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Bible Lexicons

Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #518 - אִם

Transliteration
'im
Phonetics
eem
Origin
a primitive particle
Parts of Speech
N/A
TWOT
111
Definition
Brown-Driver-Briggs'

1) if

1a) conditional clauses

1a1) of possible situations

1a2) of impossible situations

1b) oath contexts

1b1) no, not

1c) if...if, whether...or, whether...or...or

1d) when, whenever

1e) since

1f) interrogative particle

1g) but rather

Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
KJV (43)
Genesis
10
Exodus
2
Leviticus
1
Numbers
4
Judges
2
Ruth
1
1 Samuel
7
2 Samuel
1
2 Kings
1
1 Chronicles
2
2 Chronicles
2
Job
2
Ecclesiastes
1
Isaiah
1
Jeremiah
3
Ezekiel
2
Joel
1
NAS (791)
Genesis
51
Exodus
57
Leviticus
87
Numbers
57
Deuteronomy
25
Joshua
13
Judges
32
Ruth
6
1 Samuel
38
2 Samuel
24
1 Kings
27
2 Kings
18
1 Chronicles
12
2 Chronicles
16
Ezra
1
Nehemiah
8
Esther
13
Job
84
Psalms
34
Proverbs
26
Ecclesiastes
15
Song of Solomon
6
Isaiah
23
Jeremiah
59
Lamentations
2
Ezekiel
17
Hosea
1
Joel
2
Amos
13
Obadiah
5
Micah
2
Nahum
2
Habakkuk
3
Haggai
1
Zechariah
6
Malachi
5
HCS (946)
Genesis
68
Exodus
58
Leviticus
86
Numbers
62
Deuteronomy
32
Joshua
17
Judges
36
Ruth
8
1 Samuel
51
2 Samuel
28
1 Kings
39
2 Kings
39
1 Chronicles
15
2 Chronicles
21
Nehemiah
9
Esther
15
Job
87
Psalms
42
Proverbs
27
Ecclesiastes
20
Song of Solomon
10
Isaiah
31
Jeremiah
72
Lamentations
4
Ezekiel
28
Daniel
1
Hosea
3
Joel
1
Amos
15
Obadiah
4
Micah
1
Nahum
2
Habakkuk
2
Haggai
1
Zechariah
6
Malachi
5
BSB (1085)
Genesis
91
Exodus
60
Leviticus
91
Numbers
66
Deuteronomy
34
Joshua
20
Judges
37
Ruth
9
1 Samuel
56
2 Samuel
37
1 Kings
39
2 Kings
40
1 Chronicles
16
2 Chronicles
21
Ezra
1
Nehemiah
11
Esther
16
Job
109
Psalms
45
Proverbs
31
Ecclesiastes
21
Song of Solomon
10
Isaiah
40
Jeremiah
92
Lamentations
5
Ezekiel
37
Daniel
1
Hosea
3
Joel
2
Amos
17
Obadiah
5
Micah
4
Nahum
2
Habakkuk
3
Haggai
1
Zechariah
7
Malachi
5
ESV (562)
Genesis
44
Leviticus
20
Numbers
55
Deuteronomy
21
Joshua
10
Judges
20
Ruth
4
1 Samuel
33
2 Samuel
22
1 Kings
25
2 Kings
22
1 Chronicles
13
2 Chronicles
14
Ezra
1
Nehemiah
8
Esther
14
Job
48
Psalms
30
Proverbs
23
Ecclesiastes
14
Isaiah
19
Jeremiah
52
Lamentations
2
Ezekiel
21
Hosea
1
Joel
2
Amos
6
Micah
3
Nahum
2
Habakkuk
3
Haggai
1
Zechariah
5
Malachi
4
WEB (42)
Genesis
9
Exodus
1
Leviticus
1
Numbers
5
Judges
2
Ruth
1
1 Samuel
7
2 Samuel
1
2 Kings
1
1 Chronicles
2
2 Chronicles
3
Job
2
Ecclesiastes
1
Isaiah
1
Jeremiah
2
Ezekiel
2
Joel
1
Verse Results
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1013) ma (אמ AM) AC: Bind CO: Glue AB: ?: The pictograph a represents strength. The m is water or any other liquid. Combined these pictographs mean "strong liquid". Glue was made by placing the hides and other animal parts of slaughtered animals in a pot of boiling water. As the hide boiled, a thick sticky substance formed at the surface of the water. This substance was removed and used as a binding agent. (eng: arm - with the addition of the r sound)

A) ma (אמ AM) AC: ? CO: Arm AB: ?: The arm that holds things together. The arm is seen as glue that encircles and holds together. A cubit was the length of the arm from elbow to fingertip. The mother of the family is the one who binds the family together by holding in her arms and by the work of her arms.

Nf) ma (אמ AM) - Mother: One whose arms hold the family together through her work and love. Also one who fulfills the role of a mother. KJV (220): mother, dam - Strongs: H517 (אֵם)

Nf1) ema (אמה AMH) - I. Cubit:A linear standard of measure equal to the length of the forearm. [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Bondwoman:One who is bound to another. KJV (304): cubit, measure, post, handmaid, maidservant, maid, bondwoman, bondmaids - Strongs: H519 (אָמָה), H520 (אַמָּה), H521 (אַמָּה)

jm) nfma (אמונ AMWN) - Craftsman: An architect or artisan who uses the cubit for measuring. KJV (3): multitude, populace - Strongs: H527 (אָמוֹן)

J) mfa (אומ AWM) AC: Bind CO: Tribe AB: ?: A binding together.

Nf1) emfa (אומה AWMH) - Tribe: A family lineage bound together. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (11): people, nation - Strongs: H523 (אֻמָּה), H524 (אֻמָּה)

M) mia (אימ AYM) AC: ? CO: Glue AB: ?

Nm ) mia (אימ AYM) - If: A desire to bind two ideas together. KJV (43): if, not, or, when, whether, doubtless, while, neither, saving - Strongs: H518 (אִם)

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2021
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Definition

אִם (commonly followed by Makk.) a demonstrative, interrogative, and conditional particle, the various significations of which are distinguished in the more copious Arabic by different forms أَمْ, إِنَّ, إِنْ, أَنْ, أَنَّ, while, on the contrary, in Ethiopic and Syriac one only is used እም፡ ܐܶܢ; traces of this word are also found in Western languages, as in the Greek ἤν, i.e. lo! if; Lat. en; Germ. wenn, wann.

(A) Its primary power I regard as demonstrative, lo! behold! kindred to הֵן (ἤν, en), Arab. أنَّ truly, certainly, إِنْ id.; see de Sacy, Gramm.Arabe, i. § 889, أَنْ behold! lo! in the phrase جَاءَ وَأَنْ he came and lo!- Hosea 12:12, אִם נִּלְעָד אָוֶן “lo! Gilead is wickedness,” i.e. most wicked. In the other member there is אַךְ; Job 17:13, אִם אֲקַוֶּה שְׁאֹלּ בֵּיתִי “behold! I wait for Hades, my house;” verse 16 Job 17:16; Proverbs 3:34. Preceded by הֲ in the same sense, Jeremiah 31:20. (The Hebrew interpreters, as Kimchi, explain this אִם which they rightly notice to be affirmative, by אֱמֶת, and they consider it shortened from אָמֵן; I should prefer from אֵמֶן, an opinion which I have followed in Heb. Gramm. ed. 9, P. 191, nor can it be denied that the forms and significations of this particle may be very well explained from this root. But the origin above proposed appears to me now to be the more probable. But see the note.) It becomes

(B) adv. of interrogation (compare הֵן No. 2, and the remarks there, also הַל, הֲ, أَ interrogative formed from הַל, أَلْ demonstrative).

(1) in direct interrogation, num? an? (To this answers the Arab. أَمْ); 1 Kings 1:27; Isaiah 29:16. (Winer in both places renders ob? ober etwa, which is more suitable in the passage in Isaiah, than in 1 Kings.) [“Job 39:13, 31:5 16 Job 31:16, 24 Job 31:24, 25 Job 31:25, 29 Job 31:29, 33 Job 31:33. From the whole of chap. 31 is seen the close connection between this interrogative power of אִם and its conditional sense in letter

(C), since, between sentences beginning with אִם interrog. are interposed others beginning with אִם conditional, followed by an apodosis; see ver. Job 31:7, Job 31:9, 13 Job 31:13, 19 Job 31:19, 20 Job 31:20, 21 Job 31:21, 25 Job 31:25.” Ges. add.] It is far more frequent in disjunctive interrogation where there precedes הֲ: utrum … an? whether … or; Arab. أَمْ…أَ; Joshua 5:13, הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ “whether art thou for us, or for our enemies?” 1 Kings 22:15, הֲנֵלֵךְאִם נֶחְדָּל “whether shall we go … or not?” The same is הֲוְאִם Job 21:6, and הַאַףוְאִם Job 34:17, 40:8, Job 40:9. Both are also used in a double interrogation, although not disjunctive, as הֲאִם Genesis 37:8, הֲוְאִם Genesis 17:17. (Where two questions follow each other, but without closely cohering, הֲ is repeated, 1 Samuel 23:11.)

(2) in oblique interrogation, an, num, Germ. ob, Engl. if, whether. After verbs of interrogation, Song of Solomon 7:13 examining, doubting, 2Ki 1:1-18, in a twofold disjunctive question, הֲאִם Genesis 27:21; Numbers 13:20. The phrase מִי יוֹדֵעַ אִם Esther 4:14, accurately answers to the Latin, nescio an, hand scio an, wer weiß ob nicht, = perhaps.

(C) conj.

(1) especially conditional if; si, εἰ, Germ. wenn (als wahr gefeßt daß), compare הֵן ecce, num? si, Syr. ܗܐ lo! and i.q. ܐܶܢ if. It answers in this signification to Arab. إِنْ, Sam. Act 10:1-48,, Ethiop. እም፡ Followed according to the sense, by a preterite, Esther 5:8, אִם מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ “if I have found grace in the eyes of the king;” Genesis 43:9, 18:3 and fut. Judges 4:8, אִם תֵּלְכִי עִמִּי וְהָלַכְתִּי “if thou wilt go with me, I will go;” Genesis 13:16, 28:20 Job 8:4, seq.; 11:10 more rarely by a participle, Judges 9:15, 11:9 infinitive (for a fin. verb), Job 9:27. It also stands without a verb, Job 8:6, 9:19. This word differs from the conditional particle לוּ, in אִם being used in a real condition, where it is left uncertain whether something exists or will exist, or be done (si fecisti, si facturus es): while לוּ is used to imply that something does not exist, is not done, or will not be, or at least that it is uncertain, and not probable (si faceres, fecisses, Greek εἰ εἶχεν); see לוּ, and as to the similar use of the partt. إِنْ and لَو de Sacy, Gramm. Arabe, i. § 885. It is an ingenious and subtle usage, that in execrations and imprecations, when conditional, instead of לוּ (which perhaps might have been expected), there always is אִם -Ps. 7:46, אִם עָשִׂיתִי זאֹת אִם יֵשׁ עָוֶל בְּכַפַּי ׃ אִם גָּמַלְתִּייִרַדֹּף “if I have done this, if there be iniquity in my hands, if I have injured one at peace with me … let him persecute me,” etc. The Psalmist here denies (if we look at the object of the discourse) that he has done such things, but as though the cause had to be tried, he leaves it as undecided, and as it were, assuming it, he invokes on himself the heaviest penalty, thus wonderfully increasing the force of the execration; compare Psalms 44:21, 73:15 137:5, Psalms 137:6; Job 31:7, seq. Other examples in which for אִם there might have been more accurately לוּ, are Psalms 50:12, אִם אֶרְעַב “if I were hungry;” Hosea 9:12 but however אִם is not here wrong, because its usage is more widely extended. Specially to be observed

(a) when a condition or supposition is modestly to be expressed, אִםנָא is used, see נָא.

(b) אִםאִם is put disjunctively, if … if=whether … or; sive … sive (εἴτε, εἴτε, ἐάν τε, ἐάν τε); compare si … si, Gell.ii. 28. Exodus 19:13, אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ “whether it were beast or man;” 2 Samuel 15:21; Leviticus 3:1; Deuteronomy 18:3 and with a preceding negation, neither … nor; neque … neque, 2 Kings 3:14. The same is אִםוְאִם Joshua 24:15; Ecclesiastes 11:3, 12:14 (Arabic وَإِنْ … إِن and وَإِمَّا … إِمَّا.

(c) by an ellipsis of the formula of an oath, such as occurs fully, 1 Samuel 3:17, 24:7 2 Samuel 3:35, אִם becomes a negative particle, especially in oaths. 2 Samuel 11:11, “by thy life (may God heap all manner of evils upon me) אִם אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה I will not do this thing;” 2 Samuel 20:20; 1 Kings 1:51 in adjurations, Song of Solomon 2:7, 3:5 Nehemiah 13:25, rarely elsewhere; especially poet. Isaiah 22:14, 62:8 Judges 5:8; Proverbs 27:24. (The use is similar of the Arab. إِنْ, more fully مَا إِنْ for not.)

(2) part. of conceding, though, although (Arab. وَإِنْ, Gr. ἐὰν καί, κἄν), followed by a pret., to express “though I am,” Job 9:15 commonly a fut. to express “though I were,” Isaiah 1:18, 10:22 Psalms 139:8; Job 20:6 (compare however, 9:20 ). Also followed by a verbal noun, Nahum 1:11.

(3) part. of wishing, oh that! would that! (εἰ γάρ). Followed by a fut., Psalms 68:14, 81:9 95:7 139:19. There is an Anacoluthon Genesis 23:13, אִם אַתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי “would that thou-would that thou wouldst hear me.” It becomes

(4) a particle of time, when (compare the Germ. wenn and wann, and Engl. when). Followed by a preterite, which often has to be rendered by a pluperfect and fut. perfect, Isaiah 24:13, אִם כָּלָה בָצִיר “when the harvest is ended;” Amos 7:2, וְהָיָה אִם כִּלָּה לֶאֱכֹל “and when it had consumed;” Isaiah 4:4, אִם רָחַץ אֲדֹנָי אֵת צֹאַת בְּנֹותצִיוֹן “when the Lord shall have washed the filth of the daughters of Zion;” Genesis 38:9; Psalms 63:7; Job 8:4, 17:13. So in composition, as עַד אִם until when, until, Genesis 24:19 עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם Genesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11.

(5) It is rarely that, quum causal, quandoquidem, since, Arab. أَنَّ. Genesis 47:18, “we will not hide it from my lord, that אִם תַּם הַכֶּסֶףאֶל אֲדֹנִי לֹא נִשְׁאַר since all our money is spent … nothing is left for my lord,” etc.; Isaiah 53:10.

Note. Winer has of late (in his addenda to Heb. Lex. p. 1054) altogether denied the affirmative or demonstrative power of this particle (letter A), (and Rosenm. is not consistent with himself; see him on Job 17:13, and Hosea 12:12). Winer defends, in the passages cited, the common signification, si, ob, if, whether; but his reasons are not convincing. That the primary power was demonstrative, is strongly supported by the passage in Hosea, a very early [?] writer, and by the cognate particle הֵן, إِنَّ, إِنْ, أَنْ; and to this should be added the authority of the ancient versions, which is not to be lightly esteemed (see Noldii Vindiciæ, p. 408).

It is compounded with other particles

(1) הַאִם, twice at the beginning of a question, when put affirmatively: nonne? ecce? is not? Num. 17:28 Job 6:13.

(2) אִם־לֹא

(a) nonne? is not? (where there precedes הֲלֹא), Isaiah 10:9.

(b) if not, unless, Psalms 7:13; Genesis 24:8. Hence after formulæ of swearing, it is a strong affirmation and asseveration (see above C, 1, c), Numbers 14:28; Isaiah 14:9 also in adjurations, Job 1:11, 2:5 17:2 22:20 30:25 Isaiah 5:9.

(c) It is put for but, sed, fondern (compare εἰ μή, unless, Ch. אֶלָּא from אִם־לֶא), Genesis 24:37, 38 Genesis 24:38.

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List of Word Forms
אִ֖ם אִ֗ם אִ֚ם אִ֛ם אִ֡ם אִ֣ם אִ֣ם ׀ אִ֤ם אִ֥ם אִ֨ם־ אִֽם־ אִם אִם֙ אִם־ אם אם־ הַאִ֥ם הַאִ֬ם האם וְ֠אִם וְֽאִם־ וְאִ֖ם וְאִ֛ם וְאִ֡ם וְאִ֣ם וְאִ֣ם ׀ וְאִ֤ם וְאִ֥ם וְאִ֧ם וְאִ֨ם וְאִ֨ם־ וְאִֽם־ וְאִם֙ וְאִם֩ וְאִם֮ וְאִם־ ואם ואם־ ’im ’im- ha’im ha·’im haIm im imoSh imoSha imoSho veIm veimoSha wə’im wə’im- wə·’im wə·’im-
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org. Copyright 1999-2021. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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