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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #2443 - ἵνα
- that, in order that, so that
I of Place,
1 in that place, there, once in Hom., ἵ. γάρ σφιν ἐπέφραδον ἠγερέθεσθαι Il. 10.127 (acc.to Eust.).
2. elsewh. relat., in which place, where, 2.558, Od. 9.136, Hdt. 2.133, 9.27, 54, Pi. O. 1.95, B. 10.79, A. Proverbs 21:1-31, al., S. El. 22, 855, Ar. Ra. 1231, etc.: rarely in Att. Prose, Lys. 13.72 (v. infr.), Pl. Revelation 17:1-18 c, Phlb. 61b; ἵ. ἡ Νίκη (sc. ἐστίν) IG 22.1407.13: rare in later Greek, Arr. An. 1.3.2, Luc. Cont. 22, Ind. 3: with particles, ἵ. τε Il. 20.478; ἵ. περ 24.382, Od. 13.364, Lys. l.c.; ἵν' ἄν c. subj., wherever, S. OC 405, E. Ion 315; as indirect interrog., Hdt. 1.179, 2.150, E. Hec. 1008. after Hom., like other Advs. of Place, c. gen., ἵ. τῆς χώρης Hdt. 1.98; ἔμαθε ἵ. ἦν κακοῦ in what a calamity, Id. 1.213; οὐδ' ὁρᾶν ἵν' ἐ̄ κακοῦ S. OT 367; ἵν' ἕσταμεν χρείας ib. 1442; ἵν' ἦμεν ἄτης Id. El. 936; ὁρᾷς ἵν' ἐσμὲν αὐτοῦ πέρι τῆς ἀπορίας Pl. Sph. 243b. with Verbs of motion, whither, Od. 4.821, al.; ὁρᾷς ἵν' ἥκεις S. OT 687, al., Din. 2.10; ιναπερ ὥρμητο Th. 4.74. II of circumstance, γάμος.., ἵ. χρή at which, when, Od. 6.27; ἵ. μὲν ἐξῆν αὐτοῖς.., ἐνταῦθα.. when it was in their power, Antipho 6.9.
2. = ἐάν, dub. in Il. 7.353 (v.l. ἵν' ἄν, cf. Sch.), Archil. 74.7 codd., v.l. in Din. 1.1, and Pl. Chrm. 176b. Final Conj., that, in order that, from Hom. downwards, mostly first word in the clause, but sts. preceded by an emphatic word, Pl. Chrm. 169d; ἵ. δή Il. 7.26, 23.207, Hdt. 1.29, Pl. R. 420e, 610c: never with ἄν or κε (if found, these particles belong to the Verb, as in Od. 12.156, E. IA 1579).
I general usage:
1 with subj., after primary tenses of ind., also subj. and imper.: pres. ind., Il. 3.252, Od. 2.111, X. Mem. 3.2.3, Cyr. 1.2.11, Isoc. 3.2: pf. ind., Il. 1.203, Isoc. 4.129: fut., Od. 2.307, 4.591, X. Cyr. 1.2.15; subj., S. OT 364; imper., Il. 19.348,al., A. Pr. 61, S. Ph. 880, Ar. Ra. 297, Pl. R. 341b, Men. 71d. after historical tenses, in similes, where the aor. is gnomic, Od. 5.490 (αὔοι codd.); where aor. is treated as equiv. to pf., Il. 9.99, Od. 8.580, Hdt. 5.91, Lys. 1.4, D. 9.26: when the purpose is regarded from the point of view of the speaker's present, σὲ παῖδα ποιεύμην ἵ. μοι.. λοιγὸν ἀμύνῃς Il. 9.495, cf. Hdt. 1.29, 6.100, Th. 1.44, al., Lys. 1.11,12,al. after opt. and ἄν, when opt. with οὐκ ἄν is used with sense of imper., Il. 24.264, Od. 6.58; after βουλοίμην ἄν.., Lys. 7.12. after impf. with ἄν, D. 23.7.
2. with opt., after historical tenses, Il. 5.3, Od. 3.2, A. Th. 215, Lys. 3.11, Pl. Prt. 314c, etc.: after the historical pres., E. Hec. 11: sts. both moods, subj. and opt., follow in consecutive clauses, Od. 3.77, Hdt. 8.76, 9.51, D. 23.93, 49.14. after opt., Od. 18.369, S. Ph. 325; βούλοιντ' ἂν ἡμᾶς ἐξολωλέναι, ἵνα.. λάβοιεν Ar. Pax 413. rarely after primary tenses, by a shifting of the point of view, Od. 17.250, Ar. Ra. 24, Pl. R. 410c.
3. with past tenses of ind., after unfulfilled wishes, Id. Cri. 44d. after ind. with ἄν, to express a consequence which has not followed or cannot follow, S. OT 1389, Pl. Men. 89b, D. 29.17: esp. after ἐβουλόμην ἄν.., Ar. V. 961, Lys. 4.3. after such Verbs as ἐχρῆν, ἔδει, E. Hipp. 647, Pl. Prt. 335c, Smp. 181e, Euthd. 304e, Isoc. 9.5, D. 24.48, Men. 349.5, etc.: whenan unfulfilled obligation is implied, τεθαύμακα ὅτι οὐκ εἶπεν (= ἔδει εἰπεῖν).. ἵ... Pl. Tht. 161c; ἀντὶ τοῦ κοσμεῖν (= δέον κοσμεῖν).. ἵ... D. 36.47. after pres. ind. in general statements (including the past), οὐδὲ γὰρ τὸ εἶναι ἔχει ἡ ὕλη, ἱ. ἀγαθοῦ ταύτῃ μετεῖχεν Plot. 1.8.5.
4. ἵ. μή as the neg. of ἵνα, that not, Il. 19.348, etc.
II special usages:
1 like ὅπως, after Verbs of command and entreaty, is common only in later Gr. (but cf. Od. 3.327 with ib. 19), ἀξιοῦν ἵ... Decr. ap. D. 18.155; δεήσεσθαι ἵ... D.H. 1.83; παρακαλεῖν ἵ... Arr. Epict. 3.23.27: freq. in NT, ἐκήρυξαν ἵ. μετανοήσωσιν Mark 6:12, al.; of will, ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵ. ποιῶσιν.. ib. 25: hence ἵ. c. subj. stands for infin., ἐν τούτῳ ἵ. καρπὸν φέρητε (= ἐν τῷ φέρειν) John 15:8, etc.; πρῶτόν ἐστιν ἵ. κοιμηθῶ Arr. Epict. 1.10.8, cf. M.Ant. 8.29; also for ὥστε, LXX Genesis 22:14,al., Plu. 2.333a, Porph. Abst. 2.33, etc.
2. because, ἵ. ἀναγνῶ ἐτιμήθην I was honoured because I read, Anon. ap. A.D. Synt. 266.5, cf. Conj. 243.21, Choerob. in Theod. 2.257, al.; not found in literature.
3. elliptical usages, where the purpose of the utterance is stated, Ζεὺς ἔσθ', ἵν' εἰδῇς 'tis Zeus, — [I tell thee this] that thou may'st know it, S. Ph. 989; ἵ. μὴ εἴπω ὅτι οὐδεμιᾷ Pl. R. 507d; ἵ. συντέμω D. 45.5; ἵν' ἐκ τούτων ἄρξωμαι Id. 21.43; ἵ. δῶμεν.. granted that.., S.E. P. 2.34, cf. 1.79. in commands, introducing a principal sentence, ἵ. συντάξῃς order him.., PCair.Zen. 240.12 (iii B.C.); ἵ. λαλήσῃς PSI 4.412.1 (iii B.C.); ἵ. ἐλθὼν ἐπιθῇς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῇ Mark 5:23; Mark cf.2 Cor. 8.7, LXX 2 Maccabees 1:9, Arr. Epict. 4.1.41, Did. ap. Sch. S. OC 156. ἵ. τί (sc. γένηται); to what end? either abs. or as a question, Ar. Ec. 719; or with a Verb following, Id. Pax 409, cf. Pl. Ap. 26d, etc.; ἵ. δὴ τί; Ar. Nu. 1192. in indignant exclamations, to think that.. ! Σωκράτης ἵ. πάθῃ ταῦτα Arr. Epict. 1.29.16. III in later Gr. with ind., LXX Exodus 1:11,al., Galatians 2:4, Galatians 4:17, etc.
I. adverb (poët., Rom., al.),
1. of place, where, whither.
2. of circumstance, when.
1. prop., final, denoting purpose or end (cl.), that, in order that, usually the first word in the clause, but sometimes (cl. also) preceded by an emphatic word (Acts 19:4, Romans 11:31 (?), Galatians 2:10, al.);
(a) c. optat. (so in cl. after historic tenses): after a pres., Ephesians 1:17 (but WH, mg., subjc.; v. Burton, § 225, Rem., 2);
(b) c. subjc.: after a Pres., Mark 4:21, Luke 6:34, John 3:15, Acts 2:25, Romans 1:11, al.; after a pf., Matthew 1:22, John 5:23, 1 Corinthians 9:22, al.; after an imperat. (pres. or aor.), Matthew 7:1, Mark 11:25, John 10:38, 1 Corinthians 7:5, al.; after a delib. subjc., Mark 1:38, al.; after a fut., Luke 16:4, John 14:3, 1 Corinthians 15:28, al.; after historic tenses (where optat. in cl.; WM, 359 f.; M, Pr., 196 f.), Mark 6:41 (impf.), John 4:8 (plpf.), Mark 3:14 (aor.), al.;
(c) in late writers (M, Pr., 35; Burton, §§ 198, 199), c. indic. fut: Luke 20:10, 1 Peter 3:1, al.;
(d) as often in eccl. writers (Thayer, s.v.), c. indic. pres.: 1 Corinthians 4:6, Galatians 4:17, al. (?; but v. Burton, § 198, Rem.);
(e) εἰς (διὰ ) τοῦτο , ἵνα : John 18:37, 1 Timothy 1:16, al.; τούτου χάριν , Titus 1:5;
(f) elliptical constructions: omission of the principal verb, John 1:8, 2 Thessalonians 3:9, 1 John 2:19, al; of the final verb, Romans 4:16, 2 Corinthians 8:13, al.
2. In late writers, definitive, = inf. (WM, 420; El., § 69, 1), that;
(a) after verbs of wishing, caring, striving, etc.: θέλω , Matthew 7:12, al.; ζητῶ , 1 Corinthians 4:2; 1 Corinthians 14:12; ζηλόω , 1 Corinthians 14:1, al.;
(b) after verbs of saying, asking, exhorting: εἰπεῖν , Matthew 4:3, al.; ἐρωτῶ , Mark 7:26, al.; παρακαλῶ , Matthew 14:36, 1 Corinthians 1:10, al., etc.;
(c) after words expressing expediency, etc.: συμφέρει , Matthew 18:6, John 11:50, al.; ἱκανός , Matthew 8:8, Luke 7:6; χρείαν ἔχω , John 2:25, al, etc.;
(d) after substantives, adding further definition: ὥρα , John 12:23; John 13:1; χρόνος , Revelation 2:21; συνήθεια , John 18:39; μισθός , 1 Corinthians 9:15
3. In late writers, ecbatic, denoting the result, = ὥστε , that, so that (M, Pr., 206 ff.; WM, 572; B1., § 69, 3; Burton, § 223): Romans 11:11, 1 Corinthians 7:29, 1 Thessalonians 5:4, al. (but v. Thayer, s.v.); so with the formula referring to the fulfilment of prophecy, ἵνα πληρωθῇ , Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:14; Matthew 4:14, John 13:18, al.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The use of this conjunction is very widely extended in the Κοινή, nor is it always easy to determine the exact shade of meaning to be attached to it, but the following exx. may give an idea of its varied uses, (1) For the original meaning of purpose, ";in order that,"; we may cite P Petr II. 11 (1).7 (iii/B.C.) (= Selections, p. 8) γράφε δ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ σύ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ, καὶ μὴ ἀγωνιῶμεν, ";write to us yourself that we may know how you are circumstanced, and not be anxious,"; P Oxy IV. 742.6 (B.C. 2) θ [ὲ ]ς αὐτὰς εἰς τόπον ἀσφαλῶς ἵνα τῇ ἀναβάσει αὐτὰς ἄξωμεν, ";put them (bundles of reeds) in a safe place in order that we may take them on the journey up"; (Edd.), and ib. VI. 939.19 (Christian letter iv/A.D.) ἕτερά σε γράμματα ἐπικαταλαβεῖν ἐσπούδασα διὰ Εὐφροσύνου ἵνα σε εὐθυμότερον καταστήσω, ";I am anxious that you should receive another letter by Euphrosynus, in order that I may make you more cheerful"; (Edd.). Interesting exx. of ἵνα c. opt. in this same sense are afforded by ib. II. 237iv. 12 (A.D. 186) ἵνα τῷ Ἀσκληπιάδῃ ἀποδιδόναι δυνηθείην, and somewhat later by P Leid Wxxv. 29 (ii/iii A.D.) ἵν᾽ εὔοδον ἄρτι μοι εἴῃ, ";ut facilis via iam mihi sit"; (Ed.). Ἵνα c. fut. ind., as not infrequently in the NT (John 7:3, 1 Corinthians 9:18, 1 Peter 3:1, Revelation 22:14 al.), is illustrated by P Oxy VII. 1068.5 (iii/A.D.) ἔγραψα τῷ κυρίῳ μου Κληματίῳ τῷ ἀρχερῖ (l. ἀρχιερεῖ) εἵνα μοι πλοῖον διαπέμψεται, followed, however, by εἵνα δυνηθῶ τὸ σωμάτιν κατενενκῖν ἐν Ἀλεξανδρίαν : cf. also ib..19 παρακαλῶ οὖν, κύριέ μου, ὑπάρξε (l. ὑπάρξαι) αὐτοῖς καὶ τὰ τῆς σῆς σπουδῆς, εἵνα μοι μαρτυρήσουσιν ἀνελθόντες, ";I urge you, my lord, to supply them with the marks of your good will, that on their return they may testify of it to me"; (Ed.). It is possible that we have an instance of ἵνα with the pres. ind., as in Galatians 4:17, in P Lond 971.12 (iii/iv A.D.) (= III. p. 129) ἵν᾽. . βοηθο ̣υ ̣ͅσιν, but the reading is uncertain. See also BGU IV. 1081.3 cited below. (2) After verbs of saying, wishing, commanding, ἵνα frequently denotes purport rather than purpose : see e.g. P Lond 42.32 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 31, Selections, p. 11) χαριεῖ δὲ καὶ τοῦ σώματος ἐπιμε [λό ]μενος, ἵν᾽ ὑγιαίνηις, ";pray take care of yourself that you may be in health,"; P Fay 112.6 (A.D. 99) ἐ ]π ̣ιτίνας τὸν ζευγηλάτην εἵνα ἑκάσ [της ] ἡμέρας τὼ ἔργον ἀποδῦ (l.–οῖ), ";urge the driver to do his proper work every day"; (Edd.), BGU III. 843.11 (illiterate—i/ii A.D.) ἴρηκα τῷ υ [ἱῷ ] σου, εἵνα σοι πέμψ (l. πέμψῃ) κι ̣θών [ιο ]ν, and as showing how readily transition is made from one usage to another, the soldier’s letter P Meyer 20.44 ff. (1st half iii/A.D.) εἰπὲ τῇ ΐ ̣ε ̣ρίσσᾳ (l.–ῃ) τοῦ ἱεροῦ τῶν Ἑρμωνθιτῶν, ἵνα ἐκ ̣εῖ πέμπω τὰς ἐπιστολάς ἐπὶ (l. ἐπεὶ) εὐσήμαντά ἐστιν, ";tell the priestess of the temple of the Hermonthites, that I am sending my letters there, since she is well known,"; which is immediately followed by—δήλωσόν μοι οὖν, εἰ ἐνετείλω αὐτῇ, ἵνα σοι ἐκεῖ πέμψω τὰς ἐπιστολάς, ";let me know, therefore, if you have so charged her, in order that I may send my letters to you there."; Attempts have been made to trace this construction to Latin influence, but, as Moulton (Proleg. 208 f.) has shown, ";the usage was deeply rooted in the vernacular, in fields which Latin cannot have touched to the extent which so far-reaching a change involves."; Amongst other passages he cites P Oxy IV. 744.13 (B.C. 1) (= Selections, p. 33) ἐρωτῶ σε οὖν ἵνα μὴ ἀγωνιάσῃς, ";I urge you therefore not to worry"; (Edd.), P Gen I. 7.16 (i/A.D.) ἔ ]γραψα. . ἵνα [σ ]οὶ μὲν αἱ προσήκουσαι τάξ [εις ] φυλαχθῶσι, BGU II. 625.9 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐδήλωσα Λονγείνῳ, εἵνα ἑτυμ [άσ ]ῃ (l. ἑτοιμάσῃ) πάντα, and P Oxy I. 121.4 (iii/A.D.) εἶπά σοι περεὶ τῶν δύο ἀκάνθων εἵνα δώσωσιν ἡμῖν αὐτά. (3) Related to this is ἵνα c. subj. with ";I pray,"; or some such phrase understood—P Tebt II. 408.17 (A.D. 3) καὶ σὺ δὲ περὶ ὧν βούλε [ι ] γράφε, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα ι ̣̓́ν ̣̕ ῢ ̣̣(γιαίνῃς), ";and do you too write about anything you wish for, and for the rest take care of your health"; (Edd.), P Ryl II. 230.9 (A.D. 40) μὴ [ο ]ὖν ἄλλως ποιή [σ ]ῃ [ς ] μὴ ἵνα δόξωμέν σε εὐθέως ἠλλάχθαι τὰ πρὸς ἡμᾶς, ";do not neglect this, lest we think you to have become all at once estranged towards us"; (Edd.), BGU IV. 1079.20 (A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 40) πολλοὺς δανιστὰς ἔχομεν μὴ ἵνα ἀναστατώσῃς ἡμᾶς, ";we have many creditors : do not drive us out,"; P Fay 112.12 (A.D. 99) ἐπέχον τῷ δακτυλιστῇ Ζωίλωι καὶ εἵνα αὐτὸν μὴ δυσωπήσῃς, ";give heed to the measurer (?) Zoilus : don’t look askance at him"; (Edd.), and BGU I. 48.18 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐὰν ἀναβῇς τῇ ἑορτῇ, ἵνα ὁμόσε γενώμεθα : cf. Mark 5:23, 1 Corinthians 7:29, 2 Corinthians 8:7, Ephesians 5:33, al., and MGr νὰ ᾽πῇς, ";say!"; (4) For ἵνα to express a consequence, as in Romans 11:11 (where see the note by SH), Galatians 5:17 al., cf. P Lond 964.13 (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 212) λαβὼν κοτύλας τ [ό ]σ ̣ας φακ ̣ῶν ἵνα ἀρκέσ [ῃ ] ἡμῖν, and such a passage as Epict. iv. 8. 21 εἰ δ᾽ οὕτω κωφὸς εἶ καὶ τυφλός, ἵνα μηδὲ τὸν Ἥφαιστον ὑπολαμβάνῃς καλὸν χαλκέα, ";but if thou art so deaf and blind that thou dost not suppose even Hephaestus to be a good smith"; (Sharp Epict. p. 95). See also the long list of exx. in Jannaris Gr. §§ 1758, 1951. (5) With John 8:56 al., where the ἵνα clause is practically equivalent to a complementary inf., cf. BGU IV. 1081.3 (ii/iii A.D.) Εὐκαίρου ̣ εὑρὼν τοῦ πρὸς σὲ ἐρχομένου (gen. for acc. and part, for inf.) ἐχάρην, ἵνα σὲ ἀσπάζομαι, ";I was glad to have the opportunity of greeting you."; (6) For ἵνα τί; (ut quid?), ";why?"; ";wherefore?"; as in Matthew 9:4 al., we may again cite Epictetus—i. 29. 31 ἵνα τί; οὐ γὰρ ἀρκεῖ. . .; ";why? is it not sufficient?"; (Sharp Epict. p. 8). Ἵνα, not followed by a verb, is found = ";where"; in the Attic inscrr., e.g. IG II. 667.14 (B.C. 385) ἵνα ἡ Νίκη, ἵνα [τ ]ὰ καμπύλα φύλλα κτλ. : see Meisterhans Gr. p. 251. Useful tables by Mr. Scott showing the different constructions of ἵνα in the NT will be found in Robertson Gr..8 pp. 1388, 1400, 1402 f., 1413.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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