Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #05157 - נָחַל
1) to get as a possession, acquire, inherit, possess
1a1) to take possession, inherit
1a2) to have or get as a possession or property (figuratively)
1a3) to divide the land for a possession
1a4) to acquire (testimonies) (figuratively)
1b) (Piel) to divide for a possession
1c) (Hithpael) to possess oneself of
1d1) to give as a possession
1d2) to cause to inherit, give as an inheritance
1e) (Hophal) to be allotted, be made to possess
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
(1) to receive any thing as a possession, to possess, as wealth, glory, Proverbs 3:35, 11:29 28:10 very frequently used of the children of Israel, as acquiring the possession of Canaan, and as possessing it, Exodus 23:30, 32:13 also followed by בְּ (to acquire a settlement in a country, in the midst of brethren), Numbers 18:20, 23 Numbers 18:23, 24 Numbers 18:24 and אֵת (with any one) ibid., 32:19; absol. Joshua 16:4. In other places Jehovah is spoken of as taking Israel as his own, and as therefore guarding and defending them, Exodus 34:9 Zech. 2:16.
(2) specially to receive as an inheritance, Judges 11:2 compare Numbers 18:20. Metaphorically, Psalms 119:111.
(3) causat. i.q. Piel to give any thing to be possessed, to distribute, followed by an acc. of the thing, and לְ of pers. Numbers 34:17, אֲשֶׁר־יִנְחֲלוּ לָכֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ “who shall distribute the land to you;” verse 18 Numbers 34:18; Joshua 19:49 with an acc. of pers. (apparently), Exodus 34:9, נְחַלְתָּנוּ “give us a possession.”
Piel נִחַל to give for a possession, to distribute, Joshua 13:32 followed by two acc. of person and thing, Joshua 14:1; Numbers 34:29 לְ of pers., Joshua 19:51.
(1) to give for a possession, commonly followed by two acc. of person and thing, Proverbs 8:21, 13:22 Zechariah 8:12 without the acc. of the thing, Deuteronomy 32:8, בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם “when the Most High distributed to the nations;” and without the acc. of pers., Isaiah 49:8 often used of the distribution of the land of Canaan, Deuteronomy 1:38, 3:28 12:10 19:3 31:7 Jeremiah 3:18, 12:14 Joshua 1:6.
(2) to cause to inherit, i.e.
(a) to leave to be inherited, followed by a dative of pers., 1 Chronicles 28:8.
(b) to distribute an inheritance, followed by two acc., Deuteronomy 21:16.
Hophal, to be made to inherit, i.e. to acquire, although by compulsion, and unwillingly; hence with acc., Job 7:3, הָנְחַלְתִּי לִי יַרְחֵי־שָׁוְא “I acquire months of misery;” such are allotted to me.
Hithpael, i.q. Kal, to receive as one’s own possession, to possess, followed by an acc., Numbers 32:18; Isaiah 14:2. Followed by a dat. of pers. to possess any thing to leave to one’s heir. Levit. 25:46, וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם “and ye shall possess them (slaves) to be left to your sons after you;” so rightly all the ancient versions.
In a similar manner, we must explain the passages, Numbers 33:54, 34:13 Ezekiel 47:13. Compare Ewald’s Hebr. Gramm., p. 204.
II. נָחַל an unused root, i.q. נָהַל, נָחַר to flow, whence the following words. [This root is not divided in Thes. into two parts.]