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Bible Lexicons

Old Testament Hebrew Lexical DictionaryHebrew Lexicon

Strong's #0518 - אִם

Root Word (Etymology)
a primitive particle
Parts of Speech
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1) if

1a) conditional clauses

1a1) of possible situations

1a2) of impossible situations

1b) oath contexts

1b1) no, not

1c) if...if, whether...or, whether...or...or

1d) when, whenever

1e) since

1f) interrogative particle

1g) but rather

Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (43)
Genesis 10
Exodus 2
Leviticus 1
Numbers 4
Judges 2
Ruth 1
1 Samuel 7
2 Samuel 1
2 Kings 1
1 Chronicles 2
2 Chronicles 2
Job 2
Ecclesiastes 1
Isaiah 1
Jeremiah 3
Ezekiel 2
Joel 1
NAS (791)
Genesis 51
Exodus 57
Leviticus 87
Numbers 57
Deuteronomy 25
Joshua 13
Judges 32
Ruth 6
1 Samuel 38
2 Samuel 24
1 Kings 27
2 Kings 18
1 Chronicles 12
2 Chronicles 16
Ezra 1
Nehemiah 8
Esther 13
Job 84
Psalms 34
Proverbs 26
Ecclesiastes 15
Song of Solomon 6
Isaiah 23
Jeremiah 59
Lamentations 2
Ezekiel 17
Hosea 1
Joel 2
Amos 13
Obadiah 5
Micah 2
Nahum 2
Habakkuk 3
Haggai 1
Zechariah 6
Malachi 5
CSB (946)
Genesis 68
Exodus 58
Leviticus 86
Numbers 62
Deuteronomy 32
Joshua 17
Judges 36
Ruth 8
1 Samuel 51
2 Samuel 28
1 Kings 39
2 Kings 39
1 Chronicles 15
2 Chronicles 21
Nehemiah 9
Esther 15
Job 87
Psalms 42
Proverbs 27
Ecclesiastes 20
Song of Solomon 10
Isaiah 31
Jeremiah 72
Lamentations 4
Ezekiel 28
Daniel 1
Hosea 3
Joel 1
Amos 15
Obadiah 4
Micah 1
Nahum 2
Habakkuk 2
Haggai 1
Zechariah 6
Malachi 5
BSB (1085)
Genesis 91
Exodus 60
Leviticus 91
Numbers 66
Deuteronomy 34
Joshua 20
Judges 37
Ruth 9
1 Samuel 56
2 Samuel 37
1 Kings 39
2 Kings 40
1 Chronicles 16
2 Chronicles 21
Ezra 1
Nehemiah 11
Esther 16
Job 109
Psalms 45
Proverbs 31
Ecclesiastes 21
Song of Solomon 10
Isaiah 40
Jeremiah 92
Lamentations 5
Ezekiel 37
Daniel 1
Hosea 3
Joel 2
Amos 17
Obadiah 5
Micah 4
Nahum 2
Habakkuk 3
Haggai 1
Zechariah 7
Malachi 5
ESV (562)
Genesis 44
Leviticus 20
Numbers 55
Deuteronomy 21
Joshua 10
Judges 20
Ruth 4
1 Samuel 33
2 Samuel 22
1 Kings 25
2 Kings 22
1 Chronicles 13
2 Chronicles 14
Ezra 1
Nehemiah 8
Esther 14
Job 48
Psalms 30
Proverbs 23
Ecclesiastes 14
Isaiah 19
Jeremiah 52
Lamentations 2
Ezekiel 21
Hosea 1
Joel 2
Amos 6
Micah 3
Nahum 2
Habakkuk 3
Haggai 1
Zechariah 5
Malachi 4
WEB (42)
Genesis 9
Exodus 1
Leviticus 1
Numbers 5
Judges 2
Ruth 1
1 Samuel 7
2 Samuel 1
2 Kings 1
1 Chronicles 2
2 Chronicles 3
Job 2
Ecclesiastes 1
Isaiah 1
Jeremiah 2
Ezekiel 2
Joel 1
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1013) ma (אמ AM) AC: Bind CO: Glue AB: ?: The pictograph a represents strength. The m is water or any other liquid. Combined these pictographs mean "strong liquid". Glue was made by placing the hides and other animal parts of slaughtered animals in a pot of boiling water. As the hide boiled, a thick sticky substance formed at the surface of the water. This substance was removed and used as a binding agent. (eng: arm - with the addition of the r sound)

A) ma (אמ AM) AC: ? CO: Arm AB: ?: The arm that holds things together. The arm is seen as glue that encircles and holds together. A cubit was the length of the arm from elbow to fingertip. The mother of the family is the one who binds the family together by holding in her arms and by the work of her arms.

Nf) ma (אמ AM) - Mother: One whose arms hold the family together through her work and love. Also one who fulfills the role of a mother. KJV (220): mother, dam - Strongs: H517 (אֵם)

Nf1) ema (אמה AMH) - I. Cubit:A linear standard of measure equal to the length of the forearm. [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Bondwoman:One who is bound to another. KJV (304): cubit, measure, post, handmaid, maidservant, maid, bondwoman, bondmaids - Strongs: H519 (אָמָה), H520 (אַמָּה), H521 (אַמָּה)

jm) nfma (אמונ AMWN) - Craftsman: An architect or artisan who uses the cubit for measuring. KJV (3): multitude, populace - Strongs: H527 (אָמוֹן)

J) mfa (אומ AWM) AC: Bind CO: Tribe AB: ?: A binding together.

Nf1) emfa (אומה AWMH) - Tribe: A family lineage bound together. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (11): people, nation - Strongs: H523 (אֻמָּה), H524 (אֻמָּה)

M) mia (אימ AYM) AC: ? CO: Glue AB: ?

Nm ) mia (אימ AYM) - If: A desire to bind two ideas together. KJV (43): if, not, or, when, whether, doubtless, while, neither, saving - Strongs: H518 (אִם)

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2024
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Brown-Driver-Briggs Expanded Definition
 אִם conjunction (= Aramaic if [and in , אֶלָּא = if not, except], Arabic if [and in = if not, except], Ethiopic (§mma) if = מָה + אִם ( + ) [and in ( allâ) if not, but], Assyrian umma; also in Arabic 'An?' = , compare הַאִם: see Nö M p. 208, ZMG 1886, p. 739; W AG i. § 367 e) **ᵑ7 Onk Jon אִם, ᵑ7 Hag אין.

1. hypothetical particle if.

a. construction (see more fully Dr§ 136-138,143 Friedrich Die Hebr. Condit. sätze 1884): (1) with

imperfect (continued by perfects & waw consecutive; apodosis usually begins with perfect & waw consecutive or bare imperfect; or, if necessary, with imperative or jussive) ( a) of future time: Genesis 18:26 אִםאֶֿמְצָא if I shall find 50 righteous in Sodom, וְנָשָׂאתִי I will pardon, etc., Genesis 24:8; Genesis 32:9; Deuteronomy 19:8f.; 1 Kings 1:52; b 1 Kings 6:12; Psalm 89:31; Genesis 42:37; Judges 13:16; 1 Kings 1:52 a Psalm 132:12. ( b) of past time (rare, but classical): Genesis 31:8 אִם יאֹמַר if ever he said . . . וְיָָֽלְדִוּ then they used to bear, etc., Exodus 40:37; & in the protestations Job 31:7,13,16,25 etc. (alternating with pff., see below, & with jussives in apodosis) ( c) assuming a purely imaginary case (with imperfect in both clauses, like the double optative in Greek), if, though: Genesis 13:16 so that אִםיֿוּכַל if a man were able to number the stars, thy seed also יִמָּנֶה might be numbered, Numbers 22:18; Isaiah 1:18 כַּשָּׁנִים יַלְבִּינוּ׳אִםיִֿהְיוּ ח though your sins were as scarlet, they should become white as snow, Amos 9:2-4 אִםיַֿחְתְּרוּ though they were to dig into Sheôl, from thence תִּקָּחֵם would my hand fetch them, Psalm 27:3; Psalm 139:8 +. (2) with

participle (expressing either a present process, or an approaching future: apodosis as 1 a) Genesis 24:42,49; Judges 6:36; Judges 9:15; Judges 11:9 אִם מְשִׁיבִים אַתֶּם if ye are going to bring me back . . . ׳וְנָתַן י then ׳י will, etc.; similarly with יֵשׁ or אֵין Genesis 44:26; Exodus 22:2; 1 Samuel 20:8; 1 Samuel 23:23; & with no explicit copula Deuteronomy 22:2; Deuteronomy 25:2; Leviticus 1:3,14, etc. (3) with

perfect ( a) of future or present time (continued by perfects & waw consecutive: apodosis as 1 a) Genesis 43:9 אִםלֹֿא הֲבִיאֹתִיו אֵלֶיךָ וְהִצַּגְתִּיו לְפָנֶיךָ if I do not bring him back (si eum non reduxero) and set him before thee, I will be guilty for ever, Genesis 47:6 if thou knowest that there are men of worth among them וְשַׂמְתָּם then make them, etc., Judges 16:17; 2 Samuel 15:33; 2 Kings 7:4; Psalm 41:7; Psalm 94:18; Job 7:4; Job 9:30f. Job 10:14 אִם חָטָאתִי וּשְׁמַרְתָּ֑נִי if I sin, thou watchest me. On אִםנָֿא Genesis 18:3 and elsewhere see נָא. ( b) of past time, whether ( a) in actual fact, or (β) in an assumed case (the perfect is here continued by the imperfect and waw consecutive; apodosis begins as before). ( a) Judges 9:16-19 אִם ֗֗֗ עֲשִׂיתֶם if ye have done honestly וַתַּמְלִיכוּ and have made Abimelech king . . ., 1 Samuel 26:19; especially in protestations, as Psalm 7:4 אִם עָשִׂיתִי זאת if I have done this . . ., let the enemy pursue my soul, etc. Jeremiah 33:25f.; Job 31:5f; Job 31:9, etc. ( b) Numbers 5:27 if she have defiled herself וַתִּמְעֹל and been faithless, וּבָאוּ then shall they come, etc., Numbers 15:24; Numbers 35:22-24. ( c) with bare perfect in apodosis, in sense of If ... had ..., only Deuteronomy 32:30 אִםלֹֿא כִּי were it not that ..., Psalm 73:15. (לוּ is more usual in such cases.) (4) with

infinitive once (si vera 1.) Job 9:27 אִם אָמְרִי = if I say (literally if (there is) my saying). — Note that the verb following אִם is often strengthened by the infinitive absolute, as Exodus 15:26; Exodus 19:5; Exodus 21:5; Exodus 22:3; Exodus 22:12; Exodus 22:16; Exodus 22:22; Judges 11:30; Judges 14:12; Judges 16:11 etc.; compare Dr Sm i. 20,6.

b. Special uses: (1) repeated ... אִםאִם whether ... or (sive ... sive) Exodus 19:13; Deuteronomy 18:3; 2 Samuel 15:21; similarly אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם Genesis 31:52; Jeremiah 42:6; Ezekiel 2:5; Ecclesiastes 11:3; Ecclesiastes 12:14 (compare ... , ... PS250; ... & ... ).(2) After an oath (expressed, or merely implied) אִם (the formula of imprecation being omitted) becomes an emphatic negative, and אִםלֹֿא an emphatic affirmative: 2 Samuel 11:11 by thy life אִםאֶֿעֱשֶׂה אֶתהַֿדָּבָר הַזֶּה (may God bring all manner of evil upon me) if I do this thing! = surely I will not do this thing! (compare the full phrases in 1 Samuel 3:17; 2 Kings 6:31) Genesis 14:23; Genesis 42:15; Numbers 14:23; 1 Samuel 3:14; 1 Samuel 19:6; 2 Kings 2:2; 2 Kings 3:14 & often; Isaiah 22:14; Psalm 89:36; Psalm 95:11; Job 6:28; אִםלֹֿא Numbers 14:28; Joshua 14:9; 1 Kings 20:23; 2 Kings 9:26; Isaiah 5:9; Isaiah 14:24; Jeremiah 15:11; Jeremiah 49:20; Job 1:11 #NAME? Ezekiel; after a negative clause, emphasizing a contrasted idea, Genesis 24:38 (where the explanation by Aramaic אֶלָּא is not supported by Hebrew usage), compare Jeremiah 22:6. Repeated, אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם 2 Samuel 20:20; 2 Kings 3:14; Isaiah 62:8; Jeremiah 38:16; Ezekiel 14:16. In adjurations (with 2nd or 3rd person) = that not Genesis 21:23; Genesis 26:29; Genesis 31:50; 1 Samuel 24:22; 1 Kings 1:51; Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5 +. Of past or present time: 1 Samuel 25:34 as ׳י liveth (I say) that, unless thou hadst hastened ..., כִּי אִםנוֺתַר that surely there had not been left ...! 1 Samuel 17:55 as thy soul liveth אִםיָֿדַעְתִּי if I Know it! 1 Kings 17:12; 1 Kings 18:10 — both אִםיֵֿשׁ (כִּי here merely introduces the fact sworn to, & need not be translated; Song of Solomon 2Samuel 3:35: see כִּי); Psalm 121:2 אִםלֹֿא (after a negative clause: compare above Genesis 24:38). compare Str§ 90.(3) Part, of wishing, if but ...! oh that ...! (rare) Psalm 81:9 If thou wouldest hearken to me! Psalm 95:7; Psalm 139:19; Proverbs 24:11. compare Exodus 32:32. With an imperative (si vera lectio) Job 34:16 וְאִםִֿ˜בּינָה; and with an anacoluthon, Genesis 23:13 (P) אִםאַֿתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי if thou! — oh that thou wouldst hear me!(4) Nearly = when — with the perfect: ( a) of past, Genesis 38:9; Numbers 21:9 וְהָיָה אִםנָֿשַׁךְ ֗֗֗ וְרָאָה and it used to be, if or when a serpent had bitten a Prayer of Manasseh , that he would look, etc., Judges 6:3; Psalm 78:34 (see Dr§ 136 δ Obs.); Amos 7:2. ( b) of present or future, Isaiah 4:4 אִם רָחַץ when the Lord shall have washed, Isaiah 24:13; Isaiah 28:25; compare Numbers 36:4 (with the imperfect)

c. Compounded with other particles: — ( a) בִּלְתִּי אִם except if, except, Genesis 47:18; Judges 7:14; Amos 3:3,4. (β) הֲלוֺא אִם 2 Kings 20:19 (for which Isaiah 39:7 has sim-ply כִּי), perhaps Is it not (good), if ...? (De Di). (γ) כִּיאִֿם, q. v. (δ) עַד אִם Genesis 24:19,33; Isaiah 30:17; Ruth 2:21, & עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם Genesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11, until, properly until if or when. (ε) רַק אִם if only (see below רַק). אִםלֹֿא in Ezekiel 3:6b is very difficult. The Vrss render If I had sent, etc., implying לֻא for אִםלֹֿא (for Ew's אִםלֻֿא = אִלּוּ, q. v., is precarious): Ges Hi Co 'but (אִםלֹֿא after a negative, compare above Genesis 24:38; Psalm 131:2) unto them (Israel) have I sent thee: they can understand thee' (but understand is a dubious rendering of שָׁמַע אֶל).

2. Interrogative particle a. in direct question: ( a) alone (not frequently and usually = Num? expecting the answer No, especially in a rhet. style): Genesis 38:17; 1 Kings 1:27; Judges 5:8 מָגֵן אִםיֵֿרָאֶה וָרֹמַח was there a shield to be seen or a spear ...? Isaiah 29:16; and repeated Amos 3:6; Jeremiah 48:27; Job 6:12. ( b) more frequently in disjunctive interrogation: ( a) הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, expressing a real alternative Joshua 5:13 הֲלָנוּ אַתָּהאִםלְֿצָרֵינוּ art thou for us, or for our enemies? Judges 9:2; 1 Kings 22:6,15: more often expressing a merely formal alternative, especially in poetry (a rhetorical Num?) Genesis 37:8; Numbers 11:12,22; Judges 11:25b 2 Samuel 19:36; Isaiah 10:15; Isaiah 66:8; Jeremiah 3:5; Habakkuk 3:8; Psalm 77:10; Psalm 78:20; Job 4:17; Job 6:5,6; Job 10:4,5; Job 11:7 etc. (β) הֲ ֗֗֗ וְאִם (rarer than הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, but similar in use) 2 Samuel 24:13 (a real alt.); Isaiah 49:24; Isaiah 50:2; Jeremiah 5:9 ( Jeremiah 5:29 אִם) Jeremiah 14:22; Joel 1:2; Joel 4:4; Job 8:3; Job 11:2; Job 21:4; Job 22:3; Job 34:17; Job 40:8f. (formal); Genesis 17:17 P (with an anacoluthon) shall a child ...? וְאִםשָֿׂרָה הֲבַתתִּֿשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֵד or Sarah, — shall she that Isaiah 90 years old bear? Proverbs 27:24 (וְאִם after negative clause),

b. in oblique interrogation, if, whether: ( a) alone, after verbs of seeing, inquiring, etc. 2 Kings 1:2; Jeremiah 5:1; Jeremiah 30:6; Malachi 3:10; Psalm 139:24; Song of Solomon 7:13; Lamentations 1:12; Ezra 2:59; once מִי יוֺדֵעַאִם who knoweth if ...? i.e. (like haud scio an) perhaps Esther 4:14 (older synonym מִי יוֺדֵעַ alone: see 2 Samuel 12:22; Joel 2:14; Jonah 3:9). ( b) disjunctively הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם Genesis 27:21; Numbers 13:18-20; so אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם Joshua 24:15.

c. compounded with הֲ, הַאִם Numbers 17:28 הַאִם תַּמְנוּ לִגְוֺעַ probably an emphatic Num? Shall we ever have finished dying? Job 6:13 difficult: perhaps Is it that my help is not in me? (a forcible means of expressing that that which might be thought impossible is nevertheless the case); Hi as an aposiop., If my help is not in me (am I still to wait) ? (The view that הַאִם = הֲלֹא nonne? is inconsistent with the fact that אִם in a question has regularly the force of Num?)

אֵם see אמם. Below

אַמָּה, אֻמָּה see אמם.

אמה (assumed as √ of following, which how-ever probably biliteral compare Sta§ 188; see also Lag BN 82).

Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.All rights reserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Definition

אִם (commonly followed by Makk.) a demonstrative, interrogative, and conditional particle, the various significations of which are distinguished in the more copious Arabic by different forms أَمْ, إِنَّ, إِنْ, أَنْ, أَنَّ, while, on the contrary, in Ethiopic and Syriac one only is used እም፡ ܐܶܢ; traces of this word are also found in Western languages, as in the Greek ἤν, i.e. lo! if; Lat. en; Germ. wenn, wann.

(A) Its primary power I regard as demonstrative, lo! behold! kindred to הֵן (ἤν, en), Arab. أنَّ truly, certainly, إِنْ id.; see de Sacy, Gramm.Arabe, i. § 889, أَنْ behold! lo! in the phrase جَاءَ وَأَنْ he came and lo!- Hosea 12:12, אִם נִּלְעָד אָוֶן “lo! Gilead is wickedness,” i.e. most wicked. In the other member there is אַךְ; Job 17:13, אִם אֲקַוֶּה שְׁאֹלּ בֵּיתִי “behold! I wait for Hades, my house;” verse 16 Job 17:16; Proverbs 3:34. Preceded by הֲ in the same sense, Jeremiah 31:20. (The Hebrew interpreters, as Kimchi, explain this אִם which they rightly notice to be affirmative, by אֱמֶת, and they consider it shortened from אָמֵן; I should prefer from אֵמֶן, an opinion which I have followed in Heb. Gramm. ed. 9, P. 191, nor can it be denied that the forms and significations of this particle may be very well explained from this root. But the origin above proposed appears to me now to be the more probable. But see the note.) It becomes

(B) adv. of interrogation (compare הֵן No. 2, and the remarks there, also הַל, הֲ, أَ interrogative formed from הַל, أَلْ demonstrative).

(1) in direct interrogation, num? an? (To this answers the Arab. أَمْ); 1 Kings 1:27; Isaiah 29:16. (Winer in both places renders ob? ober etwa, which is more suitable in the passage in Isaiah, than in 1 Kings.) [“Job 39:13, 31:5 16 Job 31:16, 24 Job 31:24, 25 Job 31:25, 29 Job 31:29, 33 Job 31:33. From the whole of chap. 31 is seen the close connection between this interrogative power of אִם and its conditional sense in letter

(C), since, between sentences beginning with אִם interrog. are interposed others beginning with אִם conditional, followed by an apodosis; see ver. Job 31:7, Job 31:9, 13 Job 31:13, 19 Job 31:19, 20 Job 31:20, 21 Job 31:21, 25 Job 31:25.” Ges. add.] It is far more frequent in disjunctive interrogation where there precedes הֲ: utrum … an? whether … or; Arab. أَمْ…أَ; Joshua 5:13, הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ “whether art thou for us, or for our enemies?” 1 Kings 22:15, הֲנֵלֵךְאִם נֶחְדָּל “whether shall we go … or not?” The same is הֲוְאִם Job 21:6, and הַאַףוְאִם Job 34:17, 40:8, Job 40:9. Both are also used in a double interrogation, although not disjunctive, as הֲאִם Genesis 37:8, הֲוְאִם Genesis 17:17. (Where two questions follow each other, but without closely cohering, הֲ is repeated, 1 Samuel 23:11.)

(2) in oblique interrogation, an, num, Germ. ob, Engl. if, whether. After verbs of interrogation, Song of Solomon 7:13 examining, doubting, 2Ki 1:1-18, in a twofold disjunctive question, הֲאִם Genesis 27:21; Numbers 13:20. The phrase מִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם Esther 4:14, accurately answers to the Latin, nescio an, hand scio an, wer weiß ob nicht, = perhaps.

(C) conj.

(1) especially conditional if; si, εἰ, Germ. wenn (als wahr gefeßt daß), compare הֵן ecce, num? si, Syr. ܗܐ lo! and i.q. ܐܶܢ if. It answers in this signification to Arab. إِنْ, Sam. Act 10:1-48,, Ethiop. እም፡ Followed according to the sense, by a preterite, Esther 5:8, אִם מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ “if I have found grace in the eyes of the king;” Genesis 43:9, 18:3 and fut. Judges 4:8, אִם תֵּלְכִי עִמִּי וְהָלַכְתִּי “if thou wilt go with me, I will go;” Genesis 13:16, 28:20 Job 8:4, seq.; 11:10 more rarely by a participle, Judges 9:15, 11:9 infinitive (for a fin. verb), Job 9:27. It also stands without a verb, Job 8:6, 9:19. This word differs from the conditional particle לוּ, in אִם being used in a real condition, where it is left uncertain whether something exists or will exist, or be done (si fecisti, si facturus es): while לוּ is used to imply that something does not exist, is not done, or will not be, or at least that it is uncertain, and not probable (si faceres, fecisses, Greek εἰ εἶχεν); see לוּ, and as to the similar use of the partt. إِنْ and لَو de Sacy, Gramm. Arabe, i. § 885. It is an ingenious and subtle usage, that in execrations and imprecations, when conditional, instead of לוּ (which perhaps might have been expected), there always is אִם -Ps. 7:46, אִם עָשִׂיתִי זאֹת אִם יֵשׁ עָוֶל בְּכַפַּי ׃ אִם גָּמַלְתִּייִרַדֹּף “if I have done this, if there be iniquity in my hands, if I have injured one at peace with me … let him persecute me,” etc. The Psalmist here denies (if we look at the object of the discourse) that he has done such things, but as though the cause had to be tried, he leaves it as undecided, and as it were, assuming it, he invokes on himself the heaviest penalty, thus wonderfully increasing the force of the execration; compare Psalms 44:21, 73:15 137:5, Psalms 137:6; Job 31:7, seq. Other examples in which for אִם there might have been more accurately לוּ, are Psalms 50:12, אִם אֶרְעַב “if I were hungry;” Hosea 9:12 but however אִם is not here wrong, because its usage is more widely extended. Specially to be observed

(a) when a condition or supposition is modestly to be expressed, אִםנָא is used, see נָא.

(b) אִםאִם is put disjunctively, if … if=whether … or; sive … sive (εἴτε, εἴτε, ἐάν τε, ἐάν τε); compare si … si, Gell.ii. 28. Exodus 19:13, אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ “whether it were beast or man;” 2 Samuel 15:21; Leviticus 3:1; Deuteronomy 18:3 and with a preceding negation, neither … nor; neque … neque, 2 Kings 3:14. The same is אִםוְאִם Joshua 24:15; Ecclesiastes 11:3, 12:14 (Arabic وَإِنْ … إِن and وَإِمَّا … إِمَّا.

(c) by an ellipsis of the formula of an oath, such as occurs fully, 1 Samuel 3:17, 24:7 2 Samuel 3:35, אִם becomes a negative particle, especially in oaths. 2 Samuel 11:11, “by thy life (may God heap all manner of evils upon me) אִם אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה I will not do this thing;” 2 Samuel 20:20; 1 Kings 1:51 in adjurations, Song of Solomon 2:7, 3:5 Nehemiah 13:25, rarely elsewhere; especially poet. Isaiah 22:14, 62:8 Judges 5:8; Proverbs 27:24. (The use is similar of the Arab. إِنْ, more fully مَا إِنْ for not.)

(2) part. of conceding, though, although (Arab. وَإِنْ, Gr. ἐὰν καί, κἄν), followed by a pret., to express “though I am,” Job 9:15 commonly a fut. to express “though I were,” Isaiah 1:18, 10:22 Psalms 139:8; Job 20:6 (compare however, 9:20 ). Also followed by a verbal noun, Nahum 1:11.

(3) part. of wishing, oh that! would that! (εἰ γάρ). Followed by a fut., Psalms 68:14, 81:9 95:7 139:19. There is an Anacoluthon Genesis 23:13, אִם אַתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי “would that thou-would that thou wouldst hear me.” It becomes

(4) a particle of time, when (compare the Germ. wenn and wann, and Engl. when). Followed by a preterite, which often has to be rendered by a pluperfect and fut. perfect, Isaiah 24:13, אִם כָּלָה בָצִיר “when the harvest is ended;” Amos 7:2, וְהָיָה אִם כִּלָּה לֶאֱכֹל “and when it had consumed;” Isaiah 4:4, אִם רָחַץ אֲדֹנָי אֵת צֹאַת בְּנֹותצִיוֹן “when the Lord shall have washed the filth of the daughters of Zion;” Genesis 38:9; Psalms 63:7; Job 8:4, 17:13. So in composition, as עַד אִם until when, until, Genesis 24:19 עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם Genesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11.

(5) It is rarely that, quum causal, quandoquidem, since, Arab. أَنَّ. Genesis 47:18, “we will not hide it from my lord, that אִם תַּם הַכֶּסֶףאֶל אֲדֹנִי לֹא נִשְׁאַר since all our money is spent … nothing is left for my lord,” etc.; Isaiah 53:10.

Note. Winer has of late (in his addenda to Heb. Lex. p. 1054) altogether denied the affirmative or demonstrative power of this particle (letter A), (and Rosenm. is not consistent with himself; see him on Job 17:13, and Hosea 12:12). Winer defends, in the passages cited, the common signification, si, ob, if, whether; but his reasons are not convincing. That the primary power was demonstrative, is strongly supported by the passage in Hosea, a very early [?] writer, and by the cognate particle הֵן, إِنَّ, إِنْ, أَنْ; and to this should be added the authority of the ancient versions, which is not to be lightly esteemed (see Noldii Vindiciæ, p. 408).

It is compounded with other particles

(1) הַאִם, twice at the beginning of a question, when put affirmatively: nonne? ecce? is not? Num. 17:28 Job 6:13.

(2) אִם־לֹא

(a) nonne? is not? (where there precedes הֲלֹא), Isaiah 10:9.

(b) if not, unless, Psalms 7:13; Genesis 24:8. Hence after formulæ of swearing, it is a strong affirmation and asseveration (see above C, 1, c), Numbers 14:28; Isaiah 14:9 also in adjurations, Job 1:11, 2:5 17:2 22:20 30:25 Isaiah 5:9.

(c) It is put for but, sed, fondern (compare εἰ μή, unless, Ch. אֶלָּא from אִם־לֶא), Genesis 24:37, 38 Genesis 24:38.

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List of Word Forms
אִ֖ם אִ֗ם אִ֚ם אִ֛ם אִ֡ם אִ֣ם אִ֣ם ׀ אִ֤ם אִ֥ם אִ֨ם־ אִֽם־ אִם אִם֙ אִם־ אם אם־ הַאִ֥ם הַאִ֬ם האם וְ֠אִם וְֽאִם־ וְאִ֖ם וְאִ֛ם וְאִ֡ם וְאִ֣ם וְאִ֣ם ׀ וְאִ֤ם וְאִ֥ם וְאִ֧ם וְאִ֨ם וְאִ֨ם־ וְאִֽם־ וְאִם֙ וְאִם֩ וְאִם֮ וְאִם־ ואם ואם־ ’im ’im- ha’im ha·’im haIm im imoSh imoSha imoSho veIm veimoSha wə’im wə’im- wə·’im wə·’im-
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