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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #2443 - ἵνα

Root Word (Etymology)
probably from the same as the former part of (G1438) (through the demonstrative idea, cf (G3588))
Parts of Speech
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  1. that, in order that, so that
Wigram's frequency count is 569 not 621. The original J.B. Smithcount is 665 but this includes many places where the word isassigned a different Strong's number because it is used in a phrase.
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (569)
Matthew 33
Mark 57
Luke 39
John 130
Acts 12
Romans 29
1 Corinthians 49
2 Corinthians 33
Galatians 16
Ephesians 22
Philippians 11
Colossians 11
1 Thessalonians 5
2 Thessalonians 7
1 Timothy 12
2 Timothy 5
Titus 11
Philemon 2
Hebrews 13
James 2
1 Peter 13
2 Peter 1
1 John 19
2 John 4
3 John 2
Revelation 31
NAS (330)
Matthew 6
Mark 18
Luke 24
John 51
Acts 6
Romans 22
1 Corinthians 35
2 Corinthians 29
Galatians 15
Ephesians 13
Philippians 8
Colossians 4
1 Thessalonians 4
2 Thessalonians 3
1 Timothy 12
2 Timothy 5
Titus 10
Philemon 2
Hebrews 14
James 4
1 Peter 9
2 Peter 1
1 John 9
2 John 1
3 John 1
Revelation 24
CSB (611)
Matthew 38
Mark 57
Luke 42
John 123
Acts 13
Romans 30
1 Corinthians 57
2 Corinthians 42
Galatians 17
Ephesians 20
Philippians 11
Colossians 12
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 7
1 Timothy 15
2 Timothy 5
Titus 13
Philemon 4
Hebrews 20
James 4
1 Peter 13
2 Peter 2
1 John 16
2 John 4
3 John 2
Revelation 38
BSB (669)
Matthew 41
Mark 64
Luke 47
John 145
Acts 17
Romans 30
1 Corinthians 58
2 Corinthians 44
Galatians 17
Ephesians 23
Philippians 12
Colossians 13
1 Thessalonians 7
2 Thessalonians 7
1 Timothy 15
2 Timothy 5
Titus 13
Philemon 4
Hebrews 20
James 4
1 Peter 13
2 Peter 2
1 John 19
2 John 5
3 John 2
Revelation 42
ESV (527)
Matthew 28
Mark 49
Luke 35
John 121
Acts 12
Romans 28
1 Corinthians 46
2 Corinthians 32
Galatians 17
Ephesians 21
Philippians 11
Colossians 10
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 7
1 Timothy 11
2 Timothy 5
Titus 11
Hebrews 13
James 4
1 Peter 12
2 Peter 1
1 John 17
Revelation 30
WEB (649)
Matthew 37
Mark 61
Luke 46
John 143
Acts 15
Romans 32
1 Corinthians 61
2 Corinthians 41
Galatians 17
Ephesians 23
Philippians 12
Colossians 11
1 Thessalonians 6
2 Thessalonians 7
1 Timothy 13
2 Timothy 5
Titus 14
Philemon 4
Hebrews 18
James 3
1 Peter 13
2 Peter 1
1 John 20
2 John 6
3 John 2
Revelation 38
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions



I of Place,

1 in that place, there, once in Hom., ἵ. γάρ σφιν ἐπέφραδον ἠγερέθεσθαι Il. 10.127 (acc.to Eust.).

2. elsewh. relat., in which place, where, 2.558, Od. 9.136, Hdt. 2.133, 9.27, 54, Pi. O. 1.95, B. 10.79, A. Proverbs 21:1-31, al., S. El. 22, 855, Ar. Ra. 1231, etc.: rarely in Att. Prose, Lys. 13.72 (v. infr.), Pl. Revelation 17:1-18 c, Phlb. 61b; ἵ. ἡ Νίκη (sc. ἐστίν) IG 22.1407.13: rare in later Greek, Arr. An. 1.3.2, Luc. Cont. 22, Ind. 3: with particles, ἵ. τε Il. 20.478; ἵ. περ 24.382, Od. 13.364, Lys. l.c.; ἵν' ἄν c. subj., wherever, S. OC 405, E. Ion 315; as indirect interrog., Hdt. 1.179, 2.150, E. Hec. 1008. after Hom., like other Advs. of Place, c. gen., ἵ. τῆς χώρης Hdt. 1.98; ἔμαθε ἵ. ἦν κακοῦ in what a calamity, Id. 1.213; οὐδ' ὁρᾶν ἵν' ἐ̄ κακοῦ S. OT 367; ἵν' ἕσταμεν χρείας ib. 1442; ἵν' ἦμεν ἄτης Id. El. 936; ὁρᾷς ἵν' ἐσμὲν αὐτοῦ πέρι τῆς ἀπορίας Pl. Sph. 243b. with Verbs of motion, whither, Od. 4.821, al.; ὁρᾷς ἵν' ἥκεις S. OT 687, al., Din. 2.10; ιναπερ ὥρμητο Th. 4.74. II of circumstance, γάμος.., ἵ. χρή at which, when, Od. 6.27; ἵ. μὲν ἐξῆν αὐτοῖς.., ἐνταῦθα.. when it was in their power, Antipho 6.9.

2. = ἐάν, dub. in Il. 7.353 (v.l. ἵν' ἄν, cf. Sch.), Archil. 74.7 codd., v.l. in Din. 1.1, and Pl. Chrm. 176b. Final Conj., that, in order that, from Hom. downwards, mostly first word in the clause, but sts. preceded by an emphatic word, Pl. Chrm. 169d; ἵ. δή Il. 7.26, 23.207, Hdt. 1.29, Pl. R. 420e, 610c: never with ἄν or κε (if found, these particles belong to the Verb, as in Od. 12.156, E. IA 1579).

I general usage:

1 with subj., after primary tenses of ind., also subj. and imper.: pres. ind., Il. 3.252, Od. 2.111, X. Mem. 3.2.3, Cyr. 1.2.11, Isoc. 3.2: pf. ind., Il. 1.203, Isoc. 4.129: fut., Od. 2.307, 4.591, X. Cyr. 1.2.15; subj., S. OT 364; imper., Il. 19.348,al., A. Pr. 61, S. Ph. 880, Ar. Ra. 297, Pl. R. 341b, Men. 71d. after historical tenses, in similes, where the aor. is gnomic, Od. 5.490 (αὔοι codd.); where aor. is treated as equiv. to pf., Il. 9.99, Od. 8.580, Hdt. 5.91, Lys. 1.4, D. 9.26: when the purpose is regarded from the point of view of the speaker's present, σὲ παῖδα ποιεύμην ἵ. μοι.. λοιγὸν ἀμύνῃς Il. 9.495, cf. Hdt. 1.29, 6.100, Th. 1.44, al., Lys. 1.11,12,al. after opt. and ἄν, when opt. with οὐκ ἄν is used with sense of imper., Il. 24.264, Od. 6.58; after βουλοίμην ἄν.., Lys. 7.12. after impf. with ἄν, D. 23.7.

2. with opt., after historical tenses, Il. 5.3, Od. 3.2, A. Th. 215, Lys. 3.11, Pl. Prt. 314c, etc.: after the historical pres., E. Hec. 11: sts. both moods, subj. and opt., follow in consecutive clauses, Od. 3.77, Hdt. 8.76, 9.51, D. 23.93, 49.14. after opt., Od. 18.369, S. Ph. 325; βούλοιντ' ἂν ἡμᾶς ἐξολωλέναι, ἵνα.. λάβοιεν Ar. Pax 413. rarely after primary tenses, by a shifting of the point of view, Od. 17.250, Ar. Ra. 24, Pl. R. 410c.

3. with past tenses of ind., after unfulfilled wishes, Id. Cri. 44d. after ind. with ἄν, to express a consequence which has not followed or cannot follow, S. OT 1389, Pl. Men. 89b, D. 29.17: esp. after ἐβουλόμην ἄν.., Ar. V. 961, Lys. 4.3. after such Verbs as ἐχρῆν, ἔδει, E. Hipp. 647, Pl. Prt. 335c, Smp. 181e, Euthd. 304e, Isoc. 9.5, D. 24.48, Men. 349.5, etc.: whenan unfulfilled obligation is implied, τεθαύμακα ὅτι οὐκ εἶπεν (= ἔδει εἰπεῖν).. ... Pl. Tht. 161c; ἀντὶ τοῦ κοσμεῖν (= δέον κοσμεῖν).. ... D. 36.47. after pres. ind. in general statements (including the past), οὐδὲ γὰρ τὸ εἶναι ἔχει ἡ ὕλη, ἱ. ἀγαθοῦ ταύτῃ μετεῖχεν Plot. 1.8.5.

4. ἵ. μή as the neg. of ἵνα, that not, Il. 19.348, etc.

II special usages:

1 like ὅπως, after Verbs of command and entreaty, is common only in later Gr. (but cf. Od. 3.327 with ib. 19), ἀξιοῦν ἵ... Decr. ap. D. 18.155; δεήσεσθαι ἵ... D.H. 1.83; παρακαλεῖν ἵ... Arr. Epict. 3.23.27: freq. in NT, ἐκήρυξαν ἵ. μετανοήσωσιν Mark 6:12, al.; of will, ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵ. ποιῶσιν.. ib. 25: hence . c. subj. stands for infin., ἐν τούτῳ ἵ. καρπὸν φέρητε (= ἐν τῷ φέρειν) John 15:8, etc.; πρῶτόν ἐστιν ἵ. κοιμηθῶ Arr. Epict. 1.10.8, cf. M.Ant. 8.29; also for ὥστε, LXX Genesis 22:14,al., Plu. 2.333a, Porph. Abst. 2.33, etc.

2. because, ἵ. ἀναγνῶ ἐτιμήθην I was honoured because I read, Anon. ap. A.D. Synt. 266.5, cf. Conj. 243.21, Choerob. in Theod. 2.257, al.; not found in literature.

3. elliptical usages, where the purpose of the utterance is stated, Ζεὺς ἔσθ', ἵν' εἰδῇς 'tis Zeus, [I tell thee this] that thou may'st know it, S. Ph. 989; ἵ. μὴ εἴπω ὅτι οὐδεμιᾷ Pl. R. 507d; ἵ. συντέμω D. 45.5; ἵν' ἐκ τούτων ἄρξωμαι Id. 21.43; ἵ. δῶμεν.. granted that.., S.E. P. 2.34, cf. 1.79. in commands, introducing a principal sentence, ἵ. συντάξῃς order him.., PCair.Zen. 240.12 (iii B.C.); ἵ. λαλήσῃς PSI 4.412.1 (iii B.C.); ἵ. ἐλθὼν ἐπιθῇς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῇ Mark 5:23; Mark cf.2 Cor. 8.7, LXX 2 Maccabees 1:9, Arr. Epict. 4.1.41, Did. ap. Sch. S. OC 156. ἵ. τί (sc. γένηται); to what end? either abs. or as a question, Ar. Ec. 719; or with a Verb following, Id. Pax 409, cf. Pl. Ap. 26d, etc.; ἵ. δὴ τί; Ar. Nu. 1192. in indignant exclamations, to think that.. ! Σωκράτης ἵ. πάθῃ ταῦτα Arr. Epict. 1.29.16. III in later Gr. with ind., LXX Exodus 1:11,al., Galatians 2:4, Galatians 4:17, etc.

Thayer's Expanded Definition


I. an adverb of place, from Homer down, especially in the poets;

a. where; in what place.

b. to what place; whither. Of the former signification C. F. A. Fritzsche (on Matthew, p. 836; differently in Fritzschiorum Opusco., p. 186ff) thought he had found two examples in Biblical Greek, and H. A. W. Meyer agrees with him. The first, viz. ἵνα μή φυσιοῦσθε, 1 Corinthians 4:6, they explain thus: where (i. e. in which state of things, viz. when ye have learned from my example to think humbly of yourselves) the one is not exalted to the other's disadvantage; the second, ἵνα αὐτούς ζηλοῦτε, Galatians 4:17, thus: where ye zealously court them; but see II. 1 d. below.

II. a final conjunction (for from local direction, indicated by the adverb, the transition was easy to mental direction or intention) denoting purpose and end: to the intent that; to the end that, in order that; ἵνα μή, that not, lest; it is used:

1. properly, of the purpose or end;

a. followed by the optative; only twice, and then preceded by the present of a verb of praying or beseeching, where the wish (optatio) expressed by the prayer gave occasion for the use of the optative: Ephesians 1:17 but WH marginal reading subjunctive; Ephesians 3:16 R G; cf. Winers Grammar, 290 (273); Buttmann, 233 (201); and yet in both instances the relic force of the particle is so weakened that it denotes the substance rather than the end of the prayer; see 2 below.

b. followed by the subjunctive, not only (according to the rule observed by the best Greek writers) after the primary tenses (present, perfect, future) or the imperative, but (in accordance with that well-known negligence with which in later times and especially by Hellenistic writers the distinction between the subjunctive and the optative was disregarded) after preterites even where the more elegant Greek writers were accustomed to use the optative; cf. Hermann ad Vig., p. 847ff; Klotz ad Der. ii., 2 p. 616ff; Winers Grammar, 287ff (270ff); Buttmann, 233 (201). α. after a present: Mark 4:21; Mark 7:9; Luke 6:34; Luke 8:12; Luke 16:28; John 3:15; John 5:34; John 6:30; Acts 2:25; Acts 16:30; Romans 1:11; Romans 3:19; Romans 11:25; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 1 Corinthians 9:12; 2 Corinthians 1:17; Galatians 6:13; Philippians 3:8; Hebrews 5:1; Hebrews 6:12; Hebrews 9:25; 1 John 1:3; Revelation 3:18; Revelation 11:6, and often. β. after a perfect: Matthew 1:22; Matthew 21:4; John 5:23, ( T Tr WH; cf. e.); ; 1 Corinthians 9:22; 1 John 5:20 (here T Tr WH present indicative; see d.). γ. after an imperative (either present or aorist): Matthew 7:1; Matthew 9:6; Matthew 14:15; Matthew 17:27; Matthew 23:26; Mark 11:25; Mark 13:18; John 4:15; John 5:14; John 7:3 (R G L); ; 1 Corinthians 7:5; 1 Corinthians 11:34; 1 Timothy 4:15; Titus 3:13, etc.; also after a hortative or deliberative subjunctive: Mark 1:38; Luke 20:14; John 6:5 (Rbez L T Tr WH); John 11:16; Hebrews 4:16, etc. δ. after a future: Luke 16:4; Luke 18:5; John 5:20 (here Tdf. present indicative; see d.); John 14:3, 13, 16; 1 Corinthians 15:28; Philippians 1:26. ε. after Historic tenses: after the imperfect, Mark 3:2 (here L Tr future indicative; see c.); Mark 6:41; Mark 8:6; Luke 6:7; Luke 18:15, etc.; after the pluperfect, John 4:8; after the aor, Matthew 19:13; Mark 3:14; Mark 11:28; Mark 14:10 (R. § 139, 37); Luke 19:4, 15; John 5:36 (R G L; cf. β.); John 7:32; John 12:9; Acts 19:4 (?); Romans 6:4; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 11:35; 1 Timothy 1:16; 1 John 3:5, 8, etc.

c. As secular authors join the final particles ὄφρα, μή, and especially ὅπως, also with the future indicative (cf. Matthiae, § 519, 8 ii., p. 1186ff), as being in nature akin to the subjunctive, so the N. T. writings, according to a usage extremely doubtful among the better Greek writings (cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 629f), also join ἵνα with the same (cf. WHs Appendix, p. 171{b} following; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word ἵνα, 17): ἵνα θήσω, 1 Corinthians 9:18; L T Tr WH in the following instances: σταυρωσουσιν, Mark 15:20 (not WH (see as above)), δώσουσιν, Luke 20:10; κενώσει, 1 Corinthians 9:15 (not Lachmann) (καταδουλώσουσιν, Galatians 2:4 (but cf. Hort in WH as above, p. 167a)); κερδηθήσονται, 1 Peter 3:1; σφάξουσιν, Revelation 6:4; δώσει, Revelation 8:3; προσκυνήσουσιν (Revelation 9:20); ((cf. 2 a. at the end below)); (ἀναπαήσονται, Revelation 14:13 (see ἀναπαύω) cf. 4 b.); L Tr in the following: κατηγορήσουσιν, Mark 3:2 (cf.

b. e. above); προσκυνήσουσιν, John 12:20; T Tr WH in (θεωρήσουσιν, John 7:3); ξυρήσονται, Acts 21:24; L T WH Tr marginal reading in ἀδικήσουσιν, Revelation 9:4 ((cf. 2 b. below)); (add, ἐρεῖ, Luke 14:10 T WH Tr text; ἐξομολογήσεται, Philippians 2:11 T L marginal reading Tr marginal reading; καυθήσομαι, 1 Corinthians 13:3 T; δώσει, John 17:2 WH Tr marginal reading; ἀναπαύσονται, Revelation 6:11 WH; δώσει, Revelation 13:16 WH marginal reading) (ἵνα καταργήσει τόν θάνατον καί τήν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν δείξει, the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 6 [ET] (so manuscript א, but Hilgenf., Müller, Gebh., others, adopt the subjunctive; yet see Cunningham's note at the passage)); so that the future alternates with the subjunctive: ἵνα ἔσται ... καί εἰσέλθωσιν, Revelation 22:14; γένηται καί ἔσῃ (Vulg. sis), Ephesians 6:3; in other passages L T Tr WH have restored the indicative, as ἵνα ἥξουσι καί προσκυνήσουσιν ... καί γνῶσιν, Revelation 3:9; ἵνα ... πίνητε ... καί καθίσεσθε or καθήσεσθε (but WH text κάθησθε) (Vulg. et sedeatis), Luke 22:30; κάμψῃ καί ἐξομολογήσεται, Philippians 2:11 (T L marginal reading Tr marginal reading); cf. Buttmann, § 139, 88; Winer's Grammar, § 41 b. 1 b. d. By a solecism frequently in the ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings. ἵνα is joined with the indicative present: 1 Corinthians 4:6 (φυσιοῦσθε); Galatians 4:17 (ζηλοῦτε); (cf. Test xii. Patr., test. Gad § 7; the Epistle of Barnabas 6, 5 [ET]; 7, 11 [ET]; Ignatius ad Eph. 4, 2 [ET]; ad Trall. 8, 2 [ET], and other examples in Winers and Alexander Buttmann (1873) as below; but see Hort in WH's Appendix, p. 167{a}, cf., pp. 169^b, 171f); but the indicative is very doubtful in the following passages: (John 4:15 Tr text); (Tdf. θαυμάζετε); T Tr text; Galatians 6:12 T L marginal reading; (1 Thessalonians 4:13 L marginal reading); Titus 2:4 T Tr L marginal reading; 2 Peter 1:10 L; (1 John 5:20 T Tr WH (cf.

b. β. above)); Revelation 12:6 (T Tr τρέφουσιν); (Revelation 13:17 WH marginal reading); cf. Winers Grammar, § 41 b. 1 c.; Buttmann, § 139, 39; Meyer on 1 Corinthians 4:6; Wieseler on Galatians 4:17; (Sophocles as above). (In the earlier Greek writings ἵνα is joined with the indicative of the past tenses alone, 'to denote something which would have been, if something else had been done, but now has not come to pass' Hermann ad Vig. p. 847, cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii., 2, p. 630f; Kühner, § 553, 7 ii., 903; (Jelf, § 813; cf. Jebb in the Appendix to Vincent and Dickson's Modern Greek, § 79).)

e. the final sentence is preceded by preparatory demonstrative expressions (Winer's Grammar, § 23, 5): εἰς τοῦτο, to this end, John 18:37; 1 John 3:8; Romans 14:9; 2 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 3:9; 1 Peter 4:6 (the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 1, 11 [ET]; (14, 5 [ET])); εἰς αὐτό τοῦτο, Ephesians 6:22; Colossians 4:8; διά τοῦτο, John 1:31; 2 Corinthians 13:10; Philemon 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:16; τούτου χάριν, Titus 1:5.

2. In later Greek, and especially in Hellenistic writers, the final force of the particle ἵνα is more or less weakened, so that it is frequently used where the earlier Greeks employed the infinitive, yet so that the leading and the dependent sentence have each its own subject. The first extant instance of this use occurs in the Amphictyonic decree in (pseudo-) Demosthenes, p. 279, 8 (i. e. de coron. § 155): πρεσβευσαι πρός Φίλιππον καί ἀξιουν ἵνα βοηθήσῃ (cf. Odyss. 3, 327 λίσσεσθαι ... ἵνα νημερτες ἐνισπη (cf. 3, 19)), but it increased greatly in subsequent times; cf. Winers Grammar, § 44, 8; R. 237 (204); (Green 171f; Goodwin § 45 N. 5 b.; Jebb in the Appendix to Vincent and Dickson's Modern Greek, § 55). Accordingly, ἵνα stands with the subjunctive in such a way that it denotes the purport (or object) rather than the purpose of the action expressed by the preceding verb. This occurs a. after verbs of caring for, deciding, desiring, striving: βλέπειν, 1 Corinthians 16:10; Colossians 4:17; 2 John 1:8; ζητῶ, 1 Corinthians 4:2; 1 Corinthians 14:12; φυλάσσομαι, ἵνα μή, 2 Peter 3:17; μεριμνάω, 1 Corinthians 7:34; ζηλόω, 1 Corinthians 14:1; βουλεύομαι, John 11:53 (R G Tr marginal reading συμβουλεύομαι); John 12:10; ἀφίημι, Mark 11:16; John 12:7 L T Tr WH; θέλημα ἐστι, Matthew 18:14; John 6:39f; θέλω, Matthew 7:12; Mark 6:25; Mark 9:30; Mark 10:35; Luke 6:31; so that it alternates with the infinitive, 1 Corinthians 14:5; δίδωμι, to grant, that, Mark 10:37; Revelation 9:5, etc.; ποιῶ, Revelation 13:12 (here L T Tr WH future indicative (cf. 1 c. above)).

b. after verbs of saying (commanding, asking, exhorting; but by no means after κελεύειν (cf. Buttmann, 275 (236))): εἰπεῖν, in the sense of to bid, Matthew 4:3; Mark 3:9; Luke 4:3; also λέγειν, Acts 19:4; 1 John 5:16; ἐρρήθη, Revelation 6:11 (WH future indicative); Revelation 9:4 (L T Tr marginal reading WH indicative future (see 1 c. above)); διαμαρτύρομαι, 1 Timothy 5:21 (otherwise (viz. telic) in Luke 16:28); ἐρωτῶ, to ask, beseech, Mark 7:26; Luke 7:36; Luke 16:27; John 4:47; John 17:15, 21; John 19:31; 2 John 1:5; παρακαλῶ, Matthew 14:36; Mark 5:10, 18; Mark 7:32; Mark 8:22; Luke 8:32; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 16:12, 15; 2 Corinthians 8:6; 2 Corinthians 9:5; 2 Corinthians 12:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 3:12, (Josephus, Antiquities 12, 3, 2); προσεύχομαι (which see), Matthew 24:20; (Mark 13:18); Mark 14:35; δέομαι, Luke 9:40; Luke 22:32 (Dionysius Halicarnassus, Antiquities 1, 83); ἐπιτίμω, Matthew 12:16; (Matthew 16:20 L WH text); ; Mark 3:12; Mark 8:30; Mark 10:48; Luke 18:39; ἐντέλλομαι, Mark 13:34; John 15:17; ἐντολήν δίδωμι or λαμβάνω, John 11:57; John 13:34; John 15:12; γράφω, with the involved idea of prescribing, Mark 9:12 (cf. Winers Grammar, 462 (430) and the text of L T); ; Luke 20:28; διαστέλλομαι, Matthew 16:20 (L WH text ἐπιτίμω (see above)); Mark 5:43; Mark 7:36; Mark 9:9; παραγγέλλω, Mark 6:8 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 578 (538)); συντίθεμαι, John 9:22; ἀγγαρεύω, Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; κηρύσσω, Mark 6:12; ἀπαγγέλλω, Matthew 28:10; ἐξορκίζω, Matthew 26:63. (For examples (of its use with the above verbs and others) drawn from the later Greek writings, see Sophocles, Glossary etc. § 88, 1.)

c. after words by which judgment is pronounced concerning that which someone is about to do (or which is going to happen), as to whether it is expedient, befitting, proper, or not; as συμφέρει, Matthew 18:6; Matthew 5:29; John 11:50; John 16:7; λυσιτελεῖ, Luke 17:2; ἀρκετόν, ἐστι, Matthew 10:25; also after ἄξιος, John 1:27; ἱκανός, Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:6; ἐλάχιστον μοι ἐστιν, ἵνα, 1 Corinthians 4:3; ἠγαλλιάσατο ἵνα ἴδῃ, John 8:56; χρείαν ἔχω, John 2:25; John 16:30; 1 John 2:27; ἔδει, ἵνα ἐπί ξύλου πάθη, the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 13 [ET]. (For other examples see Sophocles as above § 88, 3, 4.)

d. after substantives, to which it adds a more exact definition of the thing; after a substantive of time: χρόνον, ἵνα μετανοήσῃ, Revelation 2:21; after ὥρα, John 12:23; John 13:1; John 16:2, 32 (elsewhere ὅτε, John 4:23; John 5:25); in these examples the final force of the particle is still apparent; we also can say time that she should repent (cf. Winers Grammar, 389 (318); Buttmann, 240 (207)); but in other expressions this force has almost disappeared, as in ἐστιν συνήθεια ὑμῖν, ἵνα ... ἀπολύσω, John 18:39; after μισθός, 1 Corinthians 9:18.

e. it looks back to a demonstrative pronoun; cf. Winers Grammar, 338 (317); (Buttmann, § 139, 45): πόθεν μοι τοῦτο, ἵνα ἔλθῃ κτλ. for τό ἐλθεῖν τήν etc. Luke 1:43; especially in John, cf. John 6:29, 50; John 15:13; John 17:3 (here T Tr text indicative; see 1 d. above); 1 John 3:11, 23; 1 John 5:3; 2 John 1:6; Philippians 1:9; ἐν τούτῳ, John 15:8; 1 John 4:17 (Θεοῦ δέ τό δυνατόν ἐν τούτῳ δεικνυται, ἵνα ... ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ποιῇ τά γινόμενα, Theophil. ad Autol. 2, 13; after τόδε, Epictetus diss. 2, 1, 1; (other examples in Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word 6)).

3. According to a very ancient tenet of the grammarians, accepted by Kühner, § 563, 2 Anm. 3; (T. S. Green, N. T. Gram., p. 172f), and not utterly rejected by Alex. Alexander Buttmann (1873) N. T. Gr., p. 238f (206), ἵνα is alleged to be used not only τελικως, i. e. of design and end, but also frequently ἐκβατικως, i. e. of the result, signifying with the issue, that; with the result, that; so that (equivalent to ὥστε). But C. F. A. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 836ff and Winer's 338 (317) and 457ff (426ff) have clearly shown, that in all the passages adduced from the N. T. to prove this usage the telic (or final) force prevails: thus in ἵνα μή λυθῇ νόμος Μωϋσέως, that the law of Moses may not be broken (which directs a man to be circumcised on the eighth and on no other day), John 7:23; οὐκ ἐστε ἐν σκότει, ἵνα ἡμέρα ὑμᾶς ... καταλάβῃ, that the day should overtake you (cf. the final force as brought out by turning the sentence into the passive form in German um vom Tage erfusst zu werden), 1 Thessalonians 5:4; προσευχέσθω, ἵνα διερμηνεύῃ, let him pray (intent on this, or with this aim), that (subsequently) he may interpret, 1 Corinthians 14:18; likewise ἐπενθήσατε, ἵνα etc. 1 Corinthians 5:2, and μετενόησαν, ἵνα μή, Revelation 9:20; μετάθεσιν, ... ἵνα etc. that the change may be to this end, that etc. Hebrews 12:27; ἵνα μή ... ποιῆτε, that ye may not do, Galatians 5:17 (where σάρξ and τό πνεῦμα are personified antagonistic forces contending for dominion over the will of the Christian; cf. Wieseler at the passage); the words ἵνα ... φραγῇ κτλ. in Romans 3:19 describe the end aimed at by the law. In many passages where ἵνα has seemed to interpreters to be used ἐκβατικως, the sacred writers follow the dictate of piety, which bids us trace all events back to God as their author and to refer them to God's purposes (Jo. Damascen. orthod. fid. 4, 19 ἔθος τῇ γραφή, τινα ἐκβατικως ὀφείλοντα λέγεσθαι, αἰτιολογικως λέγειν); so that, if we are ever in doubt whether ἵνα is used of design or of result, we can easily settle the question when we can interpret the passage 'that, by God's decree,' or 'that, according to divine purpose' etc.; passages of this sort are the following: Mark 4:12; Luke 9:45; Luke 11:50; Luke 14:10; John 4:36; John 9:2; John 12:40; John 19:28; Romans 5:20; Romans 7:13; Romans 8:17; Romans 11:31; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 7:9; also the phrase ἵνα πληρωθῇ, accustomed to be used in reference to the O. T. prophecies: Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15; Matthew 4:14; Matthew 12:17 L T Tr WH; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 26:56; Matthew 27:35 Rec.; John 13:18; John 17:12; John 19:24, 36; ἵνα πληρωθῇ λόγος, John 12:38; John 15:25, cf. 18:9,32. (Cf. Winers 461 (429). Prof Sophocles although giving (Lex. under the word ἵνα, 19) a copious collection of examples of the ecbatic use of the word, defends its telic sense in the phrase ἵνα πληρωθῇ, by calling attention not merely to the substitution of ὅπως πληρωθῇ in Matthew 8:17; Matthew 13:35 (cf. Matthew 2:23), but especially to 1 Esdr. 1:54 (εἰς ἀναπλήρωσιν ῤήματος τοῦ κυρίου ἐν στόματι Ιερεμιου); 1 Esdr. 2:1 (εἰς συντέλειαν ῤήματος κυρίου κτλ.); 2 Esdr. 1:1 (τοῦ τελεσθῆναι λόγον κυρίου ἀπό στόματος Ιερεμιου); Josephus, Antiquities 8, 8, 2 at the end ταῦτα δ' ἐπραττετο κατά τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ βουλησιν ἵνα λάβῃ τέλος προεφήτευσεν Αχιας; cf. Bib. Sacr. 1861, p. 729ff; Luthardt's Zeitschr. 1883, p. 632ff)

4. The elliptical use of the particle;

a. the telic ἵνα often depends on a verb not expressed, but to be repeated or educed from the context (cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 840f; Winers Grammar, 316 (297); (Buttmann, § 139, 47)): ἀλλ' (namely, ἦλθεν, cf. verse 7) ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ, John 1:8; ἀλλ' (namely, ἐγένετο ἀπόκρυφον) ἵνα εἰς φανερόν ἔλθῃ, Mark 4:22; ἀλλ' (namely, κρατεῖτε με) ἵνα etc. Mark 14:49; add, John 15:25; 1 John 2:19.

b. the weakened ἵνα (see 2 above) with the subjunctive (or indicative future (cf. 1 c.), Revelation 14:13 L T Tr WH) denotes something which one wishes to be done by another, so that before the ἵνα a verb of commanding (exhorting, wishing) must be mentally supplied (or, as is commonly said, it forms a periphrasis for the imperative): ἵνα ... ἐπιθῇς τάς χεῖρας αὐτῇ, Mark 5:23; γυνή ἵνα φοβῆται τόν ἄνδρα, Ephesians 5:33; Galatians 2:10; add 2 Corinthians 8:7; ἵνα ἀναπαύσωνται (L T Tr WH ἀναπαήσονται (see ἀναπαύω at the beginning)), German sie sollen ruhen (A. V. that they may rest etc.), Revelation 14:13; (perhaps also Colossians 4:16, cf. Lightfoot at the passage) (2 Macc. 1:9; Epictetus ench. 23 (17); diss. 4,1,41; among the earlier Greeks once so, Sophocles O. C. 155; in Latin, Cicero, ad divers. 14, 20 'ibi ut sint omnia parata'; in German stern commands: 'dass du gehest!' 'dass du nicht säumest!' cf. Winers Grammar, § 43, 5 a.; (Buttmann, 241 (208))).

c. ἵνα without a verb following — which the reader is left to gather from the context; thus we must mentally supply ἐυαγγελιζωμεθα, ἐυαγγελιζωνται in Galatians 2:9, cf. Winers Grammar, 587 (546); (Buttmann, 394 (338)); ἵνα κατά χάριν, namely, , that the promise may be a gift of grace, Romans 4:16 (Winers Grammar, 598 (556); Buttmann, 392 (336)); ἵνα ἄλλοις ἄνεσις namely, γένηται, 2 Corinthians 8:13 (Winers Grammar, 586 (545); Buttmann, § 129, 22); ἵνα namely, γένηται, 1 Corinthians 1:31, unless preference be given there to an anacoluthon (Winers Grammar, 599 (557); Buttmann, 234 (201)): ἵνα ... καυχάσθω for καυχαται. (ἵνα ὡς ἄνθρωπος, namely, ἐργάζῃ, Epictetus diss. 3, 23, 4.)

5. Generally ἵνα stands first in the final sentence; sometimes, however, it is preceded by those words in width the main force of the sentence lies (Winers Grammar, 550 (511); Buttmann, § 151, 18): Acts 19:4; Romans 11:31 (join τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ἐληι ἵνα); 1 Corinthians 9:15 at the end (R G); 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 12:7; Galatians 2:10; τό λοιπόν ἵνα κτλ., 1 Corinthians 7:29 Rec.elz L T. Among N. T. writers, John uses this particle more often, Luke more rarely, than the rest; (on John's use see Winers Grammar, 338f (317f); 461 (430); Buttmann, 236 (203); 244 (210) note; § 140, 10 and 12; on Luke's cf. Buttmann, 235f (203)). It is not found in the Epistle of Jude. (For Schaeffer's references to Greek usage (and editions) see the Lond. (Valpy's) edition of Stephanus under the word, col. 4488.)

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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ἵνα ,

I. adverb (poët., Rom., al.),

1. of place, where, whither.

2. of circumstance, when.

II. Conjunction,

1. prop., final, denoting purpose or end (cl.), that, in order that, usually the first word in the clause, but sometimes (cl. also) preceded by an emphatic word (Acts 19:4, Romans 11:31 (?), Galatians 2:10, al.);

(a) c. optat. (so in cl. after historic tenses): after a pres., Ephesians 1:17 (but WH, mg., subjc.; v. Burton, § 225, Rem., 2);

(b) c. subjc.: after a Pres., Mark 4:21, Luke 6:34, John 3:15, Acts 2:25, Romans 1:11, al.; after a pf., Matthew 1:22, John 5:23, 1 Corinthians 9:22, al.; after an imperat. (pres. or aor.), Matthew 7:1, Mark 11:25, John 10:38, 1 Corinthians 7:5, al.; after a delib. subjc., Mark 1:38, al.; after a fut., Luke 16:4, John 14:3, 1 Corinthians 15:28, al.; after historic tenses (where optat. in cl.; WM, 359 f.; M, Pr., 196 f.), Mark 6:41 (impf.), John 4:8 (plpf.), Mark 3:14 (aor.), al.;

(c) in late writers (M, Pr., 35; Burton, §§ 198, 199), c. indic. fut: Luke 20:10, 1 Peter 3:1, al.;

(d) as often in eccl. writers (Thayer, s.v.), c. indic. pres.: 1 Corinthians 4:6, Galatians 4:17, al. (?; but v. Burton, § 198, Rem.);

(e) εἰς (διὰ ) τοῦτο , ἵνα : John 18:37, 1 Timothy 1:16, al.; τούτου χάριν , Titus 1:5;

(f) elliptical constructions: omission of the principal verb, John 1:8, 2 Thessalonians 3:9, 1 John 2:19, al; of the final verb, Romans 4:16, 2 Corinthians 8:13, al.

2. In late writers, definitive, = inf. (WM, 420; El., § 69, 1), that;

(a) after verbs of wishing, caring, striving, etc.: θέλω , Matthew 7:12, al.; ζητῶ , 1 Corinthians 4:2; 1 Corinthians 14:12; ζηλόω , 1 Corinthians 14:1, al.;

(b) after verbs of saying, asking, exhorting: εἰπεῖν , Matthew 4:3, al.; ἐρωτῶ , Mark 7:26, al.; παρακαλῶ , Matthew 14:36, 1 Corinthians 1:10, al., etc.;

(c) after words expressing expediency, etc.: συμφέρει , Matthew 18:6, John 11:50, al.; ἱκανός , Matthew 8:8, Luke 7:6; χρείαν ἔχω , John 2:25, al, etc.;

(d) after substantives, adding further definition: ὥρα , John 12:23; John 13:1; χρόνος , Revelation 2:21; συνήθεια , John 18:39; μισθός , 1 Corinthians 9:15

3. In late writers, ecbatic, denoting the result, = ὥστε , that, so that (M, Pr., 206 ff.; WM, 572; B1., § 69, 3; Burton, § 223): Romans 11:11, 1 Corinthians 7:29, 1 Thessalonians 5:4, al. (but v. Thayer, s.v.); so with the formula referring to the fulfilment of prophecy, ἵνα πληρωθῇ , Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:14; Matthew 4:14, John 13:18, al.

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

The use of this conjunction is very widely extended in the Κοινή, nor is it always easy to determine the exact shade of meaning to be attached to it, but the following exx. may give an idea of its varied uses, (1) For the original meaning of purpose, ";in order that,"; we may cite P Petr II. 11 (1).7 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) γράφε δ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ σύ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ, καὶ μὴ ἀγωνιῶμεν, ";write to us yourself that we may know how you are circumstanced, and not be anxious,"; P Oxy IV. 742.6 (B.C. 2) θ [ ]ς αὐτὰς εἰς τόπον ἀσφαλῶς ἵνα τῇ ἀναβάσει αὐτὰς ἄξωμεν, ";put them (bundles of reeds) in a safe place in order that we may take them on the journey up"; (Edd.), and ib. VI. 939.19 (Christian letter iv/A.D.) ἕτερά σε γράμματα ἐπικαταλαβεῖν ἐσπούδασα διὰ Εὐφροσύνου ἵνα σε εὐθυμότερον καταστήσω, ";I am anxious that you should receive another letter by Euphrosynus, in order that I may make you more cheerful"; (Edd.). Interesting exx. of ἵνα c. opt. in this same sense are afforded by ib. II. 237iv. 12 (A.D. 186) ἵνα τῷ Ἀσκληπιάδῃ ἀποδιδόναι δυνηθείην, and somewhat later by P Leid Wxxv. 29 (ii/iii A.D.) ἵν᾽ εὔοδον ἄρτι μοι εἴῃ, ";ut facilis via iam mihi sit"; (Ed.). Ἵνα c. fut. ind., as not infrequently in the NT (John 7:3, 1 Corinthians 9:18, 1 Peter 3:1, Revelation 22:14 al.), is illustrated by P Oxy VII. 1068.5 (iii/A.D.) ἔγραψα τῷ κυρίῳ μου Κληματίῳ τῷ ἀρχερῖ (l. ἀρχιερεῖ) εἵνα μοι πλοῖον διαπέμψεται, followed, however, by εἵνα δυνηθῶ τὸ σωμάτιν κατενενκῖν ἐν Ἀλεξανδρίαν : cf. also ib..19 παρακαλῶ οὖν, κύριέ μου, ὑπάρξε (l. ὑπάρξαι) αὐτοῖς καὶ τὰ τῆς σῆς σπουδῆς, εἵνα μοι μαρτυρήσουσιν ἀνελθόντες, ";I urge you, my lord, to supply them with the marks of your good will, that on their return they may testify of it to me"; (Ed.). It is possible that we have an instance of ἵνα with the pres. ind., as in Galatians 4:17, in P Lond 971.12 (iii/iv A.D.) (= III. p. 129) ἵν᾽. . βοηθο ̣υ ̣ͅσιν, but the reading is uncertain. See also BGU IV. 1081.3 cited below. (2) After verbs of saying, wishing, commanding, ἵνα frequently denotes purport rather than purpose : see e.g. P Lond 42.32 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 31, Selections, p. 11) χαριεῖ δὲ καὶ τοῦ σώματος ἐπιμε [λό ]μενος, ἵν᾽ ὑγιαίνηις, ";pray take care of yourself that you may be in health,"; P Fay 112.6 (A.D. 99) ]π ̣ιτίνας τὸν ζευγηλάτην εἵνα ἑκάσ [της ] ἡμέρας τὼ ἔργον ἀποδῦ (l.οῖ), ";urge the driver to do his proper work every day"; (Edd.), BGU III. 843.11 (illiterate—i/ii A.D.) ἴρηκα τῷ υ [ἱῷ ] σου, εἵνα σοι πέμψ (l. πέμψῃ) κι ̣θών [ιο ]ν, and as showing how readily transition is made from one usage to another, the soldier’s letter P Meyer 20.44 ff. (1st half iii/A.D.) εἰπὲ τῇ ΐ ̣ε ̣ρίσσᾳ (l.) τοῦ ἱεροῦ τῶν Ἑρμωνθιτῶν, ἵνα ἐκ ̣εῖ πέμπω τὰς ἐπιστολάς ἐπὶ (l. ἐπεὶ) εὐσήμαντά ἐστιν, ";tell the priestess of the temple of the Hermonthites, that I am sending my letters there, since she is well known,"; which is immediately followed by—δήλωσόν μοι οὖν, εἰ ἐνετείλω αὐτῇ, ἵνα σοι ἐκεῖ πέμψω τὰς ἐπιστολάς, ";let me know, therefore, if you have so charged her, in order that I may send my letters to you there."; Attempts have been made to trace this construction to Latin influence, but, as Moulton (Proleg. 208 f.) has shown, ";the usage was deeply rooted in the vernacular, in fields which Latin cannot have touched to the extent which so far-reaching a change involves."; Amongst other passages he cites P Oxy IV. 744.13 (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) ἐρωτῶ σε οὖν ἵνα μὴ ἀγωνιάσῃς, ";I urge you therefore not to worry"; (Edd.), P Gen I. 7.16 (i/A.D.) ]γραψα. . ἵνα [σ ]οὶ μὲν αἱ προσήκουσαι τάξ [εις ] φυλαχθῶσι, BGU II. 625.9 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐδήλωσα Λονγείνῳ, εἵνα ἑτυμ [άσ ] (l. ἑτοιμάσῃ) πάντα, and P Oxy I. 121.4 (iii/A.D.) εἶπά σοι περεὶ τῶν δύο ἀκάνθων εἵνα δώσωσιν ἡμῖν αὐτά. (3) Related to this is ἵνα c. subj. with ";I pray,"; or some such phrase understood—P Tebt II. 408.17 (A.D. 3) καὶ σὺ δὲ περὶ ὧν βούλε [ι ] γράφε, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα ι ̣̓́ν ̣̕ ̣̣(γιαίνῃς), ";and do you too write about anything you wish for, and for the rest take care of your health"; (Edd.), P Ryl II. 230.9 (A.D. 40) μὴ [ο ]ὖν ἄλλως ποιή [σ ] [ς ] μὴ ἵνα δόξωμέν σε εὐθέως ἠλλάχθαι τὰ πρὸς ἡμᾶς, ";do not neglect this, lest we think you to have become all at once estranged towards us"; (Edd.), BGU IV. 1079.20 (A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 40) πολλοὺς δανιστὰς ἔχομεν μὴ ἵνα ἀναστατώσῃς ἡμᾶς, ";we have many creditors : do not drive us out,"; P Fay 112.12 (A.D. 99) ἐπέχον τῷ δακτυλιστῇ Ζωίλωι καὶ εἵνα αὐτὸν μὴ δυσωπήσῃς, ";give heed to the measurer (?) Zoilus : don’t look askance at him"; (Edd.), and BGU I. 48.18 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐὰν ἀναβῇς τῇ ἑορτῇ, ἵνα ὁμόσε γενώμεθα : cf. Mark 5:23, 1 Corinthians 7:29, 2 Corinthians 8:7, Ephesians 5:33, al., and MGr νὰ ᾽πῇς, ";say!"; (4) For ἵνα to express a consequence, as in Romans 11:11 (where see the note by SH), Galatians 5:17 al., cf. P Lond 964.13 (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 212) λαβὼν κοτύλας τ [ ]σ ̣ας φακ ̣ῶν ἵνα ἀρκέσ [ ] ἡμῖν, and such a passage as Epict. iv. 8. 21 εἰ δ᾽ οὕτω κωφὸς εἶ καὶ τυφλός, ἵνα μηδὲ τὸν Ἥφαιστον ὑπολαμβάνῃς καλὸν χαλκέα, ";but if thou art so deaf and blind that thou dost not suppose even Hephaestus to be a good smith"; (Sharp Epict. p. 95). See also the long list of exx. in Jannaris Gr. §§ 1758, 1951. (5) With John 8:56 al., where the ἵνα clause is practically equivalent to a complementary inf., cf. BGU IV. 1081.3 (ii/iii A.D.) Εὐκαίρου ̣ εὑρὼν τοῦ πρὸς σὲ ἐρχομένου (gen. for acc. and part, for inf.) ἐχάρην, ἵνα σὲ ἀσπάζομαι, ";I was glad to have the opportunity of greeting you."; (6) For ἵνα τί; (ut quid?), ";why?"; ";wherefore?"; as in Matthew 9:4 al., we may again cite Epictetus—i. 29. 31 ἵνα τί; οὐ γὰρ ἀρκεῖ. . .; ";why? is it not sufficient?"; (Sharp Epict. p. 8). Ἵνα, not followed by a verb, is found = ";where"; in the Attic inscrr., e.g. IG II. 667.14 (B.C. 385) ἵνα ἡ Νίκη, ἵνα [τ ]ὰ καμπύλα φύλλα κτλ. : see Meisterhans Gr. p. 251. Useful tables by Mr. Scott showing the different constructions of ἵνα in the NT will be found in Robertson Gr..8 pp. 1388, 1400, 1402 f., 1413.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
ινα ίνα ἵνα hina hína ina
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