Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

#109 - ἀήρ

from aemi (to breathe unconsciously, i.e. respire by analogy, to blow)
Parts of Speech
noun, masculine
  1. the air, particularly the lower and denser air as distinguished from the higher and rarer air
  2. the atmospheric region
Strong #: 7834 ‑ שַׁחַק (shakh'‑ak);  
Frequency Lists  
Verse Results
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ἀήρ, ἀέρος, Hom. ἀήρ, ἠέρος; Ion. nom. ἠήρ Hp. Aër. 6,al., Aret. CA 2.3; Aeol. αὐήρ Sch. Pi. P. 2.52; Dor. ἀβήρ (i.e. ἀϜήρ) Hsch.: fem. in Hom. and Hes. (exc. Op. 549), Anaxag. ap. Thphr. Sens. 30; from Hdt downwds. masc. (Il. 5.776, 8.50, h.Cer. 383 cannot be quoted for the masc. usage, since there πουλύς and βαθύς need not be masc.):


1. in Hom. and Hes. always mist, haze, not (as Aristarch.) lower air (opp. αἰθήρ, q.v.); [ἐλάτη] μακροτάτη πεφυυῖα δι' ἠέρος αἰθέρ' ἵκανεν Il. 14.288, cf. Anaxag. 1, Ar. Nu. 264s q.; περὶ δ' ἠέρα πουλὺν ἔχευεν Il. 5.776, cf. 3.381, 8.50; ἠέρα μὲν σκέδας εν καὶ ἀπῶσεν ὀμί χλην 17.649; τρὶς δ' ἠέρα τύψε βαθεῖαν 20.446; rare in Prose, Hp. l.c.

2. later, generally, air, Anaxim.1, Emp. 17.18, S. El. 87, Ar. Av. 187, 694, etc.; πρὸς τὸν ἀέρα διατρίβειν in the open air, Ar. Nu. 198, cf. Teles p.11.3 H., Luc. Anach. 24; τὸν ἀέρ' ἕλκειν καθαρόν Philyll. 20, cf. Philem. 119; ἔσπασας τὸν ἀ. τὸν κοινόν Men. 531.7; ἀέρα δέρειν 1 Corinthians 9:26; εἰς ἀέρᾳ λαλεῖν ib. 14.9: in pl., Pl. Phd. 98c, 98d; climates, Hp. Aër. tit., cf. Men.Rh.p.383 S.; of mephitic exhalations, Str. 5.4.5.

3. personified, ὦ δέσποτ' ἄναξ ἀμέτ ρητ' Ἀ. Ar. Nu. 264; Ἀ. ὃν ἄν τις ὀνομάσειε καὶ Δία Philem. 91.4, cf. Diph. 126.6.


1. hot-air room in baths, Gal. 11.14.

2. volume, Hero *Stereom. 57,al.

III a pigment, sky-blue or grey, Id. Aut. 28.3. [ , except in Arist. Fr. 642, Ps.-Phoc. [108].]

ἀήρ , ἀέρος , ,

[in LXX: 2 Kings 22:12 (= Psalms 18:11, H7834), Wisdom of Solomon 8:1-21;]

in Hom., Hes., the lower air which surrounds the earth, as opp. to the purer αἰθήρ of the higher regions; generally, air (MM, VGT, s.v.): Acts 22:23, 1 Thessalonians 4:17, Revelation 9:2; Revelation 16:17; of the air as the realm of demons, Ephesians 2:2; . δρεινέ of striving to no purpose, 1 Corinthians 9:26; εἰς ἀ λαλεῖν , of speaking without effect, not being understood, 1 Corinthians 14:9.†

Vocabulary of the Greek NT

A very late (vi/A.D.) citation may be made from an illiterate document which fairly proves the word in continued vernacular use : P Lond 991.10 ( = III. p. 258) ἀπὸ θημελίου ἕως ἀέρως. Vettius Valens p. 330.19 has ὅ τε περικεχυμένος ἀὴρ ἄφθαρτος ὑπάρχων καὶ διήκων εἰς ἡμᾶς ἀπόρροιαν καιρικὴν ἀθανασίας ἀπονέμει κτλ. In Wünsch AF 4.37 (iii/A.D.) we have ἀέρος τὴν ἐξουσίαν ἔχοντα Ωη Ἰάω εεαφ —but in syncretic documents of this kind a reminiscence of Ephesians 2:2 is not excluded. Add P Leid Wxviii. 38 ὁ ἀέρα βλέπων. In BGU IV. 1207.6 (B.C. 28) we find some gauzy fabrics described as ἀεροε ̣[ι ]δ ̣ ̣. The noun survives in MGr.

[Supplemental from 1930 edition]

ἀήρ, perhaps metaphorical in P Oxy XIV. 1672.15 (A.D. 37–41), see the editors’ note. The word = ";wind"; in ib. 1682.4 (iv/A.D.).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
αερα αέρα ἀέρα αερος αέρος ἀέρος αέρων αηρ αήρ ἀὴρ aer aēr aḕr aera aéra aeros aéros
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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