched out and polished, and from a terrible people, far away on the other side; a nation of command upon command and treading down, whose land rivers cut through, at the place of the name of Jehovah of hosts, the mountain of Zion.

THE BURDEN OF EGYPT.—CHAP. 19

THE ORACLE CONCERNING EGYPT.—CHAP. 19

1. Behold! Jehovah riding on a light cloud, and He comes to Egypt, and the idols of Egypt move at His presence, and the heart of Egypt melts within him. 2. And I will excite Egypt against Egypt, and they shall fight, a man with his brother, and a man with his fellow, city with city, kingdom with kingdom. 3. And the spirit of Egypt shall be emptied out in the midst thereof, and the counsel thereof I will swallow up, and they will seek to the idols, and to the mutterers, and to the familiar spirits, and to the wizards. 4. And I will shut up Egypt in the hands of a hard master, and a strong king shall rule over them, saith the Lord Jehovah of hosts.

1. Behold, Jehovah rideth upon a light cloud, and cometh to Egypt; and the idols of Egypt shake before Him, and the heart of Egypt melteth within it. 2. And I spur Egypt against Egypt: and they go to war, every one with his brother, and every one with his neighbour; city against city, kingdom against kingdom. 3. And the spirit of Egypt is emptied out within it: and I swallow up its ready counsel; and they go to the idols to inquire, and to the mutterers, and to the oracle-spirits, and to the soothsayers. 4. And I shut up Egypt in the hand of a hard rule; and a fierce king will rule over them, saith the Lord, Jehovah of hosts.

5. And the waters shall be dried up from the sea, and the river shall fail and be dried up. 6. And the rivers shall stink, the streams of Egypt are emptied and dried up, reed and rush sicken. 7. The meadows by the river, by the mouth of the river, and all the sown ground of the river, shall wither, being driven away, and it is not. 8. And the fishermen shall mourn, and they shall lament, all the throwers of a hook into the river, and the spreaders of a net upon the surface of the water, languish. 9. And ashamed are the workers of combed flax, and the weavers of white (stuffs). 10. And her pillars are broken down, all labourers for hire are grieved at heart.

5. And the waters will dry up from the sea, and the river is parched and dried. 6. And the arms of the river spread a stench; the channels of Matzor become shallow and parched: reed and rush shrivel up. 7. The meadow by the Nile, on the border of the Nile, and every cornfield of the Nile, dries up, is scattered, and disappears. 8. And the fishermen groan, and all who throw draw-nets into the Nile lament, and they that spread out the net upon the face of the waters languish away. 9. And the workers of fine combed flax are confounded, and the weavers of cotton fabrics. 10. And the pillars of the land are ground to powder; all that work for wages are troubled in mind.

11. Entirely foolish are the princes of Zoan, the sages of the counsellors of Pharaoh, (their) counsel is become brutish. How can ye say to Pharaoh, I am the son of wise (fathers), I am the son of kings of old? 12. Where (are) they? Where (are) thy wise men? Pray let them tell thee, and (if that is too much) let them (at least) know, what Jehovah of hosts hath purposed concerning Egypt. 13. Infatuated are the chiefs of Zoan, deceived are the chiefs of Noph, and they have misled Egypt, the corner-stone of her tribes. 14. Jehovah hath mingled in the midst of her a spirit of confusion, and they have misled Egypt in all its work, like the misleading of a drunkard in his vomit. 15. And there shall not be in Egypt a work which head and tail, branch and rush, may do.

11. The princes of Zoan become mere fools, the wise counsellors of Pharaoh; readiness in counsel is stupefied. How can ye say to Pharaoh, I am a son of wise men, a son of kings of the olden time? 12. Where are they then, thy wise men? Let them announce to thee, and know what Jehovah of hosts hath determined concerning Egypt. 13. The princes of Zoan have become fools, the princes of Memphis are deceived; and they have led Egypt astray who are the corner-stone of its castes. 14. Jehovah hath poured a spirit of giddiness into the heart of Egypt, so that they have led Egypt astray in all its doing, as a drunken man wandereth about in his vomit. 15. And there does not occur of Egypt any work which worked, of head and tail, palm-branch and rush.

16. In that day shall Egypt be like women, and shall fear and tremble from before the shaking of the hand of Jehovah of hosts, which He is shaking over it. 17. And the land of Judah shall be for a terror unto Egypt, every person to whom one mentions it shall fear before the purpose of Jehovah of hosts, which He is purposing against it.

16. In that day will the Egyptians become like women, and tremble and be alarmed at the swinging of the hand of Jehovah of hosts, which He sets in motion against it. 17. And the land of Judah becomes a shuddering for Egypt; as often as they mention this against Egypt, it is alarmed, because of the decree of Jehovah of hosts, that He suspendeth over it.

18. In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt speaking the language of Canaan, and swearing to Jehovah of hosts. The city of destruction shall one be called. 19. In that day there shall be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land, and a pillar near its border to Jehovah. 20. And it shall be for a sign and for a testimony to Jehovah of hosts in the land of Egypt, that they shall cry to Jehovah from the presence of oppressors, and He will send them a deliverer and a mighty one, and save them. 21. And Jehovah shall be known to Egypt, and Egypt shall know Jehovah in that day, and shall serve with sacrifice and offering, and shall vow a vow to Jehovah, and perform it.

22. And Jehovah shall smite Egypt, smiting and healing, and they shall return unto Jehovah, and He shall be entreated of them, and shall heal them. 23. In that day there shall be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria shall come into Egypt and Egypt into Assyria, and Egypt shall serve with Assyria. 24. In that day shall Israel be a third with respect to Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth, 25, which Jehovah has blessed, saying, Blessed be my people Egypt, and the work of my hands Assyria, and my heritage Israel.

18. In that day there will be five cities in the land of Egypt speaking the language of Canaan, and swearing to Jehovah of hosts: ‘Ir ha-Heres will one be called. 19. In that day there stands an altar consecrated to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and an obelisk near the border of the land consecrated to Jehovah. 20. And a sign and a witness for Jehovah of hosts is this in the land of Egypt; when they cry to Jehovah for oppressors, He will send them a helper and champion, and deliver them. 21. And Jehovah makes Himself known to the Egyptians, and the Egyptians know Jehovah in that day; and they serve Him with slain-offerings and meat-offerings, and vow vows to Jehovah, and pay them. 22. And Jehovah smites Egypt, smiting and healing; and if they return to Jehovah, He suffers Himself to be entreated, and heals them. 23. In that day a road will run from Egypt to Asshur, and Asshur comes into Egypt, and Egypt to Asshur; and Egypt worships (Jehovah) with Asshur. 24. In that day will Israel be a third part to Egypt and Asshur, a blessing in the midst of the earth, 25, since Jehovah of hosts blesseth them thus: Blessed be thou, my people Egypt; and thou, Asshur, the work of my hands; and thou Israel, mine inheritance.

THE DEFEAT AND CAPTIVITY OF THE EGYPTIANS AND ETHIOPIANS.—CHAP. 20

SYMBOL OF THE FALL OF EGYPT AND ETHIOPIA, AND ITS INTERPRETATION.—CHAP. 20

1. In the year of Tartan's coming to Ashdod, in Sargon king of Assyria's sending him, and he fought with Ashdod and took it; 2, at that time spake Jehovah by the hand of Isaiah the son of Amoz, saying, Go, and thou shalt loose the sackcloth from upon thy loins, and thy shoe thou shalt pull off from thy foot. And he did so, going naked and barefoot.

1. In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod, Sargon the king of Asshur having sent him (and he made war against Ashdod, and captured it).:2, at that time Jehovah spake through Yesha'-yahu, the son of Amoz, as follows, Go and loosen the smock-frock from off thy loins, and take off thy shoes from thy feet. And he did so, and went stripped and barefooted.

3. And Jehovah said, As my servant Isaiah has gone naked and barefoot three years a sign and symbol concerning Egypt and concerning Ethiopia, 4, so shall the king of Assyria lead the captivity of Egypt and the exiles of Ethiopia, young and old, naked and barefoot, with their buttocks uncovered, the disgrace of Egypt.

3. And Jehovah said, As my servant Yesha'-yahu goeth naked and barefooted, a sign and a type for three years long over Egypt and over Ethiopia, 4, so will the king of Asshur carry away the prisoners of Egypt and the exiles of Ethiopia, children and old men, naked and barefooted, and with their seat uncovered—a shame to Egypt.

5. And they shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation, and of Egypt their boast. 6. And the inhabitant of this coast shall say in that day, Behold, such is our expectation, whither we fled for help, to be delivered from the presence of the king of Assyria! And how shall we (ourselves) escape?

5. And they cry together, and behold themselves deceived by Ethiopia, to which they looked, and by Egypt, in which they gloried. 6. And the inhabitant of this coast-land saith in that day, Behold, thus it happens to those to whom we looked, whither we fled for help to deliver us from the king of Asshur: and how should we, we escape?

THE BURDEN OF THE DESERT OF THE SEA.—CHAP. Isa

THE ORACLE CONCERNING THE DESERT OF THE SEA (BABYLON).—CHAP. Isa

21—1. Like whirlwinds in the south, as to rushing from the wilderness it comes, from a terrible land. 2. A hard vision it is revealed to me; the deceiver deceiving and the spoiler spoiling. Go up, O Elam! besiege, O Media! All sighing have I made to cease. 3. Therefore my loins are filled with pain; pangs have seized me like the pangs of a travailing woman; I writhe from hearing; I am shocked from seeing. 4. My heart wonders; horror appals me; the twilight of my pleasure He has put for fear for me.

5. Set the table, spread the cloth, eat, drink; arise, ye chiefs, anoint the shield! 6. For thus saith the Lord to roe, Go, set the watchman: that which he sees let him tell. 7. And should he see cavalry—pairs of horsemen—ass-riders—camel-riders—then shall he hearken with hearkening a great harkening. 8. And he cries—a lion—on the watch-tower, Lord, I am standing always by day, and on my ward I am stationed all the night. 9. And behold, this comes, mounted men, pairs of horsemen. And he speaks again, and says, Fallen, fallen is Babylon, and all the images of her gods He has broken to the earth.

10. O my threshing, and the son of my threshing-floor! What I have heard from Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel, I have told you.

1. As storms in the south approach, it comes from the desert, from a terrible land. 2. Hard vision is made known to me: the spoiler spoils, and the devastator devastates. Go up, Elam! Surround, Moday! I put an end to all their sighing. 3. Therefore are my loins full of cramp: pangs have taken hold of me, as the pangs of a travailing woman: I twist myself, so that I do not hear; I am brought down with fear, so that I do not see. 4. My heart beats wildly; horror hath troubled me; the darkness of night that I love, He hath turned for me into quaking.

5. They cover the table, watch the watch, eat, drink. Rise up, ye princes! Anoint the shield! 6. For thus saith the Lord to me, Go, set a spy; what he seeth, let him declare.7. And he saw a procession of cavalry, pairs of horsemen, a procession of asses, a procession of camels; and listened sharply, as sharply as he could listen. 8. Then he cried with a lion's voice, Upon the watch-tower, O Lord, I stand continually by day, and upon my watch I keep my stand all the nights. 9. And, behold, there came a cavalcade of men, pairs of horsemen, and lifted up its voice, and said, Fallen, fallen is Babylon; and all the images of its gods He hath dashed to the ground! 10. O thou my threshing, and child of my threshing-floor! What I have heard from Jehovah of hosts, the God of Israel, I have declared to you.

THE BURDEN OF DUMAH.—CHAP. Isa

THE ORACLE CONCERNING THE SILENCE OF DEATH (EDOM).—CHAP. Isa

11. To me (one is) calling from Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night? 12. The watchman says, Morning comes and also night; if ye will inquire, inquire; return, come.

11. A cry comes to me out of Seir: Watchman, how far is it in the night? Watchman, how far in the night? 12. Watchman says, Morning Cometh, and also night. Will ye inquire, inquire! Turn, come!

THE BURDEN OF ARABIA.—CHAP. Isa

THE ORACLE IN THE EVENING (AGAINST ARABIA).—CHAP. Isa

13. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, oh ye caravans of Dedanim. 14. To meet the thirsty they bring water; with his bread they anticipate the fugitive. 15. Because from the presence of swords they fled, from the presence of a drawn sword and from the presence of a bended bow, and from the presence of a weight of war. 16. For thus saith the Lord to me, In yet a year, like the years of a hireling shall fail all the glory of Kedar. 17. And the remnant of the number of bows, the mighty men of the children of Kedar shall be few, for Jehovah God of Israel hath spoken it.

13. In the wilderness in Arabia ye must pass the night, caravans of the Dedanians. 14. Bring water to meet thirsty ones! The inhabitants of the land of Tema are coming with its bread before the fugitive. 15. For they are flying before swords, before drawn swords, and before a bent bow, and before oppressive war.

16. For thus hath the Lord spoken to me, Within a year, as the years of a hired labourer, it is over with all the glory of Kedar. 17. And the remnant of the number of bows of the heroes of the Kedarenes will be small: for Jehovah, the God of Israel, hath spoken.

THE BURDEN OF THE VALLEY OF VISION.—CHAP. Isa

THE ORACLE CONCERNING THE VALLEY OF VISION (JERUSALEM).—CHAP. Isa

1. What (is) to thee, that thou art wholly gone up on the house-tops? 2. Full of stirs, a noisy town, a joyous city, thy slain are not slain with the sword nor dead in battle. 3. All thy chiefs fled together—from the bow—they were found—all that were found of thee were bound together—from afar they fled.

1. What aileth thee, then, that thou art wholly ascended upon the house-tops? 2. O full of tumult, thou noisy city, shouting castle, thy slain men are not slain with the sword, nor slaughtered in battle. 3. All thy rulers departing together are fettered without bow; all thy captured ones are fettered together, fleeing far away.

4. Therefore I said, Look away from me; let me weep bitterly; try not to comfort me for the desolation of the daughter of my people. 5. For there is a day of confusion and trampling and perplexity to the Lord Jehovah of hosts, in the valley of vision—breaking the wall and crying to the mountain. 6. And Elam bare a quiver, with chariots, infantry, horsemen, and Kir uncovered the shield. 7. And it came to pass (that) the choice of thy valleys were full of chariots, and the horsemen drew up towards the gate. 8. And the covering of Judah was removed, and thou didst look in that day to the armour of the house of the forest. 9. And the breaches of the city of David ye saw, that they were many, and ye gathered the waters of the lower pool. 10. And the houses of Jerusalem ye numbered, and ye pulled down the houses to repair the wall. 11. And a reservoir ye made between the two walls for the waters of the old pool, and ye did not look to the Maker of it, and the Former of it ye did not see. 12. And the Lord Jehovah of hosts called in that day to weeping, and to mourning, and to baldness, and to girding sackcloth; 13, and behold mirth and jollity, slaying of oxen and killing of sheep, eating of flesh and drinking of wine; eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. 14. And Jehovah of hosts made a revelation to me, saying, This iniquity shall certainly not be forgiven you until you die.

4. Therefore I say, Look away from me, that I may weep bitterly; press me not with consolations for the destruction of the daughter of my people! 5. For a day of noise, and of treading down, and of confusion, cometh from the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, in the valley of vision, breaking down walls; and a cry of woe echoes against the mountains.

6. And Elam has taken the quiver, together with chariots with men, horsemen; and Kir has drawn out the shield. 7. And then it comes to pass, that thy choicest valleys are filled with chariots, and the horsemen plant a firm foot towards the gate.

8. Then he takes away the covering of Judah, and thou lookest in that day to the store of arms of the forest-house; 9, and ye see the breaches of the city of David, that there are many of them; and ye collect together the waters of the lower pool. 10. And ye number the houses of Jerusalem, and pull down the houses, to fortify the wall. 11. And ye make a basin between the two walls for the waters of the old pool; and ye do not look to Him who made it, neither do ye have regard to Him who fashioned it long ago.

12. The Lord, Jehovah of hosts, calls in that day to weeping, and to mourning, and to the pulling out of hair, and to girding with sackcloth; 13, and behold joy and gladness, slaughtering of oxen and killing of sheep, eating of flesh and drinking of wine, eating and drinking, for ‘to-morrow we die.' 14. And Jehovah of hosts hath revealed in mine ears, Surely this iniquity shall not be expiated for you until ye die, saith the Lord, Jehovah of hosts.

AGAINST SHEBNA THE STEWARD.—CHAP. Isa

THE MESSAGE TO SHEBNA.—CHAP. Isa

(Appendix to the Tetralogy in CHAPS. 21, Isa )

15. Thus saith the Lord Jehovah of hosts, Go, go into this treasurer, to Shebna who (is) over the house. 16. What hast thou here, and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewn thee here a sepulchre? Hewing on high his sepulchre, graving in the rock a habitation for himself! 17. Behold, Jehovah is casting thee a cast, O man! and covering thee a covering. 18. Rolling He will roll thee in a roll, like a ball (thrown) into a spacious ground—there thou shalt die—and there the chariots of thy glory—shame of thy master's house. 19. And I will thrust thee from thy post, and from thy station thou shalt be pulled down.

20. And it shall come to pass in that day that I will call for my servant, for Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah; 21, and I will clothe him with thy dress, and with thy girdle will I strengthen him, and thy power will I give into his hand, and he shall be for a father to the dweller in Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. 22. And I will put the key of the house of David on his shoulder; he shall open, and there shall be no one shutting; he shall shut, and there shall be no one opening. 23. And I will fasten him a nail in a sure place, and he shall be for a throne of glory to his father's house. 24. And they shall hang upon him all the honour of his father's house—the offspring and the issue—all vessels of small quantity—from vessels of cups even to all vessels of flagons. 25. In that day, saith Jehovah of hosts, shall the nail fastened in a sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall, and the burden which was upon it shall be cut off, for Jehovah speaks.

15. Thus spake the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, Go, get thee to that steward there, to Shebna the house-mayor. 16. What hast thou here, and whom hast thou here, that thou art hewing thyself out a sepulchre here, hewing out his sepulchre high up, digging himself a dwelling in rocks? 17. Behold, Jehovah hurleth thee, hurling with a man's throw, and graspeth thee grasping. 18. Coiling, He coileth thee a coil, a ball into a land far and wide; there shalt thou die, and thither the chariots of thy glory, thou shame of the house of thy lord! 19. And I thrust thee from thy post, and from thy standing-place He pulleth thee down.

20. And it will come to pass in that day, that I call to my servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, 21, and invest him with thy coat, and I throw thy sash firmly round him, and place thy government in his hand; and he will become a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah. 22. And I place the key of David upon his shoulder: and when he opens, no man shuts; and when he shuts, no man opens. 23. And I fasten him as a plug in a fast place, and he becomes the seat of honour to his father's house. 24. And the whole mass of his father's house hangs upon him, the offshoots and the side-shoots, every small vessel, from the vessel of the basins even to every vessel of the pitchers. 25. In that day, saith Jehovah of hosts, will the peg that is fastened in a sure place be removed, and be cast down, and fall; and the burden that it bore falls to the ground: for Jehovah hath spoken.

THE BURDEN OF TYRE.—CHAP. 23

THE ORACLE CONCERNING TYRE.—CHAP. 23

(Conclusion of the Cycle of Prophecies relating to the Heathen.)

1. Howl, ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, no house, no entrance; from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them. 2. Be silent, O inhabitants of the isle, the merchants of Sidon crossing the sea filled thee. 3. And in great waters (was) the seed of the Nile; the harvest of the river (was) her revenue; and she was a mart of nations. 5. When the report comes to Egypt, they are pained at the report of Tyre. 6. Pass over to Tarshish; howl, ye inhabitants of the isle. 7. Is this your joyous city? From the days of old is her antiquity; her feet shall carry her afar off to sojourn.

8. Who hath purposed this against Tyre the crowning (city), whose merchants (are) princes, her traffickers the honoured of the earth? 9. Jehovah of hosts hath purposed it, to profane the elevation of all beauty, to degrade all the honoured of the earth. 10. Pass through thy land like the river; daughter of Tarshish, there is no girdle (any) longer. 11. His hand He stretched out over the sea; He made kingdoms tremble; Jehovah commanded respecting Canaan to destroy her strongholds. 12. And He said, Thou shalt not continue to triumph, violated virgin daughter of Zidon; to Chittim arise, pass over; there also there shall be no rest to thee. 13. Behold the land of the Chaldees; this people was not; Assyria founded it for dwellers in the wilderness; they have set up his towers; they have roused up her palaces; He has rendered it a ruin. 14. Howl, ships of Tarshish, for destroyed is your stronghold.

15. And it shall come to pass in that day that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, as the days of one king; from the end of seventy years shall be to Tyre like the harlot's song.

16. Take a harp, go about the city, O forgotten harlot! play well, sing much, that thou mayest be remembered. 17. And it shall be at the end of seventy years, Jehovah will visit Tyre, and she shall return to her hire, and shall play the harlot with all the kingdoms of the earth upon the face of the ground.

18. And her gain and her hire shall be holiness to Jehovah; it shall not be stored and it shall not be hoarded; for her gain shall be for those who sit before Jehovah, to eat to satiety, and for substantial clothing.

1. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entrance any more! Out of the land of the Chittans it is made known to them. 2. Be alarmed, ye inhabitants of the coast! Sidonian merchants, sailing over the sea, filled thee once. 3. And the sowing of Sichor came upon great waters, the harvest of the Nile, her store; and she became gain for nations. 4. Shudder, O Sidon; for the sea speaketh, the fortress of the sea, thus: I have not travailed, nor given birth, nor trained up young men, brought up maidens. 5. When the report cometh to Egypt, they tremble at the report from Tzor.

6. Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, ye inhabitants of the coast! 7. Is this your fate, thou full of rejoicing, whose origin is from the days of the olden time, whom her feet carried far away to settle? 8. Who hath determined such a thing concerning Tzor, the distributor of crowns, whose merchants are princes, whose traders are the chief men of the earth! 9. Jehovah of hosts hath determined it, to desecrate the pomp of every kind of ornament, to dishonour the chief men of the earth, all of them.

10. Overflow thy land like the Nile, O daughter of Tarshish! No girdle restrains thee any longer. 11. His hand hath He stretched over the sea, thrown kingdoms into trembling; Jehovah hath given commandment concerning Kena'an to destroy her fortresses. 12. And He said, Thou shalt not rejoice any further, thou disgraced one, virgin daughter of Sidon. Go up to Kittim, go over; there also shalt thou not find rest. 13. Behold the Chaldean land: this people that has not been (Asshur—it hath prepared the same for desert beasts)—they set up their siege-towers, destroy the palaces of Kena'an, make it a heap of ruins. 14. Mourn, ye ships of Tarshish: for your fortress is laid waste.

15. And it will come to pass in that day, that Tzor will be forgotten seventy years, equal to the days of one king; after the end of seventy years Tzor will go, according to the song of the harlot. 16. Take the guitar, sweep through the city, O forgotten harlot! Play bravely, sing zealously, that thou mayest be remembered! 17. And it will come to pass at the end of the seventy years: Jehovah will visit Tzor, and she comes again to her hire, and commits prostitution with all the kingdoms of the earth on the broad surface of the globe. 18. And her gain and her reward of prostitution will be holy to Jehovah: it is not stored up nor gathered together; but her gain from commerce will be theirs who dwell before Jehovah, to eat to satiety and for stately clothing.

PROPHECIES HAVING REFERENCE CHIEFLY TO JUDAH.—CHAPS. 24-25

COMING JUDGMENTS.—CHAPS. 24-27

I.—Some of the Consequences of National Iniquity.—CHAP. Isa

PART IV.

FINALE OF THE GREAT CATASTROPHE.—CHAPS. 24-28

The Judgment upon the Earth.—CHAP. 24

24—1. Behold Jehovah (is) pouring out the land and emptying it, and He will turn down its face, and He will scatter its inhabitants. 2. And it shall be, as the people so the priest, as the servant so his master, as the maid so her mistress, as the buyer so the seller, as the lender so the borrower, as the creditor so the debtor. 3. The land shall be utterly emptied and utterly spoiled, for Jehovah speaks this word. 4. The earth mourneth, fadeth; the world languisheth, fadeth; the highest of the people of the earth languish. 5. And the land has been profaned under its inhabitants, because they have transgressed the laws, violated the statute, broken the everlasting covenant. 6. Therefore a curse devoured the earth, and those dwelling in it were reckoned guilty. Therefore the inhabitants of the earth burned, and there are few men left. 7. The new wine mourneth; the vine languisheth; all the merry-hearted do sigh. 8. Still is the mirth of drums; ceased is the noise of revellers; still is the mirth of the harp. 9. With the song they shall not drink wine; bitter shall strong drink be to them that drink it. 10. Broken down is the city of confusion, shut up is every house so that it cannot be entered. 11. A cry for wine in the streets—darkened is all joy—departed is the gladness of the earth. 12. What is left in the city is desolation, and into ruins is the gate beaten down.

II.—The Songs of the Scattered Remnant.—VERS. 13-16.

13. For so shall it be in the midst of the earth among the nations, like the beating of an olive-tree, like gleanings when the gathering is done. 14. They shall raise their voice, they shall sing, for the majesty of Jehovah they cry aloud from the sea. 15. Therefore in the fires glorify Jehovah, in the islands of the sea the name of Jehovah God of Israel. 16. From the wing of the earth we have heard songs, praise to the righteous; and I said, Woe to me, woe to me, alas for me! The deceivers deceive, with deceit the deceivers deceive.

III.—Jehovah's Exaltation in Jerusalem.—VERS. 17-23.

17. Fear and pit and snare upon thee, O inhabitant of the land! 18. And it shall be that the (one) flying from the voice of the fear shall fall into the pit, and the (one) coming up from the midst of the pit shall be taken in the snare; for windows from on high are opened, and the foundations of the earth are shaken. 19. Behold, broken is the earth; shattered, shattered is the earth; shaken, shaken is the earth. 20. The earth reels, reels like a drunken man, and is shaken like a hammock. And heavy upon her is her guilt, and she shall fall and rise no more. 21. And it shall be in that day that Jehovah shall visit upon the host of the high place, and upon the kings of the earth upon the earth. 22. And they shall be gathered with a gathering as prisoners in a pit, and shall be shut up in a dungeon, and after many days they shall be visited. 23. And the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, for Jehovah of hosts is King in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before His elders there is glory.

IV.—The Destruction of Babylon and the Deliverance of the Jews.—CHAP. Isa

1. Behold, Jehovah emptieth the earth, and layeth it waste, and marreth its form, and scattereth its inhabitants. 2. And it happeneth, as to the people, so to the priest; as to the servant, so to his master; as to the maid, so to her mistress; as to the buyer, so to the seller; as to the lender, so to the borrower; as to the creditor, so to the debtor. 3. Emptying the earth is emptied, and plundering is plundered: for Jehovah hath spoken this word.

4. Smitten down, withered up is the earth; pined away, wasted is the world; pined away have they, the foremost of the people of the earth. 5. And the earth has become wicked among its inhabitants; for they transgressed revelations, set at naught the ordinance, broke the everlasting covenant. 6. Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they who dwelt in it make expiation: therefore are the inhabitants of the earth withered up, and there are very few mortals left 7. New wine mourneth, vine is parched, all the merry-hearted groan, 8. The joyous playing of tabrets is silent; the noise of them that rejoice hath ceased; the joyous playing of the guitar is silent. 9. They drink no wine with a song: meth tastes bitter to them that drink it.

10. The city of Tohu is broken to pieces; every house is shut up, so that no man can come in. 11. There is lamentation for wine in the fields; all rejoicing has set; the delight of the earth is banished. 12. What is left of the city is wilderness, and the gate was shattered to ruins. 13. For so will it be within the earth, in the midst of the nations; as at the olive-beating, as at the gleaning, when the vintage is over.

14. They lift up the voice, and exult; for the majesty of Jehovah they shout from the sea! 15. Therefore praise ye Jehovah in the lands of the sun, in the islands of the sea the name of Jehovah the God of Israel. 16. From the border of the earth we hear songs: Praise to the Righteous One.

Then I said, Ruin to me! ruin to me! Robbers rob, and robbing, they rob as robbers. 17. Horror, and pit, and snare are over thee, O inhabitant of the earth! 18. And it cometh to pass, whoever fleeth from the tidings of horror falleth into the pit; and whoever escapeth out of the pit is caught in the snare: for the trap-doors on high are opened, and the firm foundations of the earth shake. 19. The earth rending, is rent asunder; the earth bursting, is burst in pieces; the earth shaking, tottereth. 20. The earth reeling, reeleth like a drunken man, and swingeth like a hammock; and its burden of sin presseth upon it; and it falleth, and riseth not again.

21. And it cometh to pass in that day, Jehovah will visit the army of the high place in the high place, and the kings of the earth on the earth. 22. And they are imprisoned, as one imprisons captives in the pit, and shut up in prison; and in the course of many days they are visited. 23. And the moon blushes, and the sun turns pale; for Jehovah of hosts reigns royally upon mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His elders is glory.

THE FOURFOLD MELODIOUS ECHO.—CHAPS. 25, 26

A.—First Echo: Salvation of the Nations after the Fall of the Imperial City.—CHAP. Isa

25—1. Jehovah my God (art) Thou; I will exalt Thee; I will praise Thy name; for Thou hast done a wonder, counsels from afar off, truth, certainty. 2. For Thou hast turned (it) from a city to a heap, a fortified town to a ruin, a palace of strangers from (being) a city; for ever it shall not be built. 3. Therefore a powerful people shall honour Thee, a city of terrible nations shall fear Thee. 4. For Thou hast been a stronghold to the weak, a stronghold to the poor, in his distress, a refuge from the storm, a shadow from the heat, when the blast of the terrible was like a storm against a wall. 5. As heat in a drought, the noise of strangers wilt Thou bring down; (as) heat by the shadow of a cloud, (so) shall the song of the tyrants be brought low.

1. Jehovah, Thou art my God; I will exalt Thee, I will praise Thy name, that Thou hast wrought wonders, counsels from afar, sincerity, truth. 2. For Thou hast turned it from a City into a heap of stones, the steep castle into a ruin; the palace of the barbarians from being a city, to be rebuilt no more for ever. 3. Therefore a wild people will honour Thee, cities of violent nations fear Thee. 4. For Thou provest Thyself a stronghold to the lowly, a stronghold to the poor in his distress, as a shelter from the storm of rain, as a shadow from the burning of the sun; for the blast of the terrible ones was as a storm against a wall. 5. Like the burning of the sun in a parched land, Thou subduest the noise of the barbarians; (like) the burning of the sun through the shadow of a cloud, the triumphal song of the violent ones was brought low.

V.—A Promise of Favour to the Gentiles and the People of God when united on Mount Zion.—VERS. 6-9.

6. And Jehovah of hosts will make, for all nations, in this mountain, a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things, full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined. 7. And He will destroy in this mountain the face of the veil, the veil upon all peoples, and the web, the (one) woven over all the nations. 8. He has swallowed up death for ever, and the Lord Jehovah wipes away tears from off all faces, and the reproach of His people He will take away from off all the earth, for Jehovah hath spoken (it). 9. And they shall say in that day, Lo, this is our God! we have waited for Him, and He will save us; this is Jehovah; we have waited for Him; let us rejoice and be glad in His salvation.

VI.—The Ruin of Moab.—VERS. 10-12.

10. For the hand of Jehovah shall rest upon this mountain, and Moab shall be trodden down in his place as straw is trodden in the water of the dunghill. 11. And he shall spread forth his hands in the midst of it, as the swimmer spreadeth forth his hands to swim; and He shall humble his pride, together with the devices of his hands. 12. And the fortress of the high fort of thy walls He hath cast down, humbled, brought to the ground, to the very dust.

6. And Jehovah of hosts prepares for all nations upon this mountain a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things rich in marrow, of wines on the lees thoroughly strained. 7. And He casts away upon this mountain the veil that veiled over all peoples, and the covering that covered over all nations. 8. He puts away death for ever; and the Lord Jehovah wipes the tear from every face; and He removes the shame of His people from the whole earth: for Jehovah hath spoken it.

B.—Second Echo: The Humiliation of Moab.—CHAP. Isa

9. And they say in that day, Behold our God, for whom we waited to help us: this is Jehovah, for whom we waited; let us be glad and rejoice in His salvation. 10. For the hand of Jehovah will sink down upon this mountain, and Moab is trodden down there where it is, as straw is trodden down in the water of the dung-pit. 11. And he spreadeth out his hands in the pool therein, as the swimmer spreadeth them out to swim; but Jehovah forceth down the pride of Moab in spite of the artifices of his hands. 12. Yea, thy steep, towering walls He bows down, forces under, and casts earthwards into dust.

VII.—A Song of Praise and Deliverance.—CHAP. Isa

C.—Third Echo: Israel brought back, or Raised from the Dead.—CHAP. 26

26—1. In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah: We have a strong city; salvation will He place (as) walls and breastwork. 2. Open ye the gates, and let the righteous nation enter, keeping truth. 3. The mind stayed (on Thee) Thou wilt preserve in peace, (in) peace, because in Thee (it is) confident. 4. Trust ye in Jehovah for ever, for in Jah Jehovah is a rock of ages.

5. For He hath brought down the inhabitants of the high place, the exalted city; He will lay it low. He will lay it low, to the very ground; He will bring it to the very dust. 6. The foot shall trample on it, the feet of the afflicted, the steps of the weak. 7. The way for the righteous is straight; Thou most upright wilt level the path of the righteous. 8. Also in the way of Thy judgments, O Jehovah, we have waited for Thee; to Thy name and Thy remembrance (was our) soul's desire. 9. (With) my soul have I desired Thee in the night; yea (with) my spirit within me will I seek Thee early: for when Thy judgments (come) to the earth, the inhabitants of the world learn righteousness. 10. Let the wicked be favoured, he does not learn righteousness; in the land of right, he will do wrong, and will not see the exaltation of Jehovah. 11. Jehovah, Thy hand is high, they will not see; (yes) they will see (and be ashamed) Thy zeal for Thy people; yea, the fire of Thine enemies shall devour them.

12. Jehovah, Thou wilt give us peace, for even all our works Thou hast wrought for us. 13. Jehovah, our God, (other) lords beside Thee have ruled us; (but henceforth) Thee, Thy name, only will we celebrate. 14. Dead, they shall not live: ghosts, they shall not rise: therefore Thou hast visited and destroyed them, and made all memory to perish with respect to them. 15. Thou hast added to the nation, O Jehovah, Thou hast added to the nation; thou hast glorified Thyself; Thou hast put far off all the ends of the land. 16. Jehovah, in distress they visited Thee; they uttered a whisper: Thy chastisement was on them.

17. As when a pregnant (woman) draws near to the birth, she writhes, she cries out in her pangs, so have we been from Thy presence, O Jehovah! 18. We were in travail, we were in pain, as it were we brought forth wind. Deliverances we could not make the land, nor would the inhabitants of the world fall. 19. Thy dead shall live, my corpses shall arise; (awake and sing ye that dwell in the dust!) for the dew of herbs is Thy dew, and (on) the earth (on) the dead, Thou wilt cause it to full.

VIII.—The Time is not Yet.—VERS. 20, 21.

20. Go, my people, enter into thy chambers, and shut thy doors after thee, hide thyself for a little moment, till the wrath be past. 21. For behold, Jehovah (is) coming out of His place, to visit the iniquity of the inhabitant of the earth upon him, and the earth shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.

1. In that day will this song be sung in the land of Judah: A city of defence is ours; salvation He sets for walls and bulwarks. 2. Open ye the gates, that a righteous people may enter, one keeping truthfulness. 3. Thou keepest the firmly-established mind in peace, peace; for his confidence rests on Thee. 4. Hang confidently on Jehovah for ever: for in Jah, Jehovah, is an everlasting rock. 5. For He hath bent down them that dwell on high; the towering castle, He tore it down, tore it down to the earth, cast it into dust. 6. The foot treads it to pieces, feet of the poor, steps of the lowly. 7. The path that the righteous takes is smoothness; Thou makest the course of the righteous smooth.

8. We also have waited for Thee, that Thou shouldest come in the path of Thy judgments; the desire of the soul went after Thy name, and after Thy remembrance. 9. With my soul I desired Thee in the night; yea, with my spirit deep within me, I longed to have Thee here: for when Thy judgments strike the earth, the inhabitants of the earth learn righteousness.

10. If favour is shown to the wicked man, he does not learn righteousness; in the most upright land he acts wickedly, and has no eye for the majesty of Jehovah. 11. Jehovah, Thy hand has been exalted, but they did not see: they will see the zeal for a people, being put to shame; yea, fire will devour Thine adversaries. 12. Jehovah, Thou wilt ordain peace for us; for Thou hast accomplished all our work for us. 13. Jehovah our God, lords besides Thee had enslaved us; but through Thee we praise Thy name. 14. Dead men live not again, shades do not rise again; so hast Thou visited and destroyed them, and caused all their memory to perish. 15. Thou hast added to the nation, O Jehovah, hast added to the nation; glorified Thyself; moved out all the borders of the land.

16. Jehovah, in trouble they missed Thee, poured out light supplication when Thy chastisement came upon them. 17. As a woman with child, who draws near to her delivery, writhes and cries out in her pangs, so were we in Thy sight, O Jehovah. 18. We went with child, we writhed; it was as if we brought forth wind. We brought no deliverance to the land, and the inhabitants of the world did not come to the light.

19. Thy dead will live, my corpses rise again. Awake and rejoice, ye that lie in the dust! For thy dew is as the dew of the lights, and the earth will bring shades to the day.

20. Go in, my people, into thy chambers, and shut the door behind thee; hide thyself a little moment, till the judgment of wrath passes by. 21. For, behold, Jehovah goeth out of His place to visit the iniquity of the earth upon them; and the earth discloses the blood that it has sucked up, and no more covers her slain.

27—1. In that day will Jehovah visit with His sword, with the hard, and the great, and the strong, leviathan the fleet serpent, and leviathan the twisted serpent, and slay the dragon in the sea.

IX.—Israel's Chastisements and Jehovah's Judgments on His Enemies, with the glorious result thereof.—CHAP. 27

1. In that day shall Jehovah visit with His sword, the hard, the great, the strong (sword), upon leviathan the flying serpent, and upon leviathan the coiled serpent, and shall slay the dragon which (is) in the sea. 2. In that day, as a vineyard of wine, afflict her. 3. I Jehovah (am) keeping her; every moment I will water her; lest any hurt her, night and day will I keep her. 4. It is not because I am cruel or revengeful that I thus afflict my people, but because she is a vineyard overrun with thorns or briers, on account of which I must pass through her and burn them out of her [Or, I am (no longer) angry with my people; O that their enemies, as thorns and briers, would array themselves against me, that I might rush upon them and consume them.] 5. Or let him lay hold of my strength and make peace with me; peace let him make with me.

D.—The Fourth Echo: The Fruit-bearing Vineyard under the Protection of Jehovah.—CHAP. Isa

2. In that day

A merry vineyard—sing it!

3. I, Jehovah, its keeper,

Every moment I water it.

That nothing may come near it,

I watch it night and day.

4. Wrath have I none;

Oh, had I thorns, thistles before me!

I would make up to them in battle,

Burn them all together.

5. Men would then have to grasp at my protection,

Make peace with me,

Make peace with me.

6. In future will Jacob strike roots, Israel blossom and bud, and fill the surface of the globe with fruits.

6. (In) coming (days) shall Jacob take root, Israel shall bud and blossom, and they shall fill the face of the earth with fruit. 7. Like the smiting of his smiter did He smite him, or like the slaying of his slain was he slain?

8. In measure, by sending her away, Thou dost contend with her. He removes (her) by His hard wind in the day of the east wind. 9. Therefore by this (affliction) shall Jacob's iniquity be purged away, and this is all (its) fruit to take away his sin, (as will appear) in his placing all the stones of the (idolatrous) altar like limestones dashed in pieces (so that) groves and solar images shall arise no more.

10. For a fenced city shall be desolate, a dwelling-place broken up and forsaken like the wilderness. There shall the calf feed, and there shall it lie and consume her branches. 11. When its boughs are withered they shall be broken off, women coming and burning them; because it is not a people of understanding, therefore its Creator shall not pity it, and its Maker shall not have mercy on it.

12. And it shall be in that day, that Jehovah shall gather in His fruit from the channel of the river to the stream of Egypt, and ye shall be gathered one to another, O ye children of Israel! 13. And it shall come to pass in that day, (that) a great trumpet shall be blown, and they shall come that were wandering in the land of Assyria, and those exiled in the land of Egypt, and shall bow down to Jehovah, in the holy mountain, in Jerusalem.

JEHOVAH'S CHASTISING AND SAVING COURSE TOWARDS ISRAEL.—CHAP. Isa

7. Hath He smitten it like the smiting of its smiter, or is it slain like the slaying of those slain by Him? 8. Thou punishedst it with measures, when Thou didst thrust it away, sifting with violent breath in the day of the east wind. 9. Therefore will the guilt of Jacob be purged thus; and this is all the fruit of the removal of his sin: when He maketh all altar-stones like chalk-stones that are broken in pieces, Astarte images and sun-pillars do not rise up again. 10. For the strong city is solitary, a dwelling given up and forsaken like the steppe: there calves feed, and there they lie down, and eat of its branches. 11. When its branches become withered, they are broken: women come, make fires with them; for it is not a people of intelligence: therefore its Creator has no pity upon it, and its Former does not pardon it.

12. And it will come to pass on that day, Jehovah will appoint a beating of corn from the water-flood of the Euphrates to the brook of Egypt, and ye will be gathered one by one, 0 sons of Israel. 13. And it will come to pass in that day, a great trumpet will be blown, and the lost ones in the land of Asshur come, and the outcasts in the land of Egypt, and cast themselves down before Jehovah on the holy mountain in Jerusalem.

PART V.

BOOK OF WOES OR, HISTORICAL DISCOURSES RELATING TO ASSHUR AND THE EGYPTIAN ALLIANCE.—CHAPS. 28-33

THE DOWNFALL OF SAMARIA.—CHAP. 28

The First Woe.—Judgment upon Samaria and Jerusalem, and Consolation for Both.—CHAP. 28

1. Woe to the high crown of the drunkards of Ephraim, and the fading flower, his ornament of beauty, which (is) on the head of the fat valley of the wine-smitten. 2. Behold the Lord has a strong and mighty one, like a storm of hail, a destroying tempest, like a storm of mighty rushing waters. He has brought it to the ground with the hand. 3. With the feet shall be trodden the lofty crown of the drunkards of Ephraim. 4. And the fading flower of his glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be like a first-ripe fig before summer, which he that sees it sees, and while it is yet in his hand swallows it.

1. Woe to the proud crown of the drunken of Ephraim, and to the fading flower of its splendid ornament, which is upon the head of the luxuriant valley of those slain with wine.

2. Behold, the Lord holds a strong and mighty thing like a hailstorm, a pestilent tempest; like a storm of mighty overflowing waters, He casts down to the earth with almighty hand. 3. With feet they tread down the proud crown of the drunken of Ephraim. 4. And it happens to the fading flower of its splendid ornament, which is upon the head of the luxuriant valley, as to an early fig before it is harvest, which whosoever sees it looks at, and it is no longer in his hand than he swallows it.

5. In that day shall Jehovah of hosts become a crown of beauty and a diadem of glory to the remnant of His people; 6, and for a spirit of judgment to Him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn the battle to the gate.

5. In that day will Jehovah of hosts be the adorning crown and the splendid diadem to the remnant of His people; 6, and the spirit of justice to them that sit on the judgment-seat, and heroic strength to them that drive back war at the gate.

7. And (yet) even these through wine have erred, and through strong drink have gone astray. Priest and prophet have erred through strong drink, have been swallowed up of wine, have been led astray by strong drink, have erred in vision, have wavered in judgment. 8. For all tables are full of vomit, of filth, without a (clean) place. 9. Whom will he teach knowledge? And whom will he make to understand doctrine? Those weaned from the milk and removed from the breasts. 10. For (it is) rule upon rule, rule upon rule, line upon line, line upon line, a little here, a little there. 11. For with stammering lips and with another tongue will he speak unto this people. 12. Who said to them, This is rest, give rest to the weary, and this is quiet, but they would not hear. 13. And the word of Jehovah was to them rule upon rule, rule upon rule; line upon line, line upon line; a little here, a little there; that they might go, and fall backwards, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken.

14. Therefore hear the word of Jehovah, ye scornful men, the rulers of this people which is in Jerusalem. 15. Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell have formed a league; the overflowing scourge, when it passes through, shall not come upon us, for we have made falsehood our refuge, and in fraud we have hid ourselves; 16, therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold I lay in Zion a stone, a stone of proof, a corner-stone of value, of a firm foundation; the believer will not be in haste. 17. And I will place judgment for a line and justice for a plummet, and hail shall sweep away the refuge of falsehood, and the hiding-place waters shall overflow. 18. And your covenant with death shall be annulled, and your league with hell shall not stand, and the overflowing scourge—for it shall pass through, and ye shall be for it to trample on. 19. And as soon as it passes through, it shall carry you away; for every morning it shall pass through, in the day and in the night, and only vexation shall be the understanding of the thing heard. 20. For the bed is too short to stretch one's self, and the covering too narrow to wrap one's self. 21. For like mount Perazim shall Jehovah rise up, like the valley in Gibeon, shall He rage, to do His work, His strange work, and to perform His task, His strange task. 22. And now scoff not, lest your bands be strong; for even a decreed consumption I have heard from the Lord Jehovah of hosts, upon the whole earth.

7. And they also reel with wine, and are giddy with meth; priest and prophet reel with meth, reel when seeing visions, stagger when pronouncing judgment. 8. For all tables are full of filthy vomit, without any more place.

9. Whom then would he teach knowledge? And to whom make preaching intelligible? To those weaned from the milk. To those removed from the breast. 10. For precept upon precept, precept upon precept, line upon line, line upon line, a little here, a little there?.

11. For through men stammering in speech, and through a strange tongue will he speak to this people. 12. He who said to them, There is rest, give rest to weary ones, and there is refreshing! But they would not hear. 13. Therefore the word of Jehovah becomes to them precept upon precept, precept upon precept, line upon line, line upon line, a little here, a little there, that they may go and stumble backwards, and be wrecked to pieces, and be snared and taken.

14. Therefore hear the word of Jehovah, ye scornful lords, rulers of this people which is in Jerusalem! 15. For ye say, We have made a covenant with death, and with Hades we have come to an agreement. The swelling scourge, when it cometh hither, will do us no harm; for we have made a lie our shelter, and in deceit have we hidden ourselves. 16. Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold, I am He who laid in Zion a stone, a stone of trial, a precious corner-stone of well-founded founding; whoever believes will not have to move. 17. And I make justice the line, and righteousness the level; and hail sweeps away the refuge of lies, and the hiding-place is washed away by waters.

18. And your covenant with death is struck out, and your agreement with Hades will not stand; the swelling scourge when it comes, ye will become a thing trodden down to it. 19. And as often as it passes it takes you: for every morning it passes, by day and by night; and it is nothing but shuddering to hear such preaching. 20. For the bed is too short to stretch in, and the covering too tight when a man wraps himself in it.

21. For Jehovah will rise up as in the mountain of Perazim, and be wroth as in the valley at Gibeon to work His work; and to act His act; strange is His act.

22. And now drive ye not mockeries, lest your fetters be strengthened; for I have heard from the Lord, Jehovah of hosts, a judgment of destruction, and an irrevocable one, upon the whole earth.

23. Give ear and hear my voice; hearken and hear my speech. 24. Does the husbandman plough every day to sow? Does he open and level his ground? 25. Does he not, when he has levelled the surface of it, cast abroad dill, and scatter cummin, and set wheat in rows, and barley (in the place) marked out, and spelt in his border? 26. So teaches him aright, his God instructs him. 27. For not with the sledge must dill be threshed, or the cart wheel turned upon cummin; for with the stick must dill be beaten, and cummin with the rod. 28. Bread-corn must be crushed, for he will not be always threshing it; so he drives the wheel of his cart (upon it), but with his horses he does not crush it. 29. Even this from Jehovah of hosts comes forth; He is wonderful in counsel; great in wisdom.

23. Lend me your ear, and hear my voice; attend, and hear my address! 24. Does the husbandman plough continually to sow? to furrow and to harrow his land? 25. Is it not so: when he levels the surface thereof, he scatters black poppy seed, and strews cummin, and puts in wheat in rows, and barley in the appointed piece, and spelt on its border? 26. And He has instructed him how to act rightly: his God teaches him.

27. For the black poppy is not threshed with a threshing sledge, nor is a cart wheel rolled over cummin; but black poppy is knocked out with a stick, and cummin with a staff. 28. Is bread-corn crushed? No; he does not go on threshing for ever, and drive the wheel of his cart and his horses over it: he does not crush it. 29. This also, it goeth forth from Jehovah of hosts: He gives wonderful intelligence, high understanding.

PROPHECY CONCERNING JERUSALEM.—CHAP. 29

The Second Woe.—The Oppression and Deliverance of Ariel.—CHAP. 29

1. Alas for Ariel, Ariel, the city David encamped! Add year to year; let the feasts revolve; 2, and I will distress Ariel, and there shall be sadness and sorrow, and it shall be to me as Ariel. 3. And I will camp against thee round about, and push against thee a post, and raise against thee ramparts. 4. And thou shalt be brought down, out of the ground shalt thou speak, and thy speech shall be low out of the dust, and thy voice shall be like (the voice of) a spirit, out of the ground, and out of the dust shall thy speech mutter.

1. Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the castle where David pitched his tent! Add year to year, let the feasts revolve:2, then I distress Ariel, and there is groaning and moaning; and so she proves herself to me as Ariel. 3. And I encamp in a circle round about thee, and surround thee with watch-posts, and erect tortoises against thee. 4. And when brought down thou wilt speak out of the ground, and thy speaking will sound low out of the dust; and thy voice cometh up like that of a demon from the ground, and thy speaking will whisper out of the dust.

5. Then shall be like fine dust the multitude of thy strangers, and like passing chaff the multitude of the terrible ones, and it shall be in a moment suddenly. 6. From the presence of Jehovah shall it be visited with thunder, and earthquake, and great noise, tempest and storm, and flame of devouring fire. 7. Then shall be as a dream, a vision of the night, the multitude of all the nations fighting against Ariel, even all that fight against her and her munition, and distress her. 8. And it shall be as when the hungry dreams, and lo he eats, and he awakes, and his soul is empty; and as when the thirsty dreams, and lo he drinks, and he awakes, and lo he is faint and his soul craving: so shall be the multitude of all the nations that fight against mount Zion.

9. Waver and wonder! be merry and blind! They are drunk, but not with wine; they reel, but not with strong drink. 10. For Jehovah hath poured out upon you a spirit of deep sleep, and hath shut your eyes, the prophets, even your heads the seers, hath He covered. 11. And the vision of the whole is to you like the words of the sealed writing, which they give to one knowing writing, saying, Pray read this, and he says, I cannot, for it is sealed. 12. And the writing is given to one who knows not writing, saying, Pray read this, and he says, I know not writing. 13. And the Lord said, Because this people draws near with its mouth, and with its lips they honour me, and its heart it puts far from me, and their fearing me is a precept of men, (a thing) taught, 14, therefore, behold, I will continue to treat this people strangely, very strangely, and with strangeness, and the wisdom of its wise ones shall be lost, and the prudence of its prudent ones shall hide itself. 15. Alas for those going deep from Jehovah to hide counsel, and their works are in the dark, and they say, Who sees us, and who knows us? 16. Your perversion! Is the potter to be reckoned as the clay, that the thing made should say of its maker, He made me not, and the thing formed say of its former, He does not understand!

17. Is it not yet a very little while, and Lebanon shall be turned to a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be reckoned to the forest? 18. And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and out of obscurity and darkness shall the eyes of the blind see. 19. And the humble shall rejoice more and more in Jehovah, and the poor among men in the Holy One of Israel shall rejoice. 20. For the violent is at an end, and the scoffer ceaseth, and all the watchers for injustice are cut off:21, making a man a sinner for a word, and for him disputing in the gate they laid a snare, and turned aside the righteous through deceit. 22. Therefore thus saith Jehovah to the house of Jacob, He who redeemed Abraham, Not now shall Jacob be ashamed, and not now shall his face turn pale. 23. For when he sees his children, the work of my hands, in the midst of him, they shall sanctify my name, yes, they shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and the God of Israel they shall fear. 24. Then shall the erring in spirit know wisdom, and the rebels shall receive instruction.

5. And the multitude of thy foes will become like finely powdered dust, and the multitude of tyrants like chaff flying away; and it will take place suddenly, very suddenly. 6. From Jehovah of hosts there comes a visitation with crash of thunder and earthquake and great noise, whirlwind and tempest, and the blazing up of devouring fire. 7. And the multitude of all the nations that gather together against Ariel, and all those who storm and distress Ariel and her stronghold, will be like a vision of the night in a dream. 8. And it is just as a hungry man dreams, and behold he eats; and when he wakes up his soul is empty: and just as a thirsty man dreams, and behold he drinks; and when he wakes up, behold, he is faint, and his soul is parched with thirst; so will it be to the multitude of the nations which gather together against the mountain of Zion.

9. Stop and stare; blind yourselves, and grow blind!

They are drunken, and not with wine; they reel, and not with meth. 10. For Jehovah hath poured upon you a spirit of deep sleep, and bound up your eyes; the prophets and your heads, the seers, He has veiled. 11. And the revelation of all this will be to you like the words of a sealed writing, which they give to him that understands writing, saying, Pray, read this; but he says, I cannot, it is sealed. 12. And they give the writing to one who does not understand writing, saying, Pray, read this; but he says, I do not understand writing.

13. The Lord hath spoken: Because this people approaches me with its mouth, and honours me with its lips, and keeps its heart far from me, and its reverence for me has become as a commandment learned from men; 14, therefore, behold, I will proceed wondrously with this people, wondrously and marvellously strange; and the wisdom of its wise men is lost, and the understanding of its intelligent men becomes invisible.

15. Woe unto them that hide plans deep from Jehovah, and their doing occurs in a dark place, and they say, Who saw us then, and who knew about us? 16. Oh for your perversity! It is to be regarded as potter's clay; that a work could say to its maker, He has not made me; and an image to its sculptor, He does not understand it!

17. Is it not yet a very little, and Lebanon is turned into a fruitful field, and the fruitful field esteemed as a forest? 18. And in that day the deaf hear scripture words, and the eyes of the blind will see out of obscurity and out of darkness. 19. And the joy of the humble increases in Jehovah, and the poor among men will rejoice in the Holy One of Israel. 20. For tyrants are gone, and it is over with scoffers; and all who think evil are rooted out, 21, who condemn a man for a word, and lay snares for him that is free-spoken in the gate, and overthrow the righteous through shameful lies.

22. Therefore thus saith Jehovah of the house of Jacob, He who redeemed Abraham: Jacob shall not henceforth be ashamed, nor shall his face turn pale any more. 23. For when he, when his children see the work of my hands in the midst of him, they will sanctify My name, and sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shudder before the God of Israel. 24. And those who were of an erring spirit discern understanding, and murmurers accept instruction.

THE SIN AND THE FOLLY OF ANCIENT ISRAEL IN SEEKING FOREIGN AID AGAINST THEIR ENEMIES.—CHAPS. 30, 31

The Third Woe.—The Momentous Result of the Alliance with Egypt.—CHAP. 30

30—1. Woe to the disobedient children, saith Jehovah, (so disobedient as) to form (or execute) a plan and not from me, and to weave a web, but not (of) my Spirit, for the sake of adding sin to sin; 2, those walking to go down to Egypt, and my mouth they have not consulted, to take refuge in the strength of Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt. 3. And the strength of Egypt shall be to you for shame, and the trust in the shadow of Egypt for confusion. 4. For his chiefs are in Zoan, and his ambassadors arrive at Hanes. 5. All are ashamed of a people who cannot profit them, a people not for help and not for profit, but for shame, and also for disgrace. 6. The burden of the beasts of the south, in a land of suffering and distress, whence (are) the adder and the fiery flying serpent; they are carrying on the shoulders of young asses their wealth, and on the hump of camels their treasures, to a people who cannot profit; 7, and the Egyptians in vain and to no purpose shall they help. Therefore I cry concerning this, Their strength is to sit still.

8. And now go, write it with them on a table, and inscribe it in a book, and let it be for a future day, for ever, to eternity. 9. For a rebellious people is it, lying children, children who are not willing to learn the law of Jehovah; 10, who say to the seers, Ye shall not see, and to the viewers, Ye shall not view for us right things; speak unto us smooth things, view deceits, 11, depart from the way, sever from the path, cause to cease from before us the Holy One of Israel. 12. Therefore, thus saith the Holy One of Israel, Because of your rejecting this word, and (because) ye have trusted in oppression and perverseness and have relied thereon, 13, therefore shall their iniquity be to you like a breach ready to fall, swelling out in a high wall, whose breaking may come suddenly, at (any) instant. 14. And it is broken like the breaking of a potter's vessel, broken unsparingly, so that there is not found among its fragments a sherd to take up fire from a hearth, and to dip up water from a pool. 15. For thus saith the Lord Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, In returning and rest shall ye be saved, in remaining quiet and in confidence shall be your strength; and ye would not. 16. And ye said, No, for we will flee upon horses; therefore shall ye flee; and upon the swift will we ride; therefore shall your pursuers be swift. 17. One thousand shall flee from before the menace of one, from before the rebuke of five shall ye flee, until ye are left like a pole on the top of the mountain, and like the signal on the hill. 18. And therefore will Jehovah wait to have mercy upon you, and therefore will He rise up to pity you, for a God of judgment is Jehovah; blessed are all that wait for Him. 19. For the people in Zion shall dwell in Jerusalem; thou shalt weep no more; He will be very gracious unto thee at the voice of thy cry; as He hears it He will answer thee. 20. And the Lord will give you bread of affliction and water of oppression, and no more shall thy teachers hide themselves, and thine eyes shall see thy teachers. 21. And thine ears shall hear a voice from behind thee, saying, This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right and when ye turn to the left. 22. And he shall defile the covering of thy idols of silver and the case of thy image of gold; thou shalt scatter them as an abominable thing. Away! shalt thou say to it. 23. And He shall give the rain of thy seed, with which thou shalt sow the ground, and bread, the produce of the ground, and it shall be fat and rich; thy cattle shall feed that day in an enlarged pasture. 24. And the oxen and the asses working the ground shall eat salted provender which has been winnowed with the sieve and fan. 25. And there shall be, on every high mountain, and on every elevated hill, channels, streams of waters, in the day of great slaughter, when towers fall. 26. And the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day of Jehovah's binding up the breach of His people, and the stroke of His wound He will heal.

27. Behold, the name of Jehovah cometh from afar, burning His anger, and heavy the ascent (of smoke); His lips are full of wrath, and His tongue as a devouring fire. 28. And His breath, like an overflowing stream, shall divide as far as the neck, to sift the nations in the sieve of falsehood, and a misleading bridle on the jaws of the people. 29. Your song shall be like the night of the consecration of a feast, and your joy shall be like (that of) one marching with the pipe to go into the mountain of Jehovah, to the Rock of Israel. 30. And Jehovah shall cause to be heard the majesty of His voice, and the descent of His arm shall He cause to be seen, with indignation of anger and a flame of devouring fire, scattering, and rain, and hailstones. 31. For at the voice of Jehovah shall Assyria be broken, with the rod shall He smite. 32. And every passage of the rod of doom, which Jehovah will lay upon him, shall be with tabrets and harps, and with fights of shaking it is fought therein. 33. Nor arranged since yesterday is Tophet; even for the king it is prepared; He has deepened, He has widened (it); its pile fire and wood in plenty; the breath of Jehovah, like a stream of brimstone, kindles it.

1. Woe to the stubborn children, saith Jehovah, to drive plans, and not by my impulse, and to plait alliance, and not according to my spirit, to heap sin upon sin; 2, that go away to travel down to Egypt, without having asked my mouth, to fly to Pharaoh's shelter, and to conceal themselves under the shadow of Egypt. 3. And Pharaoh's shelter becomes a shame to them, and the concealment under the shadow of Egypt is a disgrace. 4. For Judah's princes have appeared in Zoan, and his ambassadors arrive in Haran. 5. They will all have to be ashamed of a people useless to them, that brings no help and no use, but shame, and also reproach.

6. Oracle concerning the water-oxen of the south: Through a land of distress and confinement, whence the lioness and lion, adders and flying dragons; they carry their possessions on the shoulders of asses' foals, and their treasures on the bumps of camels, to a nation that profits nothing. 7. And Egypt, worthlessly and hollowly will they help; therefore I call this Egypt, Great-mouth sits still.

8. Now go, write it on a table with them, and note it in a book, and let it stand there for future days, for ever, to eternity.

9. For it is a refractory people, lying children, children who do not like to hear the instruction of Jehovah; 10, who say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things! Speak flatteries to us! 11. Get out of the way, turn aside from the path, remove from our face the Holy One of Israel.

12. Therefore thus saith the Holy One of Israel, Because ye dislike this word, and put your trust in force and shufflings, and rely upon this; 13, therefore will this iniquity be to you like a falling breach, bent forwards in a high-towering wall, which falls to ruin suddenly, very suddenly. 14. And He smites it to pieces, as a potter's vessel falls to pieces when they smash it without sparing, and of which, when it lies smashed to pieces there, you cannot find a sherd to fetch fire with from the hearth, or to take water with out of a cistern.

15. For thus saith the Lord Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, Through turning and rest ye would be helped; your strength would show itself in quietness and confidence; but ye would not. 16. And ye said, No, but we will fly upon horses; therefore ye shall flee: and, We will ride upon race-horses; therefore your pursuers will race. 17. A thousand, ye will flee from the threatening of one, from the threatening or five, until ye are reduced to a remnant, like a pine upon the top of the mountain, and like a banner upon the hill.

18. And therefore will Jehovah wait till He inclines towards you, and therefore will He withdraw Himself on high till He has mercy upon you; for Jehovah is a God of right, salvation to those who wait for Him.

19. For a people continues dwelling in Zion, in Jerusalem; thou shalt not weep for ever: He will prove Himself gracious to thee at the sound of thy cry for help; as soon as He hears, He answers thee. 20. And the Lord giveth you bread in penury, and water for your need; and thy teachers will not hide themselves any more, and thine eyes come to see thy teachers. 21. And thine ears will hear words behind thee, saying, "This is the way, walk ye in it!" whether ye turn to the right hand or the left. 22. And ye defile the covering of thy graven images of silver, and the clothing of thy molten images of gold; thou wilt scatter them like a filthy thing: "Get out!" thou sayest to it.

23. And He gives rain to thy seed, with which thou sowest the land; and bread of the produce of the land, and it is full of sap and fat; in that day your flocks will feed in roomy pastures. 24. And the oxen and the young asses, which work the land, salted mash will they eat, which is winnowed with the winnowing shovel and winnowing fork! 25. And upon every high mountain, and every hill that rises high, there are springs, brooks in the day of the great massacre, when the towers fall.

26. And the light of the moon will be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun will be multiplied sevenfold, like the light of seven days, in the day that Jehovah bindeth the hurt of His people, and healeth the crushing of His stroke.

27. Behold, the name of Jehovah cometh from far, burning His wrath, and quantity of smoke: His lips are full of wrathful foam, and His tongue like devouring fire. 28. And His breath is like an overflowing brook, which reaches half-way to the neck, to sift nations in the sieve of nothingness; and a misleading bridle comes to the cheeks of the nations.

29. Your song will then sound as in the night, when the feast is celebrated; and ye will have joy of heart like those who march with the playing of flutes, to go up to the mountain of Jehovah, to the Rock of Israel.

30. And Jehovah causes His majestic voice to be heard, and causes the lowering of His arm to be seen, with the snorting of wrath and the blazing of devouring fire, the bursting of a cloud, and pouring of rain and hailstones. 31. For Asshur will be terrified at the voice of Jehovah, when He smites with the staff. 32. And it will come to pass, every stroke of the rod of destiny, which Jehovah causes to fall upon Asshur, is dealt amid the noise of drums and the playing of guitars; and in battles of swinging arm He fights it. 33. For a place for the sacrifice of abominations has long been made ready, even for the king it is prepared; deep, broad has He made it: its funeral-pile has fire and wood in abundance; the breath of Jehovah like a stream of brimstone sets it on fire.

The Fourth Woe.—The False Help; The Despised One Pitied; and the New Era.—CHAPS. 31-

Isa —Woe to those going down to Egypt for help, and on horses they rely and trust in cavalry, because it is numerous, and on horsemen, because they are very strong, and they look not to the Holy One of Israel, and Jehovah they seek not. 2. And (yet) He too is wise, and brings evil, and His words He removes not, and He rises up against the house of evil-doers, and against the help of the workers of iniquity. 3. And Egypt (is) man, and their horses flesh and not spirit; and Jehovah shall stretch out His hand, and the helper shall stumble, and the helped fall, and together all of them shall cease.

4. For thus saith Jehovah unto me, As a lion growls, and a young lion over his prey, against whom a multitude of shepherds is called forth, at their voice he is not frightened, and at their noise he is not humbled, so will Jehovah of hosts come down, to fight upon mount Zion and upon her hill. 5. As birds flying (over or around their nests), so will Jehovah cover over Jerusalem, cover and rescue, pass over and save.

6. Return unto Him from whom the children of Israel have deeply revolted. 7. For in that day they shall reject, a man his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which your sinful hands have made for you [or, which your own hands have made for you as sin]. 8. And Assyria shall fall by no man's sword, and no mortal's work shall devour him, and he shall flee from before the sword, and his young men shall become tributary. 9. And his rock from fear shall pass away, and his chiefs shall be afraid of a standard, saith Jehovah, to whom there is a fire in Zion and a furnace in Jerusalem.

1. Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help, and rely upon horses, and put their trust in chariots, that there are many of them, and in horsemen, that there is a powerful multitude of them; and do not look up to the Holy One of Israel, and do not inquire for Jehovah! 2. And yet He also is wise; thus then He brings evil, and sets not His words aside; and rises up against the house of miscreants, and against the help of evil-doers. 3. And Egypt is man, and not God; and its horses flesh, and not spirit. And when Jehovah stretches out His hand, the helper stumbles, and he that is helped falls, and they all perish together.

4. For thus hath Jehovah spoken unto me, As the lion growls and the young lion over its prey, against which a whole crowd of shepherds is called together; he is not alarmed at their cry, and does not surrender at their noise; so will Jehovah of hosts descend to the campaign against the mountain of Zion, and against their hill. 5. Like fluttering birds, so will Jehovah of hosts screen Jerusalem; screening and delivering, sparing and setting free.

6. Then turn, O sons of Israel, to Him from whom men have so deeply departed. 7. For in that day they will abhor every one their silver idols and their gold idols, which your hands have made to you for a sin. 8. And Asshur falls by a sword not of a man, and a sword not of a man will devour him; and he flees before a sword, and his young men become tributary. 9. And his rock, for fear it will pass away, and his princes be frightened away by the flags: the saying of Jehovah, who has His fire in Zion, and His furnace in Jerusalem.

CONTINUATION OF PROMISES.—CHAP. Isa

1. Behold, for righteousness shall reign a king, and rulers for justice shall rule. 2. And a man shall be as a hiding-place from the wind, and a covert from the rain (or storm), as channels of water in a dry place (or in drought), as the shadow of a heavy rock in a weary land.

3. And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken. 4. And the heart (or, mind) of the rash (heedless or reckless) shall understand to know (or, understand knowledge), and the tongue of stammerers shall hasten to speak clear things.

5. The fool will no longer be called noble, and the churl will no longer be spoken of (or, to) as liberal. 6. The fool (is one who) will speak folly, and his heart will do iniquity, to do wickedness and to speak error unto (or, against) Jehovah, to starve (or, leave empty) the soul of the hungry, and the drink of the thirsty he will suffer to fail. 7. And as for the churl, his arms (or, instruments) are evil. He deviseth plots to destroy the oppressed (or afflicted) with words of falsehood, even in the poor (man's) speaking right. 8. The noble (or, generous) man devises noble (or, generous) things, and in noble (or, generous) things he perseveres.

32—1. Behold the king will reign according to righteousness; and the princes, according to right will they command. 2. And every one will be like a shelter from the wind, and a covert from the storm; like water-brooks in a dry place, like the shadow of a gigantic rock in a languishing land.

3. And the eyes of the seeing no more are closed, and the ears of the hearing attend. 4. And the heart of the hurried understands to know, and the tongue of stammerers speaks clear things with readiness.

5. The fool will no more be called a nobleman, nor the crafty a gentleman. 6. For a fool speaks follies, and his heart does godless things, to practise tricks and to speak error against Jehovah, to leave the soul of hungry men empty, and to withhold the drink of thirsty ones. 7. And the craft of a crafty man is evil, who devises stratagems to destroy suffering ones by lying words, even when the needy exhibits his right. 8. But a noble man deviseth noble things, and to noble things he adheres.

THREATENINGS ADDRESSED TO THE WOMEN OF JUDAH.—CHAP. Isa

AGAINST THE WOMEN OF JERUSALEM.—CHAP. Isa

Appendix to the Fourth Woe.

9. Careless women, arise, hear my voice; confiding daughters, give ear unto my speech.

10. In a year and more ye shall tremble, ye confiding ones, for the vintage fails, the gathering shall not come. 11. Tremble, ye careless (women); quake, ye confiding (ones); strip you and make you bare, and gird (sack cloth) on your loins. 12. Mourning for the breasts (or, heating on the breasts), for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine. 13. Upon the land of my people, thorn (and) thistle shall come up, for (they shall even come up) upon all (thy) houses of pleasure, O joyous city (or, upon all houses of pleasure in the joyous city). 14. For the palace is forsaken, the crowd of the city (or, the crowded city) left, hill and watch-tower (are) for caves (or, dens) for ever, a joy of wild asses, a pasture of flocks.

15. Until the Spirit is poured out upon us from on high, and the wilderness becomes a fruitful field, and the fruitful field is reckoned to the forest. 16. And justice shall abide in the wilderness, and righteousness in the fruitful field shall dwell. 17. And the work of righteousness shall be peace, and the effect of righteousness rest and assurance (or, security) for ever. 18. And my people shall abide in a house of peace, in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting-places.

19. And it shall hail in the downfall of the forest, and the city shall be low in a low place (or, humbled with humiliation). 20. Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass.

THREATENING OF RETRIBUTION TO THE ENEMIES OF GOD'S PEOPLE.—CHAP. 33

1. Woe to thee spoiling and thou wast not spoiled, deceiving and they did not spoil thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil thou shalt be spoiled, and when thou art done deceiving they shall deceive thee. 2. Jehovah, favour us, for on Thee we wait; be their arm in the mornings, also our salvation in times of trouble. 3. At the noise of tumult (or, tumultuous noise) the people flee; at Thy rising the nations are scattered. 4. And your spoil shall be gathered (like) the gathering of the devourer; like the running of locusts running on it. 5. Exalted is Jehovah because dwelling on high; He fills (or, has filled) Zion with judgment and righteousness. 6. And He shall be the security of thy times, strength of salvations, wisdom and knowledge, the fear of Jehovah, that is his treasure.

7. Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the ambassadors of peace weep bitterly. 8. The highways are wasted, the wayfarer ceaseth; he breaks the covenant, despises cities, values no man. 9. The land mourneth, languisheth; Lebanon is ashamed, it pines away; Sharon is like a wilderness, and Bashan and Carmel cast (their leaves). 10. Now will I arise, saith Jehovah, now will I be lifted up, now will I exalt myself. 11. Ye shall conceive chaff, ye shall bring forth stubble; your breath as stubble shall devour you. 12. And nations shall be like lime-kilns (or, like burnings of lime); thorns cut up, in the fire they shall burn. 13. Hear, ye far, what I have done, and know, ye near, my might.

14. Afraid in Zion are the sinners; trembling has seized the impious. Who of us can dwell with the devouring fire, who of us can dwell with everlasting burnings? 15. Walking righteousnesses, and speaking right things, rejecting with contempt the gain of oppressions (or, extortions), shaking his hands from taking hold of the bribe, stopping his ears from hearing bloods, shutting his eyes from looking at evil, he high places shall inhabit; fastnesses of rocks (shall be) his lofty place; his bread is given, his water sure. 17. A king in his beauty shall thine eyes behold, they behold a land of distances. 18. Thy heart shall meditate terror. Where is he that counted? Where is he that weighed? Where is he that counted the towers? 19. The fierce (or, determined) people thou shalt not see; a people deep of lip from hearing, of barbarous tongue without meaning.

20. Behold Zion, the city of our festivals! Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet home, a tent that shall not be removed. Its stakes shall not be pulled up for ever, and all its cords shall not be broken. 21. But there shall Jehovah be mighty for us; a place of rivers, streams broad (on) both sides; there shall not go in it an oared vessel, and a gallant ship shall not pass through it. 22. For Jehovah our Judge, Jehovah our Lawgiver, Jehovah our King, He will save us.

23. Thy ropes are cast loose; they do not hold upright their mast; they do not spread the sail; then is shared plunder of booty in plenty; the lame spoil the spoil.

24. And the inhabitant shall not say, I am sick. The people dwelling in it (is) forgiven (its) iniquity.

9. Ye contented women, rise up, hear my voice; ye confident daughters, hearken to my speech! 10. Days to the year: then will ye tremble, confident ones! for it is all over with the vintage, the fruit harvest comes to nought. 11. Tremble, contented ones! Quake, ye confident ones! Strip, make yourselves bare, and gird your loins with sackcloth! 12. They smite upon their breasts for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine. 13. On the land of my people there come up weeds, briers; yea, upon all joyous houses of the rejoicing city. 14. For the palace is made solitary; the crowd of the city is left desolate; the ofel and watch-tower serve as caves for ever, for the delight of wild asses, for the tending of flocks.

15. Until the Spirit is poured out over us from on high, and the wilderness becomes a fruitful field, and the fruitful field is counted as the forest. 16. And justice makes its abode in the desert, and righteousness settles down upon the fruit-field. 17. And the effect of righteousness will be peace, and the reward of righteousness rest and security for ever. 18. And my people dwells in a place of peace, and in trustworthy, safe dwellings, and in cheerful resting-places. 19. And it hails with the overthrow of the forest, and into lowliness must the city be brought low.

20. Blessed are ye that sow by all waters, and let the foot of the oxen and asses rove in freedom.

The Fifth Woe.—Woe concerning Asshur; Deliverance and Glory of Jerusalem.—CHAP. 33

1. Woe, devastator, and thyself not devastated; and thou spoiler, and still not spoiled! Hast thou not done with devastating? thou shalt be devastated. Hast thou attained to rob? men rob thee.

2. Jehovah, be gracious to us; we wait for Thee: be their arm every morning, yea, our salvation in time of need!

3. At the sound of a noise peoples pass away; at Thy rising nations are scattered. 4. And your booty is swept away as a swarm of locusts sweeps away; as beetles run, they run upon it.

5. Jehovah is exalted; for dwelling on high, He has filled Zion with justice and righteousness. 6. And there will be security of thy times, riches of salvation, of wisdom, and knowledge. Fear of Jehovah is then the treasure of Judah.

7. Behold, their heroes weep without; the messengers of peace weep bitterly. 8. Desolate are roads, disappeared are travellers; he has broken covenant, insulted cities, despised men. 9. The land mourns, languishes; Lebanon stands ashamed, parched; the meadow of Sharon has become like a steppe, and Bashan and Carmel shake their leaves. 10. Now will I arise, saith Jehovah, now exalt myself, now lift up myself.

11. Ye are pregnant with hay, ye bring forth stubble! Your snorting is the fire that will devour you. 12. And nations become as lime burnings, thorns cut off, which are kindled with fire.

13. Hear, ye distant ones, what I have accomplished; and perceive, ye near ones, my omnipotence! 14. The sinners in Zion are afraid; trembling seizes the hypocrites: who of us can dwell with devouring fire? who of us abide with everlasting burnings?

15. He that walketh in righteousness, and speaketh uprightness; he that despiseth gain of oppressions, whose hand keepeth from grasping bribes; he that stoppeth his ear from hearing murderous counsel, and shutteth his eyes from looking at evil; 16, he will dwell upon high places; rocky fastnesses are his castle; his bread is abundant, his waters inexhaustible.

17. Thine eyes will see the king in his beauty, will see a land that is very far off.

18. Thy heart meditates upon the shuddering. Where is the valuer? where is the weigher? where he who counted the towers? The rough people thou seest no more, a people of deep inaudible lip, of stammering unintelligible tongue.

20. Look upon Zion, the castle of our festal meeting. Thine eyes will see Jerusalem, a pleasant place, a tent that does not wander about, whose pegs are never drawn, and none of whose cords are ever broken. 21. No, there dwells for us a glorious One, Jehovah; a place of streams, canals of wide extent, into which no fleet of rowing vessels ventures, and which no strong man of war shall cross. 22. For Jehovah is our Judge; Jehovah is our war-Prince; Jehovah is our King; He will bring us salvation.

23. Thy ropes hang loose; they do not hold fast the support of thy mast; they do not hold the flag extended: then is the booty of plunder divided in abundance; even lame men share the prey. 24. And not an inhabitant will say, I am weak: the people settled there have their sins forgiven.

PART VI.

THREATENINGS AGAINST THE ENEMIES OF THE CHURCH, WITH PROMISES TO THE CHURCH ITSELF.—CHAPS. 34, 35

FINALE OF THE JUDGMENT UPON ALL THE WORLD (MORE ESPECIALLY UPON EDOM) AND REDEMPTION OF THE PEOPLE OF JEHOVAH.—CHAPS. 34, 35

1. Come near, ye nations, to hear; and ye peoples, hearken. Let the earth hear, and its fulness, the world and all its issues. 2. For Jehovah is angry against all the nations, and has wrath against all their host; He has doomed them, He has given them to the slaughter. 3. And their slain shall be cast out, and their carcases, their stench shall go up; and mountains shall be melted with their blood. 4. And the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll, and all their host shall fade like the fading of a leaf from off a vine, and like a fading (leaf) or a withered (fig) from a fig-tree.

5. For my sword is steeped in heaven; behold, upon Edom shall it come down, and upon the people of my curse. 6. Jehovah has a sword; it is full of blood, it is smeared with fat, with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams; for Jehovah has a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Edom. 7. And unicorns shall come down with them, and bullocks with bulls. And their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust with fat shall be fattened. 8. For there is a day of vengeance to Jehovah, a year of recompense for the cause of Zion. 9. And her streams shall be turned to pitch, and her dust to brimstone, and her land shall become burning pitch. 10. Day and night it shall not be quenched; for ever shall its smoke go up; from generation to generation shall it lie waste; for ever and ever there shall be no one passing through it. 11. Then shall possess it the pelican and the porcupine, the crane and the crow shall dwell in it. And one shall stretch upon it the line of confusion and the stones of emptiness. 12. Her caves—and there is no one there they will (still) call a kingdom, and all her chiefs will cease to be. 13. And in her palaces shall come up thorns, nettles, and brambles in her fortresses; and she shall be a home of wolves, a grass-plot for ostriches. 14. And wild creatures shall (there) meet with howling creatures, and the shaggy monster shall call to his fellow; only there reposes the night-monster, and finds for herself a resting-place. 15. [As to the particular species of animals referred to in this whole passage, there is no need, as Calvin well observes, of troubling ourselves much about them. The general sense evidently is, that a human population should be succeeded by wild and lonely animals, who should not only live but breed there, implying total and continued desolation.] 16. Seek ye out of the book of Jehovah and read; by number will Jehovah call them. For my mouth, it has commanded; and His Spirit it has gathered them. 17. He too has cast the lot for them, and His hand has divided it to them by line. For ever shall they hold it as a heritage, to all generations they shall dwell therein.

35—1. Desert and waste shall rejoice (for) them; and the wilderness shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. 2. (It shall) blossom, it shall blossom and rejoice; yea (with) joy and shouting. The glory of Lebanon is given unto it, the beauty of Carmel and of Sharon. They shall see the glory of Jehovah, the beauty of our God.

3. Strengthen hands (now) sinking, and knees (now) tottering make firm. 4. Say ye to the hasty of heart, Be firm, fear not; behold your God; vengeance is coming, the retribution of God; He (Himself) is coming, and will save you.

5. Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. 6. Then shall the lame bound as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall shout (for joy), because waters have burst forth in the wilderness and streams in the desert.

6. And the mirage shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water, (even) in the haunt of wolves, their lair, a court for reeds and rushes. 8. And there shall be there a highway and a way; it shall be called the Way of Holiness; and there shall not pass through it an unclean (thing or person); it shall be for them; the travellers, yea, those who are ignorant (or foolish) shall not be able to go astray. 9. There shall not be there a lion, and a ravenous beast shall not ascend it, nor be found there; and (there) shall walk redeemed (ones).

10. And the ransomed of Jehovah shall return and come to Zion with shouting, and everlasting joy upon their head; gladness and joy shall overtake (them), and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.

1. Come near, ye peoples, to hear; and ye nations, attend. Let the earth hear, and that which fills it, the world, and everything that springs from it. 2. For the indignation of Jehovah will fall upon all nations, and burning wrath upon all their host; He has laid the ban upon them, delivered them to the slaughter. 3. And their slain are cast away, and their corpses—their stench will arise, and mountains melt with their blood. 4. And all the host of the heavens are rolled up like a scroll, and all their host withers as a leaf withers away from the vine, and like withered leaves from the fig-tree.

5. For my sword has become intoxicated in the heaven; behold, it comes down upon Edom, and upon the people of my ban to judgment. 6. The sword of Jehovah fills itself with blood, is fattened with fat, with blood of lambs and he-goats, with kidney-fat of rams; for Jehovah has a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Edom. 7. And buffaloes fall with them, and bullocks together with bulls; and their land becomes intoxicated with blood, and their dust fattened with fat.

8. For Jehovah hath a day of vengeance, a year of recompense, to contend for Zion. 9. And the brooks of Edom are turned into pitch, and its dust into brimstone, and its land becomes burning pitch. 10. Day and night it is not quenched; the smoke of Edom goes up for ever: it lies waste from generation to generation; no one passes through it for ever and ever. 11. And pelican and hedgehog take possession of it, and eared-owl and raven dwell there; and He stretched over it the measure of Tohu and the level of Bohu. 12. Its nobles—there is no longer a monarchy which they elected; and all its princes come to nought. 13. And the palaces of Edom break out into thorns, nettles and thistles in the castles; and it becomes the abode of wild dogs, pasture for ostriches. 14. And martens meet with jackals, and a wood-devil runs upon its fellow; yea, Lîlîth dwells there, and finds rest for itself. 15. There the arrow-snake makes its nest, and breeds and lays eggs, and broods in the shadow there; yea, there vultures gather one to another. 16. Search in the book of Jehovah, and read! Not one of the creatures fails, not one misses the other: for my mouth—it has commanded it; and His breath—it has brought them together. 17. And He has cast the lots for them, and His hand has assigned it (this land) to them by measure; they will possess it for ever; to generation and generation they will dwell therein.

35—1. Gladness fills the desert and the heath; and the steppe rejoices, and flowers like the crocus. 2. It flowers abundantly, and rejoices; yea, rejoicing and singing: the glory of Lebanon is given to it, the splendour of Carmel and the plain of Sharon; they will see the glory of Jehovah, the splendour of our God.

3. Strengthen ye the weak hands, and make the trembling knees strong. 4. Say to those of a terrified heart, Be strong, Fear ye not! Behold, your God will come for vengeance, for a divine retribution: He will come, and bring you salvation. 5. Then the eyes of the blind will be opened, and the ears of the deaf unstopped. 6. Then will the lame man leap as the stag, and the tongue of the dumb man shout; for waters break out in the desert, and brooks in the steppe. 7. And the mirage becomes a fish-pond, and the thirsty ground gushing water-springs; in the place of jackals, where it lies, there springs up grass with reeds and rushes.

8. And a highway rises there, and a road, and it will be called the Holy Road; no unclean man will pass along it, as it is appointed for them: whoever walks the road, even simple ones do not go astray. 9. There will be no lion there, and the most ravenous beast of prey will not approach it, will not be met with there; and redeemed ones walk. 10. And the ransomed of Jehovah will return, and come to Zion with shouting, and everlasting joy upon their heads; they lay hold of gladness and joy and sorrow and sighing flee away.

PART VII.

FULFILMENTS OF PROPHECY AND PROPHECIES BELONGING TO THE FOURTEENTH YEAR OF HEZEKIAH'S REIGN, AND THE TIMES IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING.—CHAPS. 36-39

HISTORICAL APPENDIX TO THE FIRST PART OF ISAIAH'S PROPHECIES.—CHAPS. 36-39

A.—First Assyrian attempt to compel the surrender of Jerusalem.—CHAPS. 36-

36—1. And it came to pass in the fourteenth year of the king Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fenced cities of Judah, and took them. 2. And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem, to king Hezekiah, with a strong force, and he stood by the aqueduct of the upper pool, in the highway of the fuller's field. 3. Then there came forth Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, who was over the house, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, Asaph's son, the recorder.

36—1. And it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hizkiyahu, Sancherib, king of Asshur, came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them. 2. Then the king of Asshur sent Rabshakeh from Lachish towards Jerusalem to king Hizkiyahu with a great army, and he advanced to the conduit of the upper pool by the road of the fuller's field; 3, and there went out to him Eliakim, son of Hilkiyahu, the house-minister, and Shebna the chancellor, and Joah, son of Asaph the recorder.

4. And Rabshakeh said to them: Say now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, the king of Assyria, What is this confidence which thou confident in? 5. I say, mere word of lips (is your) counsel and strength for the war; now on whom hast thou confided, that thou hast rebelled against me? 6. Behold, thou hast trusted in the support of this broken reed, in Egypt, which, (if) a man lean upon it, will go into his hand and pierce it; so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all those trusting in him. 7. And if thou say to me, We trust in Jehovah our God; is it not He whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, and said to Judah and Jerusalem, Before this altar shall ye worship? 8. And now, engage, I pray thee, with my lord the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them. 9. And how wilt thou turn away the face of one governor of the least of my master's servants? So hast thou reposed thyself on Egypt, with respect to chariots and horses. 10. And now (is it) without Jehovah I have come up against this land to destroy it? Jehovah said to me, Go up against this land and destroy it.

4. And Rabshakeh said to them, Say now to Hizkiyahu, Thus saith the great king, the king of Asshur, What sort of confidence is this that thou hast got? 5. I say, Vain talk is counsel and strength for war: now, then, in whom dost thou trust, that thou hast rebelled against me? 6. Behold, thou trustest in this broken reed-staff there, in Egypt, on which one leans, and it runs into his hand and pierces it; so does Pharaoh king of Egypt to all who trust in him. 7. But if thou sayest to me, We trust in Jehovah our God; is it not He whose high places and altars Hizkiyahu has removed, and has said to Judah and Jerusalem, Ye shall worship before the altar? 8. And now take a wager with my lord the king of Asshur; I will deliver thee two thousand horses, if thou art able for thy part to give horsemen upon them. 9. And how couldst thou repel the advance of a single satrap among the least of the servants of my lord? Thou puttest thy trust then in Egypt for chariots and riders! 10. And now have I come up without Jehovah against this land to destroy it? Jehovah said to me, Go up to this land, and destroy it.

11. Then said Eliakim, and Shebna, and Joah, unto Rabshakeh, Pray speak unto thy servants in Aramean, for we understand (it), and speak not unto us in Jewish, in the ears of the people who (are) on the wall.

11. Then said Eliakim, and Shebna, and Joah, to Rabshakeh, Pray, speak to thy servants in Araman, for we understand it; and do not speak to us in Jewish, in the ears of the people that are on the wall.

12. And Rabshakeh said: Is it to thy master and to thee that my master sent me to speak these words? Is it not to the men sitting on the wall to eat their own dung and to drink their own water with you?

12. Then Rabshakeh said to them, Has my lord sent me to thy lord and to thee, not rather to the men who sit upon the wall, to eat their dung, and to drink their urine together with you?

13. Then Rabshakeh stood and called with a loud voice in Jewish, and said, Hear the words of the great king, the king of Assyria. 14. Thus saith the king: Let not Hezekiah deceive you, for he will not be able to deliver you. 15. And let not Hezekiah make you trust in Jehovah, saying, Jehovah will certainly save us, this city shall not be given up into the hand of the king of Assyria. 16. Hearken not to Hezekiah, for thus saith the king of Assyria, Make with me a blessing, and come out unto me, and eat ye (every) man his own vine and (every) man his own fig-tree, and drink ye (every) man the waters of his own cistern; 17, until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards. 18. Let not Hezekiah seduce you, saying, Jehovah will deliver us. Have the gods of the nations delivered every one his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? 19. Where (are) the gods of Hamath and Arpad? where the gods of Sepharvaim? and (when or where was it) that they delivered Samaria out of my hand? 20. Who (are they) among all the gods of these lands that have delivered their land out of my hand, that Jehovah should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?

21. And they held their peace, and did not answer him a word, for such was the commandment of the king, Ye shall not answer him.

22. Then came Eliakim, Hilkiah's son, who (was) over the house, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, Asaph's son, the recorder, unto Hezekiah, with their clothes rent, and told him the words of Rabshakeh.

13. Then Rabshakeh went near, and cried with a loud voice in the Jewish language, and said, Hear the words of the great king, the king of Asshur. 14. Thus saith the king, Let not Hizkiyahu practise deception upon you; for he cannot deliver you. 15. And let not Hizkiyahu feed you with hope in Jehovah, saying, Jehovah will deliver, yea, deliver us: this city will not be delivered into the hand of the king of Asshur. 16. Hearken not to Hizkiyahu; for thus saith the king of Asshur, Enter into a connection of mutual good wishes with me, and come out to me: and enjoy every one his vine, and every one his fig-tree, and drink every one the water of his cistern:17, till I come and take you away into a land like your own land, a land of corn and wine, a land of bread-corn and vineyards; 18, that Hizkiyahu do not befool you, saying, Jehovah will deliver us. Have the gods of the nations delivered every one his land out of the hand of the king of Asshur? 19. Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? Where the gods of Sepharvayim? and how much less have they delivered that Samaria out of my hand? 20. Who were they among all the gods of these lands who delivered their land out of my hand? how much less will Jehovah deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?

21. But they held their peace, and answered him not a word; for it was the king's commandment, Ye shall not answer him.

22. Then came Eliakim, son of Hilkiyahu, the house-minister, and Shebna the chancellor, and Joah son of Asaph the recorder, to Hizkiyahu, with torn clothes, and told him the words of Rabshakeh.

37—1. And it came to pass when king Hezekiah heard, that he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth, and went into the house of Jehovah. 2. And he sent Eliakim who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and the elders of the people covered with sackcloth, unto Isaiah the son of Amoz, the prophet. 3. And they said unto him, Thus saith Hezekiah, A day of anguish and rebuke and contempt (is) this day; for the children are come to the places of birth, and there is not strength to bring forth. 4. If peradventure Jehovah thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of Assyria his master hath sent to reproach the living God, and will rebuke the words which Jehovah thy God hath heard, then shalt thou lift up a prayer for the remnant (that is still) found (here).

37—1. And it came to pass, when king Hizkiyahu had heard, he rent his clothes, and wrapped himself in mourning linen, and went into the house of Jehovah. 2. And sent Eliakim the house-minister, and Shebna the chancellor, and the eldest of the priests, wrapped in mourning linen, to Isaiah son of Amoz, the prophet. 3. And they say to him. Thus saith Hizkiyahu, A day of affliction, and punishment, and blasphemy is this day; for children are come to the matrix, and there is no strength to bring them forth. 4. Perhaps Jehovah thy God will hear the words of Rabshakeh, with which the king of Asshur his lord has sent him to revile the living God; and Jehovah thy God will punish for the words He hath heard, and thou wilt make intercession for the remnant that still exists.

5. And the servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah 6. And Isaiah said to them, Thus shall ye say to your master, Thus saith Jehovah, Be not afraid of the words which thou hast heard, (with) which the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed me. 7. Behold, I am putting a spirit in him, and he shall hear a noise, and shall return to his own land, and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.

5. And the servants of king Hizkiyahu came to Isaiah 6. And Isaiah said to them, Speak thus to your lord, Thus saith Jehovah, Be not afraid of the words which thou hast heard, with which the servants of the king of Asshur have blasphemed Me. 7. Behold, I will bring a spirit upon him, and he will hear a hearsay, and return to his own land; and I will cut him down with the sword in his own land.

B.—Second attempt of the Assyrians to force the surrender of Jerusalem. Its miraculous deliverance.—CHAP. Isa

8. And Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria fighting against Libnah, for he heard that he had decamped from Lachish. 9. And he heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make war with thee; and he heard (it), and sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying, 10, Thus shall ye say to Hezekiah, king of Judah, Let not thy God deceive thee, in whom thou trustest, saying, Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria. 11. Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all the lands, by utterly destroying them, and thou shalt be delivered! 12. Did the gods of the nations deliver them, which my fathers destroyed, (to wit) Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the children of Eden which is in Telassar? 13. Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arpad, and the king of the city Sepharvaim, Henah, and Ivvah?

8. Rabshakeh thereupon returned, and found the king of Asshur warring against, Libnah; for he had heard that he had withdrawn from Lachish. 9. And he had heard say concerning Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, he has come out to make war against thee; and heard, and sent messengers to Hizkiyahu, saying, 10, Thus shall ye say to Hizkiyahu king of Judah, saying, Let not the God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Asshur. 11. Behold, thou hast surely heard what the kings of Asshur have done to all lands, to lay the ban upon them; and thou, thou shouldest be delivered? 12. Have the gods of the nations, which my fathers destroyed, delivered them? Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph, and the Bonç-'Eden, which are in Telassar? 13. Where is the king of Hamath, and the king of Arpad, and the king of ‘Ir-Sepharvaim, Hen‘a, and ‘Ivah?

14. And Hezekiah took the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it, and went up (to) the house of Jehovah, and Hezekiah spread it before Jehovah. 15. And Hezekiah prayed to Jehovah, saying, 16, Jehovah of hosts, God of Israel, dwelling between the cherubim, Thou art He, the God, Thou alone, to all the kingdoms of the earth; Thou hast made the heavens and the earth. 17. Bow down Thine ear, O Jehovah, and hear; open Thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see; and hear all the words of Sennacherib, which he hath sent to reproach the living God. 18. It is true, O Jehovah, the kings of Assyria have wasted all the lands and their land, 19, and given their gods into the fire.—for they (were) no gods, but wood and stone, the work of men's hands—and destroyed them. 20. And now, O Jehovah, our God, save us from his hand, and all the kingdoms of the earth shall know that Thou alone art Jehovah.

14. And Hizkiyahu took the letter out of the hand of the messengers, and read it, and went up to the house of Jehovah; and Hizkiyahu spread it before Jehovah. 15. And Hizkiyahu prayed to Jehovah, saying, 16, Jehovah of hosts, God of Israel, enthroned upon the cherubim, Thou, yea Thou alone, art God of all the kingdoms of the earth; Thou, Thou hast made the heavens and the earth. 17. Incline Thine ear, Jehovah, and hear! Open Thine eyes, Jehovah, and see; and hear the words of Sennacherib, which he hath sent to despise the living God! 18. Truly, O Jehovah, the kings of Asshur have laid waste all lands, and their land, 19, and have put their gods into the fire: for they were not gods, only the work of men's hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed them. 20. And now, Jehovah our God, help us out of his hand, and all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Thou Jehovah art it alone.

21. And Isaiah, the son of Amoz, sent to Hezekiah, saying, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of Israel, (as to) what thou hast prayed to me (with respect to) Sennacherib king of Assyria, 22, this is the word which Jehovah hath spoken against him, The virgin daughter of Zion hath despised thee, she hath laughed thee to scorn, the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head after thee. 23. Whom hast thou reproached and reviled, and against whom hast thou raised (thy) voice, and lifted thine eyes (on) high towards the Holy One of Israel? 24. By the hand of thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord and said, With the multitude of my chariots I have ascended the height of mountains, the sides of Lebanon, and I will cut down the loftiness of its cedars and the choice of its firs, and I will reach its extreme height, its garden-forest. 25. I have digged and drunk water, and I will dry up with the sole of my feet all the streams of Egypt. 26. Hast thou not heard? From afar I have done it, from the days of old, and formed it, now I have caused it to come, and it shall be, to lay waste, (as) desolate heaps, fortified cities. 27. And their inhabitants are short of hand; they are broken and confounded; they are grass of the field and green herbage, grass of the house-tops and a field before the stalk. 28. And thy sitting down, and thy going out, and thy coming in, I have known, and thy raging against me. 29. Because of thy raging against me, and (because) thy arrogance has come up into my ears, I will put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will cause thee to return by the way by which thou camest.

30. And this to thee, the sign: eat, the (present) year, that which groweth of itself, and the second year that which springeth of the same, and in the third year sow ye, and reap, and plant vineyards, and eat the fruit thereof. 31. And the escaped of the house of Jacob, that is left, shall again take root downward and bear fruit upward; 32, for out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and an escape from Mount Zion; the zeal of Jehovah of hosts shall do this.

33. Therefore thus saith Jehovah (with respect) to the king of Assyria, He shall not come to this city, and shall not shoot an arrow there, and shall not come before it with a shield, and shall not cast up a mound against it. 34. By the way that be came shall he return, and to this city shall he not come, saith Jehovah. 35. And I will cover over this city, (so as) to save it, for my own sake, and for the sake of David my servant.

36. And the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the camp of Assyria an hundred and eighty and five thousand, and they rose early in the morning and behold all of them were dead corpses. 37. Then decamped, and departed, and returned, Sennacherib king of Assyria, and dwelt in Nineveh. 38. And he was worshipping (in) the house of Nisroch his god, and Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword, and they escaped into the land of Ararat, and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.

21. And Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to Hizkiyahu, saying, Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, That which thou hast prayed to me concerning Sennacherib the king of Asshur:22, This is the utterance which Jehovah utters concerning him:—The virgin daughter of Zion despiseth thee, laugheth thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem shaketh her head after thee. 23. Whom hast thou reviled and blasphemed, and over whom hast thou spoken loftily, that thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high? Against the Holy One of Israel. 24. By thy servants hast thou reviled the Lord, in that thou sayest, "With the multitude of my chariots have I climbed the height of the mountains, the inner side of Lebanon; and I shall fell the lofty growth of its cedars, the choice of its cypresses; and I shall penetrate to the height of its uttermost border, the grove of its orchard. 25. I, I have digged and drank waters, and will make dry with the sole of my feet all the Nile-arms." 26. Hast thou not heard? I have done it long ago, from the days of ancient time have I formed it, and now brought it to pass, that thou shouldest lay waste fortified cities into desolate stone heaps; 27, and their inhabitants, powerless, were terrified, and were put to shame: became herb of the field and green of the turf, herb of the house-tops, and a cornfield before the blades. 28. And thy sitting down, and thy going out, and thy entering in, I know; and thy heating thyself against me. 29. On account of thy heating thyself against me, and because thy self-confidence has risen up into mine ears, I put my ring into thy nose, and my muzzle into thy lips, and lead thee back by the way by which thou hast come.

30. And let this be a sign to thee, Men eat this year what is self-sown; and in the second year what springs from the roots; and in the third year they sow and reap and plant vineyards, and cat their fruit. 31. And that which is escaped of the house of Judah, that which remains will again take root downward, and bear fruit upward. 32. For from Jerusalem will a remnant go forth, and a fugitive from Mount Zion; the zeal of Jehovah of hosts will carry this out.

33. Therefore thus saith Jehovah concerning the king of Asshur, He will not enter into this city, nor shoot off an arrow there; nor do they assault it with a shield, nor cast up earthworks against it. 34. By the way by which he came will he return; and he will not enter into this city, saith Jehovah. 35. And I shield this city, to help, for mine own sake, and for the sake of David my servant.

36. Then the angel of Jehovah went forth and smote in the camp of Asshur a hundred and eighty-five thousand; and when men rose up in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses. 37. Then Sennacherib king of Asshur decamped, and went forth and returned, and settled down in Nineveh. 38. And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the temple of Nisroch his god, Adrammelech and Sharazer his sons smote him with the sword; and when they escaped to the land of Ararat, Esar-haddon reigned in his stead.

C.—Hezekiah's illness. Isaiah assures him of his recovery.—CHAP. 38

38—1. In those days Hezekiah was sick unto death, and Isaiah the son of Amoz, the prophet, came unto him, and said unto him, Thus saith Jehovah, Order thy house, for thou (art) dying, and art not to live. 2. And Hezekiah turned his face to the wall, and prayed to Jehovah. 3. And he said, Ah, Jehovah, remember, I beseech thee, how I have walked before Thee in truth and with a whole heart, and that which is good in Thine eyes have I done; and Hezekiah wept a great weeping.

4. And the word of Jehovah came to Isaiah, saying, 5, Go and say to Hezekiah, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears; behold, I am adding unto thy days fifteen years. 6. And out of the hand of the king of Assyria I will save thee and this city, and I will cover over this city.

7. And this shall be to thee the sign from Jehovah, that Jehovah will perform this word which He hath spoken:8. Behold, I am causing the shadow to go back, the degrees which it has gone down on the degrees of Ahaz with the sun, ten degrees backward; and the sun returned ten degrees on the degrees which it had gone down.

1. In those days Hizkiyahu became dangerously ill. And Isaiah son of Amoz, the prophet, came to him, and said to him, Thus saith Jehovah, Set thine house in order; for thou wilt die, and not recover. 2. Then Hizkiyahu turned his face to the wall, and prayed to Jehovah, 3, and said, O Jehovah, remember this, I pray, that I have walked before Thee in truth, and with the whole heart, and have done what was good in Thine eyes. And Hizkiyahu wept with loud weeping.

4. And it came to pass the word of Jehovah came to Isaiah as follows:5, Go and say to Hizkiyahu, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of David thine ancestor, I have heard thy prayer, seen thy tears; behold, I add to thy days fifteen years. 6. And I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Asshur, and will defend this city.

[21. Then Isaiah said they were to bring a fig-cake; and they plaistered the boil, and he recovered. 22. And Hizkiyahu said, What sign is there that I shall go up to the house of Jehovah?]

7. And let this be the sign to thee on the part of Jehovah, that Jehovah will perform the word which He has spoken:8, Behold, I make the shadow retrace the steps, which it has gone down upon the sun-dial of Ahaz through the sun, ten steps backward. And the sun went back ten steps upon the dial, which it had gone down.

9. A writing of Hezekiah, king of Judah, when he was sick, and recovered from his sickness:—

9. Writing of Hizkiyahu king of Judah, when he was sick, and recovered from his sickness.

10. I said in the pause of my days, I shall go into the gates of the grave, I am deprived of the residue of my years. 11. I said I shall not see Jah, Jah in the land of the living; I shall not behold man again with the inhabitants of the world. 12. My dwelling is plucked up and uncovered by me like a shepherd's tent. I have rolled up, like the weaver, my life: from the thrum He will cut me off; from day to night Thou wilt finish me.

10, 11:—

I said, in quiet of my days shall I depart into the gates of Hades:

I am mulcted of the rest of my years.

I said, I shall not see Jah, Jah, in the land of the living:

I shall behold man no more, with the inhabitants of the regions of the dead.

My home is broken up, and is carried off from me like a shepherd's tent:

I rolled up my life like a weaver; He would have cut me loose from the roll:

From day to night Thou makest an end of me.

13. I set (Him before me) till the morning as a lion (saying), So will He break all my bones; from day to night Thou wilt make an end of me. 14. Like a swallow (or) like a twittering sparrow, so I chirp; I moan like a dove; my eyes are weak (with looking) upward; O Jehovah, I am oppressed, undertake for me.

13, 14:—

I waited patiently till the morning; like the lion,

So will He break in pieces all my bones:

From day to night Thou makest it all over with me.

Like a swallow, a crane, so I chirped.;

I cooed like the dove:

Mine eyes pined for the height.

O Lord, men assault me! Be bail for me.

15. What shall I say? He hath both spoken to me, and Himself hath done (it); I shall go softly all my days in the bitterness of my soul. 16. Lord, upon them they live, and as to everything in them is the life of my spirit, and Thou wilt recover me and make me to live. 17. Behold to peace (is turned) my bitter bitterness, and Thou hast loosed my soul from the pit of destruction, because Thou hast cast behind Thy back all my sins.

15-17:—

What shall I say, That He promised me, and He hath carried it out:

I should walk quietly all my years, on the trouble of my soul?

O Lord, by such things men revive, and the life of my spirit is always therein:

And so wilt Thou restore me, and make me to live!

Behold, bitterness became salvation to me, bitterness;

And Thou, Thou hast delivered my soul in love out of the pit of corruption:

For Thou hast cast all my sins behind Thy back.

18. For the grave shall not confess Thee (nor) death praise Thee; they that go down to the pit shall not hope for Thy truth. 19. The living, the living, he shall thank Thee, as I do to-day; fathers to sons shall make known with respect to Thy truth. 20. Jehovah (hastened) to save me! And my songs we will play, all the days of our life, at the house of Jehovah.

18-20:—

For Hades does not praise Thee; death does not sing praises to Thee:

They that sink into the grave do not hope for Thy truth.

The living, the living, he praises Thee, as I do to-day;

The father to the children makes known Thy truth,

21. And Isaiah said, Let him take a lump of figs, and lay them softened on the boil, and he shall live. 22. And Hezekiah said, What sign (is there) that I shall go up (to) the house of Jehovah?

Jehovah is ready to give me salvation;

Therefore will we play my stringed instruments all the days of my life

In the house of Jehovah.

D.—Threatening of the Babylonish captivity occasioned by Hezekiah.—CHAP. 39

39—1. In that time, Merodach Baladan, son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a gift to Hezekiah, and he heard that he was sick and was recovered.

1. At that time Merodach Bal'adan, son of Bal'adan king of Babel, sent writings and a present to Hizkiyahu, and heard that he had been sick, and was restored again.

2. And Hezekiah was glad of them, and showed them his house of rarities, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the ointment, and all his house of arms, and all that was found in his treasures; there was not a thing which Hezekiah did not show them, in his house, and in all his dominion.

2. And Hizkiyahu rejoiced concerning them, and showed them all his storehouse: the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the fine oil, and all his arsenal, and all that was in his treasures: there was nothing that Hizkiyahu had not shown them in all his house or in all his kingdom.

3. Then came Isaiah the prophet to the king Hezekiah, and said to him, What said these men, and whence came they unto thee? And Hezekiah said, From a far country came they unto me, from Babylon. 4. And he said, What have they seen in thy house? And Hezekiah said, All that is in my house have they seen; there is not a thing that I have not showed them in my treasures.

5. And Isaiah said, Hear the word of Jehovah of hosts, 6, Behold days are coming when all that (is) in thy house, and that which thy fathers have hoarded until this day, shall be carried to Babylon; there shall not be left a thing, saith Jehovah. 7. And of thy sons that shall issue from thee, which thou shalt beget, shall they take away, and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon.

8. And Hezekiah said, Good is the word of Jehovah which thou hast spoken. And he said, For there shall be peace and truth in my days.

3. Then came Isaiah the prophet to king Hizkiyahu, and said to him, What have these men said, and whence came they to thee? Hizkiyahu said, They came to me from a far country, out of Babel. 4. He said further, What have they seen in thy house? Hizkiyahu said, All that is in my house have they seen: there was nothing in my treasures that I had not shown them. 5. Then Isaiah said to Hizkiyahu, Hear the word of Jehovah of hosts; 6, Behold, days come, that all that is in thy house, and all that thy fathers have laid up unto this day, will be carried away to Babel: nothing will be left behind, saith Jehovah. 7. And of thy children that proceed from thee, whom thou shalt beget, will they take; and they will be courtiers in the palace of the king of Babel. 8. Then said Hizkiyahu to Isaiah, Good is the word of Jehovah which thou hast spoken. And he said further, Yea, there shall be peace and steadfastness in my days.

40—[A glorious change awaits the Church, consisting in a new and gracious manifestation of Jehovah's presence, for which His people are exhorted to prepare, vers. 1-5. Though one generation perish after another, this promise shall eventually be fulfilled, because it rests not upon human but divine authority, vers. 6-8. Zion may even now see Him approaching as the conqueror of His enemies, and at the same time as the shepherd of His people, vers. 9-11. The fulfilment of these pledges is insured by His infinite wisdom, His Almighty power, and His independence both of individuals and nations, vers. 12-17. How much more is He superior to material images, by which men represent Him or supply His place, vers. 18-25. The same power which supports the heavens is pledged for the support of Israel, vers. 26-31.]

SECOND HALF OF THE COLLECTION. CHAPS. 40-66

PART I.

FIRST PROPHECY.—CHAP. 40

Words of Comfort, and the God of Comfort.

1. Comfort ye, comfort ye My people, saith your God. 2. Speak to the heart of Jerusalem, and cry to her that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned, that she hath received from the hand of Jehovah double for all her sins. 3. A voice crying—in the wilderness—Clear the way of Jehovah—make straight in the desert a highway for our God. 4. Every valley shall be raised, and every mountain and hill brought low, and the uneven shall become level, and the ridges a plain. 5. And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see (it) together, for the mouth of Jehovah speaks.

6. A voice saying, Cry! And he said, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all its favour like the flower of the field! 7. Dried is the grass, faded is the flower; for the breath of Jehovah has blown upon it. Surely the people is grass. 8. Dried is the grass, faded the flower, and the word of our God shall stand for ever.

9. Upon a high mountain, get thee up, bringer of good news, O Zion! Raise with strength thy voice, bringer of good news, Jerusalem! Raise (it), fear not; say to the towns of Judah, Lo, your God! 10. Lo, the Lord Jehovah is coming in (the person of) a strong one, and His arm (is) ruling for Him. Lo, His hire is with Him, and His wages before Him. 11. Like a shepherd His flock will He feed, with His arm will He gather the lambs, and in His bosom carry (them): the nursing (ewes) He will (gently) lead.

12. Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended in a measure the dust of the earth, and weighed in a balance the mountains, and the hills in scales? 13. Who hath measured the Spirit of Jehovah, and (who, as) the man of His counsel, will teach Him? 14. Whom did He consult, and he made Him understand, and taught Him in the path of judgment, and taught Him knowledge, and the way of understanding (who) will make Him know? 15. Lo, nations are as a drop from a bucket, and as dust on scales are reckoned; lo, islands as an atom He will take up. 16. And Lebanon is not enough for burning, and its beasts are not enough for a sacrifice. 17. All the nations (are) as nothing before Him, less than nothing and vanity are counted to Him.

18. And (now) to whom will ye liken God, and what likeness will ye compare to Him? 19. The image a carver has wrought, and a gilder with gold shall overlay it, and chains of silver (he is) casting. 20. (As for) the man impoverished (by) offering, a tree (that) will not rot He chooses, a wise carver He seeks for it, to set up an image (that) shall not be moved. 21. Will you not know? Will you not hear? has it not been told you from the first? have you not understood (from) the foundations of the earth? 22. The (One) sitting over the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants (are) as locusts; the One spreading like an awning the heavens, and He stretches them out like a tent to dwell in; 23, the One bringing princes to nothing, the judges of the earth like emptiness. He has made. 24. Not even planted were they, not even sown, not even rooted in the ground their stock, and He just breathed upon them, and they withered, and a whirlwind like the chaff shall take them up. 25. And now to (whom) will ye liken me, and to (whom) shall I be equal? saith the Holy One.

26. Lift up on high your eyes and see—who hath created these?—and who is the (One) bringing out by number their host?—to all of them by name will He call—from abundance of might and because strong in power—not one faileth. 27. Why sayest thou, O Jacob, and why (thus) speak, O Israel? Hidden is my way from Jehovah, and from my God my cause will pass away. 28. Hast thou not known? hast thou not heard? The God of eternity, Jehovah, the Creator of the ends of the earth, will not faint, and will not tire; there is no search (with respect) to His understanding. 29. Giving to the weary strength, and to the powerless might will He increase. 30. And (yet) weary shall youths be and faint, and chosen (youths) shall be weakened, be weakened. 31. And (on the other hand) those waiting for Jehovah shall gain new strength; they shall raise the pinion like the eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not faint.

1. Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God. 2. Speak ye to the heart of Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her affliction is ended, that her debt is paid, that she has received from the hand of Jehovah double for all her sins.

3. Hark, a crier! In the wilderness prepare ye a way for Jehovah, make smooth in the desert a road for our God. 4. Let every valley be exalted, and every mountain and hill made low; and let the rugged be made a plain, and the ledges of rock a valley. 5. And the glory of the Lord will be revealed, and all flesh seeth together: for the mouth of Jehovah hath spoken it.

6. Hark, one speaking, Cry! And he answers, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, and all its beauty as the flower of the field. 7. Grass is withered, flower faded, for the breath of Jehovah has blown upon it. Surely grass is the people; 8, grass withereth, flower fadeth: yet the word of our God shall stand for ever.

10. Behold, the Lord Jehovah as a mighty one will He come! His arm ruling for Him; behold, His reward is with Him, and His retribution before Him. 11. He will feed His flock like a shepherd, take the lambs in His arm, and carry them in His bosom, and gently lead those that are giving suck.

12. Who hath measured the waters with the hollow of his hand, and regulated the heavens with a span, and taken up the dust of the earth in a third measure, and weighed the mountains with a steelyard, and hills with balances? 13. Who regulated the Spirit of Jehovah, and (who) instructed Him as His counsellor? 14. With whom took He counsel, and who would have explained to Him and instructed Him concerning the path of right, and taught Him knowledge, and made known to Him a prudent course?

15. Behold, nations like a little drop on a bucket, and like a grain of sand in a balance, are they esteemed; behold, islands like an atom of dust that rises in the air. 16. And Lebanon is not a sufficiency of burning, nor its game a sufficiency of burnt-offerings. 17. All the nations are as nothing before Him; they are regarded by Him as belonging to nullity and emptiness. 18. And to whom can ye liken God, and what kind of image can ye place beside Him!

19. The idol, when the smith has cast it, the melter plates it with gold, and melteth silver chains for it. 20. The man who is impoverished in oblations, he chooseth a block of wood that will not rot; he seeketh for himself a skilful smith, to prepare an idol that will not shake.

21. Do ye not know? Do ye not hear? Is it not proclaimed to you from the beginning? Have ye not obtained an insight into the foundations of the earth? 22. He who is enthroned above the vault of the earth, and its inhabitants resemble grasshoppers; who has spread out the heavens like gauze, and stretched them out like a tent-roof to dwell in; 23. He who giveth up rulers; maketh judges of the earth like a desolation. 24. They are hardly planted, hardly sown, their stem has hardly taken root in the earth, and He only blows upon them, and they dry up, and the storm carries them away like stubble.

25. And to whom will ye compare me, to whom can I be equal? saith the Holy One.

27. Why sayest thou, O Jacob, and speakest, O Israel, My way is hidden from Jehovah, and my right hand is over looked by my God? 28. Is it not known to thee, or hast thou not heard, an eternal God is Jehovah, Creator of the ends of the earth? He fainteth not, neither becomes weary; His understanding is unsearchable. 29. Giving power to the faint, and to the incapable He giveth strength in abundance. 30. And youths grow faint and weary, and young men suffer a fall. 31. But they who wait for Jehovah gain fresh strength; lift up their wings like eagles; run, and are not weary; go forward, and do not faint.

41—[Until the ends of Israel's national existence are accomplished, that existence must continue in spite of hostile nations and their gods, who shall all perish sooner than the chosen people, vers. 1-16. However feeble Israel may be in himself, Jehovah will protect him, and raise up the necessary instruments for his deliverance and triumph.]

SECOND PROPHECY.—CHAP. 41

The God of the World's History, and of Prophecy.

1. Be silent to me, O islands, and the nations shall gain new strength; they shall approach, then shall they speak, together to the judgment-seat will we draw near. 2. Who hath raised up from the east? Righteousness shall call him to its foot; it shall give nations before him, and cause him to tread upon kings; it shall give (them) as dust to his sword, and as driven stubble to his bow. 3. He shall pursue them; he shall pass (in) safety; a path with his feet he shall not go. 4. Who hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from the beginning? I Jehovah, the first and with the last, I (am) He.

5. The isles have seen it and are afraid, the ends of the earth tremble; they have approached and come. 6. A man his neighbour they will help, and to his brother (one) will say, Be strong! 7. And the carver has strengthened the gilder, the smoother with the hammer, the smiter on the anvil; he says of the solder, It is good; and he sharpeneth it with nails; it shall not be moved. 8. And thou Israel my servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend; 9, thou whom I have grasped from the ends of the earth, and from its sides have I called thee, My servant (art) thou; I have chosen thee, and not rejected thee.

10. Fear thou not, for I (am) with thee; look not around, for I (am) thy God; I have strengthened thee, yea, I have helped thee, yea, I have upheld thee with the right hand of my righteousness. 11. Lo, ashamed and confounded shall be all those inflamed against thee; they shall be as though they were not, and destroyed shall be they that strive with thee. 12. Thou shalt seek them and not find them, the men of quarrel; they shall be as nothing and as nought, thy men of war. 13. For I, Jehovah thy God, (am) holding fast thy right hand; the (one) saying to thee, Fear not, I have helped thee. 14. Fear not, thou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel; I have helped thee, saith Jehovah, and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel. 15. Behold I have placed thee for a threshing-sledge, sharp, new, possessed of teeth; thou shalt thresh mountains and beat (them) small, and hills like the chaff shalt thou make. 16. Thou shalt fan them, and a wind shall take them up, and a whirlwind shall scatter them, and thou shalt joy in Jehovah, and in the Holy One of Israel shalt thou boast.

17. The suffering and the poor (are) seeking water, and it is not; their tongue with thirst is parched. I Jehovah will answer them, (I) the God of Israel will not forsake them. 18. I will open upon bare hills streams, and in the midst of valleys fountains; I will convert the desert into a pool of water, and the dry land into springs of water. 19. I will give in the wilderness cedar, acacia, and myrtle, and oil tree; I will place in the desert fir, pine, and box together. 20. That they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together, that the hand of Jehovah hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.

21. Present your cause, saith Jehovah; bring forward your strong reasons, saith the King of Jacob. 22. Let them bring forward and show forth to us the (things) which are to happen; the former things, what they were, show forth, and we will set our heart, and know the issue; or (else) the coming events make us to hear. 23. Show forth the (things) to come hereafter, and we will know that ye are gods; yes, ye shall do good or evil, and we will look about and see together. 24. Lo, ye are of nothing, and your work of nought; an abomination is he that chooseth you. 25. I have raised up (one) from the north, and he has come; from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name; and he shall come upon princes as upon mortar, and as a potter treadeth clay. 26. Who hath declared from the beginning! (Say) and we will know; and beforehand, and we will say, True! Nay, there was none that told; nay, there was none that uttered; nay, there was none that heard your words. 27. (I am the) first (to say) to Zion, Behold, behold them! and (to give) to Jerusalem a bringer of good news. 28. And I will look, but there is no man; and of these, but there is no one advising; and I will ask them, and (perhaps) they will return an answer. 29. Lo, they (are) all nought, nothing their words, wind and emptiness their molten images.

1. Be silent to me, ye islands; and let the nations procure fresh strength: let them come near, then speak; we will enter into contest together.

2. Who hath raised up the man from the rising of the sun, whom justice meets at his foot, He giveth up nations before him, and kings He subdues, giveth men like dust to his sword, and like driven stubble to his bow? 3. He pursueth them, and marcheth in peace by a course which he never trod with his foot. Who hath wrought and executed it? He who calleth the generations of men from the beginning, I Jehovah am first, and with the last one am I Hebrews 5. Islands have seen it and shuddered; the ends of the earth trembled; they have approached, and drawn near. 6. One helped his companion, and he said to his brother, Only firm! 7. The caster put firmness into the melter, the hammer-smoother into the anvil-smiter, saying of the soldering, It is good; and made him firm with nails, that he should not shake.

17. The poor and needy, who seek for water and there is none, their tongue faints for thirst. I Jehovah will hear them, I the God of Israel will not forsake them. 18. I open streams upon hills of the field, and springs in the midst of valleys; I make the desert into a pond, and dry land into fountains of water. 19. I give in the desert cedars, acacias, and myrtles, and oleasters; I set on the steppe cypresses, plane-trees, sherbin-trees together, 20, that they may see, and know, and lay to heart, and understand all together, (hat the hand of Jehovah hath accomplished it, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.

21. Bring hither your cause, saith Jehovah; bring forward your proofs, saith the King of Jacob. 22. Let them bring forward, and make known to us what will happen; make known the beginning, what it is, and we will fix our heart upon it, and take knowledge of its issue; or let us hear what is to come. 23. Make known to us what is coming later, and we will acknowledge that ye are gods! yea, do good, and do evil, and we will measure ourselves, and Bee together.

25. I have raised up from the north, and he came: from the rising of the sun one who invokes my name; and he treads upon satraps as mud, and like a potter kneadeth clay.

42—[This chapter exhibits to our view the servant of Jehovah, i.e., the Messiah and His people, as a complex person, and as the messenger or representative of God among the nations. His mode of operation is described, vers. 1-4. The effects of His influence are represented as not natural but spiritual, vers. 5-9. The power of God is pledged for His success, notwithstanding all appearance of inaction or indifference on His part, vers. 10-17. In the latter portion of the chapter, the Church or Body of Christ, as distinguished from its Head, and representing Him until He came, is charged with unfaithfulness to its great trust, and this unfaithfulness declared to be the cause of what it suffered, vers. 18-25.]

THIRD PROPHECY.—CHAPS. Isa to Isa 43:13

The Mediator of Israel and Saviour of the Gentiles.

1. Behold my servant! I will hold Him fast; my chosen One, (in whom) my soul delights; I have put my Spirit upon Him; Judgment to the nations shall He cause to go forth. 2. He shall not cry, and He shall not raise (His voice), and He shall not let His voice be heard in the street. 3. A bruised reed shall He not break, and a dim wick will He not quench; by the truth He will bring forth judgment. 4. He shall not be dim, and He shall not be crushed, until He shall set judgment in the earth, and for His law the isles shall wait.

5. Thus saith the mighty (God), Jehovah, creating the heavens and stretching them out, spreading the earth and its issues, giving breath to the people on it, and spirit to those walking in it 6. 1, Jehovah, have called Thee in righteousness, and will lay hold of Thy hand, and will keep Thee, and will give Thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles, 7, to open blind eyes, to bring out from prison the bondman, from the house of confinement the dwellers in darkness. 8. I am Jehovah, that is my name, and my glory to another will I not give, and my praise to graven images. 9. The former things—lo, they have come, and new things I (am) telling; before they spring forth I will let you hear (them).

10. Sing to Jehovah a new song, His praise from the end of the earth, (ye) going down to the sea and its fulness, isles and their inhabitants! 11. The desert and its towns shall raise (the voice), the enclosures (in which) Kedar dwells; the dwellers in the rock shall shout, from the top of the mountains shall they cry aloud. 12. They shall give to Jehovah honour, and His praise in the islands they shall show forth. 13. Jehovah, like a strong one, will go forth; like a warrior He will rouse (His) zeal; He will shout, yea, He will cry; against His foes will show Himself strong. 14. I have long been still, (saying) I will hold my peace, I will restrain myself. (But now), like the travailing (woman) I will shriek, I will pant and gasp at once. 15. I will lay waste mountains and hills, and all their herbage will I dry up; I will turn streams to islands, and pools will I dry up. 16. And I will make the blind walk in a way they knew not, in paths they knew not I will make them tread; I will turn darkness before them to light, and obliquities to straightness. These are the words; I have made them, and have not left them. 17. They shall be turned back, they shall be utterly ashamed, those trusting in the graven image, those saying to the molten images, Ye are our gods!

5. Thus saith God, Jehovah, who created the heavens and stretched them out; who spread the earth, and its productions; who gave the spirit of life to the people upon it, and the breath of life to them that walk upon it; 6, I, Jehovah, I have called thee in righteousness, and grasped thy hand; and I keep thee, and make thee the covenant of the people, the light of the Gentiles, 7, to open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners out of the prison, them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.

8. I am Jehovah, that is my name, and my glory I will not give to another, nor my renown to idols. 9. The first, behold, is come to pass, and new things am I proclaiming; before it springs up, I let you hear it.

10. Sing ye to Jehovah a new song, His praise from the end of the earth, ye navigators of the sea, and its fulness; ye islands and their inhabitants. 11. Let the desert and the cities thereof strike up, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit; the inhabitants of the rock-city may rejoice, shout from the summits of the mountains. 12. Let them give glory to Jehovah, and proclaim His praise in the islands. 13. Jehovah, like a hero will He go forth, kindle jealousy like a man of war; He will break forth into a war-cry, a yelling war-cry, prove Himself a hero upon His enemies.

17. They fall back, are put deeply to shame, that trust in molten images, that say to the molten image, Thou art our God.

18. Ye deaf, hear! and, ye blind, look to see! 19. Who is blind but my servant, and deaf like my messenger (whom) I will send? Who (is) blind like the devoted are, and blind like the servant of Jehovah? 20. Thou hast seen many things and wilt not observe. (Sent) to open ears! and he will not hear! 21. Jehovah (is) willing for His righteousness' sake; He will magnify the law and make it honourable.

22. And (yet) it (is) a people spoiled and robbed, ensnared in holes all of them, and in houses of confinement they are hidden. They have become a spoil, and there is none delivering; a prey, and there is none saying, Restore! 23. Who among you will give ear to this, and hearken and hear for the time to come? 24. Who has given Jacob for a prey, and Israel to spoilers? Has not Jehovah, against whom we have sinned? and they were not willing in His ways to walk, and did not hearken to His law. 25. And He poured upon him fury, (even) His wrath and the violence of war: and it set him on fire round about, and he knew it not; and it burned him, and he will not lay it to heart.

43—[Israel is the peculiar people of Jehovah, cherished and favoured at the expense of other nations, vers. 1-4. But these are one day to become partakers of the same advantages, vers. 5-9. The proofs of the Divine protection are afforded by the history of Israel, vers. 10-13. One of the most remarkable, yet future, is the downfall of Babylon and the liberation of the exiles, vers. 14, 15. An analogous example was the deliverance from Egypt, vers. 16, 17. But both these instances shall be forgotten in comparison with the great change which awaits the church hereafter, vers. 18-21. Of all these distinguishing favours none was owing to the merit of the people, but all to the sovereign grace of God, vers. 22-25. The people were not only destitute of merit, but deserving of punishment, which they had experieced and must experience again, vers. 26-28.]

1. And now, thus saith Jehovah, thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel, Fear not, for I have redeemed thee, I have called by thy name, thou art mine. 2. When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be scorched, and the flame shall not burn thee. 3. For I, Jehovah, thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour, have given (as) thy ransom Egypt, Ethiopia, and Seba, instead of thee. 4. Since thou wast precious in my eyes; thou hast been honoured, and I have loved thee, and will give men instead of thee, and nations instead of thy life.

5. Fear not, for I (am) with thee; from the east I will make thy seed come, and from the west I will gather thee; 6, I will say to the north, Give, and to the south, withhold not, let my sons come from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth; 7, Every one called by my name, and for my glory I have created him; I have formed him, yea, I have made him. 8. He hath brought out the blind people, and there are eyes (to them); and the deaf, and (there are) ears to them. 9. All the nations are gathered together, and the people are to be assembled. who among them will declare this, and let us hear the first things? Let them produce their witnesses and be justified; and (if they cannot do this) let them hear (my witnesses), and say, (It is) the truth.

18. Ye deaf, hear; and ye blind, look up that ye may see.

19. Who (is) blind but my servant? and deaf, as my messenger whom I send? who blind as the confidant of God, and blind as the servant of Jehovah? 20. Thou hast seen much, and yet keepest not; opening the ears, he yet doth not hear. 21. Jehovah was pleased for His righteousness' sake: He gave a Church [direction, instruction, revelation] great and glorious. 22. And yet it is a people robbed and plundered; fastened in holes all of them, and they are hidden in prison-houses: they have become booty, without deliverers; a spoil, without any one saying, Give it up again!

23. Who among you will give ear to this, attend, and hear afar off? 24. Who has given up Jacob to plundering, and Israel to the spoilers? Is it not Jehovah, against whom we have sinned? and they would not walk in His way, and hearkened not to His law. 25. Then He poured upon it in burning heat His wrath, and the strength of the fury of war: and this set it in flames round about, and it did not come to be recognised; it set on fire, and it did not lay it to heart.

43—1. But now thus saith Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel! Fear not, for I have redeemed thee; I have called thee by thy name, thou art mine. 2. When thou goest through the water, I am with thee; and through rivers, they shall not drown thee: when thou goest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; and the flame shall not set thee on fire. 3. For I Jehovah am thy God; (I) the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I give up Egypt as a ransom for thee, Ethiopia and Seba in thy stead. 4. Because thou art dear in my eyes, highly esteemed, and I loved thee; I give up men in thy stead, and peoples for thy life.

5. Fear not; for I am with thee: I bring thy seed from the east, and from the west will I gather thee; 6, I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the end of the earth; 7, everything that is called by my name, and I have created for my glory, that I have formed, yea finished!

8. Bring out a blind people, and it has eyes; and deaf people, and yet furnished with ears! 9. All ye heathen, gather yourselves together, and let peoples assemble! Who among you can proclaim such a thing? And let them cause former things to be heard, appoint their witnesses, and be justified. Let these hear, and say, True! 10. Ye are my witnesses, saith Jehovah, and my servant whom I have chosen; that ye may know and believe me, and see that it is I: before me was no God formed, and there will be none after me.

I have declared, and have saved, and I have showed, and it was no strange god that was among you.—Matthew Arnold.

10. Ye are my witnesses, saith Jehovah, and my servant whom I have chosen, that ye may know and believe me, and may understand that I am He; before me was not formed a god, and after me there shall not be; 11, I, I Jehovah, and besides me there is no Saviour. 12. I have told and have saved and have declared, and there is not among you (any) stranger; and I (am) God. 13. Even from the day I am He, and there is no one freeing from my hand; I will do, and who will undo it?

FOURTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa to Isa 44:5

Avenging and Deliverance; and Outpouring of the Spirit

14. Thus saith Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy one of Israel: for your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down fugitives all of them; and the Chaldeans, in the ships their shout; 15, I, Jehovah, your Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your King.

16. Thus saith Jehovah, the (One) giving in the sea a way, and in mighty waters a path; 17, the (One) bringing out chariot and horse, force and strong; together shall they lie, they shall not rise; they are extinct, like tow they are quenched.

18. Remember not former things, and old things consider not. 19. Behold I (am) doing (something) new, it is yet to sprout; do you not know it? Yes, I will place in the wilderness a way, in the desert streams. 20. The living creature of the field shall honour me, jackals and ostriches; because I have given in the wilderness waters, and streams in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen. 21. This people I have formed for myself; my praise shall they recount.

22. And not me hast thou called, O Jacob; for thou hast been weary of me, O Israel. 23. Thou hast not brought to me the sheep of thy burnt-offering, and (with) thy sacrifices thou hast not honoured me. I have not made thee serve with oblations, and I have not wearied thee with incense. 24. Thou hast not brought for me sweet cane with money, and with the fat of thy sacrifices thou hast not drenched me; thou hast only made me serve with thy sins, and wearied me with thine iniquities. 25. I, I am he blotting out thy transgressions for mine own sake, and thy sins I will not remember.

26. Remind me; let us plead together: state (thy case) that thou mayest be justified. 27. Thy first father sinned, and thy interpreters rebelled against me. 28. And I will profane the holy chiefs, and will give up Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches.

14. Thus saith Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, For your sake I have sent to Babel, and will hurl them all down as fugitives, and the Chaldeans into the ships of their rejoicing. 15. I, Jehovah, am your Holy One; (I), Israel's Creator, your King.

26. Call to my remembrance; we will strive together; tell me now, that thon mayest appear just. 27. Thy first forefather sinned, and thy mediators have fallen away from me. Then I profaned holy princes, and gave up Jacob to the curse, and Israel to blasphemies.

44—[The chapter opens, like the fortieth and forty-third, with cheering promises to Israel, followed by reasons for confiding in them, drawn from the wisdom, power, and goodness of Jehovah. The specific promise, which constitutes the theme or basis of the prophecy, is that of abundant spiritual influences and their fruits; not only internal prosperity, but large accessions from without, vers. 1-5. The pledge for the fulfilment of this promise is afforded by the proofs of God's omniscience, as contrasted with all other gods, vers. 6-9. The folly of image-worship is then established by two arguments. The first is, that idols are themselves the creatures of mere men, vers. 10-14. The other is, that they are not only made, and made by man, but made of the very same materials applied to the most trivial domestic uses, vers. 15-20. From this demonstration of the power of Jehovah to perform His promise we are now brought back to the promise itself, vers. 21-24. This is again confirmed by an appeal to God's creative power, and illustrated by the raising up of Cyrus as a deliverer to Israel, vers. 25-28.]

1. And now hear, Jacob my servant, and Israel whom I have chosen. 2. Thus saith Jehovah, Thy Maker and thy Former from the womb will help thee; fear not, my servant Jacob, and Jeshurun whom I have chosen. 3. For I will pour waters on the thirsty, and flowing (waters) on the dry (land); I will pour my Spirit on thy seed, and my blessing on thine offspring. 4. And they shall spring up in the midst of the grass, like willows by the water-courses. 5. This shall say, To Jehovah I (belong); and this shall call on the name of Jacob; and this shall inscribe with his hand, To Jehovah, and with the name of Israel shall entitle.

FIFTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa

The ridiculous gods of the nations; and the God of Israel, who makes His people to rejoice.

6. Thus saith Jehovah, King of Israel, and his Redeemer Jehovah of hosts; I (am) first, and I (am) last, and without me there is no God. 7. And who, like me, will call, and tell it, and state it to me, since I placed the ancient people; and coming things and things which are to come will tell to them? 8. Quake not, and fear not; have I not let thee hear and told thee, and are ye not my witnesses? Is there a God without me? I know not (any). 9. The image-carvers all of them are vanity, and their desired ones are worthless; and their witnesses themselves will not see and will not know, that they may be ashamed.

10. Who formed the god and cast the image to no use? 11. Lo, all his fellows shall be ashamed, and the workmen themselves are of men; they shall assemble all of them, they shall stand, they shall tremble, they shall be ashamed together. 12. He has carved (iron) with a graver, and has wrought (it) in the coals, and with his hammer he will shape it, and then work it with his arm of strength. Besides, he is hungry and has no strength, he has not drunk water and is faint. 13. He has carved wood, he has stretched a line, he will mark it with the awl, he will form it with the chisel, and with the compass he will mark it, and then he will make it after the model of a man, like the beauty of mankind, to dwell in a house. 14. To hew him down cedars, and (now) he has taken a cypress and an oak—and has raised it for himself among the trees of the forest—he has planted a pine, and there in shall increase (it). 15. And it shall be to men for fuel, and he has taken of them and warmed himself; yea, he will kindle and bake bread; yea, he will form a god and fall prostrate; he has made it a graven image and bowed down to them. 16. Half of it he hath burned in the fire; on half of it he will eat flesh, he will roast and be filled; yea, he will warm himself and say, Aha, I am warm, I have seen fire. 17. And the rest of it he has made into a god, into his graven image; he will bow down to it, and will worship, and willpray to it, and say, Deliver me, for thou (art) my god. 18. They have not known, and they will not understand, for He hath smeared their eyes from seeing, their hearts from doing wisely. 19. And he will not bring it home to himself, and there (is) not knowledge, and (there is) not understanding to say, Half of it I have burned in the fire, and have also baked bread on its coals; I will roast flesh and eat, and the rest of it I will make to (be) an abomination; to a log of wood I will cast myself down. 20. Feeding on ashes, (his) heart is deceived; it has led him astray, and he cannot deliver himself; and he will not say, Is there not a lie in my right hand?

21. Remember these (things), Jacob and Israel, for thou art my servant; I have formed thee, a servant unto me art thou; Israel, thou shalt not be forgotten by me. 22. I have blotted out, like a cloud, thy transgressions, and like a vapour, thy sins; return to me, for I have redeemed thee. 23. Sing, O heavens, for Jehovah hath done (it); shout, ye lower parts of the earth; break forth, ye mountains, into song, the forest and every tree in it: for Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob, and in Israel He will glorify Himself. 24. Thus saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, and thy former from the womb, I, Jehovah, making all, stretching the heavens alone, spreading the earth by myself.

And who, as I, hath foretold (let him declare it, and set it in order for me!) since I appointed the ancient people? and the things that are coming, and that shall come, let them show!—Matthew Arnold.

9. The makers of idols, they are all desolation, and their bosom children worthless; and those who bear witness for them see nothing and know nothing, that they may be put to shame. 10. Who hath formed the god, and cast the idol to no profit? 11. Behold, all its followers will be put to shame; and the workmen are men: let them all assemble together, draw near, be alarmed, be all put to shame together.

18. They perceive not, and do not understand: for their eyes are smeared over, so that they do not see; their hearts that they do not understand. 19. And men take it not to heart, no perception and no understanding, that men should say, The half of it I have burned in the fire, and also baked bread upon the coals thereof; roasted flesh, and eaten: and ought I to make the rest of it into an abomination, to fall down before the produce of a tree? 20. He who striveth after ashes, a befooled heart has led him astray, and he does not deliver his soul, and does not think, Is there not a lie in my right hand?

I blot out, as a dark cloud, thy transgressions, and, as the clouds, thy sins.—Revised English Bible.

23. Exult, O heavens; for Jehovah hath accomplished it: shout, ye depths of the earth; break out, ye mountains, into exulting; thou forest, and all the wood therein: for Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob, and He showeth Himself glorious upon Israel.

SIXTH PROPHECY.—CHAPS. Isa

Cyrus, the anointed of Jehovah, and deliverer of Israel.

25. Breaking the signs of babblers, and diviners He will madden; turning sages back, and their knowledge He will stultify; 26, confirming the word of His servant, and the counsel of His messengers He will fulfil; the (One) saying as to Jerusalem, She shall be inhabited, and as to the cities of Judah, They shall be built, and the ruins will I raise; 27, the (One) saying to the deep, Be dry, and I will dry up thy floods; 28, the (One) saying as to Cyrus, My shepherd, and all my pleasure he will fulfil, and saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built, and (to) the temple, Thou shalt be founded.

24. Thus saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, and He that formed thee from the womb, I Jehovah am He that accomplisheth all; who stretched out the heavens alone, spread out the earth by Himself; 25, who bringeth to nought the signs of the prophets of lies, and exposeth the soothsayers as raging mad; who turneth back the wise men, and maketh their science folly; 26, who realiseth the word of His servant, and accomplisheth the prediction of His messengers; who saith to Jerusalem, She shall be inhabited, and their ruins I raise up again! 27, who saith to the whirlpool, Dry up; and I dry its streams; 28, who saith to Koresh, My shepherd, and he will perform all my will; and will say to Jerusalem, She shall be built, and the temple founded!

45—[The chapter opens, in direct continuation of the forty-fourth, with a further prophecy of Cyrus and of his successors, vers. 1-3. These are then referred to the power of God and His design of mercy towards His people, so that all misgivings or distrust must be irrational and impious, vers. 4-13. Then leaving Cyrus out of view, the prophet turns his eyes to the nations, and declares that they must be subdued, but only in order to be blessed and saved, which is declared to have been the divine purpose, and revealed as such from the beginning, vers. 14-25.]

1. Thus saith Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have held fast, to tread down before him nations, and the loins of kings I will loose; to open before him double doors, and gates shall not be shut. 2. I will go before thee, and uneven places will I level; doors of brass I will break, and bars of iron I will cut. 3. And I will give thee treasures of darkness and hidden riches of secret places, in order that thou mayest know that I Jehovah, the (One) calling thee by name, am the God of Israel.

45—1. Thus saith Jehovah to His anointed, to Koresh, whom I have taken by his right hand to subdue nations before him, and the loins of kings I ungird, to open before him doors and gates, that they may not continue shut. 2. I shall go before thee, and level what is heaped up: gates of brass shall I break to pieces, and bolts of iron shall I smite to the ground. 3. And I shall give thee treasures of darkness, and jewels of hidden places, that thou mayest know that I Jehovah am He who called out thy name, (even) the God of Israel.

4. For the sake of my servant Jacob and Israel my chosen, therefore will I call thee by thy name; I will give thee a title, and thou hast not known me. 5. I am Jehovah, and there is no other; except me there is no God; I will gird thee, and thou hast not known me; 6, that they may know, from the rising of the sun to the west, that there is none without me; I am Jehovah, and there is no other. 7. Forming light and creating darkness, making peace and creating evil, I (am) Jehovah doing all these things. 8. Distil, ye heavens, from above, and let the clouds pour out righteousness; let the earth open, and let salvation and righteousness grow, let him bring (them) forth together. I Jehovah have created it. 9. Woe to him striving with his Maker—a potsherd with potsherds of the earth. Shall clay say to its former, What art thou doing? and thy work, He has no hands? 10. Woe to him saying to a father, What wilt thou beget? and to a mother, What wilt thou bring forth? 11. Thus saith Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel and his Maker, Ask me (of) the things to come; concerning my sins and concerning the work of my hands, ye may command me. 12. I made the earth, and man upon it I created; I, my hands, spread the heavens, and all their host commanded. 13. I, and no other, raised him up in righteousness, and all his ways will I make straight; (it is.) he (that) shall build my city, and my captivity he will send (home), not for reward, and not for hire, saith Jehovah of hosts.

14. Thus saith Jehovah, The toil of Egypt, and the gain of Cush, and the Sebaim men of measure unto thee shall pass, and to thee shall they belong, after thee shall they go, in chains shall they pass over; and unto thee shall they bow themselves, to thee shall they pray, saying, Only in thee (is) God, and there is none besides, no (other) God. 15. Verily thou art a God hiding thyself, O God of Israel, the Saviour! 16. They are ashamed and also confounded all of them together, they are gone away in confusion—the carvers of images. 17. Israel is saved in Jehovah (with) an everlasting salvation; ye shall not be ashamed, and ye shall not be confounded for ever. 18. For thus saith Jehovah, the creator of the heavens—He is God—the former of the earth and its maker—He established it—not to be empty did He create it—to be inhabited He formed it—I am Jehovah, and there is none besides. 19. Not in secret have I spoken, in a dark place of the earth; I have not said to the seed of Jacob, In vain seek ye me. I (am) Jehovah, speaking truth, declaring right things. 20. Gather yourselves and come; draw near together, ye escaped of the nations. They know not, those carrying the wood, their graven image, and praying to a god (who) cannot save. 21. Bring forward and bring near! Yea, let them consult together. Who hath caused this to be heard of old, since thou declared it? Have not I Jehovah? and there is no other God besides me; a righteous and a saving God, there is none besides me. 22. Turn unto me and be ye saved, all ye ends of the earth, for I am God, and there is none besides. 23. By myself I have sworn; the word is gone out of a mouth of righteousness, and shall not return, that unto me shall bow every knee, shall swear every tongue. 24. Only in Jehovah have I, says he, righteousness and strength; unto Him shall he come, and all that were incensed at Him shall be ashamed. 25. In Jehovah shall be justified and boast themselves all the seed of Israel.

46—[In confirmation of the general threats and promises with which chap. 45 iswound up, the prophet now exhibits the particular case of the Babylonian idols, as a single instance chosen from the whole range of past and future history. They are described as fallen and gone away into captivity, wholly unable to protect their worshippers or save themselves, vers. 1, 2. With these he then contrasts Jehovah's constant care of Israel in time past and in time to come, vers. 3, 4. The contrast is carried out by another description of the origin and impotence of idols, vers. 5-7, and another assertion of Jehovah's sole divinity, as proved by His knowledge and control of the future, and by the raising up of Cyrus in particular, vers. 8-11. This brings him back to the same solemn warning of approaching judgments, and the same alternative of life and death, with which the foregoing chapter closes, vers. 12, 13.]

4. For the sake of my servant Jacob, and Israel my chosen, I called thee hither by name, surnamed thee when thou knewest menot. 5. I Jehovah, and there is none else, beside me no God: I equipped thee when thou knewest me not; 6, that they may know from the rising of the sun, and its going down, that there is none without me; I Jehovah, and there is none else; 7, former of the light, and creator of the darkness; founder of peace, and creator of evil: I Jehovah am He who worketh all this.

8. Cause to trickle down, ye heavens above, and let the blue sky rain down righteousness; let the earth open, and let salvation blossom, and righteousness; let them sprout together; I Jehovah have created it.

9. Woe to him that quarrelleth with his Maker—a pot among the pots of earthen-ware! Can the clay indeed say to him that shapeth it, What makest thou? and thy work, He hath no hands! 10. Woe to him that saith to his father, What be gettest thou? and to the woman, What bringest thou forth?

11. Thus saith Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, and its Maker, Ask me what is to come; let my sons and the work of my hands be committed to me! 12. I, I have made the earth, and created men upon it; I, my hand shave stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I called forth. 13. I, I have raised him up in righteousness, and all his ways shall I make smooth: he will build my city, and release my banished ones, not for price nor for reward, saith Jehovah of hosts.

14. Thus saith Jehovah, The productions of Egypt, and gain of Ethiopia, and the Sabeans, men of tall stature, will come over to thee, and belong to thee; they will come after thee; in chains they will come over, and cast themselves down to thee; they pray to thee, Surely God is in thee, and there is none else; no Deity at all.

15. Verily Thou art a mysterious God, Thou God of Israel, Thou Saviour.

16. They are put to shame, and also confounded, all of them; they go away into confusion together, the forgers of idols. 17. Israel is redeemed by Jehovah with everlasting redemption; ye are not put to shame nor confounded to everlasting eternities.

18. For thus saith Jehovah, the creator of the heavens (He is the Deity), the former of the earth, and its finisher; He has established it, He has not created it a desert, He has formed it to be inhabited: I am Jehovah, and there is none else. 19. I have not spoken in secret, in a place of the land of darkness; I did not say to the seed of Jacob, Into the desert seek ye me! I Jehovah am speaking righteousness, proclaiming upright things.

20. Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye escaped of the heathen! Irrational are they who burden themselves with the wood of their idol, and pray to a god that bringeth no salvation. 21. Make known, and cause to draw near; yea, let them take counsel together: Who has made such things known from the olden time, proclaimed it long ago? have not I, Jehovah? and there is no Deity beside me; a God just, and bringing salvation; there is none without me!

SEVENTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. 46

Fall of the Gods of Babel.

1. Bel is bowed down, Nebo stooping; their images are (consigned) to the beasts and to the cattle. Your burdens are packed up (as) a load to the weary (beast). 2. They stoop, they bow together; they cannot save the load; themselves are gone into captivity.

3. Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, those borne from the belly, those carried from the womb. 4. And to old age I am He, and to grey hair I will bear (you); I have done it, and I will carry and I will bear and save (you).

5. To whom will ye liken me, and equal and compare me, that we may be like? 6. The prodigals will weigh gold from the bag, and silver with the rod; they will hire a gilder, and he will make it a god: they will bow down, yea, they will fall prostrate. 7. They will lift him on the shoulder, they will carry him, they will set him in his place, and he will stand (there); from his place he will not move; yea, one will cry to him, and he will not answer, from his distress he will not save him.

What were borne by you are made into loads.—Jones.

3. Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel:ye, lifted up from the womb; ye, carried fromthe mother's lap. 4. And till old age it is I, and to grey hair I shall bear you on my shoulder; I have done it, and I shall carry; and I put upon my shoulder, and deliver. 5. To whom can ye compare me, and liken, and place side by side, that we should be equal?

6. They who pour gold out of the bag, and weigh silver with the balance, hire a gold-smith to make it into a god, that they may bow down, yea, throw themselves down. 7. They lift it up, carry it away on their shoulder, and set it down in its place! there it is; from its place it does not move; men also cry to it, but it does not answer; it saves no man out of distress.

8. Remember this, and show yourselves men; bring it home, ye apostates, (to) your mind. 9. Remember former things of old, for I am the Mighty, and there is no other God, and there is none like me, 10, declaring from the first the last, and from ancient time the things which are not (yet) done, saying, My counsel shall stand and all my pleasure I will do. 11. Calling from the east a bird of prey, from a land of distance the man of His counsel; I have both said and will also bring it to pass, I have formed (the plan) and will also do it.

Calling an eagle from the east.—Birks and Arnold.

12. Hearken to me, ye stout of heart, those far from righteousness. 13. I have brought near my righteousness, it shall not be far off; and my salvation, it shall not tarry; and I will place in Zion my salvation, to Israel my glory.

12. Hearken to me, ye strong-hearted, that are far from righteousness. 13. I have broughtmy righteousness near; it is not far off, and my salvation tarrieth not: and I give salvation in Zion, my glory to Israel.

47—[Having exemplified his general doctrine, as to God's ability and purpose to do justice both to friends and foes, by exhibiting the downfall of the Babylonian idols, Isaiah now attains the same end by predicting the downfall of Babylon itself, and of the state to which it gave its name. Under the figure of a royal virgin, she is threatened with extreme degradation and exposure, vers. 1-3. Connecting this event with Israel and Israel's God, as the great themes which it was intended to illustrate, he predicts the fall of the empire more distinctly, ver. 5, and assigns as a reason the oppression of God's people, ver. 6, pride and self-confidence, vers. 7-9, especially reliance upon human wisdom and upon superstitious arts, all which would prove entirely insufficient to prevent the great catastrophe, vers. 10-15.]

EIGHTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. 47

Fall of Babel, the Capital of the Empire of the World.

1. Come down! Sit on the dust, virgin daughter of Babel! There is no throne, daughter of Chasdim! For thou shalt not continue to be called tender and delicate. 2. Take millstones and grind meal! Remove thy veil, lift up thy skirt, uncover the leg, cross streams! 3. Let thy nakedness be uncovered, likewise let thy shame be seen. Iwill take vengeance; I shall encounter no man.

4. Our Redeemer, Jehovah of hosts (is) His name, the Holy One of Israel.

5. Sit in silence and go into darkness, daughter of Chasdim! For thou shalt not continue to be called mistress of kingdoms. I was wroth against my people; I profaned my heritage; and I gave them into thy hand. Thou didst not show them mercy; on the ancient thou didst aggravate thy yoke exceedingly; 7, and thou saidst, For ever I shall be a mistress (of kingdoms); until (at last) thou didst not lay these things to heart, thou didst not remember the end of it. 8. And now, hear this, thou voluptuous one, the (one) sitting in security, the (one) saying in her heart, I (am) and none besides; I shall not sit (as) a widow, and I shall not know the loss of children; 9, and they shall come to thee,—these two suddenly, loss of children and widowhood in their perfection, they have come upon thee, in the midst of the multitude of thy enchantments, in the midst of the multitude of thy spells. 10. And (yet) thou art secure in thy wickedness; thou hast said, There is no one seeing me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it has seduced thee; and thou hast said in thy heart, I am, and there is no other. 11. And so there cometh upon thee evil,—thou shalt not know how to charm it away; and there shall fall upon thee ruin,—thou shalt not be able to avert it; and there shall come upon thee suddenly a crash,—thou shalt not know (it). 12. Persist now in thy spells and in the abundance of thy charms, in which thou hast wearied thyself; perhaps thou will be able to succeed, perhaps thou wilt grow strong. 13. Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsel. Now let them stand and save thee, the dividers of the heavens, the star-gazers, making known at the new-moon what shall come upon thee. 14. Behold, they are like stubble, fire has burned them; they cannot deliver themselves from the hand of the flame; (this fire) is not a coal (at which) to warm one's self, a fire to sit before. 15. Thus are they to thee; and so are (even) thy traders: each to his own quarter, straight before him, they wander; thereis no one saving thee.

And I will be entreated of for thee by no man.—Matthew Arnold.

And I will accept no man.—Revised English Version.

5. Sit silent, and creep into the darkness, O Chaldean's daughter! for men no longer call thee lady of kingdoms. 6. I was wroth with my people; I polluted mine inheritance, and gave them into thy hand: thou hast shown them no mercy; upon old men thou laidst thy yoke very heavily. 7. And thou saidst, I shall be lady for ever; so that thou didst not take these things to heart; thou didst not consider the latter end thereof.

Thus will they prove to be unto thee, amongst whom thou hast laboured.

Those with whom thou hast had dealing from thy youth:

They shall become bewildered, every one in his quarter:

Not one will be there to save thee.—Jones.

Let now the astrologers, the star-gazers, the prognosticators by the new moon, stand up and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee.—Matthew Arnold.

48—[Although Israel is God's chosen and peculiar people, he is in himself unworthy of the honour and unfaithful to the trust, vers. 1, 2. Former predictions had been uttered expressly to prevent his ascribing the event to other gods, vers. 3-5. For the same reason new predictions will be uttered now, of events which have never been distinctly fore-told, vers. 6-8. God's continued favour toHis people has no reference to merit upon their part, but is the fruit of His own sovereign mercy, and intended to promote His own designs, vers. 9-11. He again asserts His own exclusive deity, as proved by thecreation of the world, by the prediction of events still future, and especially by the raising up of Cyrus, as a promised instrument to execute His purpose, vers. 12-16. The sufferings of Israel are a fruit of his own sin, but his prosperity and glory, of God's sovereign grace, vers. 17-19. The book closes as it opened, with a promise of deliverance fromexile, accompanied in this case by a solemn limitation of the promise to its proper objects, vers. 20-22.]

NINTH PROPHECY—CHAP. 48

Deliverance from Babylon.

1. Hear this, O house of Jacob, the men called by the name of Israel, and from the waters of Judah they have come out; those swearing by the name of Jehovah, and (who) of the God of Israel make mention, not in truth and not in righteousness. 2. Nor from the Holy City they are called, and upon the God of Israel rely; Jehovah of hosts is His name.

1. Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and have flowed out of the waters of Judah, who swear by the name of Jehovah, and extol the God of Israel, not in truth, and not in righteousness. 2. Nor they call themselves of the holy city, and stay themselves upon the God of Israel, Jehovah of hosts His name.

3. The former things since then have I declared, and out of my mouth they went forth, and I cause them to be heard; suddenly do I do (them), and they come to pass. 4. Because I knew that thou art hard, and an iron sinew (is) thy neck, and thy forehead brass, 5, therefore I told thee long ago; before it comes I have let thee hear (it), lest thou say, My idol did them, my graven image and my molten image ordered them.

6. Thou hast heard the (prediction), see all of it accomplished. And ye, will ye not predict (something)? I have made thee to hearnew things from now, and (things) kept (in reserve), which thou hast not known. 7. Now they are created, and not of old; before this day thou hast never heard them, lest thou shouldest say, Behold, I knew them. 8. Nay, thou didst not hear; nay, thou didst not know; likewise of old thine ear was not opened; I knew thou wouldest act very treacherously, and Apostate from the womb wast thou called.

9. For my name's sake I will defer my anger, and (for) my praise I will restrain (it) towards thee, so as not to cut thee off. 10. Behold, I have melted thee, and not with silver; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction. 11. For my own sake, for my own sake, I will do (it)—for how is it profaned!—and my honour to another will I not give.

12. Hearken unto me, O Jacob, and Israel my called; I am He, I am the First, also I the Last. 13. Also my hand founded the earth, and my right hand spread the heavens; I call to them, and they will stand up together.14. Assemble yourselves, all of you, and hear! Who among them hath predicted these things? Jehovah loves him; He will do His pleasure in Babylon, and His arm (shall be upon) the Chaldees. 15. I, I have spoken; I have also called him; I have brought him (forth), and he prospers in his way. 16. Draw near unto me! Hear this; not from the beginning in secret have I spoken; from the time of its being, I was there; and now the Lord Jehovah hath sent me, and His Spirit.

12. Hearken to me, O Jacob, and Israel my called! I am it; I first, also I last. 13. My hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand hath spanned the heavens: I call to them, and they stand there together. 14. All ye, assemble yourselves, and bear: Who among you hath proclaimed this? He whom Jehovah loveth will accomplish His will upon Babel, and His arm upon the Chaldeans. 15. I, I have spoken, have also called him, have brought him here, and his way prospers. 16. Come ye near to me! Hear ye this! I have not spoken in secret; from the beginning from the time that it takes place, there am I: and now the Lord Jehovah hath sent me and His Spirit.

17. Thus saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God, teaching thee to profit, making thee to treadin the way thou shalt go. 18. Oh that thou hadst hearkened to my commandments! then had thy peace been as a river, and thy righteousness as the waves of the sea; 19, then should have been like the sand thy seed, and the offspring of thy bowels like (the offspringof) its bowels; his name should not be cut off from before me.

20. Go forth from Babel! Flee ye from the Chaldeans! With the voice of joy tell this, cause it to be heard, utter it even to the end of the earth; say ye, Jehovah hath redeemed His servant Jacob. 21. And they thirsted notin the desert (through which) He made them go; water from a rock he made to flow for them; and He clave the rock, and waters gushed out. 22. There is no peace, saith Jehovah, to the wicked.

20. Go out of Babel, flee from Chaldea with voice of shouting: declare ye, preach ye this, carry it out to the end of the earth! Say ye, Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob His servant.21. And they thirsted not: He led them through dry places; He caused water to trickle out of rocks for them; He split rocks, and waters gushed out, 22. There is no peace, saith Jehovah, for the wicked.

49—[This chapter, like the whole division which it introduces, has for its great theme the relation of the Church to the world, or of Israel to the Gentiles. It opens with an exhibition of the Messiah and His people, under one ideal person, as the great appointed Teacher, Apostle, and Restorer of the apostate nations, vers. 1-9. This is followed by a promise of Divine protection and of glorious enlargement, attended by a joyous revelation in the state of the whole world, vers. 10-13. The doubts and apprehensions of the Church herself are twice recited under different forms, vers. 14, 24, and as often met and silenced, first by repeated and still stronger promises of God's unchanging love to His people and of their glorious enlargement and success, vers. 15-23; then by an awful threatening of destruction to their enemies and His, vers. 25, 26.]

PART II

FIRST PROPHECY.—CHAP. 49

Self-Attestation of the Servant of Jehovah. The Despondency of Zion reproved.

1. Hearken, ye islands, unto me, and attend, ye nations from afar. Jehovah from the womb hath called me, from the bowels of my mother He hath mentioned my name. 2. And He hath rendered my mouth like a sharp sword, in the shadow of His hand He hid me; and He rendered me as a polished arrow, in His quiver He has hid me. 3. And He said to me, Thou art my servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified. 4. And I said, In vain have I toiled, for emptiness and vanity my strength have I consumed; but my right is with Jehovah and my work with my God. 5. And now, saith Jehovah, who formed me from the womb for a servant to Himself, to restore Jacob to Him, and (yet) Israel will not be gathered—and yet I shall be honoured in the eyes of Jehovah, and my God has (already) been my strength. 6. And He said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and the preserved of Israel to restore; and I have given thee for a light of the Gentiles, to be my salvation even to the end of the earth. 7. Thus saith Jehovah, the Redeemer of Israel, His Holy One, to the heartily despised, to the nation exciting abhorrence, to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see it, and rise up, princes (shall see) and bow themselves, for the sake of Jehovah who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel who hath chosen thee. 8. Thus saith Jehovah, In a time of favour I have heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee; and I will keep thee, and I will give thee for a covenant of the people, to raise up the earth, and to cause to inherit the desolate heritages; 9, to say to those bound, Come forth, and to (those) who are in darkness, Show yourselves.

On the ways they shall feed, and in all bare hills shall be their pasture. 10. They shall not hunger and they shall not thirst, and there shall not smite them mirage and sun; for He that hath mercy on them shall guide them, and by springs of water shall He lead them. 11. And I will place all mountains for the way, and my roads shall be high. 12. Behold, these from afar shall come, and behold these from the north and from the sea, and these from the land of Sinim. 13. Shout, O heavens, and rejoice, O earth, let the mountains burst forth into a shout; because Jehovah has comforted His people, and on His sufferers He will have mercy.

1. Listen, O isles, unto me; and hearken, ye nations afar off: Jehovah hath called me from the womb; from my mother's lap hath He remembered my name. 2. And He made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of His hand hath He hid me, and made me a polished shaft; in His quiver hath He concealed me. 3. And He said to me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, thou in whom I glorify myself.

14. And (yet) Zion said, Jehovah hath forsaken me, and the Lord hath forgotten me. 15. Will a woman forget her suckling, so as not to have mercy on the son of her womb? Even these will forget, and (yet) I will not forget thee. 16. Behold, on my palms have I graven thee; thy walls (are) before me continually. 17. Thy sons hasten (to thee); thy destroyers and thy wasters shall go out from thee. 18. Lift up thine eyes round about and see; all of them are gathered together, they are come to thee. (As) I live, saith Jehovah, (I swear) that all of them as an ornament thou shalt put on, and bind them like the bride. 19. For thy ruins, and thy wastes, and thy land of desolation, for now shalt thou be too narrow for the inhabitant, and far off shall be thy devourers. 20. Again shall they say in thine ears, The sons of thy childlessness. (Too) narrow for me is the place; come near for me, that I may dwell. 21. And thou shalt say in thine heart, Who hath produced these for me? and I was bereaved and barren, an exile and a banished one? And these who brought up? Behold, I was left alone; these where were they? 22. Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold I will lift up to the nations my hand, and I will set up to the peoples my standard; and they will bring thy sons in the bosom, and thy daughters on the shoulders shall be carried. 23. And kings shall be thy nursing-fathers, and their queens thy nursing-mothers; face to the ground shall they bow to thee, and the dust of thy feet shall they lick: and thou shalt know that I am Jehovah, whose waiters shall not be ashamed.

24. Shall the prey be taken from the mighty, and shall the captivity of the righteous be delivered? 25. For thus saith Jehovah, Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken, and the prey of the terrible shall be delivered, and with thy strivers will I strive, and thy sons will I save. 26. And I will make thy oppressors eat their (own) flesh, and as with new wine with their blood shall they be drunken; and all flesh shall know that I am Jehovah thy Saviour, and (that) thy Redeemer is the mighty One of Jacob.

14. Zion said, Jehovah hath forsaken me, and the Lord hath forgotten me. 15. Does a woman forget her sucking child, so as not to have compassion upon the child of her womb? Even though mothers should forget, I will not forget thee. 16. Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands; thy walls stand continually before me.

Thy sons, of whom thou wast bereaved, shall say, &c.—Jones.

22. Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold, I lift up my hand to nations, and set up my standard to peoples: and they briny thy sons in their bosom; and thy daughters, upon shoulders are they carried. 23. And kings become thy foster-fathers, and their princesses thy nurses: they bow down their face to thee to the earth, and they lick the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt learn that I am Jehovah, He whose hoping ones are not put to shame.

And I will gorge thine oppressors with their own flesh;

And with their own blood, as with new wine, shall they be drunken.—Jones.

50—[This chapter contains no entirely new element, but a fresh view of several which have already been repeatedly exhibited. The first of these is the great truth, that the sufferings of God's people are the necessary fruit of their own sine, ver. 1. The second is the power of Jehovah to accomplish their deliverance, vers. 2, 3. The third is the Servant of Jehovah, His mission, His qualifications for it, His endurance of reproach and opposition on account of it, vers. 4-9. The fourth is the way of salvation and the certain doom of those who neglect it, vers. 10, 11.]

SECOND PROPHECY.—CHAP. 50

Israel's Self-rejection; and the Steadfastness of the Servant of Jehovah.

1. Thus saith Jehovah, Where is the bill of divorcement of your mother, whom I have sent away? Or which of my creditors (is it) to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities ye have been sold, and for your transgressions has your mother been sent away.

2. Why did I come, and there was no man? (why) did I call, and there was no one answering? Is my hand shortened, shortened, from redemption? and is there with me no power to deliver? Behold, by my rebuke I will dry up the sea, I will make streams a wilderness; let their fish stink for want of water and die of thirst. 3. I will clothe the heavens in blackness, and sackcloth will I make their covering.

4. The Lord God hath given to me a ready tongue, that I might know how to help the weary (with) a word. He will waken, every morning He will waken for me the ear, that I may hear like the disciples. 5. The Lord Jehovah opened for me the ear, and I resisted not, I did not draw back. 6. My back I gave to those smiting, and my cheeks to those plucking (the hair); my face I did not hide from shame and spitting. 7. And the Lord God will help me, therefore I am not confounded: therefore I have set my face as a flint, and I know that I shall not be ashamed. 8. Near is my justifier; who will contend with me! We will stand together. Who is my adversary? Let him draw near to me. 9. Behold, the Lord Jehovah will help me; who (is) he (that) will condemn me? All they like the garment shall grow old; the moth shall devour them.

10. Who among you is a fearer of Jehovah, hearkening to the voice of His servant, who walketh in darkness, and there is no light to him? Let him trust in the name of Jehovah, and lean upon his God. 11. Lo, all of you kindling fire, girding sparks (or, fiery darts), go in the light of your fire, and in the sparks ye have kindled. From my hand is this to you; in pain shall ye lie down.

2. Why did I come, and there was no one there? Why did I call, and there was no one who answered? Is my hand too short to redeem? Or is there no strength in me to deliver? Behold, through my threatening I dry up the sea; turn streams into a plain: their fish rot because there is no water, and die for thirst. 3. I clothe the heavens in mourning, and make sackcloth their covering.

4. The Lord Jehovah hath given me a disciple's tongue, that I may know how to set up the wearied with words: He wakeneth every morning; wakeneth mine ear to attend in a disciple's manner. 5. The Lord Jehovah hath opened mine ear; and I, I was not rebellious, and did not turn back. 6. I offered my back to smiters, and my cheeks to them that pluck off the hair; I hid not my face from shame and spitting. 7. But the Lord Jehovah will help me; therefore have I not suffered myself to be overcome by mockery: therefore did I make my face like the flint, and knew that I should not be put to shame. 8. He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? We will draw near together! Who is my adversary in judgment? Let him draw near to me! 9. Behold, the Lord Jehovah will help me; who is he that could condemn me? Behold, they shall all fall to pieces like a garment; the moth shall eat them up.

51—[This chapter is a direct continuation of the preceding declarations with respect to the vocation of the Church, and the Divine administration towards her. The possibility of her increase, as previously promised, is evinced by the example of Abraham, from whom all Israel descended, vers. 1-3. In like manner many shall be added from the Gentiles, vers. 4-6. Their enemies shall not only fail to destroy them, but shall be themselves destroyed, vers. 7, 8. This is confirmed by another historical example, that of Egypt, vers. 9, 10. The same assurances are then repeated, with a clearer promise of the new dispensation, vers. 11-16. The chapter closes with a direct address to Zion, who, though helpless in herself and destitute of human aid, is sure of God's protection and of the destruction of her enemies and His, vers. 17-23.]

THIRD PROPHECY.—CHAP. 51

The bursting forth of Salvation, and turning away of the Cup of Wrath.

1. Hearken unto me, ye who are following after righteousness, ye who are seeking Jehovah: look unto the rock (from which) ye have been hewn, and the hole of the pit from which ye have been digged. 2. Look unto Abraham your father and unto Sarah (that) bare you: for I have called him one, and I will bless him and increase him (still). 3. For Jehovah hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all our wastes, and hath made her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the Lord; joy and gladness shall be found in her, thanksgiving and the voice of melody. 4. Attend unto me, my people; and my nation, unto me give ear: that law from me shall go forth, and my judgment for a light of the nations. 5. Near (is) my righteousness, gone forth is my salvation, and my arm shall judge the nations. For me shall the islands wait, and in my arm they shall hope. 6. Raise to the heavens your eyes, and look unto the earth beneath; and the earth like the garment (which grows old) shall grow old, and its inhabitants likewise shall die; and my salvation to eternity shall be, and my righteousness shall not be broken.

7. Hearken unto me, ye that know righteousness, people (with) my law in their heart; fear not the reproach of men, and by their scoffs be not broken (in spirit). 8. For like the (moth-eaten) garment shall the moth devour them, and like the (worm-eaten) wool shall the worm devour them; and my righteousness to eternity shall be, and my salvation to an age of ages.

9. Awake, awake, put on strength, arm of Jehovah; awake, as (in the) days of old, the ages of eternities; art thou not the same that hewed Rahab in pieces, that wounded the dragon? 10. Art not thou the same that dried the sea, the waters of the great deep, that placed the depths of the sea (as) a way for the passage of redeemed ones?

11. And the ransomed of Jehovah shall return and come to Zion with shouting, and everlasting joy upon their head; gladness and joy shall overtake (them), sorrow and sighing have fled away. 12. I, I am he that comforteth you; who art thou that thou shouldest be afraid of man (who) is to die, and of the son of man who (as) grass is to be given? 13. And hast forgotten Jehovah thy Maker, spreading the heavens and founding the earth, and hast trembled continually all the day, from before the wrath of the oppressor as he made ready to destroy? And where is (now) the wrath of the oppressor? 14. He hastens bowing to be loosed, and he shall not die in the pit, and his bread shall not fail. 15. And I am Jehovah thy God, rousing the sea, and then its waves roar; Jehovah of hosts (is) His name. 16. And I have put my words in thy mouth, and in the shadow of my hand I have hid thee, to plant the heavens, and to found the earth, and to say to Zion, Thou art my people. 17. Rouse thyself! rouse thyself! Arise, Jerusalem! (thou) who hast drunk at the hand of Jehovah the cup of His wrath; the bowl of the cup of reeling thou hast drunk, thou hast wrung out.

18. There is no guide to her of all the sons she has brought forth, and no one grasping her hand of all the sons she has brought up.

1. Hearken to me, ye that are in pursuit of righteousness, ye that seek Jehovah. Look up to the rock whence ye are hewn, and to the hollow of the pit whence ye are dug. 2. Look up to Abraham your forefather, and to Sara who bare you, that he was one when I called him, and blessed him, and multiplied him. 3. For Jehovah hath comforted Zion, comforted all her ruins, and turned her desert like Eden, and her steppe as the garden of God; joy and gladness are found in her, thanksgiving and sounding music.

7. Hearken unto me, ye that know about righteousness, thou people with my law in the heart; fear ye not the reproach of mortals, and be ye not alarmed at their revilings. 8. For the moth will devour them like a garment, and the worm devour them like woollen cloth; and my righteousness shall stand for ever, and my salvation to distant generations.

17. Wake thyself up, stand up, O Jerusalem; thou that hast drunk out of the hand of Jehovah the goblet of His fury; the goblet-cup of reeling hast thou drunk, sipped out. 18. There was none who guided her of all the children she had brought forth; and none who took her by the hand of all the children she had brought up. 19. There were two things that happened to thee; who should console thee? Desolation, and ruin, and famine, and the sword: how should I comfort thee? 20. Thy children were benighted, lay at the corners of all the streets like a snared antelope: as those who were full of the fury of Jehovah, the rebuke of thy God. 21. Therefore hearken to this, O wretched and drunken, but not with wine:22, Thus saith thy Lord, Jehovah, and thy God that defendeth His people, Behold, I take out of thy hand the goblet-cup of my fury: thou shalt not continue to drink it any more. 23. And I put it into the hand of thy tormentors; who said to thy soul, Bow down, that we may go over; and thou madest thy back like the ground, and like a public way for those who go over it.

52—[However low the natural Israel may sink, the true Church shall become more glorious than ever, being freed from the impurities connected with her former state, ver. 1. This is described as a captivity from which she is exhorted to escape, ver. 2. Her emancipation is the fruit of God's gratuitous compassion, ver. 3. As a nation she has suffered long enough, vers. 4, 5. The day is coming when the Israel of God shall know in whom they have believed, ver. 6. The herald of the new dispensation is described as already visible upon the mountains, ver. 7. The very ruins of Jerusalem are summoned to rejoice, ver. 9. The glorious change is witnessed by the whole world. 10. The true Church or Israel of God is exhorted to come out of Jewry, ver. 11. This exodus is likened to the one from Egypt, but described as even more auspicious, ver. 12. Its great leader, the Messiah, as the Servant of Jehovah, must be and is to be exalted, ver. 13. And this exaltation shall bear due proportion to the humiliation which preceded it, vers. 14, 15.]

FOURTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa

Jerusalem exchanges Servitude for Dominion, and Imprisonment for Liberty.

1. Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion! Put on thy garments of beauty, O Jerusalem, the Holy City! For no more shall there continue to come into thee an uncircumcised and unclean (person). 2. Shake thyself from the dust, arise, sit, O Jerusalem! loose the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion!

3. For thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Ye were sold for nought, and not for money shall ye be redeemed. 4. For thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Into Egypt went down my people at the first to sojourn there, and Assyria oppressed them for nothing. 5. And now what have I here, saith Jehovah, that my people is taken away for nothing, its rulers howl, saith Jehovah, and continually, all the day, my name is blasphemed! 6. Therefore my people shall know my name; therefore in that day (shall they know) that I am He that said, Behold me!

7. How timely on the mountains are the feet of one bringing glad tidings, publishing peace, bringing tidings of good, publishing salvation, saying to Zion, Thy God reigneth! 8. The voice of thy watchmen! They raise the voice, together will they shout; for eye to eye will they see in Jehovah's returning to Zion. 9. Burst forth, shout together, ruins of Jerusalem! For Jehovah hath comforted His people, hath redeemed Jerusalem. 10. Jehovah hath bared His holy arm to the eyes of all the nations, and all the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God.

11. Away! away! go out from thence! the unclean touch not! come out from the midst of her! Be clean, ye armour-bearers of Jehovah. 12. For not in haste shall ye go out, and in flight ye shall not depart; for going before you (is) Jehovah, and bringing up your rear the God of Israel.

Isa .—[The great leader of this exodus, the Messiah, as the Servant of Jehovah, must be and is to be exalted, ver. 13. And this exaltation shall bear due proportion to the humiliation which preceded it, vers. 14, 15.

3. For thus saith Jehovah, Ye have been sold for nothing, and ye shall not be redeemed with silver. 4. For thus saith the Lord Jehovah, My people went down to Egypt in the beginning to dwell there as guests; and Asshur has oppressed it for nothing. 5. And now, what have I to do here? saith Jehovah; for my people are taken away for nothing; their oppressors shriek, saith Jehovah, and my name is continually blasphemed all the day. 6. Therefore my people shall learn my name; therefore, in that day, that I am He who saith, Here am I.

11. Go ye forth, go ye forth, go out from thence, lay hold of no unclean thing; go ye out from the midst of her, cleanse yourselves, ye that bear the vessels of Jehovah. 12. For ye shall not go out in confusion, and ye shall not go forth in flight: for Jehovah goeth before you, and the God of Israel is your rearguard.

53—Notwithstanding these and other prophecies of the Messiah, He is not recognised when He appears, ver. 1. He is not the object of desire and trust, for whom the great mass of the people have been waiting, ver. 2. Nay, His low condition, and especially His sufferings are vicarious, not accidental or incurred by His own fault, vers. 4-6. Hence, though personally innocent, He is perfectly unresisting, ver. 7. Even they for whom He suffers may mistake His person and His office, ver. 8. His case presents the two extremes of righteous punishment and perfect innocence, ver. 9. But the glorious fruit of these very sufferings will correct all errors, ver. 10. He becomes a Saviour only by becoming a substitute, ver. 11. Even after the work of expiation is completed, and His glorious reward secured, the work of intercession will be still continued, ver. 12.]

FIFTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa

Golgotha and Sheblemini (= Sit Thou at my right hand), or, the exaltation of the Servant of Jehovah out of deep degradation.

13. Behold, my Servant shall do wisely, shall rise and be exalted and high exceedingly. 14. As many were shocked at Thee—so marred from man His look, and His form from the sons of men—15, so shall He sprinkle many nations; concerning Him shall kings stop their mouth, because what was not recounted to them they have seen, and what they had not heard they have perceived.

53—1. Who hath believed our report! and the arm of Jehovah, to whom (or, upon whom) has it been revealed?

2. And He came up like the tender plant before Him, and like a root from a dry ground; He had no form nor comeliness, and we shall see Him, and no sight that we should desire it. 3. Despised and forsaken of men (or, ceasing from among men), a man of sorrows and acquainted with sickness, and like one hiding the face from Him (or, us), despised, and we esteemed Him not.

4. Surely our sicknesses He bore, and our griefs He carried; and we thought Him stricken, smitten of God and afflicted. 5. And He was pierced (or, wounded) for our transgressions, bruised (or, crushed) for our iniquities; the chastisement (or, punishment) of our peace (was) upon Him, and by His stripes we were healed. 6. All we like sheep had gone astray, each to his own way we had turned, and Jehovah laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

7. He was oppressed and He humbled Himself, and He will not open His mouth—as a lamb to the slaughter is brought, and as a sheep before its shearers is dumb—and He will not open His mouth. 8. From distress and from judgment He was taken; and in His generation who will think, that He was cut off from the land of the living, for the transgression of my people (as) a curse for them? 9. And He gave with wicked (men) His grave, and with a rich (man) in His death; because (or, although) He had done no violence, and no deceit (was) in His mouth.

10. And Jehovah was pleased to crush (or, bruise Him), He put Him to grief (or, made Him sick); if (or, when) His soul shall make an offering for sin, He shall see (His) seed, He shall prolong (His) days, and the pleasure of Jehovah in His hand shall prosper. 11. From the labour of His soul (or, life) He shall see, He shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall my servant (as) a righteous one, give righteousness to many, and their iniquities He will bear. 12. Therefore will I divide to Him among the many, and with the strong shall He divide the spoil, in lieu of this that He bared unto death His soul, and with the transgressors was numbered, and He (Himself) bare the sin of many, and for the transgressors He shall make intercession.

53—1. Who hath believed our preaching; and the arm of Jehovah, over whom has it been revealed!

2. And He sprang up like a layer-shoot before Him, and like a root-sprout out of dry ground: He had no form, and no beauty; and we looked, and there was no look, such that we could have found pleasure in Him. 3. He was despised and forsaken by men; a man of griefs, and well acquainted with disease; and like one from whom men hide their face: despised, and we esteemed Him not.

4. Verily He hath borne our diseases and our pains! He hath laden them upon Himself; but we regarded Him as one stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. 5. Whereas He was pierced for our sins, bruised for our iniquities! the punishment was laid upon Him for our peace; and through His stripes we were healed. 6. All we like sheep went astray; we had turned every one to his own way; and Jehovah caused the iniquity of us all to fall on Him.

10. And it pleased Jehovah to bruise Him, to afflict Him with disease; if His soul would pay a trespass-offering, He should see posterity, should live long days, and the purpose of Jehovah should prosper through His hand. 11. Because of the travail of His soul, He will see, and be refreshed; through His knowledge will He procure justice, my righteous servant, for the many, and will take their iniquities upon Himself. 12. Therefore I give Him a portion among the great, and with strong ones will He divide the spoil; because He has poured out His soul into death: and He let Himself be reckoned among transgressors; whilst He bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

URWICK.

CHAPS. Isa

I.

13. Behold, my Servant shall prosper,

He shall rise up, and be extolled, and stand triumphantly exalted.

14. Even as many were shocked at Him

(His countenance was so marred as to be no more that of a man,

His form no more that of sons of men!)

15. So shall He sprinkle many nations.

The kings shall shut their mouths before Him;

For what had not been told them they shall see,

And what they never heard they shall consider.

52—13. Behold! my Servant shall deal prudently, He shall be exalted, and extolled, and be very high. 14. As many were astonied, so marred more than any man; His visage and HIS form more than the sons of men. 15. So shall He sprinkle many nations; kings shall shut their mouths at Him, for that which hath not been told them shall they see, and that which they had not heard shall they understand.

II.

1. Who hath believed our report?

And to whom is Jehovah's arm revealed?

2. For He shall grow up before Him as a tender plant,

And as a Sprout out of dry ground.

He hath no form nor comeliness that we should look up to Him,

No beauty that we should take pleasure in Him.

3. He is despised and rejected of men,

A man of sorrows, well acquainted with sickness;

And like one hiding his face before us,

He was despised and we esteemed Him not.

4. And yet it was our own sickness that He bore,

And our sorrows that He loaded upon Himself.

But we supposed He was punished,

Smitten of God and tormented!

5. Oh, no! He was wounded for our transgressions,

Bruised for our inquities,

Chastisement for our peace was upon Him,

And with His stripes we are made whole.

6. All we like sheep have gone astray,

We have turned every one to his own way,

And Jehovah made the guilt of us all to meet upon Him.

7. He was oppressed, and yet He humbled Himself,

And He opened not His mouth, like a lamb that is brought to the slaughter,

And as a sheep is dumb before her shearers,

So He opened not His mouth.

8. He was dragged to punishment by violence, and yet by process of law;

And who of the men of His generation took it to heart,

That He was cut off from the land of the living,

That the stroke for my people's transgression fell upon Him!

9. They appointed Him His grave with criminals

(Still He was with a rich man in His death!),

Although He had done no wrong,

Neither was any deceit in His mouth.

10. And yet it pleased Jehovah to bruise Him;

He laid sickness upon Him.

But when He has made over His soul as a sin-offering,

He shall see offspring; He shall prolong His days,

And the pleasure of Jehovah shall prosper in His hands!

53—1. Who hath believed our report? and the arm of the Lord to whom hath it been revealed? 2. For He grew up as a tender plant before Him, and as a root out of a dry ground. He hath no form nor comeliness that we should regard Him, and no beauty that we should desire Him. 3. He was despised and rejected of men, a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And there was, as it were, the hiding of the face from Him. He was despised, and we esteemed Him not.

4. Surely our griefs HE hath borne, and our sorrows HE hath carried them; yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. 5. But HE was wounded for our transgressions; He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement of OUR peace (or, our peace, chastisement) was upon HIM and with His stripes we are healed. 6. All we like sheep have gone astray, we have turned every one to his own way, and the LORD hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

7. He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth; as the lamb to the slaughter, He was brought; and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so He opened not His mouth. 8. He was taken from prison and from judgment, and who considereth His generation? For He was cut off out of the land of the living; for the transgression of my people was He stricken. 9. And they made His grave with the wicked, and with the rich in His death, though He had done no violence, neither was there deceit in His mouth. 10. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise Him; He hath put Him to grief.

When Thou shalt make His soul an offering for guilt (or, a guilt-offering), He shall see (His) seed, He shall prolong (His) days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in His hand. 11. Because of the travail of His soul He shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall my righteous Servant justify the many, for their iniquities He shall bear. 12. Therefore will I divide Him a portion in the many [i.e., the many shall be the portion allotted to Him], and with the strong shall He divide the spoil; for in that He poured out His soul unto the death, and was numbered with the transgressors, He Himself bare the sin of the many, and made intercession for the transgressors.

III.

11. Free from the travail of His soul,

He shall see and be satisfied.

By His knowledge shall my righteous Servant make many righteous,

Because He shall bear their iniquities.

12. Therefore will I give Him the great as a portion,

And He shall distribute the strong as spoil.

For He hath poured out His soul unto death,

And He was numbered with transgressors,

While He was bearing the sin of many

And was making intercession for the transgressors.

54—[Instead of suffering from the loss of her national prerogatives, the Church shall be more glorious and productive than before, ver. 1. Instead of being limited to a single nation, she shall be so extended as to take in all the nations of the earth, vers. 2, 3. What seemed at first to be her forlorn and desolate condition shall be followed by a glorious change, ver. 4. He who seemed to be the God of the Jews only shall now be seen to be the God of the Gentiles also, ver. 5. The abrogation of the old economy was like the repudiation of a wife, but its effects will show it to be rather a renewal of the conjugal relation, ver. 6. The momentary rejection shall be followed by an everlasting reconciliation, vers. 7, 8. The old economy, like Noah's flood, can never be repeated, ver. 9. That was a temporary institution; this shall outlast the earth itself, ver. 10. The old Jerusalem shall be forgotten in the splendour of the new, vers. 11, 12. But this shall be a spiritual splendour, springing from a constant divine influence, ver. 13. Hence it shall be also a holy and a safe state, ver. 14. All the enemies of the Church shall either be destroyed or received into her bosom, ver. 15. The warrior and his weapons are alike God's creatures and at His disposal, ver. 16. In every conflict, both of hand and tongue, the Church shall be triumphant, not in her own right or her own strength, but in that of Him who justifies, pardons, and saves her, ver. 17.]

SIXTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. 54

The glory of Jerusalem, the Church of the Servants of Jehovah.

1. Shout, O barren, that didst not bear; break forth into a shout and cry aloud, thou that didst not writhe (in childbirth): for more (are) the children of the desolate than the children of the married (woman), saith Jehovah. 2. Widen the place of thy tent, and the curtains of thy dwelling let them stretch out; spare not (or, hinder it not); lengthen thy cords and strengthen (or, make fast) thy stakes. 3. For right and left shalt thou break forth (or, spread), and thy seed shall possess (or, dispossess or inherit) nations, and repeople ruined (or, forsaken) cities.

4. Fear not, for thou shalt not be ashamed; and be not abashed, for thou shalt not blush; for the shame of thy youth thou shalt forget, and the reproach of thy widowhood thou shalt not remember any more. 5. For thy husband (is) thy Maker, Jehovah of hosts is His name; and thy Redeemer (is) the Holy One of Israel, the God of all the earth shall He be called. 6. For as a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit has Jehovah called thee, and (as) a wife of youth, for she shall be rejected, said thy God. 7. In a little moment I forsook thee, and in great mercies I will gather thee. 8. In a gush of wrath I hid my face for a moment from thee, and in everlasting kindness I have had mercy on thee, saith thy Redeemer, Jehovah. 9. For the waters of Noah is this to me; what I sware from the waters of Noah passing again over the earth [i.e., that they should not pass], so have I sworn from being angry [that I will not be angry] against thee, and from rebuking [that I will not] rebuke thee. 10. For the mountains shall move and the hills shall shake; but my favour from thee shall not move, and my covenant of peace shall not shake, saith thy pitier, Jehovah. 11. Wretched, storm tossed, comfortless! Behold, I am laying (or, about to lay) thy stones in antimony, and I will found thee upon sapphires; 12, and I will make thy battlements (or, pinnacles) ruby, and thy gates to (be) sparkling gems, and all thy borders to (be) stones of pleasure (or delight). 13. And all thy children disciples of Jehovah, and great (or, plentiful) the peace of thy children. 14. In righteousness shalt thou be established: be far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, and from destruction, for it shall not come near to thee. 15. Lo, they shall gather, they shall gather, not at my sign (or, signal). Who has gathered against thee? He shall fall away to thee. 16. Lo, I have created the smith, blowing into the fire of coal, and bringing out a weapon for his work; and I have created the wasters to destroy. 17. Every weapon (that) shall be formed against thee shall not prosper, and every tongue that shall rise with thee in judgment thou shalt condemn. This is the heritage of the servants of Jehovah, and their righteousness from me, saith Jehovah.

1. Exult, O barren one, thou that didst not bear; break forth into exulting, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child; for there are more children of the solitary one than children of the married wife, saith Jehovah. 2. Enlarge the space of thy tent, and lot them stretch out the curtains of thy habitations; forbid not! lengthen thy cords, and fasten thy plugs. 3. For thou wilt break forth on the right and on the left; and thy seed will take possession of nations, and they will people desolate cities.

13. And all thy children will be the learned of Jehovah; and great the peace of thy children. 14. Through righteousness wilt thou be fortified: be far from anxiety, for thou hast nothing to fear; and from terror, for it will not come near thee. 15. Behold, men crowd together in crowds; my will is not there. Who crowd together against thee?—he shall fall by thee.

55—[By the removal of the old restrictions, the Church is, for the first time, open to the whole world, as the source or medium of the richest blessings, ver. 1. It is only here that real nourishment can be obtained, ver. 2. Life is made sure by an oath and covenant, ver. 3. The Messiah is a witness of the truth and a commander of the nations, ver. 4. As such He will be recognised by many nations who before knew nothing of the true religion, ver. 5. These are now addressed directly, and exhorted to embrace the offered opportunity, ver. 6. To this there is every encouragement afforded in the divine mercy, ver. 7. The infinite disparity between God and man should have the same effect, instead of hindering it, vers. 8, 9. The commands and promises of God must be fulfilled, vers. 10, 11, Nothing, therefore, can prevent a glorious change in the condition of the world under the dispensation of the Spirit, ver. 12. This blessed renovation, being directly promotive of God's glory, shall endure for ever, ver. 13.]

SEVENTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. 55

Come and take the sure Salvation of Jehovah.

1. Ho, every thirsty one, come ye to the waters; and he to whom there is no money, come ye, buy (food) and eat; and come, buy, without money and without price, wine and milk. 2. Why will ye weigh money for (that which is) not bread, and your labour for (that which is) not to satiety? Hearken, hearken unto me, and eat (that which is) good, and your soul shall enjoy itself in fatness. 3. Incline your ear and come unto me, hear and your soul shall live (or, let it live), and I will make with you an everlasting covenant, the sure mercies of David. 4. Lo, (as) a witness of nations I have given Him, a chief and commander of nations. 5. Lo, a nation (that) thou knowest not shalt thou call, and a nation (that) have not known thee shall run unto thee, for the sake of Jehovah thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel, for He hath glorified thee.

6. Seek ye Jehovah while He may be found; call ye upon Him while He is near. 7. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the man of iniquity his thoughts, and let him return unto Jehovah, and He will have mercy upon him, and to our God for He will abundantly pardon (literally, multiply to pardon). 8. For my thoughts (are) not as your thoughts, nor your ways my ways, saith Jehovah. 9. For (as) the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.

10. For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and thither returneth not, but when it has watered the earth and made it bear and put forth, and has given seed to the sower and bread to the eater, 11, so shall my word be, which goeth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void (or, without effect), but when it has done that which I desired, and successfully done that for which I sent it. 12. For with joy shall ye go forth, and in peace shall ye be led; the mountains and the hills shall break out before you into a shout, and all the trees of the field shall clap the hand. 13. Instead of the thorn shall come up the cypress, and instead of the nettle shall come up the myrtle, and it shall be to Jehovah for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off.

I. Alas, all ye thirsty ones, come ye to the water; and ye that have no silver, come ye, buy and eat! Yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without payment! 2. Wherefore do ye weigh silver for that which is not bread, and the result of your labour for that which satisfieth not? Oh, hearken ye to me, and eat the good, and let your soul delight itself in fat.

56—[The day is coming when the righteousness of God is to be fully revealed, without the veils and shackles which had hitherto confined it, ver. 1. For this great change, the best preparation is fidelity to the spirit of the old economy, ver. 2. No personal or national distinctions will be any longer recognised, ver. 3. Connection with the Church will no longer be a matter of hereditary right, vers. 4, 5. The Church shall be henceforth coextensive with the world, vers. 6-8. But first the carnal Israel must be abandoned to its enemies, ver. 9. Its rulers are neither able nor worthy to deliver the people or themselves, vers. 10-12.]

EIGHTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa

Sabbatical Admonitions, and Consolations for Proselytes and Eunuchs.

1. Thus saith Jehovah, Keep ye judgment (or justice) and do righteousness; for near (is) my salvation to come, and my righteousness to be revealed. 2. Happy the man (that) shall do this, and the son of man that shall hold it fast, keeping the Sabbath from profaning it, and keeping his hand from doing evil.

1. Thus saith Jehovah, Keep ye right, and do righteousness; for my salvation is near to come, and my righteousness to reveal itself. 2. Blessed is the mortal that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth fast hold thereon; who keepeth the Sabbath, that he doth not desecrate it, and keepeth his hand from doing any kind of evil.

3. And let not the foreigner say, who has joined himself unto Jehovah, saving, Jehovah will separate me wholly from His people; and let not the eunuch say, Lo, I am a dry tree. 4. For thus saith Jehovah to (or, as to) the eunuchs, who shall keep my Sabbaths, and shall choose what I delight in, and take fast hold of my covenant, 5. I will give to them in my house and within my walls a place and a name better than sons and than daughters; an everlasting name will I give to him, which shall not be cut off. 6. And (as to) the foreigners joining themselves to Jehovah to serve Him and to love the name of Jehovah, to be to Him for servants, every one keeping the Sabbath from profaning it, and holding fast my covenant; 7. I will bring them to my mount of holiness, and make them joyful in my house of prayer, their offerings and their sacrifices (shall be) to acceptance on my altar; for my house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations. 8. Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, the gatherer of the outcasts of Israel, Still (more) will I gather upon him (in addition) to his gathered.

9. All ye beasts of the field, come to devour, all ye beasts in the forest! 10. His watchmen (are) blind all of them, they have not known (or, do not know); all of them (are) dumb dogs, they cannot bark, dreaming, lying down, loving to slumber. 11. And the dogs are greedy, they know not satiety, and they, the shepherds (or, the shepherds themselves), know not how to distinguish (or, act wisely); all of them to their own way are turned, (every) man to his own gain from his own quarter (or, without exception). 12. Come ye, I will fetch wine, and we will intoxicate ourselves with strong drink, and like to-day (shall be) to-morrow, great, abundantly, exceedingly.

57—[The righteous who died under the old economy were taken away from the evil to come, vers. 1, 2. The wicked who despised them were themselves proper objects of contempt, vers. 3, 4. Their idolatry is first described in literal terms; vers. 5, 6. It is then represented as a spiritual idolatry, vers. 7-9. Their obstinate persistence in sin is represented as the cause of their hopeless and remediless destruction, vers. 10-13. A way is prepared for spiritual Israel to come out from among them, ver. 14. The hopes of true believers shall not be deferred for ever, vers. 15, 16. Even these must be chastened for their sins, ver. 17. But there is favour in reserve for all true penitents, without regard to national distinctions, vers. 18, 19. To the incorrigible sinner, on the other hand, peace is impossible, vers. 20, 21.]

NINTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa to Isa 57:21

Neglect of Duty by the Leaders of Israel; and Errors of the People.

12. Come here, I will fetch wine, and let us drink meth; and to-morrow shall be like to-day, great, excessively abundant.

1. The righteous perisheth, and there is no man laying (it) to heart, and men of mercy are taken away, with none considering (or perceiving) that from the presence of evil the righteous is taken away. 2. He shall go in peace (or, enter into peace); they shall rest upon their beds—walking straight before him.

3. And ye (or, as for you), draw near hither, ye sons of the witch, seed of the adulterer and the harlot. 4. At whom do ye amuse yourselves? At whom do ye enlarge the mouth, prolong the tongue? Are ye not children of rebellion (or, apostasy), a seed of falsehood? 5. Inflamed (or, inflaming yourselves) among the oaks (or, terebinths), under every green tree, slaughtering the children in the valleys, under the clefts of the rocks. 6. Among the smooth (stones) of the valley (or, the brook) is thy portion; they, they are thy lot; also to them hast thou poured out a drink-offering, thou hast brought up a meat-offering. Shall I for these things be consoled (i.e., satisfied without revenge)?

7. On a high and elevated mountain thou hast placed thy bed; also there (or, even thither) hast thou gone up to offer sacrifice. 8. And behind the door and the door-post thou hast placed thy memorial, far away from me thou hast uncovered (thyself or thy bed), and hast gone up, thou hast enlarged thy bed and hast covenanted from them, thou hast loved their bed, thou hast provided room. 9. And thou hast gone to the king in oil, and hast multiplied thine unguents, and hast sent thine ambassadors even to a far-off (land), and hath gone (or, sent) down even to hell.

10. In the greatness of thy way (or, the abundance of thy travel) thou hast labour; (but) thou hast not said, There is no hope. Thou hast found the life of thy hand; therefore thou art not weak. 11. And whom hast thou feared and been afraid of, that thou shouldest lie? And me thou hast not remembered, thou hast not called to mind (or, laid to heart). Is it not (because) I hold my peace, and that of old, that thou wilt not fear me? 12. I will declare thy righteousness and thy works, and they shall not profit (or, avail thee. 13. In thy crying (i.e., when thou criest for help), let thy gatherings save thee! And (yet) all of them the wind shall take up, and a breath shall take away, and the (one) trusting in me shall inherit the land and possess my holy mountain.

14. And he shall say, Cast up, cast up, clear the way, take up the stumbling-block from the way of my people! 15. For thus saith the High and Exalted One, inhabiting eternity, and Holy is His name: On high and holy will I dwell, and with the broken and humble of spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble and to revive the heart of the broken (or, contrite ones). 16. For not to eternity will I contend, and not to perpetuity will I be wroth; for the spirit from before me will faint, and the souls (which) I have made.

17. For his covetous iniquity I am wroth and will smite him, (I will) hide me and will be wroth; for he has gone on turning away (i.e., persevering in apostasy) in the way of his heart (or, of his own inclination). 18. His ways I have seen, and I will heal him, and will guide him, and restore comforts unto him and to his mourners. 19. Creating the fruit of the lips, Peace, peace to the far off and to the near, saith Jehovah, and I heal him.

20. And the wicked (are) like the troubled sea, for rest it cannot, and its waters cast up mire and dirt. 21. There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked.

11. And of whom hast thou been afraid, and (whom) didst thou fear, that thou becamest a liar, and didst not continue mindful of me, and didst not take it to heart?

19. Creating fruit of the lips; Jehovah saith, "Peace, peace to those that are far off, and to those that are near; and I heal it." 20. But the wicked are like the sea that is cast up; for it cannot rest; and its waters cast out slime and mud. 21. There is no peace, saith my God, for the wicked,

58—[The rejection of Israel as a nation is the just reward of their unfaithfulness, ver. 1. Their religious services are hyprocritical, ver. 2. Their mortifications and austerities are nullified by accompanying wickedness, vers. 3-5. They should have been connected with the opposite virtues, vers. 6, 7. In that case they would have continued to enjoy the divine favour, vers. 8, 9. They are still invited to make trial of this course, with an ample promise of prosperity and blessing to encourage them, vers. 10-14.]

PART III.

FIRST PROPHECY.—CHAP. 58

The False Worship and the True.

1. Cry with the throat, spare not, like the trumpet raise thy voice, and tell to my people their transgression, and to the house of Jacob their sins.

2. And me day (by) day they will seek, and the knowledge of my ways they will delight in (or, desire), like a nation which has done right, and the judgment of its God has not forsaken; they will ask of me righteous judgments, the approach to God (or, of God) they will delight in (or, desire).

3. Why have we fasted, and Thou hast not seen (it)? afflicted our soul (or, ourselves) and Thou wilt not know (it)? Behold in the day of your fast ye will find pleasure, and all your labours ye will exact. 4. Behold, for strife and contention ye will fast, and to smite with the fist of wickedness; ye shall not (or, ye will not) fast to-day (so as) to make your voice heard on high. 5. Shall it be like this, the fast that I will choose, the day of man's humbling himself? Is it to hang his head like a bulrush, and make sackcloth and ashes his bed? Wilt thou call this a fast, and a day of acceptance (an acceptable day) to Jehovah?

6. Is not this the fast that I will choose, to loosen bands of wickedness, to undo the fastenings of the yoke, and to send away the crushed (or broken) free, and every yoke ye shall break? 7. Is it not to break unto the hungry thy bread? and the afflicted, the homeless, thou shalt bring home; for thou shalt see one naked and shalt clothe him, and from thine own flesh thou shalt not hide thyself.

8. Then shall break forth as the dawn thy light, and thy healing speedily shall spring up; then shall go before thee thy righteousness, and the glory of Jehovah shall be thy rereward (or, bring up thy rear). 9. Then shalt thou call, and Jehovah will answer; thou shalt cry, and He will say, Behold me (here I am), if thou wilt put away from the midst of thee the yoke, the pointing of the finger, and the speaking of vanity.

10. And (if) thou wilt let out thy soul to the hungry, and the afflicted soul will satisfy, then shall thy light arise in the darkness, and thy gloom as the (double light or) noon. 11. And Jehovah will guide thee ever, and satisfy thy soul in drought, and thy bones shall He invigorate, and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water whose waters shall not fail. 12. And they shall build from thee the ruins of antiquity (or, perpetuity), foundations of age and age (i.e., of ages) shalt thou raise up: and it shall be called to thee (or, thou shalt be called) Repairer of the breach, Restorer of paths for dwelling.

13. If thou wilt turn away thy foot from the Sabbath to do thy pleasure on my holy day, and wilt call the Sabbath a delight (and) the holy (day) of Jehovah honourable, and wilt honour it by not doing thy own ways, by not finding thy pleasure and talking talk; 14. then shalt thou be happy in Jehovah, and I will make thee ride upon the heights of the earth, and I will make thee eat the heritage of Jacob thy father, for Jehovah's mouth hath spoken it.

8. Then will thy light break forth as the morning dawn, and thy healing will sprout up speedily, and thy righteousness will go before thee, the glory of Jehovah will follow thee. 9. Then wilt thou call, and Jehovah will answer; thou wilt beseech, and He will say, Here am I.

59—[The fault of Israel's rejection is not in the Lord, but in themselves, vers. 1, 2. They are charged with sins of violence and in justice, vers. 3, 4. The ruinous effects of these corruptions are described, vers. 5, 6. Their violence and injustice are fatal to themselves as to others, vers. 7, 8. The moral condition of the people is described as one of darkness and hopeless degradation, vers. 9-15. In this extremity, Jehovah interposes to deliver the true Israel, vers. 16, 17. This can only be effected by the destruction of the carnal Israel, ver. 18. The divine presence shall no longer be subjected to local restrictions, ver. 19. A redeemer shall appear in Zion to save the true Israel, ver. 20. The old dispensation shall give place to the dispensation of the Word and Spirit, which shall last for ever, ver. 21.]

SECOND PROPHECY.—CHAP. 59

The Existing Wall of Partition broken down at last.

1. Behold, not shortened is Jehovah's hand from saving, and not benumbed is His ear from hearing. 2. But your iniquities have been separating between you and your God, and your sins have hid (His) face from you, so as not to hear.

3. For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken falsehood, your tongue will utter wickedness. 4. There is none calling with justice, and there is none contending with truth; they trust in vanity and speak falsehood, conceive mischief and bring forth iniquity. 5. Eggs of the basilisk they have hatched, and webs of the spider they will spin (or, weave); the one eating their eggs shall die, and the crushed (egg) shall hatch out a viper. 6. Their webs shall not become (or, be for) clothing, and they shall not cover themselves with their works: their works are works of mischief (or, iniquity), and the doing of violence is in their hands. 7. Their feet to evil will run, and they will hasten to shed innocent blood; their thoughts are thoughts of mischief (or, iniquity); wasting and ruin are in their paths. 8. The way of peace they have not known, and there is no justice in their paths; their courses they have rendered crooked for them; every one walking in them knows not peace.

9. Therefore is judgment far from us, and righteousness will not overtake us; we wait for light, and behold darkness; for splendours, (and) in obscurities we walk. 10. We grope like the blind for the wall, like the eyeless we grope; we stumble at noon-day as in twilight, in thick darkness like the dead. 11. We growl like the bears, all of us, and like the doves we moan; we wait for justice and there is none, for salvation (and) it is far from us. 12. For our transgressions are multiplied before Thee, and our sins testify against us; for our transgressions are with us, and our iniquities—we know them; 13. to transgress and lie against Jehovah, and to turn back from behind our God, to speak oppression and departure, to conceive and utter from the heart words of falsehood. 14. And judgment is thrust (or, driven) back, and righteousness afar off stands; for truth is fallen in the street, and uprightness cannot enter. 15. Then truth was missed (i.e. found wanting), and whoso departed from evil made himself a prey (or, was plundered).

Then Jehovah saw it, and it was evil in His eyes that there was no judgment (or, practical justice). 16. And He saw that there was no man, and He stood aghast that there was no one interposing; and His own arm saved for Him, and His own righteousness, it upheld Him. 17. And He clothed Himself with righteousness as a coat of mail, and a helmet of salvation on His head, and He clothed Himself with garments of vengeance (for) clothing, and put on, as the cloak (or tunic), jealousy. 18. According to (their) deeds, according will He repay, wrath to His enemies, (their) desert to His foes, to the isles (their) desert will He repay. 19. And they shall fear from the west the name of Jehovah, and from the rising of the sun His glory; for it shall come like a straitened stream, the spirit of Jehovah raising a banner in it.

1. Behold, Jehovah's hand is not too short to help, nor His ear too heavy to hear; 2. but your iniquities have become a party-wall between you and your God, and your sins have hidden His face from you, so that He does not hear. 3. For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips speak lies, your tongue murmurs wickedness.

20. Then shall come for Zion a Redeemer, and for the converts from apostasy in Jacob, saith Jehovah. 21. And I (or, as for me)—this (is) my covenant with them, saith Jehovah. My Spirit which is on thee, and my words which I have placed in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith Jehovah, from henceforth and for ever (or, from now and to eternity).

21. And I, this is my covenant with them, saith Jehovah: My Spirit which is upon thee, and my word which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, and out of the mouth of thy seed, and out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, saith Jehovah, from henceforth and for ever.

60 [The prophet describes the approaching change as a new and divine light rising upon Zion, ver. 1. He contrasts it with the darkness of surrounding nations, ver. 2. Yet these are not excluded from participation in the light, ver. 3. The elect in every nation are the children of the Church, and shall be gathered to her, vers. 4, 5. On one side he sees the Oriental caravans and flocks approaching, vers. 6, 7. On the other, the commercial fleets of western nations, vers. 8, 9. What seemed rejection is in fact the highest favour, ver. 10. The glory of the true Church is her freedom from local and national restrictions, ver. 11. None are excluded from her pale but those who exclude themselves and thereby perish, ver. 12. External nature shall contribute to her splendour, ver. 13. Her very enemies shall do her homage, ver. 14. Instead of being cast off, she is glorified for ever, ver. 15. Instead of being identified with one nation, she shall derive support from all, ver. 16. All that is changed in her condition shall be changed for the better, ver. 17. The evils of her former state are done away, ver. 18. Even some of its advantages are now superfluous, ver. 19. What remains shall be no longer precarious, ver. 20. The splendour of this new dispensation is a moral and spiritual splendour, but attended by external safety and protection, vers. 21, 22. All this shall certainly and promptly come to pass at the appointed time, ver. 22.]

THIRD PROPHECY.—CHAP. 60

The Glory of the Jerusalem of the Last Days.

1. Arise, be light; for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah has risen upon thee. 2. For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and a gloom the nations, and upon thee shall Jehovah rise, and His glory upon thee shall be seen. 3. And nations shall walk in thy light, and kings in the brightness of thy rising.

1. Arise, grow light: for thy light cometh, and the glory of Jehovah riseth upon thee. 2. For, behold, the darkness covereth the earth, and deep darkness the nations; and Jehovah riseth over thee, and His glory be comes visible over thee. 3. And nations walk to thy light, and kings to the shining of thy rays.

4. Lift up thine eyes round about (i.e., in all directions) and see; all of them are gathered, they come to thee, thy sons from afar shall come, and thy daughters at the side shall be borne. 5. Then shalt thou see (or, fear), and brighten up (or, overflow), and thy heart shall throb and swell; because (or, when) the abundance of the sea shall be turned upon thee, the strength of nations shall come unto thee.

6. A stream of camels shall cover thee, young camels (or, dromedaries) of Midian and Ephah, all of them from Sheba shall come, gold and incense shall they bear, and the praises of Jehovah as good news. 7. All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered for thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to thee, they shall ascend with good-will (or, acceptably) my altar, and my house of beauty I will beautify.

8. Who are these that fly as a cloud and as doves to their windows? 9. Because for me the isles are waiting (or, must wait) and the ships of Tarshish in the first place, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them, for the name of Jehovah thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel, because He has glorified thee.

10. And strangers shall build thy walls, and their kings shall serve thee; for in my wrath I smote thee, and in my favour I have had mercy on thee. 11. And thy gates shall be open continually, day and night they shall not be shut, to bring into thee the strength of nations and their kings led (captive, or, in triumph). 12. For the nation and the kingdom which will not serve thee shall perish, and the nations shall be desolated, desolated.

13. The glory of Lebanon to thee shall come, cypress, plane, and box together, to adorn the place of my sanctuary, and the place of my feet I will honour.

14. Then shall come to thee bending the sons of thy oppressors, then shall bow down to the soles of thy feet all thy despisers, and shall call thee the City of Jehovah, Zion the holy place of Israel (or, the Zion of the Holy One of Israel).

15. Instead of thy being forsaken and hated, and with none passing (through thee), and I will place thee for a boast of perpetuity, a joy of age and age. 16. And thou shalt suck the milk of nations, and the breast of kings shalt thou suck, and thou shalt know that I, Jehovah, am thy Saviour, and (that) thy Redeemer (is) the Mighty One of Jacob. 17. Instead of brass (or, copper) I will bring gold, and instead of iron I will bring silver, and instead of wood brass, and instead of Stones iron, and I will place (or, make) thy government peace, and thy rulers righteousness.

18. There shall no more be heard violence in thy land, desolation and ruin in thy borders (or, within thy bounds); and thou shalt call salvation thy walls, and thy gates praise. 19. No more shall be to thee the sun for a light by day, and for brightness the moon shall not shine to thee, and Jehovah shall become thy everlasting light, and thy God thy glory. 20. Thy sun shall set no more, and thy moon shall not be withdrawn; for Jehovah shall be unto thee for an eternal light, and completed the days of thy mourning. 21. And thy people, all of them righteous, for ever shall inherit the earth, the branch (or, shoot) of my planting, the work of my hands, to glorify myself (or, to be glorified). 22. The little one shall become a thousand, and the small one a strong nation; I, Jehovah, in its time will hasten it.

19. The sun will be no more thy light by day, neither for brightness will the moon shine upon thee: Jehovah will be to thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory. 20. Thy sun will no more go down, and thy moon will not be withdrawn; for Jehovah will be to thee on everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning will be fulfilled. 21. And thy people, they are all righteous; they possess the land for a sprout of my plantations, a work of my hands for glorification. 22. The smallest one will become thousands, and the meanest one a powerful nation.

I, Jehovah, will hasten it in His time.

61—[After describing the new condition of the Church, he again introduces the great Personage by whom the change is to be brought about. His mission and its object are described by Himself in vers. 1-3. Its grand result shall be the restoration of a ruined world, ver. 4. The Church, as a mediator between God and the revolted nations, shall enjoy their solace and support, vers. 5, 6. The shame of God's people shall be changed to honour, ver. 7. The Church once restricted to a single nation, shall be recognised and honoured among all, ver. 9. He triumphs in the prospect of the universal spread of truth and righteousness, vers. 10, 11].

FOURTH PROPHECY. CHAP. 61

The Glory of the Office is committed to the Servant of Jehovah.

1. The Spirit of the Lord Jehovah (is) upon me, because Jehovah hath anointed me to bring good news to the humble, He hath sent me to bind up the broken in heart, to proclaim to captives freedom, and to the bound open opening (of the eyes or of the prison doors); 2. to proclaim a year of favour for Jehovah, and a day of vengeance for our God; to comfort all mourners, 3. to put upon Zion's mourners—to give them a crown instead of ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, a garment of praise for a faint spirit; and it shall be called to them (or, they shall be called) the oaks of righteousness, the planting of Jehovah (i.e., planted by Jehovah) to glorify Himself.

"To appoint unto the mourners of Zion,

Yea, to give unto them ornament instead of ashes,

The oil of praise instead desponding spirit."—Jones.

4. And they shall build up the ruins of antiquity, the desolations of the ancients they shall raise, and shall renew the cities of ruin (i.e., ruined cities), the desolations of age and age. 5. Then shall stand strangers and feed your flocks, and the children of outland (shall be) your ploughmen and your vine-dressers. 6. And ye (or more emphatically, as for you), the priests of Jehovah shall ye be called, the ministers of our God shall be said to you (or, of you), the strength of nations shall ye eat, and in their glory shall ye substitute your selves. 7. Instead of your shame (ye shall have) double, and (instead of their) confusion they shall celebrate their portion; therefore in their land shall they inherit double, everlasting joy shall be to them. 8. For I am Jehovah, loving justice, hating (that which is) taken away unjustly, and I will give their hire truly, and an everlasting covenant I strike for them. 9. Then shall be known among the nations their seed, and their issue in the midst of the peoples. All seeing them shall acknowledge them that they are a seed Jehovah has blessed.

10. (I will) joy, I will joy in Jehovah, let my soul exult in my God; for He hath clothed me with garments of salvation, a mantle of righteousness has He put on me, as a bridegroom adjusts his priestly crown, and as the bride arrays her jewels. 11. For as the earth puts forth its growth, and as the garden makes its plants to grow, so shall the Lord Jehovah make to grow righteousness and praise before all the nations.

4. And they will build up wastes of the olden time, raise up desolations of the forefathers, and renew desolate cities, desolations of former generations. 5. And strangers stand and feed your flocks, and foreigners become your ploughmen and vinedressers. 6. But ye will be called priests of Jehovah; Servants of our God, will men say to you: ye will eat the riches of the nations, and pride yourselves in their glory.

10. Joyfully I rejoice in Jehovah; my soul shall be joyful in my God, that He hath given me garments of salvation to put on, hath wrapped me in the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom who wears the turban like a priest, and as a bride who puts on her jewellery. 11. For like the land which brings forth its sprouts, and as a garden which causes the things sown in it to sprout up; so the Lord Jehovah bringeth righteousness to sprouting and renown before all nations.

62—[The words of the great deliverer are continued from the foregoing chapter. He will not rest until the glorious change in the condition of His people is accomplished, ver. 1. They shall be recognised by kings and nations as the people of Jehovah, vers. 2, 3 She who seemed to be forsaken is still His spouse, vers. 4, 5. The Church is required to watch and pray for the fulfilment of the promise, vers. 6, 7. God has sworn to protect her and supply her wants, vers. 8, 9. Instead of a single nation, all the nations of the earth shall flow unto her, ver. 10. The good news of salvation shall no longer be confined, but universally diffused, ver. 11. The glory of the Church is the redemption of the world, ver. 12].

FIFTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. 62

The Gradual Extension of the Glory of Jerusalem.

1. For Zion's sake I will not be still, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until her righteousness go forth as brightness, and her salvation as a lamp (that) burneth. 2. And nations shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory; and there shall be called to thee a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah shall utter. 3. And thou shalt be a crown of beauty in Jehovah's hand, and a diadem of royalty in the palm of thy God. 4. No more shall it be called to thee (shalt thou be called) Azubah (Forsaken), and thy land shall no more be called Shemamah (Desolate), but thou shalt be called Hephzibah (my delight is in her), and thy land Beulah (married), for Jehovah delights in thee, and thy land shall be married. 5. For (as) a young man marrieth a virgin, (so) shall thy sons marry thee, and (with) the joy of a bridegroom over a bride shall thy God rejoice over thee.

6. On thy walls, O Jerusalem, I have set watchmen; all the day and all the night long they shall not be silent. Ye that remind Jehovah, let there be no rest to yon, 7, and give no rest to Him, until He establish and until He place Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

8. Sworn hath Jehovah by His right hand, and by His arm of strength. If I give (i.e., I will not give) thy corn any more as food to thine enemies, and if the sons of the outland shall drink thy new wine which thou hast laboured in (I am not God). 9. For those gathering it shall eat it, and shall praise Jehovah, and those collecting it shall drink it in my holy courts (or, in the courts of my sanctuary). 10. Pass, pass through the gates, clear the way of the people, raise high, raise high the highway, free (it) from stones, raise a banner (or, a signal) over the nations. 11. Behold, Jehovah has caused it to be heard to the end of the earth, Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold thy salvation cometh; behold, His reward is with Him and His hire before Him. 12. And they shall call them the Holy People, the redeemed of Jehovah, and thou shalt be called Derushah (sought for), Ir-lo-neezabah (City not forsaken).

8. Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand, and by His powerful arm, Surely I no more give thy corn for food to thine enemies; and foreigners will not drink thy must, for which thou hast laboured hard. 9. No, they that gather it in shall eat it, and praise Jehovah; and they that store it, shall drink it in the courts of my sanctuary.

63—[The influx of the Gentiles into Zion having been described in the preceding verses, the destruction of her enemies is now sublimely represented as a sanguinary triumph of Jehovah or the Messiah, vers. 1-6. The prophet then supposes the catastrophe already past, and takes a retrospective view of God's compassion towards His people, and of their unfaithfulness during the old economy, vers. 7-14. He assumes the tone of earnest supplication, such as might have been offered by the believing Jews when all seemed lost in the destruction of their commonwealth and temple, vers. 15-19].

64—[This chapter is inseparable from the one before it. The strongest confidence is expressed in the divine power, founded upon former experience, vers. 1-3. The two great facts of Israel's rejection as a nation, and the continued existence of the Church, are brought together in ver. 4. The unworthiness of Israel is acknowledged still more fully, ver. 5, 6. The sovereign authority of God is humbly recognised, ver. 7. His favour is earnestly implored, ver. 8. The external prerogatives of Israel are lost, ver. 9. But will God for that cause cast off the true Israel, His own people? ver. 10].

SIXTH PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa

Judgment upon Edom, and upon the whole world that it hostile to the Church.

1. Who (is) this coming from Edom, bright (as to his) garments from Bozrah, this one adorned in his apparel, bending in the abundance of his strength?

I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save.

2. Why (is there) redness to thy raiment, and (why are) thy garments like (those of) one treading in a wine-prees?

I am he that speaketh in righteousness, mighty to aid.

2. Whence the red in thine apparel, and thy clothes like those of a wine-presser?

3. The press I have trodden by myself, and of the nations there was not a man with me; and I will tread them in my anger, and trample them in my fury, and their juice shall spirt upon my garments, and all my vesture I have stained. 4. For the day of vengeance (is) in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. 5. And I look, and there is none helping; and I stand aghast, and there is none sustaining; and my own arm saves for me, and my fury it sustains me. 6. And I tread the nations in my anger, and I make them drunk in my wrath, and I bring down to the earth their juice.

3. I have trodden the wine-trough alone, and of the nations no one was with me: and I trode them in my wrath, and trampled them down in my fury; and their life-sap spirted upon my clothes, and all my raiment was stained. 4. For a day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my redemption was come. 5. And I looked round, and there was no helper; and I wondered there was no supporter: then mine own arm helped me; and my fury, it became my support. 6. And I trode down nations in my wrath, and made them drunk in my fury, and made their life-blood run down to the earth.

7. The mercies of Jehovah I will cause to be remembered, the praises of Jehovah, according to all that Jehovah hath done for us, and the great goodness to the house of Israel which He hath done for them, according to His compassions, and according to the multitude of His mercies.

THE THREE CLOSING PROPHECIES

FIRST CLOSING PROPHECY.—CHAP. Isa

Thanksgiving, Confession, and Supplication of the Church of the Captivity.

8. And He said, Only they are my people, (my) children shall not lie (or, deceive), and He became a Saviour for them. 9. In all their enmity He was not an enemy, and the angel of His face (or, presence) saved them; in His love and in His sparing mercy He redeemed them, and He took them up and carried them all the days of old. 10. And they rebelled, and grieved His Holy Spirit (or, Spirit of holiness), and He was turned from them into an enemy, He himself fought against them.

11. And he remembered the days of old, Moses (and) his people. Where is He that brought them up from the sea, the shepherd of His flock? Where is He that put within him His Holy Spirit? 12. Leading them by the right hand of Moses (and) His glorious arm, cleaving the waters from before them, to make for Him an everlasting name? 13. Making them walk in the depths, like the horse in the desert they shall not stumble. 14. As the herd into the valley will go down, the Spirit of Jehovah will make him rest. So didst Thou lead Thy people, to make for Thyself a name of glory.

15. Look (down) from heaven and see from Thy dwelling-place of holiness and beauty! Where is Thy zeal and Thy might (or, mighty deeds)? The sounding of Thy bowels and Thy mercies towards me have withdrawn themselves. 16. For thou (art) our Father; for Abraham hath not known us, and Israel will not recognise us; Thou Jehovah art our Father, our Redeemer of old (or, from everlasting) is Thy name. 17. Why wilt Thou make us wander, O Jehovah, from Thy ways? (why) wilt Thou harden our heart from Thy fear? Return, for the sake of Thy servants, the tribes of Thy inheritance. 18. For a little Thy holy people possessed, our enemies trod down Thy sanctuary. 19. We are of old, Thou hast not ruled over them, Thy name has not been called upon them. Oh that Thou wouldst rend the heavens (and) come down, (that) from before Thee the mountains might quake (or flow down), Isa , as fire kindles brush, fire boils water—to make known Thy name to Thine enemies, from before Thee nations shall tremble. 2. In Thy doing fearful things (which) we expect not, (oh that) Thou wouldst come down, (that) the mountains before Thee might flow down. 3. And from eternity they have not heard, they have not perceived by the ear, the eye hath not seen, a God beside Thee (who) will do for (one) waiting for Him.

4. Thou hast met with one rejoicing and executing righteousness; in Thy ways shall they remember Thee; behold, Thou hast been wroth, and we have sinned; in them is perpetuity, and we shall be saved. 5. And we were like the unclean all of us, and like a filthy garment all our righteousness (virtues or good works), and we faded like the (fading) leaf all of us, and our iniquities like the wind will take us up (or, carry us away). 6. And there is no one calling on Thy name, rousing himself to lay hold on Thee; for Thou hast hid Thy face from us, and hast melted us because of (or, by means of) our iniquities.

7. And now, Jehovah, our Father (art) Thou, we the clay and Thou our potter, and the work of Thy hands (are) we all. 8. Be not angry, O Jehovah, to extremity, and do not to eternity remember guilt; lo, look, we pray thee, thy people (are) we all. 9. The holy cities are a desert, Zion is a desert, Jerusalem a waste. 10. Our house of holiness and beauty (in) which our fathers praised Thee has been burned up with fire, and all our delights (or, desirable places) have become a desolation. 12. Wilt Thou for these (things) restrain Thyself, O Jehovah, wilt Thou keep silence and afflict us to extremity?

65—[The great enigma of Israel's simultaneous loss and gain is solved by a prediction of the calling of the Gentiles, ver. 1. This a connected with the obstinate unfaithfulness of the chosen people, ver. 2. They are represented under the two main aspects of their character at different periods, as gross idolaters and as pharisaical bigots, vers. 3-5. Their casting off was not occasioned by the sins of one generation, but of many, vers. 6, 7. But even in this rejected race there was a chosen remnant, in whom the promises shall be fulfilled, vers. 8, 10. He then reverts to the idolatrous Jews, and threatens them with condign punishment, vers. 11, 12. The fate of the unbelieving carnal Israel is compared with that of the true spiritual Israel, vers. 13-16. The gospel economy is described as a new creation, ver. 17. Its blessings are represented under glowing figures borrowed from the old dispensation, vers. 18-19. Premature death shall be no longer known, ver. 20. Possession and enjoyment shall no longer be precarious, vers. 21-23. Their very desires shall be anticipated, ver. 24. All animosities and noxious influences shall cease for ever, ver. 25.]

10. But they resisted and vexed His Holy Spirit: then He turned to be their enemy; He made war upon them. 11. Then His people remembered the days of the olden time, of Moses: Where is He who brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of His flock? Where is He who put the Spirit of His holiness in the midst of them; 12. who caused the arm of His majesty to go at the right of Moses; who split the waters before them, to make Himself an everlasting name; 13. who caused them to pass through abysses of the deep, like the horse upon the plain, without their stumbling? 14. Like the cattle which goeth down into the valley, the Spirit of Jehovah brought them to rest: thus hast Thou led Thy people, to make Thyself a majestic name.

4. For from olden time men have not heard, nor perceived, nor hath an eye seen, a God beside thee, who acted on behalf of him that waiteth for Him. 5. Thou didst meet him that rejoiceth to work righteousness, when they remembered Thee in Thy ways.

10. The cities of Thy holiness have become a pasture-ground; Zion has become a pasture-ground, Jerusalem a desert. 11. The house of our holiness and of our adorning, where our fathers praised Thee, is given up to the fire, and everything that was our delight given up to devastation. 12. Wilt Thou restrain thyself in spite of this, O Jehovah, be silent, and leave us to suffer the utmost?

SECOND CLOSING PROPHECY.—CHAP. 65

Jehovah's Answer to the Church's Prayer.

1. I have been inquired of by those that asked not, I have been found by those that sought me not; I have said, Behold me, behold me, to a nation (that) was not called by my name. 2. I have spread (or, stretched) out my hands all the day (or, every day) to a rebellious people, those going the way not good, after their own thoughts (or, designs)—3. the people angering me to my face continually, sacrificing in the gardens, and censing on the bricks; 4. sitting in the graves, and in the holes they will lodge, eating the flesh of swine, and broth of filthy things (is in) their vessels; 5. the (men) saying, Keep to thyself, come not near to me, for I am holy to thee,—these (are) a smoke in my wrath, a fire burning all the day (or, every day). 6 and 7. Lo, it is written before me, I will not rest except I repay, and I will repay into their bosom your iniquities and the iniquities of your fathers together, saith Jehovah, who burned incense on the mountains, and on the hills blasphemed me, and I will measure their first work into their bosom.

8. Thus saith Jehovah, as (when) juice is found in the cluster, and one says, Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it, so will I do for the sake of my servants, not to destroy the whole. 9. And I will bring forth from Jacob a seed, and from Judah an heir of my mountains, and my chosen ones shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there. 10. And Sharon shall be for (or, become) a home of flocks, and the valley of Achor a lair of herds, for my people who have sought me.

11. And (as for) you, forsakers of Jehovah, the (men) forgetting my holy mountain, the (men) setting for Fortune a table, and the (men) filling for Fate a mingled draught; 12. and I have numbered yon to the sword, and all of you to the slaughter shall bow; because I called and ye did not answer, I spake and ye did not hear, and ye did the (thing that was) evil in my eyes, and that which I desired not ye chose.

13 and 14. Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Lo! my servants shall eat and ye shall hunger; lo, my servants shall drink and ye shall thirst; lo, my servants shall rejoice and ye shall be ashamed; lo, my servants shall shout from gladness of heart, and ye shall cry from grief of heart, and from brokenness of spirit ye shall howl. 15. And ye shall leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones, and the Lord Jehovah shall slay thee, and shall call His servants by another name (lit. call another name to them), 16. (by) which the (man) blessing himself in the land (or, earth) shall bless himself by the God of truth, and (by which) the (man) swearing in the land (or, earth) shall swear by the God of truth, because forgotten are the former enmities (or, troubles), and because they are hidden from my eyes.

6. Behold, it is written before me: I will not keep silence without having recompensed, and I will recompense into their bosom. 7. Your offences, and the offences of your fathers together, saith Jehovah, that they have burned incense upon the mountains, and insulted me upon the hills, and I measure their reward first of all into their bosom.

8. Thus saith Jehovah, As when the must is found in the cluster, men say, Do not destroy it, for there is a blessing within it, so will I do for the sake of my servants, that I may not destroy the whole. 9. And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and an heir of my mountains out of Judah, and my chosen ones shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there. 10. And the plain of Sharon becomes a meadow for flocks, and the valley of Achor a resting-place for oxen, for my people that asketh for me.

11. And ye, who are enemies to Jehovah, O ye that are unmindful of my holy mountain, who prepare a table for Gad, and fill up mixed drink for the goddess of destiny,—12. I have destined you to the sword, and ye will bow down to the slaughter, because I have called, and ye have not replied, I have spoken, and ye have not heard; and ye did evil in mine eyes, and ye chose that which I did not like.

17. For lo I (am) creating (or, about to create) new heavens and a new earth, and the former (things) shall not be remembered, and shall not come up into the mind (lit. on the heart). 18. But rejoice and be glad unto eternity (in) that which I (am) creating, for lo, I (am) creating Jerusalem a joy, and her people a rejoicing. 19. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people; and there shall not be heard in her again the voice of weeping and the voice of crying. 20. There shall be no more from there an infant of days, and an old man who shall not fulfil his days, for the child a hundred years old shall die, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed. 21 and 22. And they shall build houses and inhabit (them), and shall plant vineyards and eat the fruit of them, they shall not build and another inhabit, they shall not plant and another eat; for as the days of a tree (shall be) the days of my people, and the work of their hands my chosen ones shall wear out (or, survive). 23. They shall not labour in vain, and they shall not bring forth for terror; for the seed of the blessed of Jehovah are they, and their offspring with them. 24. And it shall be (or, come to pass), that they shall not yet have called and I will answer, yet (shall) they (be) speaking and I will hear. 25. The wolf and the lamb shall feed as one, and the lion like the ox shall eat straw, and the serpent dust (for) his food. They shall not hurt and they shall not corrupt (or, destroy) in all my holy mountain, saith Jehovah.

21. And they will build houses and inhabit them, and plant vineyards and enjoy the fruit thereof. 22. They will not build and another inhabit, nor plant and another enjoy; for like the days of trees are the days of my people, and my chosen ones will consume the work of their hands. 23. They will not weary them selves in vain, nor bring forth for sudden disaster; for they are a family of the blessed of Jehovah, and their offspring are left to them.

24. And it will come to pass: before they call, I will answer; they are still speaking, and I already hear. 25. Wolf and lamb then feed together, and the lion eats chopped straw like the ox, and the serpent—dust is its bread. They will neither do harm nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith Jehovah.

66—[This chapter winds up the prophetic discourse with an express prediction of the change of dispensation, and a description of the difference between them. Jehovah will no longer dwell in temples made with hands, ver. 1. Every sincere and humble heart shall be His residence, ver. 2. The ancient sacrifices, though divinely instituted, will henceforth be as hateful as the rites of idolatry, ver 3. They who still cling to the abrogated ritual will be fearfully but righteously requited, ver. 4. The true Israel cast out by these deluded sinners shall ere long be glorified, and the carnal Israel fearfully rewarded, vers. 5, 6. The ancient Zion may already be seen travailing with a new and glorious dispensation, vers. 7, 9. They who mourned for her seeming desolation, now rejoice in her abundance and her honour, vers. 10-14. At the same time the carnal Israel shall be destroyed, as apostates and idolaters, vers. 14-17. The place which they once occupied shall now be filled by the elect from all nations, ver. 18. To gather these, a remnant of the ancient Israel shall go forth among the Gentiles, ver. 19. They shall come from every quarter, and by every mode of conveyance, ver. 20. They shall be admitted to the sacerdotal honours of the chosen people, ver. 21. This new dispensation is not to be temporary, like the one before it, but shall last for ever, ver. 22. While the spiritual Israel is thus replenished from all nations, the apostate Israel shall perish by a lingering decay in the sight of an astonished world, ver. 23, 24.]

THIRD CLOSING PROPHECY.—CHAP. 66

Exclusion of Scorners from the Coming Salvation.

1. Thus saith Jehovah, the heavens (are) my throne, and the earth my footstool; where is (or, what is) the house which ye will build for me, and where is (or, what is) the place of my rest? 2. And all these my own hand made, and all these were (or, are), saith Jehovah; and to this one will I look, to the afflicted and contrite in spirit, and trembling at my word.

3. Slaying the ox, smiting a man—sacrificing the sheep, breaking a dog's neck—offering an oblation, blood of swine—making a memorial of incense, blessing vanity—also they have chosen their ways, and in their abominations has their soul delighted. 4. I also will choose their vexations, and their fear I will bring upon them; because I called and there was no answering, I spake and they did not hear, and they did evil in my eyes, and that which I delight not in they chose.

5. Hear the word of Jehovah, ye that tremble at His word. Your brethren say, (these) hating you and casting you out for my name's sake, Jehovah will be glorified, and we shall gaze upon your joy—and they shall be ashamed. 6. A voice of tumult from the city! A voice from the temple! The voice of Jehovah, rendering requital to His enemies!

7. Before she travailed she brought forth, before her pain came she was delivered of a male. 8. Who hath heard such a thing? Who hath seen such things? Shall a land be brought forth in one day, or shall a nation be born at once? For Zion hath travailed, she hath also brought forth her children. 9. Shall I bring to the birth and not cause to bring forth? saith Jehovah. Or am I the one causing to bring forth, and shall I shut up? saith thy God.

10. Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all that love her; be glad with her with gladness, all those mourning for her, 11. that ye may suck and be satisfied from the breast of her consolations, that ye may milk out and enjoy yourselves, from the fulness (or, the full breast) of her glory. 12. For thus saith Jehovah, Behold, I am extending to her peace like a river, and like an overflowing stream the glory of nations; and ye shall suck; on the side shall ye be borne, and on the knees shall ye be dandled. 13. As a man whom his mother comforteth, so will I comfort you, and in Jerusalem shall ye be comforted. 14. And ye shall see, and your heart shall leap (with joy), and your bones like grass shall sprout, and the hand of Jehovah shall be known to His servants, and He shall be indignant at His enemies.

15. For lo, Jehovah in fire will come, and like the whirlwind His chariots, to appease in fury His anger, and His rebuke in flames of fire. 16. For by fire is Jehovah striving and by His sword with all flesh, and multiplied (or, many) are the slain of Jehovah. 17. The (men) hallowing themselves and the (men) cleansing themselves to (or, towards) the gardens after one in the midst, eaters of swine's flesh and vermin and mouse, together shall cease (or, come to an end), saith Jehovah.

18. And I—their works and their thoughts—it is come—to gather all the nations and the tongues—and they shall come and see my glory. 19. And I will place in them (or, among them) a sign, and I will send of them survivors (or, escaped ones) to the nations, Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, drawers of the bow, Tubal and Javan, distant isles, which have not heard my fame, and have not seen my glory, and they shall declare my glory among nations. 20. And they shall bring all your brethren from all nations, an oblation to Jehovah, with horses, and with chariot, and with litters, and with mules, and with dromedaries, on my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith Jehovah, as the children of Israel bring the oblation in a clean vessel to the house of Jehovah. 21. And also of them will I take for the priests, for the Levites, saith Jehovah. 22. For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I am making (or, about to make), are standing (or, about to stand) before me, saith Jehovah, so shall stand your name and your seed.

23. And it shall be (or, come to pass) that from new-moon to new-moon (or, on every new-moon), and from Sabbath to Sabbath (or, on every Sabbath), shall come all flesh to bow themselves (or, worship) before me, saith Jehovah. 24. And they shall go forth and gaze upon the carcases of the men who revolted (or, apostatised) from me, for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be a horror to all flesh.

5. Hear ye the word of Jehovah, ye that tremble at His word: your brethren that hate you, that thrust you from them for my name's sake, say, "Let Jehovah get honour, that we may see your joy;" they will be put to shame.

6. Sound of tumult from the city! Sound from the temple! Sound of Jehovah, who repays His enemies with punishment.

7. Before she travailed she brought forth; before pains came upon her, she was delivered of a boy. 8. Who hath heard such a thing? Who hath seen anything like it? Are men delivered of a land in one day? Or is a nation begotten at once? For Zion hath travailed, yea, hath brought forth her children. 9. Should I bring to the birth, and not cause to bring forth? saith Jehovah: or should I, who cause to bring forth, shut up? saith thy God.

19. And I set a sign upon them, and send away those that have escaped from them to the Gentiles, to Tarshish, Phûl and Lûd, to the stretchers of the bow, Tubal and Javan—the distant islands that have not heard my fame and have not seen my glory, and they will proclaim my glory among the Gentiles. 20. And they will bring your brethren out of all heathen nations, a sacrifice for Jehovah, upon horses and upon chariots, and upon litters, and upon mules, and upon dromedaries, to my holy mountain, to Jerusalem, saith Jehovah, as the children of Israel bring the meat-offering in a clean vessel to the house of Jehovah. 21. And I will also add some of them to the priests, to the Levites, saith Jehovah. 22. For as the new heaven and the new earth, which I am about to make, continue before me, saith Jehovah, so will your family and your name continue. 23. And it will come to pass, from new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh will come, to worship before me, saith Jehovah. 24. And they go out and look at the corpses of the men that have rebelled against me, for their worm will not die, and their fire will not be quenched, and they become an abomination to all flesh.

Lectionary Calendar
Sunday, October 20th, 2019
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29
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