corner graphic   Hi,    
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to

Bible Encyclopedias

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia


Resource Toolbox
Additional Links

— Into Hebrew:

After the early victories of the Mohammedans and the consequent spread of Arabic civilization, the Jews of the Eastern countries became familiar with and adopted to a large extent the Arabic language so much so that rabbis and scholars, if they desired to be understood by the masses, were compelled to write their works in that language. After the center of Jewish learning shifted from the Orient to Spain and southern France, some of these works, especially those dealing with the Halakah and Hebrew grammar, were translated from Arabic into Hebrew. In the lists of translations in this article the title of the translation is, as a rule, given in parentheses, with the date and place of publication of the first edition.

From Arabic.
The oldest Hebrew translations from Arabic date from the eleventh century. In 1078 Isaac ben Reuben Albargeloni rendered into Hebrew, under the title "Ha-Miḳ ḳ aḥ weha-Mimkar," Hai Gaon's treatise on purchase (Venice, 1602), also Ibn Janaḥ 's lexicon "Kitab al-Uṣ ul" ("Sefer ha-Shorashim"). About the same time, perhaps a little earlier, some Karaite writings were translated into Hebrew by Moses ben Tobia. At the beginning of the twelfth century Moses ben Samuel ha-Kohen ibn Gikatilla translated the two principal works of Ḥ ayyuj, the treatises on "Verbs Containing Weak Letters" and "Verbs Containing Double Letters" (edited with an English translation by John W. Nutt, London and Berlin, 1870). From the first half of the twelfth century there are a translation, or rather a paraphrase, of Saadia' s" Emunot we-De' ot," and a translation of his commentary on the "Sefer Yeẓ irah," both by Moses ben Joseph of Lucena. Toward the middle of the same century Ibn Ezra translated Ḥ ayyuj's grammatical works, two works on the astrology of Mashallah ("She' elot" and "Kadrut"), and a treatise on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot"). About the same time Judah ben Isaac ibn Ghayyat translated a casuistical dissertation on a part of Shebu' ot.

All these translations are said by Judah ibn Tibbon, in the introduction to the "Ḥ obot ha-Lebabot," to be defective in character, their imperfections being due either to a less than thorough knowledge of Arabic or Hebrew on the part of the translators, or to the fact that the latter give their own opinions instead of those of the authors. A similar view is expressed by Judah ben Barzillai, in his commentary on the "Sefer Yeẓ irah," with regard to Moses ben Joseph's translation of Saadia's commentary on that work, the Hebrew of which he declares to be unintelligible.

The Ibn Tibbons.
A new era in regard to methods of translation began with Judah Ibn Tibbon , "the father of translators." At the request of Meshullam ben Jacob and his son Asher, Judah translated, in 1161, the first treatise of Baḥ ya ben Joseph ibn Paḳ uda's ethical work "Kitab al-Hidayah ila Fara' iḍ al-Ḳ ulub." After its completion Joseph Ḳ imḥ i translated the remaining nine treatises and then the first one also. However, at the request of Abraham ben David of Posquiè res, Judah completed, under the title "Ḥ obot ha-Lebabot" (Naples, 1489), the translation of the whole work, his version gradually superseding that by Ḳ imḥ i, of which only a small fragment has been preserved (published by Jellinek in Benjacob's edition of the "Ḥ obot ha-Lebabot," Leipsic, 1846). The translation of Baḥ ya's work was followed by translations of Ibn Gabirol's "Kitab Iṣ laḥ al-Akhlaḳ " ("Tiḳ ḳ un Middot ha-Nefesh, "Constantinople, 1550), Judah ha-Levi's "Kitab al-Ḥ ujjah" ("Sefer ha-Kuzari," Fano, 1506), Ibn Janaḥ 's "Kitab al-Luma' " ("Sefer ha-Riḳ mah," ed. B. Goldberg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1856) and "Kitab al-Uṣ ul" ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," ed. W. Bacher, Berlin, 1896), and Saadia's "Kitab al-Amanat wal-I' tiḳ adat" ("Sefer ha-Emunot weha-De' ot," Constantinople, 1562). To Judah ibn Tibbon is attributed also, although on very slight grounds, the translation of the collection of maxims "Mibḥ ar ha-Peninim," usually ascribed to Ibn Gabirol, and of Aristotle's "Posterior Analytics." In all these translations Judah endeavored to render faithfully the very words of the authors— by no means an easy task, considering the richness of the Arabic vocabulary and the poverty of the Hebrew.

Literal Method of Translation.
In order to reproduce the abstract ideas found in the philosophical writings new word-forms and technical terms had to be established. These word-forms and technical terms were naturally modeled after those of the Arabic, which, in their turn, were literal translations from the Greek. It is not surprising, therefore, that in the Hebrew versions of the philosophical writings there are many expressions which are unintelligible to those unacquainted with the Arabic terminology but this can not be imputed as a fault to the translator, who could not find in Hebrew words adequate to the expression of abstract ideas, Hebrew being essentially the language of a people of concrete ideas. Judah's work is nevertheless far from being above criticism it contains many faults which are due either to the translator's limited knowledge of Hebrew or to his misunderstanding of the original. Desiring to be faithful to the latter, Judah, like all the translators who took him as their guide, invariably rendered each Arabic word into an equivalent in Hebrew, without considering that a literal translation is not always possible and that some sentences must necessarily be recast in order to make them intelligible to a reader who is a stranger to Arabic constructions.

Another grave defect in Judah's method of translation, and one which gave rise to many errors and misunderstandings, was that he always used the same Hebrew word as an equivalent for a given Arabic word, regardless of the variations of meaning attached to the latter. Thus, for instance, he always uses the Hebrew verb ("to stand") for the Arabic , although, according to the preposition by which the latter is followed, it may also mean "to read," "to study," etc. Yet, notwithstanding numerous faults, Judah's translations were recognized as standards and accepted as models by all the Hebrew translators of Arabic in the Middle Ages. Thus his version of the "Cuzari" superseded that made a little later by Judah ibn Cardinal, as his rendering of the "Kitab al-Uṣ ul" superseded those made by Isaac ha-Levi and Isaac ben Judah Albargeloni.

Translation of Maimonides.
The thirteenth century was especially rich in Hebrew translations from the Arabic, and those of Samuel Ibn Tibbon , the son of Judah, were prominent among them. An enthusiastic admirer of Maimonides, Samuel began by translating several of his works, the most important among which was the "Dalalat al-Ḥ a' irin," which he finished in 1190 under the title "Moreh Nebukim." Samuel clung more tenaciously than his father to the letter of the Arabic text he even introduced Arabic words into his translations, and, by analogy with the Arabic, gave to certain Hebrew words meanings different from the accepted ones. This system of translation could but impair the intelligibility of a text difficult in itself and thus the "Moreh" abounds in passages which are enigmatic to those who do not possess a profound knowledge of Arabic. Samuel's translation was, indeed, approved by Maimonides himself, to whom it had been sent for revision but in such a case Maimonides was the person least qualified to judge, since, as the author of the original and an expert in Arabic, he naturally had no difficulty in reading the Hebrew version. This at least must have been the opinion of the poet Judah al-Ḥ arizi, who, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, made a new translation of Maimonides' work and accused Samuel ibn Tibbon of having intentionally obscured the text. Al-Ḥ arizi was not successful in his attempt to supersede Samuel's translation with his own, for the former was found by some critics to be more faithful to the original. Thus Shem-Ṭ ob ibn Falaquera, passing judgment upon both translations, says: "In Ibn Tibbon's translation the errors are few, and if the learned translator had had time he certainly would have corrected them but in Al-Ḥ arizi' s, mistakes are numerous and words are often given wrong meanings."

In addition to the "Moreh," Samuel translated the following works of Maimonides: a treatise on resurrection ("Iggeret," or "Ma' amar Teḥ iyyat ha-Metim") the Mishnah commentary on Pirḳ e Abot, with the psychological introduction ("Shemonah Peraḳ m") the "Thirteen Articles of Faith" ("Shelosh ' Esreh ' Iḳ ḳ arim") a letter addressed to Joseph ibn ' Aknin. Samuel did not confine his activity to Jewish writings, but translated works written by Arabs and bearing on philosophy and medicine. Among these were: Yaḥ ya ibn Baṭ riḳ 's Arabic translation of Aristotle's "Meteora" ("Otot ha-Shamayim," or "Otot ' Elyonot"), three small treatises of Averroes ("Sheloshah Ma' amarim"), and Ali ibn Riḍ wan's commentary on the "Ars Parva" of Galen.

Judah al-Ḥ arizi.
No less prominent in the field of translation was the above-mentioned poet Judah al-Ḥ arizi. In addition to the "Dalalat al-Ḥ a' irin," he translated Maimonides' treatise on resurrection (already rendered into Hebrew by Samuel ibn Tibbon) and his Mishnah commentary on Zera' im, Ḥ ariri of Busrah's " Maḳ amat" ("Maḥ berot Itiel"), Ali ibn Riḍ wan's ethical epistle, Galen's essay against hasty interment, a treatise on the soul ("Sefer ha-Nefesh") also attributed to Galen, an originally Greek work on the "Dicta of the Philosophers" ("Mussare ha-Filosofim"), and an anonymous treatise on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot").

A prolific translator, whose style, although less poetic, was more clear than that of his contemporary Al-Ḥ arizi, was Abraham ben Samuel Ḥ asdai. Among his translations are the following: the pseudo-Aristotelian "Kitab al-Tuffaḥ ah" ("Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ ," Venice, 1519 frequently reprinted) Ghazali's ethical work "Mizan al-' Amal" ("Mozene Ẓ edeḳ ," in which the translator replaced the quotations from the Koran and the Sunnah with their equivalents from Bible and Talmud ed. Goldenthal, Leipsic, 1839) Isaac Israeli's "Kitab al-Istiḳ at" ("Sefer ha-Yesodot") Maimonides' "Sefer ha-Miẓ wot," with his letter to the Yemenite Jews("Iggeret Teman") and a romance presenting incidents in the life of Buddha ("Ben ha-Melek weha-Nazir," Constantinople, 1518). About the same time as the last-named work a famous book of fables was translated, under the title "Sefer Kalilah wa-Dimnah," by the grammarian Jacob ben Eleazar.

From about 1230 to 1300 the most important Arabic works on philosophy, medicine, astronomy, mathematics, and other branches of learning were translated. The leading translators of that period were Jacob Anatolio (son-in-law of Samuel ibn Tibbon), Moses ibn Tibbon , Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon , the Italian physician Nathan ha-Me' ati , and Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel Gracian . Anatolio translated the "Almagest" of Ptolemy ("Ḥ ibbur ha-Gadol ha-Niḳ ra al-Majesti"), the "Elements of Astronomy" by Al-Fargani, a treatise on syllogisms by Al-Farabi ("Sefer Heḳ ḳ esh ha-Ḳ aẓ er"), and the first five books of Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Logic," consisting of the Introduction of Porphyry and the four books of Aristotle on the "Categories," "Interpretation," "Syllogisms," and "Demonstration."

Arabic Philosophy and Science.
Moses ibn Tibbon, like his father, began his career as a translator with several works of Maimonides, including the treatise on hygiene ("Miktab," or "Ma' amar be-Hanhagat ha-Beri' ut "), a mishnaic commentary (probably on Zera' im), the "Book of Precepts" ("Sefer ha-Miẓ wot," Constantinople, c. 1516), the treatise on logic ("Millot ha-Higgayon," Venice, 1552), the treatise on poisons ("Ha-Ma' amar ha-Nikbad," or "Ha-Ma' amar be-Ṭ eri' ak"), and the commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms." Moses' other translations are: Averroes' commentaries on Aristotle's "Physica Auscultatio" ("Kiẓ ẓ ure ibn Roshd ' al-Shema' Ṭ ib' i," Riva di Trento, 1559) "De Cœ lo et Mundo" ("Kelale ha-Shamayim weha-' Olam") "De Generatione et Corruptione" ("Sefer ha-Hawayah weha-Hefsed") "Meteora" ("Sefer Otot ha-' Elyonot") "De Anima" ("Kelale Sefer ha-Nefesh") the Middle Commentary on the last-named work ("Bi' ur Sefer ha-Nefesh") "Parva Naturalia" ("Ha-Ḥ ush weha-Muḥ ash") "Metaphysica" ("Mah she-Aḥ ar ha-Ṭ eba' ") a commentary on Avicenna's "Arjuzah" ("Bi' ur Arguza") Avicenna's "Small Canon" ("Ha-Seder ha-Ḳ aṭ an") Batalyusi's "Al-Ḥ ada' iḳ " ("Ha-' Agullot ha-Ra' yoniyyot," ed. Kaufmann, Leipsic, 1880) Al-Ḥ aṣ ṣ ar's treatise on arithmetic ("Sefer ha-Ḥ eshbon") Euclid's "Elements" ("Shorashim," or "Yesodot") Al-Farabi's "Book of the Principles" ("Hatḥ alot ha-Nimẓ a' ot ha-Ṭ ib' iyyim," ed. Filipowski, Leipsic, 1849) Geminus' introduction to the "Almagest" ("↔ okmat ha-Kokabim," or "Ḥ okmat ha-Tekunah") Ibn al-Yazzar's "Viaticum" ("Ẓ edat ha-Derakim") Ḥ unain's introduction to medical science ("Mabo el-Meleket ha-Refu' ah") Razi's works on the division of maladies ("Ha-Hilluḳ weha-Ḥ illuf") and on the antidotes Ḥ unain's translation of Themistius' commentary on the treatise "Lamda" ("Perush Ma' amar ha-Nirsham be-Ot Lamed") and of the Aristotelian physical questions ("She' elot Ṭ ib' iyyot") Kosta ben Luka's translation of the "Sphæ rica" of Theodosius Tripolitanus ("Sefer Teodosiyus be-Kadur") and Ibn Aflaḥ 's astronomical work "Kitab Ilahiyah."

Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon translated: the "Elements" of Euclid the treatise of Kosta ben Luka on the armillary sphere the "Data" of Euclid ("Sefer ha-Mattanot") according to the Arabic translation of Isḥ aḳ ben Ḥ unain the treatise of Autolycus on the sphere in movement ("Ma' amar Ṭ alḳ us") three treatises on the sphere by Menelaus of Alexandria Abu ' Ali ibn Ḥ asan ibn al-Ḥ aitham's astronomical work ("Ma' amar bi-Tekunah," or "Sefer ' al Tekunah") Abu al-Ḳ asim Aḥ mad ibn al-Ṣ affar's treatise on the use of the astrolabe Abu Mohammed Jabar ibn Aflaḥ 's compendium of the "Almagest" Abu Isḥ aḳ ben al-Zarḳ alah's astronomical work ("Iggeret ha-Ma' aseh be-Luaḥ ha-Niḳ ra Sofiḥ ah") the preface to Abraham bar Ḥ iyya's astronomical work an extract from the "Almagest" on the arc of a circle Averroes' compendium of the "Organon" ("Ḳ iẓ ẓ ur mi-Kol Meleket Higgayon," Riva di Trento, 1559) Averroes' paraphrase of books xi.-xix. of Aristotle's history of animals Ghazali's "Mizan al-' Uyun," in which are refuted the philosophical ideas antagonistic to religion ("Mozene ha-' Iyyunim").

Thirteenth-Century Activity.
Nathan ha-Me' ati, called the "Prince of Translators" and the "Italian Tibbonide," translated the following medical works: ' Ammar ben ' Ali al-Mauṣ uli's "Al-Muntaḥ ib fi ' Ilaj al-' Ain," on the treatment of the eye the "Canon" of Avicenna the aphorisms of Hippocrates, with Galen's commentary the aphorisms of Maimonides, and a selection from various authors, chiefly from Galen ("Pirḳ e Moṣ heh," Lemberg, 1804). Many anonymous translations are attributed to Nathan ha-Me' ati: Razi's treatise on bleeding ("Ma' amar be-Haḳ ḳ azah") Zahrawi's "Kitab al-Taṣ rif" (Hebrew title, "Ẓ eruf") Ibn Zuhr's "Kitab al-Aghdhiyah" ("Sefer ha-Mezonot") an anonymous work on the causes of eclipses ("Ma' amar ' al Libbot Liḳ ḳ ut ha-Me' orot"). A translation of Galen's commentary on Hippocrates' work "On Airs, Waters, and Places," begun by Nathan, was completed in 1299 by his son Solomon, whose son Samuel in turn concluded the translation of an extract from Galen's commentary on Hippocrates' work "On Regimen in Acute Diseases," and the translation of a medical work by Ibn Zuhr.

Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel. Gracian translated: Aristotle's "Physics" ("Sefer ha-Ṭ eba' "), "Metaphysics" ("Mah she-Aḥ ar ha-Ṭ eba' "), "De Cœ lo et Mundo" ("Ha-Shamayim weha-' Olam"), "De Anima" ("Sefer ha-Nefesh"), and "De Causis" ("Ha-Bi' ur ha-Ṭ ob ha-Gamur") Averroes' Middle Commentaries on Aristotle's "Physics," "Metaphysics," and "De Cœ lo et Mundo," with the commentary of Themistius on the last-named work the first two books of Avicenna's "Canon" Al-Farabi's "Risalah fi Mahiyyat al-Nafs" ("Ma' amar be-Mahut ha-Nefesh") a medical work of Galen from the Arabic of Ḥ unain ibn Isḥ aḳ ("Sefer ha-Ḥ ola' im weha-Miḳ rim") three chapters of Galen's Κ α τ α γ ε ν ή , with the same title in Hebrew characters Maimonides' treatise on sexual intercourse the "Aphorisms" of Maimonides.

The other translations of the second half of the thirteenth century were by:

    Albalag, Isaac: Ghazali's "Maḳ aṣ id al-Falasifah": Elijah Cohen's "Maḳ amah" (similar to the "Assemblies" of Ḥ ariri), under the title "Megillat ha-' Ofer."
    Almoli, Nethaneel: Maimonides' commentary on Ḳ odashim.
    Ḥ ayyim ibn Vives: Farewell letter of Ibn Sa' igh to ' Ali ben ' Abd al-' Aziz ibn al-Imam, of Granada.
    Jacob ben Moses ibn ' Abbasi: Maimonides' commentary on Nashim.
    Joseph al-Fawwal: Maimonides' Mishnah commentary on Mo' ed.
    Ma' arabi, Nahum: Maimonides' "Iggeret Teman" ("Petaḥ . Tiḳ wah") Isaac Israeli' s, or Jacob ben Nissim' s, commentary on the "Sefer Yeẓ irah" Joseph ibn Ẓ addiḳ 's "Microcosmos" ("Ha-' Olam ha-Ḳ aṭ an") Saadia's commentary on the thirteen hermeneutic rules of R. Ishmael ("Shelosh-' Esreh Middot").
    Shem-Ṭ ob ibn Falaquera: Ibn Gabirol's "Meḳ or Ḥ ayyim."
    Shem-Ṭ ob ben Isaac: Averroes' Middle Commentary on "De Anima" Razi's "Al-Manṣ uri" Zahrawi's "Al-Taṣ rif."
    Solomon ibn Ayyub: Averroes' "De Cœ lo et Mundo" Avicenna's "Arjuza" Ibn Janaḥ 's "Kitab al-Taswiyah" Maimonides' "Kitab al-Fara' iḍ ."
    Solomon ibn Ya' aḳ ub: Maimonides' commentary on Neziḳ in.
A great number of Arabic works on mathematics, medicine, astronomy, and philosophy, especially by Averroes, were translated during the fourteenth century. The leading translator in the first twenty years of that century was Kalonymus ben Kalonymus ben Meï r (Maestro Calo), who rendered the following Arabic works into Hebrew:
    Al-Farabi's treatise on the intellect ("Ma' amar be-Sekel weha-Muskal").
    Al-Farabi's division of the sciences ("Ma' amar be-Mispar ha-Ḥ okmot").
    Al-Farabi's treatise on the method of studying philosophy ("Iggeret be-Siddur Ḳ eri' at ha-Ḥ okmot").
    Al-Kindi's treatises on nativities ("Iggeret be-Ḳ iẓ ẓ ur ha-Ma' amar be-Moladot") and on the influence of the heavenly bodies on rain ("Iggeret be ' Illot").
    Al-Kindi's treatise on humidity and rain ("Iggeret be-Laḥ it ube-Maṭ ar").
    ' Ali Ibn Riḍ wan's "Kitab al-' Imad fi Uṣ ul al-Ṭ ibb" ("Ha-' Ammad be-Shoroshe ha-Refu' ah").
    Archimedes' treatise on the sphere and the cylinder, from the version of Kosta ben Luka.
    Averroes' commentaries on the "Topics" ("Bi' ur Sefer Ṭ obiḳ i") and on "Sophisms" ("Bi' ur Sufisṭ iḳ a").
    Averroes' Great Commentary on the "Second Analytics " ("Bi' ur Sefer ha-Mofet").

Translations of Averroes.

    Averroes' Middle Commentaries on "Physics" on "De Generatione et Corruptione" ("Sefer ha-Hawayah weha-Hefsed") on "Meteora" ("Otot ha-Shamayim").
    Averroes' Middle Commentary on the "Metaphysics" ("Sefer Mah she-Aḥ ar ha-Ṭ eba' ").
    Averroes' dissertations on the first book of the "First Analytics."
    Commentary on the Κ α ρ π ό ς of Ptolemy, from the Arabic version of Abu Ja' far Aḥ mad ben Yusuf ben Ibrahim ("Sefer ha-Peri ha-Niḳ ra Me' ah Dibburim").
    Galen's treatise on clysters and colic, from the version of Ḥ unain ibn Isḥ aḳ ("Sefer Galyanus be-Ḥ aḳ na ube-Kulga").
    Galen's essay on bleeding ("Sefer Galyanus be-Haḳ ḳ azah").
    Nichomæ us of Gerasa's treatise on arithmetic, with a commentary of Abu Sulaiman Rabiya ibn Yaḥ ya.
    Ptolemy's treatise on the planets ("Be-' Inyane ha-Kokabim ha-Nebukim").
    Thabet ibn Kurrah's work on geometry, "Fi al-Shakl al-Ḳ uṭ ṭ a" ("Sefer ha-Temunah ha-Ḥ ittukit").
    Treatise on the triangle by Abu Sa' adan.
    Treatise on mathematical propositions ("Sefer Meshalim be-Tishboret").
    Treatise on Euclid's five geometrical bodies in relation to the theory of Apollonius, and the commentary of Simplicius.
    Treatise on cylinders and cones ("Ma' amar be-Iẓ ṭ awwonot ube-Ḥ iddudim").
    Treatise on plants, attributed to Aristotle, with Averroes' commentary ("Sefer ha-Ẓ emaḥ im").
    Treatise on animals ("Iggeret Ba' ale Ḥ ayyim"), from the twenty-first treatise of the encyclopedia of the Brethren of Sincerity (Mantua, 1557).
Another important translator from the Arabic, and of the same period, was Samuel ben Judah (Bonjudas) Males. His translations include:
    Abu Abdallah Mohammed ibn Mu' ad of Seville on the eclipse of the sun, July 3,1097, and on the dawn ("Iggeret be-' Ammud ha-Shaḥ ar").
    Abu Isḥ aḳ al-Zarḳ alah on the movement of the fixed stars ("Ma' amar be-Tenu' at ha-Kokabim ha-Ḳ ayyamim").
    Abu Mohammed Jabbar ibn Aflaḥ 's compendium of the "Almagest."
    Alexander of Aphrodisias on the intellect ("Ma' amar Aleksander al-Firduzi").
    Averroes' Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics."
    Averroes' commentary on Plato's "Republic."
    Averroes' Short Commentary on the "Organon" on geometrical bodies (books xxx. and xxxi. of Euclid), a supplement to the translation of Kalonymus ben Kalonymus commentary on the "Almagest," i.-iii.
    Dissertations on some obscure passages of Averroes' commentary on the "Organon," by Abu al-Ḳ asim ibn Idris, Abu al-Ḥ ajjaj ibn Ṭ almus, Abu al-' Abbas Aḥ mad ben Ḳ asim, and ' Abd al-Raḥ man ben Tahir.
Other Arabic works were translated in the fourteenth century by:
    Ibn Vives al-Lorqui: Various books of the "Short Canon" of Avicenna.
    Isaac ben Joseph ibn Pulgar: Ghazali's "Maḳ aṣ id al-Falasifah" ("Kawwanot ha-Filosuflm").
    Isaac ben Nathan of Cordova: Maimonides' "Maḳ alah fi al-Tauḥ id" ("Ma' amar ha-Yiḥ ud"), Tabrizi's commentary on Maimonides' twenty-five premises, and probably Joseph ibn ' Aknin's metaphysical essay.
    Joseph ben Abraham ibn Waḳ ḳ ar: A medical work ("Sefer Refu' ot") and Zahrawi's "Kitab al-Taṣ rif."
    Moses ben Samuel ben Asher: Averroes' commentary on "Logic."
    Moses ben Solomon of Beaucaire: Averroes' Great Commentary on the "Metaphysics."
    Nathan Judah ben Solomon: Ibn Abi Ṣ alt Umayya's medical work ("Kelal Ḳ aẓ er weha-Sammim ha-Nifradim") and Ghazali's "Maḳ aṣ id" ("Kawwanot ha-Filosuflm").
    Nethaneel ben Meshullam (or Menahem ben Nethaneel): Judah ibn Balaam's treatise on the Hebrew accents ("Horayyat ha-Ḳ ore").
    Samuel Motot: Abraham ibn Daud's "Al-' Aḳ idah al-Rafl' ah" ("Emunah Ramah" the same work was translated, under the title "Emunah Nisa' ah," by Solomon Labi). Samuel Motot translated also passages from pseudo-Ibn Ezra ("Sefer ha-' Aẓ amim").
    Shem-Ṭ ob Ardotial: Isaac Israeli's ritual work ("Miẓ wot Zemaniyyot").
    Samson ben Solomon: The compendium of Galen's writings by the Alexandrians ("Ha-Ḳ ibbuẓ im le-Aleksandriyim").
    Solomon Dapiera: Moses ben Tobi's commentary on the didactic poem "Al-Saba' niyyah" ("Batte ha-Nefesh").
    Solomon ibn Patir: Ibn Haitham's astronomical work "Ḳ aul fi Ḥ i' at al-' Alam."

Aristotelian Commentaries.

    Todros Todrosi: Averroes' Middle Commentaries on the "Poetics" and "Rhetoric," the three essays against Avicenna, the treatise on the intellect, Avicenna's "Naja," and Al-Farabi's philosophical questions, "' Uyun al Masa' il" ("' En Mishpaṭ ha-Derushim").
    — Averroes' treatise against Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Happalat ha-Happalah").
    — Ghazali's answers to philosophical questions ("Ma' amar bi-Teshubot She' elot Nish' al Mehem").
    — Pseudo-Ibn Ezra's "Sefer ha-' Aẓ amim," and Joseph ibn Waḳ ḳ ar's and Solomon ibn Ya' ish's supercommentaries on Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Pentateuch.
With the fourteenth century the era of translations from the Arabic was practically closed, only a few works being translated during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. These were:
    Ḥ ayyim ibn Musa: A medical work of Al-Jazzar.
    Isaac ben Joseph Alfasi: Ghazali's "Mishkat al-Anwar" ("Mashkit ha-Orot we-Pardes ha-Niẓ anim").
    Maẓ liaḥ of Galilee and Solomon Ma' arabi: Isaac Alfasi's rules relating to the treatise Ketubot.
    Moses Galina: An astronomical treatise of Omar ibn Mohammed Meṣ uman ("Sefer Mezuḳ ḳ aḳ "). Moses Galina translated also a work on astrology ("Mishpaṭ ha-Mabbaṭ im") and one on geomancy ("Sefer ha-Goralot").
    Moses ben Joseph Aruvas: The pseudepigraphic work known as the Aristotelian "Theology."
    Saadia ben David al-Adeni: Ghazali's "Zakat al-Nufus." (Saadia declared this to be his own work.)
    Tanḥ um Moses of Beaucaire: Hippocrates' "Prognostics" ("Panim le-Panim").
    Zerahiah ha-Levi Saladin: Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Mappalat ha-Pilusuflm").
Several translations from the Arabic were made in the second half of the nineteenth century: Reckendorf translated the Koran (Leipsic, 1857) Joseph Derenbourg translated Maimonides' commentary on Seder Ṭ ohorot (Berlin, 1887-89) fragments of Saadia's commentaries on Proverbs, Isaiah, and Job were translated by Derenbourg, Meyer Lambert, and Wilhelm Bacher Isaac Broydé translated Bahya's "Ma' ani al-Nafs" ("Torot ha-Nefesh," Paris, 1896).

The following are among the numerous works translated anonymously by Jewish authors:

Anonymous Translations.

    Sahl ibn Bishr, astrological work, under the title "Kelalim"
    four works attributed to Isaac Israeli: (1) "Kitab al-Adwiyat al-Mufridah wal-Aghdhiyah," on diet ("Sefer Meḥ ubbar mi-Ma' amar ha-Rishonim be-Ṭ eba ha-Mezonot we-Koḥ atam") (2) "Kitab al-Bul" ("Sefer Meḥ ubbar mi-Ma' amar ha-Rishonim be-Yedi' at ha-Sheten") (3) "Kitab, al-Ḥ ummayat" (4) "Aphorisms" ("Musar ha-Rofe' im")
    Saadia's "Emunot"
    Hai Gaon's treatise on oaths ("Mishpeṭ e Shebu' ot")
    Responsa of the Geonim (Naṭ ronai, Saadia, Sherira, Hai)
    Japheth ben Ali's commentary on the Pentateuch
    Joshua's "Teshubot ha-' Iḳ ḳ arim" and Bereshit Rabbah
    Judah ibn Baalam's works on homonyms ("Kitab al-Tajnis"), on the particle ("Otot ha-' Inyanim"), and on Verba Denominativa," "Al-Af' al al-Mushtaḳ ḳ ah min al-Asma" ("Ha-Po' alim Shehem me-Gizrot ha-Shemot")
    Moses ibn Ezra's "Kitab al-Ḥ ada' iḳ fi Ma' ani al-Mujaz wal-Ḥ aḳ iḳ ah" ("' Arugat ha-Bosem")
    Joseph ibn Ẓ addiḳ 's "Microcosm" ("' Olam Ḳ aṭ an")
    Maimonides' treatises on the calendar ("Sefer ha-' Ibbur"), on happiness, "Maḳ alah fl al-Sa' adah" ("Pirḳ e ha-Haẓ laḥ ah"), and on forced conversions ("Iggeret ha-Shemad"), responsa on hemorrhoids, "Fi al-Bawasir" ("Ha-Ma' amar be-Refu' at ha-Ṭ eḥ arim"), on sexual intercourse, "Fi al-Jama' ah" ("Ma' amar ha-Mishgal"), and on poisons, "Al-Sumum wal-Mutaḥ arriz min al-Adwiyah al-Ḳ italah," and the commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms"
    Joseph ibn ' Aḳ nin' s" Maḳ alah fl Ṭ ibb al-Nafs" ("Marpe le-Nefesh")
    Abraham Maimonides' "Kifayah"
    Moses Abulafla's theological work "Ma' amar Elohi"
    Joseph ibn Naḥ mias' astronomical work "Nur al-' Alam" ("Or ' Olam")
    Joseph ibn Waḳ ḳ ar's work on the Seflrot.
The oldest known Hebrew translation from the Latin belongs to the thirteenth century. About 1250 Solomon ben Moses Melgueiri translated the treatise known as "De Somno et Vigilia" and attributed to Aristotle ("Ha-Shanah weha-Yeḳ iẓ ah") Averroes' commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "Metaphysics" Avicenna's "De Cœ lo et Mundo" and Matthæ us Platearius' "De Simplici Medicina." About the same time Berechiah ben Naṭ ronai Krespia ha-Naḳ dan gave a Hebrew version of Adelard of Bath's "Quæ stiones Naturales," and of a "Lapidary" containing a description of sixty-three kinds of stones. Toward the end of the same century Samuel ben Jacob of Capua rendered into Hebrew, under the general title "Meha-' Eẓ ah weha-Ṭ eba' im," the Latin version "De Medicamentarum Purgationum Delectio," or "Castigatione," of a work of Mesue the Elder. About the same time Hillel ben Samuel translated the Latin version of Hippocrates' "Aphorisms" by Constantinus Africanus, and "Chirurgia Burni."

From the Latin.
The fourteenth century, an age of translations from the Arabic, was equally fertile in translations from the Latin. About 1305 Estori Farḥ i translated, under the title "Targum Sefer Refu' ot," Armengaud Blaise's "De Remediis," and, under the title "Sefer ha-Kibbusim," an anonymous work on purgatives that had been rendered into Latin from the Arabic by Elijah ben Judah. In 1320 Hezekiah ben Ḥ alafta gave a Hebrew version of Petrus Hispanus' treatise on logic ("Higgayon"). About the same time Samuel ben Benveniste translated, under the title "Menaḥ em Meshib Nafshi," Boethius' "De Consolatione Philosophiæ ." In 1327 Israel Caslari translated, under the title "Ma' amar be-Hanhagat ha-Beri' ut," Arnaud de Villeneuve's "Regimen Sanitatis."

More important than the above translations from the Latin were those made by Leone Romano, who, toward the middle of the same century, rendered into Hebrew the following works: Æ gidius, "De Esse et Essentia" ("Ma' amar ha-Nimẓ a weha-Meẓ i' ut") his treatises on the faculties of the soul("Ma' amar Hebdale Koḥ ot ha-Nefesh we-Ḥ illuḳ ehem"), and on syllogisms ("Ma' amar ha-Hawayah ha-Heḳ ḳ eshiyyah") his commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "De Anima" and extracts from the commentary on Aristotle's "De Demonstratione" Albertus Magnus' commentary on the third book of Aristotle's "De Anima," and various extracts from Albertus Magnus' works Alexander the Minarite's glosses to Aristotle's "Metaphysics" extracts from Angelo de Camerino's works the "Liber de Causis" ascribed to Aristotle Thomas Aquinas' "Treatise on Ideas," and extracts from his "Contra Gentiles" ("Neged ha-Ummot") Averroes' "De Substantia Orbis" ("' Eẓ em ha-Shamayim") Boethius' "De Unitate et Uno" ("Ma' amar ha-Eḥ ad weha-Aḥ adut"). Other translations from the Latin were as follows: Johannes Paulinus' treatise on the medical virtues of the skin of the serpent ("Ma' amar bi-Segullot ' Or ha-Naḥ ash"), by David ibn Bilia Francesco dei Cenneli' s, Gentile da Foligno' s, and John of Burgundy's "Consilia" ("' Eẓ ah"), by Joshua of Bologna Arnaud de Villeneuve's treatise "De Vinis" ("Ha-Dibbur be-Yenot"), and Bernard of Gordon's and Gilbert's treatises on fevers, both translated by Judah Nathan ("En Bongodas" and "Bonjues") Bernard de Gordon's "Lilium Medicinæ " ("Peraḥ ha-Refu' ot"), by Moses ben Samuel of Roccambra (John of Avignon) and by Jekuthiel ben Solomon of Narbonne ("Shoshan ha-Refu' ah") Leon's "Historia de Prœ liis" ("Toledot Aleksander"), by Immanuel ben Jacob Bonfils Bernard Alberti's "Materia Medica" ("Mebo ha-Melek"), Arnaud de Villeneuve's "Medicationis Parabolæ " and his work on digestion and purgatives, the commentary of Gerard de Solo on the ninth book of Razi's "Al-Manẓ uri," and Petrus Hispanus' treatise on logic, all by Abraham Abigdor (Bonet) ben Meshullam ben Solomon Gerard de Solo's commentary on the ninth book ("Pathology") of Razi and his manual of medicine ("Meyashsher ha-Matḥ ilim"), a chapter on the relation between astronomy and medicine attributed to Hippocrates, and Bernard de Gordon's "Lilium Medicinæ " and "Prognostic," all by Leon Joseph of Carcassonne Arnold de Villeneuve's "Digestiva," by Todros ben Moses Yom-Ṭ ob Arnold de Villeneuve's "De Judiciis Astronomiæ " ("Panim la-Mishpaṭ ") and Sacrobosco's "Sphæ ra Mundi" ("Moreh ha-Ofannim"), by Solomon ben Abraham Abigdor (the first work was translated by him at the age of fifteen) Arnold de Villeneuve's "Tabula Super Vita Brevis," by Bonenfante of Milhaud Ibn Rijal's astronomical work from the Latin version of Æ gidius or of Petro de Regio ("Mishpaṭ e ha-Kokabim,"), by Solomon ben David Davin.

The fifteenth century was for the Hebrew translations from the Latin what the fourteenth was for those from the Arabic it was the richer in literary productions, but with it the era of translations closed. The most important of the translated works in that century were:

    Abraham ben Joseph ben Naḥ mias: Thomas Aquinas' commentary on Aristotle's "Metaphysics."
    Abraham Solomon Catalan: Albertus Magnus' "Philosophica Pauperum" ("Ḳ iẓ ẓ ur ha-Filosofla ha-Ṭ ib' it"), and Marsilius' "Questions" on the "Isagoge" of Porphyry, on the Categories," and on hermeneutics.
    Abu al-Khair: Albubather's "Liber de Nativitatibus" ("Sefer ha-Moladot") and Rajil's astronomical work "Completus."
    Asher ben Moses Valabrega: Guy de Chauliac's "Chirurgia Parva."

Medieval Science and Philosophy.

    Azariah ben Joseph ben Abba Mari: Boethius' "De Consolatione Philosophiæ ," the twenty-eighth book of Zahrawi's "Liber Practicæ " (after the Latin of Simon of Genoa), the second book of the "Simplicia" of Dioscorides, and Gerard de Sabbionetta's astronomical work "Theorica."
    Baruch ben Isaac ibn Ya' ish: Aristotle's "Metaphysics" and the tales, "Gesta Romanorum" ("Sefer Ḥ anok"), of Petrus Alfonsis.
    Benjamin ben Isaac of Carcassonne: Juan de Burgundia's treatise on the spread of the plague ("Be-' Ippush ha-Awwir weha-Deber," or "' Ezer Eloah").
    David ben Jacob Meï r: John of Gmü nd's astronomical work.
    David ibn Shoshan ben Samuel of Avignon: Thomas Bicot's "Textus Abbreviatus Aristotelis, Super VIII. Libros Physicæ et Tota Naturalis Philosophia" ("Toledot Adam").
    Elijah ben Joseph Ḥ abillo: Thomas Aquinas' "Quæ stiones Disputatæ ," "Quæ stio de Anima," "De Anima Facultatibus" ("Ma' amar be-Koḥ ot ha-Nefesh," published by Jellinek in "Philosophie und Kabbalah," Leipsic, 1854), and "De Universalibus" Questions on Thomas Aquinas' treatise on "Being and Quality" ("She' elot Ma' amar be-Nimẓ a ube-Mahut") Occam's "Summa Totius Logices" and "Quæ stiones Philosophiæ " Aristotle's "De Causa" and Vincenz de Beauvais's "De Universalibus."
    Ephraim Mizraḥ i: Georg Purbach's astronomical work "Theorica" ("Ṭ e' oriḳ a ha-Niḳ ra Mahaiak ha-Kokabim").
    Isaac Cabret (or Cabrit): John Sancto Amanelo's "Expositio in Antidotarium Nicolai."
    Joseph ben Benveniste: Joshua ben Joseph ibn Vives al-Lorqui's treatise on the effects of nourishment, and on the simple and compound medicaments ("Gerem ha-Ma' alot").
    Judah Shalom (Astruc) ben Samuel: Petrus Hispanus' "Parva Logica" and his commentary on Hippocrates' "Aphorisms."
    Meï r Alguadez: Aristotle's "Ethics" and "Economics."
    Mordecai Finzi: The Alfonsine Tables.
    Moses ben Abraham of Nî mes: The Alfonsine Tables.
    Moses ben Maẓ liaḥ : Serapion's "Simplicia," from the Latin of Gerard de Cremona.
    Phinehas ben Ẓ ebi ben Nethaneel: Raimundus Lullus' "Ars Brevis."
    Solomon ben Moses Shalom: Antonius Guainerius' "De Febribis" ("Kelal meha-Ḳ addaḥ ut") and Bartolomeo Montagnana's "Consilium" ("Meha-' Eẓ ah").
    Thaddeus: Treatise on fevers ("Kelal Ḳ aẓ er ' al Minhag ha-Ḳ addaḥ ut").
After the sixteenth century Hebrew translations from the Latin became very scarce. The few works translated included: a treatise on eclipses of the sun and moon ("Ma' amar Nikbad be-Liḳ ḳ uyot Shamshiyyot we-Yeraḥ iyyot"), by Moses ben Abraham Sahlun Albertus' (Magnus?) "Questions and Answers on the Six Natural Things Required by the Body According to the Science of Medicine," by Moses ibn Ḥ abib an ethical work ("Ẓ emaḥ Ẓ addiḳ ," Venice, 1600), by Leon de Modena Thomas Aquinas' "Summa Theologiæ Contra Gentiles," by Joseph Ẓ ahalon the letters of Seneca, by Judah Leon ben Eliezer Brieli (published in "Kerem Ḥ emed," 2:119 et seq. ) Spinoza's "Ethics," by Solomon Rubin ("Ḥ eḳ er Eloah") the thirteenth chapter of Tacitus' history, by Solomon Mandelkern.

Into Arabic.

— From the Hebrew:

Aside from the Arabic versions of the Bible, the Talmud, and the prayers (with which this article is not concerned), only three Arabic translations from the Hebrew are extant: the travels of Eldad ha-Dani, by an anonymous translator the Yosippon ("Yusuf ibn Karyun"), by Zechariah ibn Sa' id and Isaac ibn Crispin's "Sefer ha-Musar" ("Maḥ asin al-Adab"), by Joseph ibn Ḥ asan, which is supposed by Steinschneider to have been itself an adaptation from the Arabic. Through the Hebrew versions of the Arabic scientific works the treasures of the East and of ancient Greece were opened to the West. Indeed, with the exception of a small number of Latin translations made directly from the Arabic, mostly with the assistance of Jewish interpreters, all the works from which the Latin world learned mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and other sciences were translated from the Hebrew versions made from the Arabic. Although it is possible that some among the Latin translations of the twelfth century were made from the Hebrew, the oldest known dates only from the thirteenth century. About 1260 John of Capua translated, under the title "Directorium Vitæ Humanæ " (published by J. Derenbourg, Paris, 1887), Joel's Hebrew version of the "Kalilah wa-Dimnah." He translated also Maimonides' work on the dietary laws and Ibn Zuhr's medical work "Al-Taisir." Toward the end of the same century Armengaud Blasius translated Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon's treatise on the quadrant invented by the latter, under the title "Quadrans Novus" or "Quadrans Judaicus."

Into Latin.
During the fourteenth century only a few works were translated from the Hebrew into Latin. Among these were the anonymous "Sefer ha-Ḥ innuk," on the precepts, and Abner of Burgos' "Iggeret ha-Gezerah." During the fifteenth century Latin literature was enriched with many valuable works from the Hebrew. About 1486 Elijah Delmedigo made the following translations: "Quæ stiones Tres: i. De Primo Motore ii. De Mundi Efficientia iii. De Esse Essentia et Uno" (Venice, 1501) "Averrois Quæ stio in Libro Priorum" ("Analytics," Venice, 1497) Averroes' commentary on Plato's "Republic" ("De Regimine Civitatis") "Averrois Commentatio [Summa] in Meteora Aristotelis," with fragments from Averroes' Middle Commentary (ib. 1488) "Averrois Commentatio [Media] in Metaph. Aristotelis," i.-vii. ( ib. 1560) Averroes' proem to the Large Commentary on Aristotle's "Metaphysics," xii. Averroes' "De Substantia Orbis" "Sperma." Delmedigo's protector, Pico de Mirandola, translated at the same time the commentary of Menahem Recanati on the Pentateuch, the "Ḥ okmat ha-Nefesh" ("Scientia Animæ ") of Eleazar of Worms, and the "Sefer ha-Ma' alot" of Shem-Ṭ ob Falaquera. The teacher of Pico de Mirandola, Flavius Mithridates, translated thirty-eight fragments of various cabalistic works, Maimonides' epistle on resurrection, Levi ben Gershon's commentary on Canticles, and Judah's "Ma' amar ha-Hawwayah ha-Heḳ ḳ eshiyyah" ("Sermo de Generatione Syllogismorum Simplicium et Compositorum in Omni Figura").

Very important contributions to Latin literature from the Jewish mystical writings were made at the end of the fifteenth century and at the beginning of the sixteenth by Cardinal Æ gidius de Viterbo, who translated the Zohar, "Ginnat Egoz," "Sefer Razi' el," "Ma' areket Elahut," "' Eser Sefirot," and other cabalistic works. Among the translations of purely scientific works made in the sixteenth century, the most noteworthy are those of Abraham de Balmes, Kalonymus ben Judah (Maestro Calo), Jacob Mantino, and Moses Alatino. Abraham de Balmes translated Ibn Haitham's astronomical work ("Liber de Mundo") from the Hebrew version of Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, and the "farewell letter" of the Arabic philosopher Ibn Baga or Avempace ("Epistolæ Expeditionis"). Kalonymus ben Judah translated Zerahiah ha-Levi's Hebrew version of Ghazali's "Tahafut al-Falasifah" ("Destructio," Venice, 1527), Samuel ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Averroes' treatise on the intellect ("De Conversione Intellectus," ib. ), and Moses ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Alpetragius' treatise on astronomy (Venice, 1531). The translations of Jacob Mantino were: "Paraphrasis Averrois de Partibus et Generatione Animalium," with the commentary of Levi ben Gershon Averroes' compendium of Aristotle's "Metaphysics" the Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Isagoge" books i.-iv. of "Topics" and "Poetics" (Venice, 1550) a commentary on Plato's "Republic" proem to the Large Commentary on the third book of Aristotle's treatise on the soul proem to book xii. of Aristotle's "Metaphysics" the Middle Commentary on Aristotle's "Physics" Averroes' medical work "Colliget" the first book of Avicenna's "Canon" Maimonides' "Shemonah Peraḳ im." Moses Alatino translated Moses ibn Tibbon's Hebrew version of Themistius' paraphrase of the four books of Aristotle's "De Cœ lo" (Venice, 1574) Avicenna's "Canon" Nathan ha-Me' ati's Hebrew version of Galen's commentary on a work of Hippocrates ("De Aë re, Aquis et Locis"). Among other works translated into Latin in the sixteenth century were: Ezobi's "Ḳ a' arat Kesef" (by Reuchlin, Tü bingen, 1512-14, and Jean Mercier, Paris, 1561) Levita's "Tishbi" (by Paul Fagius, 1541, who translated also the "Alfabeta de Ben Sira" and the "Sefer Amanah") Benjamin of Tudela's travels (by Arias Montanas) the travels of Eldad ha-Dani (by G. Genebrard, Paris, 1584) Levita's grammatical works and Maimonides' treatise on logic (by Sebastian Mü nster, Basel, 1524 et seq. , who translated also the Yosippon, 1529-41) and a list of the 613 commandments from "SeMaG" (1533).

Christian Translators into Latin.
With the close of the sixteenth century the era of Latin translations, from the Hebrew, of Arabic scientific works ended, and the Jews ceased to serve as intermediaries between the civilizations of the East and the West. The work dropped by them was taken up by Christians, who had acquired from Jews their knowledge of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, and who made Latin translations of many Jewish writings of the Middle Ages. Foremost among these translators, in the first half of the seventeenth century, were the Buxtorfs the elder Buxtorf translated the Biblical concordance, "Me' ir Netib," of Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymus and the "Iggeret Shelomim" ("Institutio Epistolaris Hebraica, sive de Conscribendis Epistolis Liber, cum Epistolarum Hebraicarum Centuria," Basel, 1610) the younger Buxtorf, Johannes, translated Maimonides' "Moreh Nebukim" ("Doctor Perplexorum," Basel, 1629) and Judah ha-Levi's "Cuzari" ("Liber Cosri," ib. 1660). Among the other Jewish works translated in the same century the most noteworthy were: Lipman-Mü hlhausen's "Sefer ha-Niẓ ẓ ahon" (by John Heinrich Blendinger, Altdorf, 1645) the disputations of R. Jehiel and of Naḥ manides Isaac Troki's "Ḥ izzuḳ Emunah" the "Toledot Yeshu" the "travels" of R. Pethahiah and the "Megillat Wenz" (by Wagenseil) Cordovero's "Pardes Rimmonim" ("De Sanctissima Trinitate Contra Judæ os," by Joseph Ciantes, Rome, 1664) Leon de Modena's dialogue on the subject of gambling (by August Pfeifer, Wittenberg, 1665 also by Thomas Hyde, Oxford, 1698, who translated Farissol's "Iggeret Orḥ ot ' Olam," under the title "Tractatus Itinerum Mundi," ib. 1691) the commentaries of Abravanel and others on Joshua Moses Ḳ imḥ i's "Introductio ad Scientiam" Joseph Yaḥ ya's commentary on Daniel "Itinerarum Benjaminis of Tudela" (by Constantin l' Empereur) the "Alphabet of Ben Sira," "Megillat Antiochus," "Otiot de Rabbi ' Aḳ iba," a part of Eldad ha-Dani's mythical travels, and Azariah dei Rossi's "Me' or ' Enayim" (all by Bartolocci in his "Bibliotheca Magna Rabbinica") Abravanel's commentary on Daniel (by Hö ttinger) the "Idra Rabbah," the "Idra Zuṭ a," the "Sifra de-Ẓ eni' uta," the cabalistic essays of Naphtali Herz and Jacob Elhanan, the "Sha' arha-Shamayim" of Abraham Cohen de Herrera, and several of the writings of Isaac Luria (by Knorr von Rosenroth in his "Kabbala Denudata," Sulzbach, 1677-78) Maimonides' hilkot "' Abodat Yom ha-Kippurim," "Ḥ ameẓ u-Maẓ ẓ ah," "Ḳ iddush ha-Ḥ odesh," "Ta' aniyot," "Seder ha-' Abodah," and "Seder ha-Ḳ orbonot" (by Ludwig Compiegne de Weil, who translated also Abraham Yagel's catechism, "Leḳ aḥ Ṭ ob") the first part of Gans's "Ẓ emaḥ Ṭ ob" (by Wilhelm Varot and also by Voisin) Zacuto's "Sefer ha-Yuḥ asin," various parts of Maimonides' "Mishneh Torah," and part of the account of the travels of the Karaite Samuel ben David Maimonides' "Yad," Talmud Torah and Teshubah (by Robertus Claverius).

Among the Latin translations of the eighteenth century the most noteworthy are: part of Maimonides' "Mishneh Torah" and extracts from the rabbinical commentaries on Psalms (by Heinrich Jacob Bashuysen, Hanover, 1705 Hanau, 1712) the "Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ " ("Biga Dissertationum," Giessen, 1706) Rashi's commentary on the Bible and the "Yosippon" (by John Frederick Breithaupt, Gotha, 1707, 1710) the Karaite Mordecai ben Nissim's "Dod Mordekai" ("Notitia Karæ orum ex Tractate Mardochai," by Wolf, who translated also various fragments of Jewish writings in his "Bibliotheca Hebræ a") selections from the commentaries of Rashi, Abravanel, Ibn Ezra, and Isaiah di Trani on Joshua, and Moses Naḳ dan's "Sha' ar ha-Neginot" ("Porta Accentuum," by John Georg Abicht) a part of Elijah Levita's "Shibre Luḥ ot" (by Nagel, Altdorf, 1758-71) portions of the "Taḥ kemoni" (by Ure) Jedaiah Bedersi's "Beḥ inat ' Olam" (by Uchtmann) the "Seder ' Olam Rabbah" (by Eduard Maier).

The following is a list of the works which have been translated from Hebrew into modern languages:English. Aristotle, Pseudo-: "Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ ," on the immortality of the soul (by Isidor Kalisch, Detroit, 1882).
Bedersi: "Beḥ inat ha-' Olam" (by Tobias Goodman).
Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa' ot" (by Asher, London, 1840).
Ḥ ayyuj, Judah: "Two Treatises on Verbs Containing Treble and Double Letters," and the "Treatise on Punctuation" (by John W. Nutt, London and Berlin, 1870).
Joseph ha-Kohen: "Dibre ha-Yamim" (by Bialloblotzky, London, 1834-36).
Judah al-Ḥ arizi: Portions of the "Taḥ kemoni" (by F. de Sola Mendes, in "Jew. Chron." London, 1873).
Judah ha-Levi: Poems (by M. Breslau, in "Ginze Oxford," London, 1851 Edward G. King, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." 7:464 Joseph Jacobs, in "Jewish Ideals" Emma Lazarus, "Songs of a Semite," New York, 1882 Lady Magnus, "Jewish Portraits," London, 1897 A. Lucas, in "Jewish Year Book," London, 1898 Nina Davis, "Songs of an Exile," Philadelphia, 1901).
Levinsohn: "Efes Damim" (by Loewe, London, 1840).
Levita, Elijah: "Massoret ha-Massorah" (by Ch. D. Ginsburg, London, 1887).
Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (by Michael Friedlä nder, London) parts of the "Mishneh Torah" (by H. Bernard and E. Solowcyczik, ib. 1863).
Mapu, Abraham: "Ahabat Ẓ iyyon" (by Frank-Jaffe, London, 1887).
Nieto, David: "Maṭ ṭ eh Dan" (by Loewe, London, 1842).
Pethahiah of Regensburg: "Massa' ot" (by Benisch, London, 1856).
Romanelli: "Massa' ba-Arab" (by Schiller-Szinessy, Cambridge, 1887).
Schwarz: "Dibre Yosef," geography of Palestine (by Isaac Leeser, Philadelphia, 1850).
Troki, Abraham: "Ḥ izzuḳ Emunah" ("Faith Strengthened," by M. Mocatta, London, 1851).
"Yashar, Sefer ha-" (by Mordecai Noah, New York, 1840).
"Yeẓ irah, Sefer" (by Isidor Kalisch, 1877).
Yosippon: Parts (by Gaster, in "Jerahmeel," London, 1899).
French. Abraham ibn Ezra: "Ma' adanne Melek" ("Dé lices Royales, ou le Jeu des Echecs," by Hollaenderski, Paris, 1864).
Alfonsi, Petrus: "Sefer Ḥ anok," tales (by Picques).
Bedersi, Jedaiah ben Abraham: "Beḥ inat ha-' Olam" (by Philippe Aquinas and Michel Beer).
Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa' ot" (by Jean Philippe Boratier, Paris, 1734).
Bilia, David ben Yom-Ṭ ob ibn: "Yesodot ha-Maskil" (by S. Klein, Metz, 1849).
Caro, Joseph: Shulḥ an ' Aruk (extracts from the first and second parts under the title "Rituel du udaï sme," by Pavly and Neviasky, Orleans, 1896-1901).
Eldad ha-Dani (transl. by Carmoly, Brussels, 1834).
Joseph ha-Kohen: "' Emeḳ ha-Baka" ("Vallé e des Pleurs," by Julian Sé e, Paris, 1881).
Judah al-Ḥ arizi: "Taḥ kemoni" (by Carmoly, Brussels, 1843-1844 parts were translated by Sylvestre de Sacy).
Maimonides: Treatise on poisons ("Traité de Poisons," by I. M. Rabbinowicz, Paris, 1865) "Moreh Nebukim" ("Guide des É garé s," by S. Munk, Paris, 1856).
Modena, Leon of: Dialogue on the subject of gambling ("Le Joueur Converti," by Carmoly).
Pethahiah of Regensburg: "Sibbub Rab Petaḥ yah" (by Carmoly, who translated also, under the title "Itiné raires de la Terre Sainte," accounts, by various writers, of travels in Palestine).
German. Aboab, Isaac: "Menorat ha-Ma' or" (by Jacob Raphael Fü rstenthal, Breslau, 1844).
Abraham ibn Daud: "Emunah Ramah" (by S. Weil, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1882).
Abraham ibn Ezra: "Yesod Mora" (by Michael Creizenach, Mayence, 1840).
Albo, Joseph: "Sefer ha-' Iḳ ḳ arim" (by W. Schlessinger, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1844).
Aristotle, Pseudo-: "Sefer ha-Tappuaḥ " (by J. Musen, Lemberg, 1873).
Baḥ ya ben Joseph: "Ḥ obot ha-Lebabot" (by Fü rstenthal, Breslau, 1835, and by Baumgarten and Stern, Vienna, 1854).
Bedersi, Jedaiah: "Baḳ ḳ ashat ha-Memim" (by Benjamin Wolf Prerau, Brü nn, 1799) "Beḥ inat ' Olam" (by Isaac Auerbach, Hirsh ben Meï r, Joel ben Joseph Faust, Simson Hamburger, Auerbach, J. Levy, Joseph Hirshfeld, Stern [in verse], and Judah Kron).
Benjamin of Tudela: "Massa' ot" (by Mordecai Drucker, Amsterdam, 1691).
Carmoly: "Maimonides und Seine Zeitgenossen" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1840).
Caro, Joseph: Shulḥ an ' Aruk (by H. Lö we, Vienna, 1896, and by Fr. Lederer, 1897-1901).
Crescas, Ḥ asdai: The fifth chapter of the "Or Adonai" (by Philip Bloch, 1879).
Duran, Proflat: "Al Tehi ka-Aboteka" (by Geiger, in "Wiss. Zeit. Jü d. Theol." iv.).
Eldad ha-Dani (Dessau, 1700 Jessnitz, 1723 and in Eisenmenger' s" Entdecktes Judenthum," 2:527).
Ephraim of Bonn: The persecutions by the Crusaders (by S. Baer, Berlin, 1892).
Francis, Immanuel: "Meteḳ Sefatayim" ("Die Hebrä ische Verskunst," by Martin Hartmann, Berlin, 1894).
Ḥ asdai, Abraham: "Ben ha-Melek weha-Nazir" ("Prinz und Dervisch," by Wolf Alois Meisel, Stettin, 1847).
Isaac Israeli: "Sefer ha-Yesodot" (by S. Fried, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1900).
Joseph ha-Kohen: "' Emeḳ ha-Baka" (by Wiener, Leipsic, 1858).
Judah al-Ḥ arizi: "Taḥ kemoni" (by Kä mpf, Berlin, 1845) "Mussare ha-Filosufim" (by J. Lö wenthal).
Judah ha-Levi: "Cuzari" (by D. Cassel and Jelowicz, Leipsic, 1841) poems (by Zunz, Geiger, Kä mpf, Sachs, Steinschneider, Heller, and Sulzbach).
Kalonymus ben Kalonymus: "Eben Boḥ an" (by Moses Eisenstadt, or, according to Zedner, by Katzenellenbogen, Sulzbach, 1705 in condensed prose by W. Meisel, Budapest, 1878).
Lebensohn, Micah Joseph: "Shire Bat Ẓ iyyon" ("Gesä nge Zion' s," by Joshua Steinberg, Wilna, 1869).
Levinsohn: "Efes Damim" (by Albert Katz, Berlin, 1884).
Levita, Elijah: "Massoret ha-Massorah" (by Mayer Gottlieb, 1772).
Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (the first part by Fü rstenthal, Krotoschin, 1839 the second, by M. Stein, Vienna, 1864 the third, by Scheyer, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1838) "Millat ha-Higgayon" (by M. S. Neumann, Vienna, 1822 by Heilberg, Breslau, 1828) Introduction to the Mishnah ("Das Jü dische Traditionswesen" (by Fü rstenthal, Breslau, 1844) treatise on poisons ("Gifte und Ihre Heilungen," by M. Steinschneider, Berlin, 1873) essays on hygiene (by D. Winternitz, 1843).
Mapu, Abraham: "Ahabat Ẓ iyyon" ("Tamar," by S. Mandelkern, Leipsic, 1885).
Mendelssohn, Moses: "Sefer ha-Nefesh" (by David Friedlä nder, Berlin, 1887).
Modena, Leon of: Dialogue on gambling (by Friedrich Albert Christiani, 1638) the abridged commentary on the Passover Haggadah of Isaac Abravanel, entitled "Ẓ eli Esh" (Fü Ruth 1804 ).
Rashi: Commentary on the Pentateuch (Prague, 1833-38).
Rosenfeld: "Tenubot Sadeh," poems and epigrams (by Fü rstenthal, Breslau, 1842).
Saadia: "Emunot we-De' ot" (by Julius Fü rst, Leipsic, 1845 the introduction and first chapter, by Philip Bloch, 1879).
Schweitzer: "Mazkeret Ahabah" (metrically translated by Fü rstenthal, Breslau, 1841).
Verga, Solomon: "Shebeṭ Yehudah" (by Wiener, Hanover, 1856).
Wiener: "Gezerat Ostraik" (by Jehiel Michael Moroweyczyk, Cracow, 1852).
Italian. Baḥ ya: "Tokaḥ ah" (by Deborah Ascarelli, Venice, 1601).
Bedersi, Jedaiah: "Beḥ inat ' Olam" (in "Antologia Israelitica," 1880).
Judah al-Ḥ arizi: "Mishle Ḥ akamim" ("Motti di Diversi Saggi," by Simon Massarani).
Judah ha-Levi: "Canzoniere Sacra di Giuda Levita" (by S. de Benedetti, Pisa, 1871).
Luzzatto, S. D.: "Derek Ereẓ " ("Il Falso Progresso," by Pontremoli, Padua, 1879).
Maimonides: "Moreh Nebukim" (by Jedidiah Moses of Recanati, 1580, and by D. J. Maroni, 1870).
Mizraḥ i, Elijah: Part of the "Sefer ha-Mispar" (by M. Steinschneider, Rome, 1866).
Modena, Leon of: The abridged commentary of Abravanel on the Passover Haggadah, entitled "Ẓ eli Esh."
Moses: "Vita e Morte de Mose" (by Benedetti de Salvatore).
Rieti, Moses: The second part of the "Miḳ dash Me' aṭ ," entitled "Me' on ha-Sho' alim" (by Deborah Ascarelli, Venice, 1601).
Solomon: "Clavis Solomonis" (by Abraham Colorni).
Russian. Abramovich: "Ha-Abot weha-Banim" ("Otzy i Dyeti," by Leo Bienstok, St. Petersburg, 1867).
Brandstä dter: "Mordekai Kizwiz" (in "Yevreiskaya Biblioteka").
Eichhorn: "Ha-Ḳ erab" (by Osip Rabbinovich, 1847).
Joshua ben David of Samoscz: "Ẓ uḳ ha-' Ittim" ("Byedstoiya Vremion," by Moses Berlin).
Nathan Nata of Hanover: "Yewen Meẓ ulah" (by S. Mandelkern, St. Petersburg, 1878).
Rosensohn: "Shelom Aḥ im," on the catholicity of the Mosaic religion (transl. Wilna, 1876).
Spanish. Abner of Burgos: "Moreh Ẓ edeḳ " ("El Mostador de Justicia") "Milḥ amot Adonai" ("Las Batallas de Dios").
Alguadez, Meï r: Prescriptions for various diseases (by Joseph ha-Kohen).
Baḥ ya ben Joseph ibn Paḳ uda: "Ḥ obot ha-Lebabot" (by Joseph Pardo, Amsterdam, 1610).
Elijah de Vidas: Several sections of the "Reshit Ḥ okmah" (by David Cohen Lara, under the title "Tratado del Temur Divino," Amsterdam, 1633).
"Ḥ innuḳ , Sefer ha-": Anonymous work on the precepts, of the thirteenth century.
Jonah Gerondi: Ethical work (by Joseph Shalom Gallego, or Galigo, under the title "Sendroe [Sendero] de Vidas," Amsterdam, 1640).
Judah ha-Levi: "Cuzari" (by Jacob Abendana).
Maimonides: ("Tratado de los Articulos de la Ley Divina," by David Cohen de Lara, Amsterdam, 1652) commentary on the Mishnah (by Jacob Abendana).
For other translations from and into the Hebrew see Bible Translations Maḥ zor Talmud .J. I. Br.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Translations'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901.

Lectionary Calendar
Friday, August 23rd, 2019
the Week of Proper 15 / Ordinary 20
Search for…
Enter query in the box:
Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M 
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z 

Prev Entry
Next Entry
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology