Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #01351 - גָּאַל
1) to defile, pollute, desecrate
1a) (Niphal) to be defiled, be polluted
1b) (Piel) to pollute, desecrate
1c) (Pual) to be desecrated (of removal from priesthood)
1d) (Hiphil) to pollute, stain
1e) (Hithpael) to defile oneself
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
גָּאַל fut. יִגְאַל.
(1) to redeem, buy back, as a field or farm sold, Leviticus 25:25; Ruth 4:4, a thing consecrated to God, Leviticus 27:13, 15 Leviticus 27:15, 19 Leviticus 27:19, 20 Leviticus 27:20, 31 Leviticus 27:31 a slave, Leviticus 25:48, 49 Leviticus 25:49. Part. גֹּאֵל redeemer (of a field), Leviticus 25:26. Very frequently used of God as redeeming men, and specially Israel, as out of the slavery of Egypt, Exodus 6:6 from the Babylonish captivity [or other dispersions], Isaiah 43:1, 44:22 48:20 49:7, etc. Const. absol. also followed by מִן Psalms 72:14 מִיַּד Psalms 106:10. Part. pass. גְּאֻלִים, גְּאֻלֵי יְהוָֹה those redeemed by God, Isaiah 35:9, 51:10 Job 19:25, אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי גֹּאֲלִי חַי “I know (that) my Redeemer liveth,” that God himself will free me from these calamities [in the resurrection, see the context. The Redeemer here is Christ].- Job 3:5, in the imprecations cast on the day of his birth, יִגְאָלֻהוּ חשֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָוֶת “let darkness and the shadow of death redeem it” for themselves, let them retake possession of it.
(2) Followed by דָּם; to require blood, i.e. to avenge bloodshed, to require the penalty of bloodshed from any one; only in part. גֹּאֵל הַדָּם avenger of blood, Numbers 35:19, seq.; Deuteronomy 19:6, 12 Deuteronomy 19:12; Joshua 20:3; 2 Samuel 14:11 and without הַדָּם Numbers 35:12.
(3) Since both the right of redemption (No. 1), and the office of avenging bloodshed (No. 2) belonged to the nearest kinsman, גֹּאֵל denotes, near of kin, near relative, Numbers 5:8; Leviticus 25:25; Ruth 3:12 with art. הַגֹּאֵל “the nearest kinsman,” Ruth 4:1,, compare 3:9, 12. The one next after him is called מִגֹּאֵל Ruth 2:20 compare 4:4. Pl. גֹּאֲלִים relatives, 1Ki. 16:11. (So to the Hebrew שְׁאֵר i.e. near kinsman, answers the Arab. ثَايِرُ avenger of blood, and وَلِىُّ denotes both a friend, kinsman, and a protector, avenger of blood.)
(4) Since by the law of Moses it was also the office of the next of kin, when a man died without children, to marry his widow (see יָבָם, יִבֵּם ); the verb גָּאַל is also transferred to this right and office of a relation, where it is denom. from גֹּאֵל. See Ruth 3:13, where Boaz says, אִם־יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב יִגְאָל וְאִם־לֹא יַחְפֹּץ לְגָאֳלֵךְ וּגְאַלְתִּיךְ אָנֹכִי “if he will marry thee by right of relationship, let him marry thee, but if he will not, I will marry thee;” compare Tob_3:17.
Niphal, pass. of Kal No. 1, to be redeemed, of a field and farm, Leviticus 25:30 of consecrated things, Leviticus 27:20, 27 Leviticus 27:27, 28 Leviticus 27:28, 33 Leviticus 27:33 of a slave, Leviticus 25:54 reflex, to redeem oneself, ib., verse 49 Leviticus 25:49.
Derivatives גְּאֻלָּה, גְּאוּלִים and pr.n. יִגְאָל.
גָּאַל a word of the later [?] Hebrew, not used in Kal, to be polluted, impure, i.q. Chald. גְּאַל, גְּעַל; Ithpe. אִתְגְּעַל to be polluted.
Piel גֵּאֵל to pollute, to defile, Malachi 1:7.
(1) to be polluted; part. מְגֹאָל polluted, impure, unclean, of food, Malachi 1:7, 12 Malachi 1:12.
(2) declared impure, i.e. to be removed, as a priest from sacred ministry, Ezra 2:62; Nehemiah 7:64 compare Syriac ܐܰܓܺܠ to cast away, reject, and גָּעַל Hiphil.
Niphal נִגְאַל Zephaniah 3:1, and נְגאַל Isaiah 59:3; Lamentations 4:14 (which form is like the passive Conj. VII. in Arabic أُنْقُبِلَ), polluted, defiled, stained.
Hiphil, to pollute, to stain, as a garment with blood, Isaiah 63:3. The form אֶגְאַלְתִּי for הִגְאַלְתִּי imitates the Syriac.
Hithpael, to pollute oneself, with unclean food, Daniel 1:8. Hence
the Sixth Week after Easter