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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #3584 - ξηρός

Root Word (Etymology)
from the base of (G3582) (through the idea of scorching)
Parts of Speech
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  1. dry
    1. of members of the body deprived of their natural juices, shrunk, wasted, withered
    2. of the land in distinction from the water
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 2724 ‑ חָרָבָה (khaw‑raw‑baw');  3002 ‑ יָבֵשׁ (yaw‑bashe');  3002 ‑ יָבֵשׁ (yaw‑bashe');  3004 ‑ יַבָּשָׁה (yab‑baw‑shaw');  6723 ‑ צִיָּה (tsee‑yaw');  6784 ‑ צָמַק (tsaw‑mak');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (7)
Matthew 2
Luke 3
John 1
Hebrews 1
NAS (8)
Matthew 2
Mark 1
Luke 3
John 1
Hebrews 1
HCS (8)
Matthew 2
Mark 1
Luke 3
John 1
Hebrews 1
BSB (8)
Matthew 2
Mark 1
Luke 3
John 1
Hebrews 1
ESV (6)
Matthew 1
Luke 3
John 1
Hebrews 1
WEB (7)
Matthew 2
Luke 3
John 1
Hebrews 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

ξηρός, ά, όν,


1. dry, opp. ὑγρός, of a dried-up river, Hdt. 5.45; χειμάρρους ξηροὺς ὕδατος Arr. An. 4.3.2; ἠὴρ ξ. Hdt. 2.26; ξ. ἄνεμος Ar. Nu. 404; ξηροῖς ἀκλαύτοις ὄμμασιν A. Th. 696; ὀμμάτων ξ. κόραι E. Or. 389; μέτρα ξ. τε καὶ ὑγρά dry and liquid measures, Pl. Lg. 746d; ὕλη αὔη καὶ ξ. ib. 761d; ξ. γάλα, i.e. ripe cheese, Eust. 1001.51 (cf. περίξηρος); so τυρὸς ξ., opp. τυρὸς χλωρός, Antiph. 133.7, cf. Philox. 3.8; ἐν ξηροῖσιν ἐκτρέφειν on solid food, i.e. cereals, E. Ba. 277; καρπὸς ξ., i.e. cereal, opp. κ. ξύλινος, produce of trees, i. e. fruit, wine, or oil, Pl. Criti. 115b; ξ. χόρτος hay, PPetr. 3p.181 (iii B.C.); φοῖνιξ ξ. dried dates, PSI 1.33.14 (ii A.D.); ξ. καρποί, opp. οἶνος, ἔλαιον, Arr. Epict. 2.23.5; ξ. πυρίαι applications of dry heat, Hp. Acut. 21, Archig. ap. Gal. 12.621; cf. ξηροπυρία. Adv. ξηρῶς by the use of dry powder, Hp. Epid. 6.3.13 (s.v.l.).

2. of bodily condition, withered, lean, δέμας E. El. 239; ξηρὸς ὑπαὶ δείους Theoc. 24.61; ξ. κοιλίη costive, Hp. Aph. 2.20.

3. of the voice, cf. ξηρόφωνος.


1. fasting: hence, generally, austere, τρόποι Ar. V. 1452 (lyr.); of persons, Antiph. 16; harsh, opp. ἡδύς, E. Andr. 784 (lyr.).

2. metaph., of style, πραγματεία ἀτερπὴς καὶ ξ. Epicur. Fr. 505 (p.358 U.); τὸ ξ. aridity, Demetr. Eloc. 238; of critics, ξηροὶ Καλλιμάχου πρόκυνες AP 11.322 (Antiphan.).


1. as Subst. ἡ ξηρά (sc. γῆ), dry land, opp. ὑγρά, X. Oec. 19.7 (also Comp. ξηροτέρα γῆ ib. 6), cf. Matthew 23:15, etc.; τὸ ξηρόν Hdt. 2.68; ναῦς ἐπὶ τοῦ ξηροῦ ποιεῖν to leave the ships aground, Th. 1.109; ναῦς ἐς τὸ ξ. ἐξωθεῖν Id. 8.105; τὸ ξ. τοῦ ποταμοῦ the part of its bed left dry, X. Cyr. 7.5.18: for Theoc. 1.51 v. ἀκράτιστος.

2. ξηρά, ἡ, in a bath-house, room for dry heat, POxy. 2145.12 (ii A.D.).

Thayer's Expanded Definition

ξηρός, ξηρά, ξηρόν, from Herodotus down, dry: τό ξύλον, Luke 23:31 (in a proverb. saying, 'if a good man is treated so, what will be done to the wicked?' cf. Psalm 1:3; Ezekiel 20:47. Isaiah 56:3; Ezekiel 17:24); of members of the body deprived of their natural juices, shrunk, wasted, withered: as χείρ, Matthew 12:10; Mark 3:3 L T Tr WH; Luke 6:6, 8; men are spoken of as ξηροι, withered, John 5:3. of the land in distinction from water, ξηρά namely, γῆ (the Sept. for יַבָּשָׁה, Genesis 1:9; Jonah 1:9; Jonah 2:11, and often (Winer's Grammar, 18; 592 (550))): Matthew 23:15; Hebrews 11:29 where L T Tr WH add γῆς.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

ξηρός , - , -όν ,

[in LXX chiefly for H3002, its parts and derivatives, also for H2724, etc.;]

dry: metaph. (of a sinner), ξύλον ξ ., Luke 23:31; of members of the body shrunken by disease, withered: John 5:3; of the hand, Matthew 12:10 Mark 3:3, Luke 6:6; Luke 6:8; of the dry land, ἡ ξηρά (sc. γῆ , cf. Genesis 1:9-10; Genesis 1:19, al.): Matthew 23:15; γῆ , Hebrews 11:29.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

Grimm’s, statement that this adj. is ";not found";outside its NT occurrences (Matthew 18:6, Mark 9:42) requires correction in the light of the new evidence, e.g. BGU III. 912.24 (A.D. 33) τὰ ὀνικὰ κτήνη, P Gen I. 23.4 (A.D. 70) ἀπὸ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ἡμῖν ὀνικῶν κτηνῶν ὄνον ε ̣̓́ν ̣α ̣, and OGIS 629.30 (A.D. 137) γόμου ὀνικ [οῦ, a load such as requires an ass to carry it. Cf. for similar formations, P Oxy III. 498.8 (ii/A.D.) τῶν οἰκοδομουμένων λίθων κύβων καμηλικῶν, ";squared building-stones transportable by camel (?),"; and BGU III. 814.6 (iii/A.D.) ἡμι ]ονικὸν ἅρμα, ";a chariot drawn by mules."; Deissmann (LAE, p. 77) notes that ὀνικός ";survives in the Middle Greek τὸ ()νικόν, which is still in dialectal use, for instance in the island of Carpathus.";


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
ξηρα ξηρά ξηραν ξηράν ξηρὰν ξηρας ξηράς ξηρᾶς ξηροί ξηρόν ξηρός ξηρού ξηρούς ξηρω ξηρώ ξηρῷ ξηρων ξηρών ξηρῶν ξίφεσιν ξίφους ξυλάρια xera xerá xēra xērá xeran xerán xeràn xēran xērán xēràn xeras xerâs xēras xērâs xero xērō xerôi xērō̂i xeron xerôn xērōn xērō̂n
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