corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.10.14
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures
Luke

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4
Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8
Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16
Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20
Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24

Book Overview - Luke

by Gary H. Everett

STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

Using a Theme-based Approach

to Identify Literary Structures

By Gary H. Everett

THE GOSPEL OF LUKE

January 2013Edition

All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.

All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed, Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c 1925, morphology c 1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c 1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong"s Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c 1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author's daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.

Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.

Foundational Theme - Justification Through Faith in Jesus Christ

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Song of Solomon ,

that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

John 3:16

Structural Theme - The Testimony of Eye-Witnesses that Jesus Christ is the Son of God

There is another that beareth witness of me;

and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true.

Ye sent unto John , and he bare witness unto the truth.

John 5:32-33

Imperative Theme - The Office of the Prophet

And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer,

and to rise from the dead the third day:

And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations,

beginning at Jerusalem.

And ye are witnesses of these things.

And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you:

but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.

Luke 24:46-49

Beautiful Words

Beautiful words are like flowers

Arranged in beautiful bed;

But iff they are not spoken for, Jeasus,

Theyd better have never been sed.

They bloom and bring sweet fragrance

to all who are in the house, (and fill the whole house with joy)

But iff they are carlesley spoken, theyd better have been left out.

Words, we take for granted,

We use them most carlesle,

But had it not been for the gift of God,

Then words could never be.

Beautiful words came from Heaven,

About the dear Saviors birth.

They brought the Great Gospel message

Of peace to all the Earth.

Many great words have been spoken,

By kings and great men of old.

But those He spoke to me,

When he rescued me,

Was the sweetes I ever heard told.

(Flossie Powell Everett 1910-1987)

INTRODUCTION TO THE GOSPEL OF LUKE

Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

The Message of the Gospel of Luke - Perhaps the most important contribution that the Gospel of Luke plays in our society today is during the Christmas season when we return to its beautiful passage on the birth of our Saviour. No other New Testament passage relays the message that Jesus Christ was born as the Saviour of the world, for you and I, as does Luke. The special attention given to these particular passages is because it so reflects the theme of Christmas and it also reflects the theme of this great Gospel, which is Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the World. We are comforted during the Christmas season to know how much God loved the world by sending His precious Song of Solomon , born in a manger under the Star of Bethlehem in such a lowly place into the arms of such humble people like Joseph and Mary.

Introductory Material- The introduction to the Gospel of Luke will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework. 1] These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God's message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.

1] Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel's well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalm: (1) "a common setting in life," (2) "thoughts and mood," (3) "literary forms." In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses "Form/Structure/Setting" preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).

HISTORICAL SETTING

"We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture

if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible."

(J. Hampton Keathley) 2]

2] J. Hampton Keathley, III, "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah," (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of Luke -Acts will provide a discussion on its historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. This discussion supports the early Church tradition that the Luke the Evangelist wrote Luke -Acts in Rome while Paul was in his first Roman imprisonment during the early 60's as a legal brief to defend Paul in court.

I. Historical Background: The Relationship of Luke and Acts

Most scholars believe that the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts were originally written as a two-part work, and circulated as such until the late first or early second century. At that time, the first volume was collected into the four Gospels, with the book of Acts left as a separate, fifth book of the New Testament. It was perhaps at this time of separation that Acts received its descriptive title as the "Acts of the Apostles." The Gospel of Luke records the events in the life of our Lord Jesus Christ while the book of Acts can be viewed the first recorded history of the early Church.

A. Internal Evidence- There is enough internal evidence to allow us to link these two books of the Holy Bible to a single author:

1. The Preface- We can find some evidence of single authorship within the prefaces to these two books. Goodspeed tells us that the preface to Luke's Gospel can serve as an introduction to both volumes, 3] with the preface to the book of Acts referring to the Gospel of Luke and with both prefaces being addressed to the same Theophilus.

3] Edgar J. Goodspeed, An Introduction to the New Testament (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1937), 181.

Luke 1:3, "It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,"

Acts 1:1, "The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach,"

These two prefaces reveal that the purpose of this two-volume work is to record the development and spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the uttermost parts of the earth. In addition, the preface of the later work claims common authorship to the former work, the Gospel of Luke. Both use the first person singular to introduce both books.

2. Continuity- Both books have continuity with one another. Goodspeed also explains that Jesus' closing remarks in Luke 24:44-49 tell us that there is more to this story in the spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, with the Gospel closes before developing this important part of the history of the early Church. When Jesus commanded His disciples to preach the Gospel to all nations beginning at Jerusalem ( Luke 24:47) and to tarry in Jerusalem unto they be endued with power from on high ( Luke 24:49) He is making a clear reference to the contents of the book of Acts. 4] Since the Gospel of Luke does not reach this goal of spreading the Gospel, we must rely upon an additional volume to fulfill our Lord's commission. Thus, the book of Acts opens with the fulfillment of power coming from on high and closes with the fulfillment of the spread of the Gospel to Greco-Roman world of its day. Thus, the author clearly links these two writings in an unmistakable way.

4] Edgar J. Goodspeed, An Introduction to the New Testament (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1937), 181-182.

3. Vocabulary and Literary Style- Luke and Acts are closely related in vocabulary, syntax and style. Plummer provides an extensive list of vocabulary and styles of these two writings, noting many similar literary peculiarities. 5]

5] Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), xlix-lxiv.

a) Vocabulary

(1) For example, Adolf Harnack says the temporal use of the Greek word ώς is used forty-eight times in Luke -, Acts , while not being used a single time in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark. 6] He says that there are forty-nine verbs found in Luke -Acts that are not found in Matthew ,, Mark , and John. 7]

6] Adolf Harnack, Luke the Physician: Author of the Third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles, trans. J. R. Wilkinson, in Crown Theological Library (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908), 40.

7] Adolf Harnack, Luke the Physician: Author of the Third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles, trans. J. R. Wilkinson, in Crown Theological Library (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908), 20.

(2) William Hobart lists three hundred thirteen (313) Greek words in his index that are either unique to Luke -Acts or they are used in "a medical sense" unlike the other Evangelists. 8]

8] William Kirk Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke (London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1882), 299-305.

(3) The phrase "kingdom of God" is used frequently throughout both books.

(4) Philip Schaff tells us that there are about fifty words common to Luke -Acts that are not found anywhere else in the New Testament. 9]

9] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 725.

(5) The Greek word for "grace" ( χαρις) does not occur at all in Matthew and Mark , while being used in John's Gospel four times in a single passage ( Luke 1:14-17). However, it occurs eight times throughout Luke's Gospel and seventeen times in the book of Acts. This word is also peculiar to the Pauline epistles, being used hundreds of times.

b) Literary Style

(1) Both books show a polished style of Greek that none of the other New Testament books equal.

(2) Both books have similar styles, such as placing emphasis on individual characters in the narratives.

4. Theme and Structure - These two books have common themes as well as common structures. One simply can compare the descriptions used, the arrangement of passages, and the author's points of view and see that they are similar in these respects.

a) Theme

(1) The preaching of the death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ in the book of Acts is based upon the events of Luke's Gospel. Both books attempt to bridge the gap between Jews and Gentiles. Luke and Acts present the Gospel as a message for all people.

(2) F. F. Bruce gives a number of examples of similar emphases:

(a) Universal application to all nations

(b) Sympathy for Jews and Gentiles

(c) Emphasis upon the role of women

(d) Similar apologetic tendencies

(e) Jesus' resurrection appearances limited to Judea in both

(f) Christ's appearance before Herod Antipas only mentioned in Luke and Acts. 10]

10] F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles (London: Tyndale, 1951), 2; in Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990), 115.

b) Structure

(1) Both books are structured around localities. The Gospel of Luke begins Jesus' ministry in Galilee, then focuses on His journey to Jerusalem, discusses His ministry in this city, and reaches a climax with His death in Jerusalem and resurrection. The book of Acts begins with the Gospel being preached in Jerusalem, spreading to Judea, then Samaria and reaches a climax in Rome.

(2) Both Jesus and Paul are well received by the general populace. Both are rejected by the Jewish leaders. Both are seized by an angry mob. Both undergo several trials. As Luke shows a lengthy trip of Paul to Rome, so does he write of a lengthy journey about Jesus to Jerusalem. Both faced the same fate of a trial and judgment.

(3) Both books take the time to date events using historical references. His careful use of places and names reveals Luke's intent for accuracy. He intends to add credibility to his story using these details.

5. Size- The equal size of this two-volume work indicates a relationship between the two. The material contained in these volumes seems to have been divided into two equal parts, with each part fitting conveniently into the average length of an ancient papyrus roll. Daniel B. Wallace says, "Customarily, the longest usable scroll was about thirty-five feet. Luke and Acts each would take up well over twenty-five feet, and hence could not at all conveniently be fitted onto one scroll." This means that these two works would have been written upon two scrolls, since they could not have fit together on even the longest scroll of the day. 11]

11] Daniel B. Wallace, Acts: Introduction, Argument, and Outline (Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas, 1998) [on-line]; accessed 6 July 2010; available from; Internet, 9.

B. External Evidence- Besides the internal evidence, there is unanimous agreement with the early Church fathers as to the single authorship of Luke -Acts.

As a result, the internal and external evidence supporting Luke and Acts as a single work enables us to gather information about one volume and apply it to the other volume. This we will do in the introduction of these two works as we discuss authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, occasion, purpose, theme and characteristics.

II. Authorship and Canonicity

In establishing the authorship of the New Testament writings, one must also deal with the issue of canonicity, since apostolic authority was the primary condition for a book to be accepted into the biblical canon of the early Church. This section will evaluate three phases in the development of the canonicity of the Gospel of Luke: apostolic authority, church orthodoxy, and catholicity. The first phase of canonization is called apostolic authority and is characterized by the use of the writings of the apostles by the earliest Church father in the defense of the Christian faith (1st and 2nd centuries). The second phase of canonization is called church orthodoxy and is characterized by the collection of the apostolic writings into the distinctive groups of the Gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the Catholic epistles, and their distribution among the churches as the rules of the Christian faith (late 2nd century thru 3rd century). The third phase of canonization is characterized by the general acceptance and use of the books of the New Testament by the catholic church, seen most distinctly in the early Church councils (4th century).

A. Apostolic Authority- Scholars generally agree that the New Testament canon went through several phrases of development in Church history prior to its solidification in the fourth century. F. B. Westcott says the earliest phase is considered the apostolic age in which "the writings of the Apostles were regarded from the first as invested with singular authority, as the true expression, if not the original source, of Christian doctrine and Christian practice." He says the "elements of the Catholic faith" were established during this period in Church history. 12] At this time, the early Christian Greek apologists defended the catholic faith during the rise of the heresies of the second century using the writings that carried the weight of apostolic authority. The Church clung to the books that were either written by the apostles themselves, such as Matthew ,, John , Peter, and Paul, or directly sanctioned by them, such as Mark and Luke , the assistances of Peter and Paul respectively, and the epistles of James and Jude , the brothers of the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, scholars believe apostolic authority was the primary element in selecting the canonical books. This phase is best represented by evaluating the internal evidence of the authorship of these New Testament books and by the external witnesses of the early Church fathers who declare the book's apostolic authorship and doctrinal authority over the Church.

12] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 21. The Muratorian Canon (c. A.D 200) alludes to the criteria of apostolic authority for the New Testament writings, saying, "The Pastor, moreover, did Hermas write very recently in our times in the city of Rome, while his brother bishop Pius sat in the chair of the Church of Rome. And therefore it also ought to be read; but it cannot be made public in the Church to the people, nor placed among the prophets, as their number is complete, nor among the apostles to the end of time." (Fragments of Caius 33) (ANF 5); Corey Keating says, "In the first two centuries, ‘apostolic authority' was the important factor in deciding to keep or reject a particular writing." See Corey Keating, The Criteria Used for Developing the New Testament Canon in the First Four Centuries of the Christian Church (2000); accessed 15 April 2012; available from http://www.ntgreek.org/SeminaryPapers/ChurchHistory/Criteria%20for%20Development%20of%20the%20NT%20Canon%20in%20First%20Four%20Centuries.pdf; Internet.

Although the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts do not declare their author within the text, there is overwhelming evidence that Luke , the beloved physician and companion to Paul the apostle, wrote these two books. The lack of identification of an author within the body of their text does not detract from the strong evidence that supports Lucan authorship. In fact, none of the four Gospels states their authors. A further observation may be noted that, in contrast, some of the New Testament apocryphal gospels, which are recognized as merely imitations, frequently attribute themselves to apostolic authorship in the body of these writings, which helps to identify them as unauthentic in origin. Both internal and external evidence strongly support Lucan authorship. In fact, the authorship of Luke -Acts was never contested until modern times, when several radical schools of thought emerged, whose views are no longer taken seriously by evangelical Bible scholars today.

1. Internal Evidence- One of the first observations that we can make about the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts is that they do not have Jewish overtones like the Gospels of Matthew , Mark and John. Thus, the author of Luke -Acts was not a Palestinian Jew like the other three Evangelists. From the text, we can conclude that he was a second-generation Christian who had access to those who were eyewitnesses of the ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. The fact that the author was well educated and skilled in the Hellenistic Greek language leads us to the conclusion that he was a Greek and possible Gentile proselyte to Judaism before conversion to Christianity. Finally, the common authorship of Luke -Acts and the "we" passages in the book of Acts indicate that Luke the beloved physician was the author of these two books of the New Testament.

a) The Author Was a Second-Generation Christian- The opening dedication of the Gospel of Luke suggests that the author was a second-generation Christian, who was attempting to compile accurate testimonies of those who had been with Christ Jesus. In other words, he was not an eyewitness of the events in the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ

b) The Author Had Access to Firsthand Accounts- The preface tells us that the author had access to firsthand testimonies of the life of our Lord Jesus Christ. This tells us that he was in a position of influence with the early Church to gather such vital information. Such a person would have had to be a Jewish Christian or a Gentile converted to Christianity.

c) The Author Was an Educated Prayer of Manasseh - The preface of the Gospel of Luke tells us that the author had done a thorough investigation into the facts surrounding the life of the Lord Jesus Christ and had rejected many written accounts as inaccurate. The author's references to dates in history and to geography tell us that he was well educated and well-traveled in this first century world. This leads us to conclude that the author was a man who was educated enough to do such research and to make such conclusions.

d) The Author Was Skilled in Hellenistic Greek- Because the literary quality of the Greek language in Luke's Gospel is the highest of any New Testament writing, it implies that the author was of Greek origin. This is because the Jews did not easily embrace the Greek culture. The Gospel of Luke shows two Greek styles, that of classical Greek and Greek Hebraisms. Thus, the author of Luke shows that he had an understanding of the Jewish culture as well as of the Greek culture. This implies that the author was very possibly a Greek proselyte and not a Jew.

e) "Their tongue" meaning the Author was a Gentile- In Acts 1:19 the author refers to the Jewish language as "their tongue", which excludes him from being a Jew.

Acts 1:19, "And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood."

The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts Have a Common Authorship- In looking for internal evidence for the author of the books of Luke and Acts , one must look at the several points that they have in common. It is obvious that these two books are companion books, being written by the same author, as is discussed above in the preceding paragraphs.

f) The "We" passages in Acts Indicate Luke as the Author- One of the more obvious evidences as to the authorship of Luke -Acts can be seen in the well-known "we" passages. ( Acts 16:10-17; Acts 20:5-15; Acts 21:1-18; Acts 27:1 to Acts 28:16). These verses tell us that the author actually traveled with Paul the apostle on some of his missionary journeys. In fact, three-fifths of the book of Acts is devoted to Paul's missionary journeys. The brevity of the account of the first missionary journey, along with the lack of "we" passages in this account indicates that the author did not accompany Paul on this first trip. However, the lengthy details of the other missionary journeys, along with their "we" passages, indicate that the author was an eyewitness who was able to give detailed descriptions to these events. These particular accounts with "we" passages include the second and third missionary journeys, Paul's trip to Rome and his confrontation with the Jews at Jerusalem. An author who was writing later than Paul would have given a more balanced description of Paul's life, rather than the disproportionate one given in the book of Acts.

In addition, the fact that Acts mentions many of Paul's traveling companions by name eliminates them as a possible author. For example, Acts 20:4 mentions "Sopater, Aristarchus, Secundus, Gaius, Timothy, Tychicus and Trophimus."

Acts 20:4, "And there accompanied him into Asia Sopater of Berea; and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and Gaius of Derbe, and Timotheus; and of Asia, Tychicus and Trophimus."

"Silas" is mentioned thirteen times in the book of Acts. "Mark" is mentioned four times. "Jesus," or "Justus," is mentioned one time. If we eliminate this list of travel companions, we come up with a few men who were with Paul during his imprisonment in Rome (Epaphras, Demas, Luke , and Epaphroditus). The fact that Demas later abandoned Paul disqualified him as a possible author. Thus, Luke is one of three possible authors by this process of elimination.

One "we" passage gives us a clue to the fact that the author was not a Jew. In Acts 16:16-24 the author begins the story of how Paul cast out a spirit of divination from a damsel. He writes, "as we went to prayer," and "the same followed Paul and us." Once the men of the city seized them, the author writes, "they caught Paul and Silas," and "these men, being Jews." This passage of Scripture implies that the author was not seized because he was not a Jew. 13]

13] Daniel B. Wallace, Acts: Introduction, Argument, and Outline (Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas, 1998) [on-line]; accessed 6 July 2010; available from; Internet, 5.

Finally, we find three New Testament passages that indicate Luke was a companion of Paul's on his missionary journeys, and was with him during his Roman imprisonment. Thus, he seems to have spent more time with Paul than either Epaphras or Epaphroditus. Some scholars suggest that these last two names refer to the same individual, with one name being in its abbreviated form.

Colossians 4:14, " Luke , the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you."

2 Timothy 4:11, "Only Luke is with me. Take Mark , and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry."

Philemon 1:24, "Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, Lucas, my fellowlabourers."

Thus, of the three possible candidates for the authorship of Luke -, Acts , internal evidence supports Luke as the most likely author.

2. Patristic Support of Lucan Authorship- The early Church fathers were in universal agreement that Luke was the author of his Gospel and the book of Acts. Therefore, the external evidence for Lucan authorship is very strong. Early Church history tells us that Luke was the author of the Gospel of Luke as well as the book of Acts. Many of the early Church fathers directly affirmed Luke's authorship and tell us that the authenticity of this Gospel was not in question during their time.

a) Marcion (d. c. A.D 160) - The heretic named Marcion, the son of a bishop of Sinope, attempted to write a simplified version of the Gospel of Paul by accepting only ten Pauline epistles and an edited version of the Gospel of Luke (A. D 140-160). Although his writings are lost, some of the early Church fathers, particularly Tertullian (A.D 160 to 225), offer us enough evidence to partially reconstruct his theories and writings. For example, in his work The Five Books Against Marcion, Tertullian argues extensively against Marcion's rejection of many of the books of the New Testament. Walter Liefeld tells us that in this condensed edition, Marcion acknowledged Luke as the author of the third Gospel. 14]

14] Walter L. Liefeld, Luke , in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 8, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), "Introduction: Section 3: Authorship."

b) Justin Martyr (A.D 100 to 165) - Justin Martyr appears to have known about the four Gospels as he frequently refers to the "memoirs of the apostles," and he tells us that they were also called "Gospels" as early as his time.

"For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them;" (First Apology 66)

In one of these references to the apostles' memoirs, he cites Luke 22:44.

"For in the memoirs which I say were drawn up by His apostles and those who followed them, [it is recorded] that His sweat fell down like drops of blood while He was praying, and saying, ‘If it be possible, let this cup pass:'" (Dialogue of Justin 103)

Luke 22:44, "And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground."

Justin Martyr also tells us that the Gospels were read during assemblies along with the Old Testament books of the prophets. This tells us that the early Church had equaled the Gospels to other divinely inspired Scriptures.

"And we afterwards continually remind each other of these things. And the wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together; and for all things wherewith we are supplied, we bless the Maker of all through His Son Jesus Christ, and through the Holy Ghost. And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things." (First Apology 67)

c) Muratorian Canon (c. A.D 200) - The Muratorian Canon, an ancient Latin document dated around A.D 200, is considered the earliest attempt at listing the canonical books of the New Testament. It was discovered in the Ambrosian Library in Milan and formerly in the monastery of Bobbio. It tells us that Luke wrote his Gospel under the influence of Paul the apostle.

"The third book of the Gospel, that according to Luke , the well-known physician Luke wrote in his own name in order after the ascension of Christ, and when Paul had associated him with himself as one studious of right. Nor did he himself see the Lord in the flesh; and Hebrews , according as he was able to accomplish it, began his narrative with the nativity of John." (Fragments of Caius 31)

d) Irenaeus (A.D 130 to 200) - Irenaeus tells us that Luke wrote his Gospel by relying on the testimony of Paul the apostle:

"Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark , the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him. Afterwards, John , the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia." (Against Heresies 311)

Irenaeus later gives us a very lengthy defense for Luke's authorship of his Gospel and the book of Acts , stating that he was an inseparable companion of Paul.

"But that this Luke was inseparable from Paul, and his fellow-labourer in the Gospel, he himself clearly evinces, not as a matter of boasting, but as bound to do so by the truth itself. For he says that when Barnabas, and John who was called Mark , had parted company from Paul, and sailed to Cyprus, ‘we came to Troas;' and when Paul had beheld in a dream a man of Macedonia, saying, ‘Come into Macedonia, Paul, and help us,' ‘immediately,' he says, ‘we endeavoured to go into Macedonia, understanding that the Lord had called us to preach the Gospel unto them. Therefore, sailing from Troas, we directed our ship"s course towards Samothracia.' And then he carefully indicates all the rest of their journey as far as Philippi, and how they delivered their first address: ‘for, sitting down,' he says, ‘we spake unto the women who had assembled;' and certain believed, even a great many. And again does he say, ‘But we sailed from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, and came to Troas, where we abode seven days.' And all the remaining [details] of his course with Paul he recounts, indicating with all diligence both places, and cities, and number of days, until they went up to Jerusalem; and what befell Paul there, how he was sent to Rome in bonds; the name of the centurion who took him in charge; and the signs of the ships, and how they made shipwreck; and the island upon which they escaped, and how they received kindness there, Paul healing the chief man of that island; and how they sailed from thence to Puteoli, and from that arrived at Rome; and for what period they sojourned at Rome. As Luke was present at all these occurrences, he carefully noted them down in writing, so that he cannot be convicted of falsehood or boastfulness, because all these [particulars] proved both that he was senior to all those who now teach otherwise, and that he was not ignorant of the truth. That he was not merely a follower, but also a fellow-labourer of the apostles, but especially of Paul, Paul has himself declared also in the Epistles, saying: ‘Demas hath forsaken me,...and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Only Luke is with me.' From this he shows that he was always attached to and inseparable from him. And again he says, in the Epistle to the Colossians: ‘ Luke , the beloved physician, greets you.' But surely if Luke , who always preached in company with Paul, and is called by him ‘the beloved,' and with him performed the work of an evangelist, and was entrusted to hand down to us a Gospel, learned nothing different from him (Paul), as has been pointed out from his words, how can these men, who were never attached to Paul, boast that they have learned hidden and unspeakable mysteries?" (Against Heresies 3141)

Irenaeus quotes the Gospel of Luke and states Luke as its author.

"For when He came to be baptized, He had not yet completed His thirtieth year, but was beginning to be about thirty years of age (for thus Luke , who has mentioned His years, has expressed it: ‘Now Jesus was, as it were, beginning to be thirty years old,' when He came to receive baptism); and, [according to these men,] He preached only one year reckoning from His baptism." (Against Heresies 2225)

Irenaeus quotes numerous times from the book of Acts. Here are a few examples:

"Simon the Samaritan was that magician of whom Luke , the disciple and follower of the apostles, says, "But there was a certain Prayer of Manasseh , Simon by name, who beforetime used magical arts in that city, and led astray the people of Samaria, declaring that he himself was some great one…" (Against Heresies 1231)

Acts 8:9, "But there was a certain Prayer of Manasseh , called Simon, which beforetime in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one:"

"It appears probable enough that this man possesses a demon as his familiar spirit, by means of whom he seems able to prophesy…" (Against Heresies 1133)

Acts 16:16, "And it came to pass, as we went to prayer, a certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination met us, which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying:"

"Then, at last, He came on to death itself, that He might be ‘the first-born from the dead, that in all things He might have the pre-eminence,' the Prince of life, existing before all, and going before all." (Against Heresies 2224)

Acts 3:15, "And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses."

"The Apostle Peter, therefore, after the resurrection of the Lord, and His assumption into the heavens, being desirous of filling up the number of the twelve apostles, and in electing into the place of Judas any substitute who should be chosen by God, thus addressed those who were present: "Men [and] brethren, this Scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost, by the mouth of David, spake before concerning Judas, which was made guide to them that took Jesus. For he was numbered with us… Let his habitation be desolate, and let no man dwell therein; and, His bishop-rick let another take." (Against Heresies 3121) (See Acts 1:16-20)

e) The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (A.D 160 to 180) - The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke tells us that Luke was the writer of his Gospel.

"Indeed Luke was an Antiochene Syrian, a doctor by profession, a disciple of the apostles: later however he followed Paul until his martyrdom, serving the Lord blamelessly.He never had a wife, he never fathered children, and died at the age of eighty-four, full of the Holy Spirit, in Boetia.Therefore--- although gospels had already been written---- indeed by Matthew in Judaea but by Mark in Italy---- moved by the Holy Spirit he wrote down this gospel in the parts of Achaia, signifying in the preface that the others were written before his, but also that it was of the greatest importance for him to expoundwith the greatest diligence the whole series of events in his narration for the Greek believers, so that they would not be led astray by the lure of Jewish fables, or, seduced by the fables of the heretics and stupid solicitations, fall away from the truth.And so at once at the start he took up the extremely necessary [story] from the birth of John , who is the beginning of the gospel, the forerunner of our Lord Jesus Christ, and was a companion in the perfecting of the people, likewise in the introducing of baptism and a companion in martyrdom.Of this disposition the prophet Malachi , one of the twelve, certainly makes mention.And indeed afterwards the same Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles.Later the apostle John wrote the Apocalypse on the island of Patmos, and then the Gospel in Asia." 15]

15] The Anti-Marcionite Prologues to the Gospels, trans. Roger Pearse (2006) [on-line]; accessed 16 April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/anti_marcionite_prologues.htm; Internet. The translation was made from the text published by Donatien De Bruyne, "Les plus anciens prologues latines des vangiles," Revue Bndictine, vol 40, (October 1928), 193-214. See also R. G. Heard, "The Old Gospel Prologues," Journal of Theological Studies n.s 6 (1955), 1-16. See also Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, c 1990).

f) Clement of Alexandria (A.D 150 to 215) - Clement of Alexandria attributes Luke to the book of Acts in his own writings by quoting from Acts 17:22.

"It remains that we understand, then, the Unknown, by divine grace, and by the word alone that proceeds from Him; as Luke in the Acts of the Apostles relates that Paul said, "Men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious." (The Stromata 512)

g) Tertullian (A.D 160 to 225) - Tertullian makes one of the earliest and clearest references to the authors of the four Gospels. He refers to John and Matthew as apostles and calls Luke and Mark "apostolic men" in the context of the writings of the four Gospels:

"Of the apostles, therefore, John and Matthew first instill faith into us; whilst of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards. These all start with the same principles of the faith, so far as relates to the one only God the Creator and His Christ, how that He was born of the Virgin, and came to fulfil the law and the prophets. Never mind if there does occur some variation in the order of their narratives, provided that there be agreement in the essential matter of the faith, in which there is disagreement with Marcion. Marcion, on the other hand, you must know, ascribes no author to his Gospel, as if it could not be allowed him to affix a title to that from which it was no crime (in his eyes) to subvert the very body." (Against Marcion 42)

Again he affirms the Gospel of Luke to be his own work when contesting Marcion's preference for Luke's authenticity over the other Gospels:

"The same authority of the apostolic churches will afford evidence to the other Gospels also, which we possess equally through their means, and according to their usage--I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew --whilst that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter"s whose interpreter Mark was. For even Luke"s form of the Gospel men unusually ascribe to Paul. And it may well seem that the works which disciples publish belong to their masters. Well, then, Marcion ought to be called to a strict account concerning these (other Gospels) also, for having omitted them, and insisted in preference on Luke; as if they, too, had not had free course in the churches, as well as Luke"s Gospel, from the beginning. Nay, it is even more credible that they existed from the very beginning; for, being the work of apostles, they were prior, and coeval in origin with the churches themselves." (Against Marcion 45)

In his work On Fasting, Tertullian frequently quotes from and alludes to the book of Acts , and name Luke as the author.

"…since even prayers the ninth hour generally concludes, after Peter's example, which is recorded in the Acts." (On Fasting 2)

"Finally, granting that upon the centurion Cornelius, even before baptism, the honourable gift of the Holy Spirit, together with the gift of prophecy besides, had hastened to descend, we see that his fasts had been heard." (On Fasting 8)

"Nay, but you would more easily find that Peter at the sixth hour had, for the sake of taking food, gone up first on the roof to pray; so that the sixth hour of the day may the rather be made the limit to this duty, which (in Peter's case) was apparently to finish that duty, after prayer. Further: since in the self-same commentary of Luke the third hour is demonstrated as an hour of prayer, about which hour it was that they who had received the initiatory gift of the Holy Spirit were held for drunkards; and the sixth, at which Peter went up on the roof; and the ninth, at which they entered the temple…" (On Fasting 10)

h) Hippolytus (A.D 170 to 236) - Hippolytus calls Luke one of the Evangelists.

"Mark the evangelist, bishop of Alexandria. Luke the evangelist - These two belonged to the seventy disciples who were scattered by the offence of the word which Christ spoke, ‘Except a man eat my flesh, and drink my blood, he is not worthy of me.' But the one being induced to return to the Lord by Peter"s instrumentality, and the other by Paul"s, they were honoured to preach that Gospel on account of which they also suffered martyrdom, the one being burned, and the other being crucified on an olive tree." (Appendix to the Works of Hippolytus 49: The Same Hippolytus on the Seventy Apostles 14-15) (ANF 5)

i) Origen (A.D 185 to 254) - Eusebius quotes Origen as telling us that Luke wrote the third Gospel, which was commended by Paul the apostle.

"Among the four Gospels, which are the only indisputable ones in the Church of God under heaven, I have learned by tradition that the first was written by Matthew , who was once a publican, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, and it was prepared for the converts from Judaism, and published in the Hebrew language. The second is by Mark , who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, who in his Catholic epistle acknowledges him as a Song of Solomon , saying, "The church that is at Babylon elected together with you, saluteth you, and so doth Marcus, my son." And the third by Luke , the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts. Last of all that by John." (Ecclesiastical History 6254-6)

j) Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) - Eusebius tells us that Luke wrote both the Gospel bearing his name as well as the book of Acts.

"That Paul preached to the Gentiles and laid the foundations of the churches ‘from Jerusalem round about even unto Illyricum,' is evident both from his own words, and from the account which Luke has given in the Acts….But Luke , who was of Antiochian parentage and a physician by profession, and who was especially intimate with Paul and well acquainted with the rest of the apostles, has left us, in two inspired books, proofs of that spiritual healing art which he learned from them. One of these books is the Gospel, which he testifies that he wrote as those who were from the beginning eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered unto him, all of whom, as he says, he followed accurately from the first. The other book is the Acts of the Apostles which he composed not from the accounts of others, but from what he had seen himself." (Ecclesiastical History 341, 7)

He also tells us that when the Gospels of Matthew , Mark and Luke were handed to John the apostle for his approval, he accepted them as authentic and truthful.

"And when Mark and Luke had already published their Gospels, they say that John , who had employed all his time in proclaiming the Gospel orally, finally proceeded to write for the following reason. The three Gospels already mentioned having come into the hands of all and into his own too, they say that he accepted them and bore witness to their truthfulness; but that there was lacking in them an account of the deeds done by Christ at the beginning of his ministry." (Ecclesiastical History 3246)

k) Athanasius (A.D 296 to 373) - St. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, supported Lukan authorship for the books of Luke and Acts by quoting from them while declaring "as Luke wrote". He quotes from Acts 1:1.

"All things whatsoever our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, as Luke wrote, "both hath done and taught," He effected after having appeared for our salvation; for He came, as John saith, "not to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved."" (To the Bishops of Egypt 11)

He also quotes from Luke 17:2.

"And the party of Ursacius, who were at the bottom of all this, did not understand what wrath they were storing up (Rom. ii 5) against themselves, as our Lord says by His saints, "Woe unto them, through whom My Name is blasphemed among the Gentiles" (Is. lii 5; Rom. ii 24); and by His own mouth in the Gospels (Matt. xviii 6), "Whoso shall offend one of these little ones, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea, than," as Luke adds, "that he should offend one of these little ones" (Luke xvii 2)." (Councils of Ariminum and Selecia 12)

He also quotes from Luke 2:1.

"And as according to the Evangelist Luke, there "was made a decree" (Luke ii 1) concerning the taxing, and this decree before was not, but began from those days in which it was made by its framer, they also in like manner, by writing, "The Faith is now published," shewed that the sentiments of their heresy are novel, and were not before." (Councils of Ariminum and Selecia 14)

He lists Luke among the four Evangelists.

"Again it is not tedious to speak of the [books] of the New Testament. These are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew ,, Mark ,, Luke , and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles and Epistles (called Catholic), seven, viz. of James , one; of Peter, two; of John , three; after these, one of Jude. In addition, there are fourteen Epistles of Paul, written in this order. The first, to the Romans; then two to the Corinthians; after these, to the Galatians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians; then to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. And besides, the Revelation of John" (Festal Letters 395)

H. D. M. Spence-Jones and John Lang cite Pseudo-Athanasius (4th -6th c.) as saying that the Gospel of Luke was dictated by the apostle Paul.

"The Gospel according to Luke was dictated by Paul the apostle, but written and put out by Luke , the blessed apostle and physician." (Synopsis of the Sacred Scriptures) (PG 28 Colossians 433A) 16]

16] H. D. M. Spence-Jones and John Marshall Lang, Luke , in The Pulpit Commentary, eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction: 5 Luke the Beloved Physician."

l) Gregory Naziansen (A. D 329-389) - Gregory Naziansen, the Church theologian, says after listing the books of the Old Testament canon, "And already for me, I have received all those of the New Testament. First, to the Hebrews Matthew the saint composed what was according to him the Gospel; second, in Italy Mark the divine; third, in Achaia Luke the all-wise; and John , thundering the heavenlies, indeed preached to all common men; after whom the miracles and deeds of the wise apostles, and Paul the divine herald fourteen epistles; and catholic seven, of which one is of James the brother of God, and two are of Peter the head, and of John again the evangelist, three, and seventh is Jude the Zealot. All are united and accepted; and if one of them is found outside, it is not placed among the genuine ones." (PG 38 Colossians 845) (author's translation) 17]

17] Cited by Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 582.

He makes a similar statement again:

"Indeed Matthew wrote to the Hebrews (the) miracles of Christ, and Mark to Italy, Luke to Achaia, and above all, John , a great preacher who walked in heaven, then the Acts of the wise apostles, and fourteen epistles of Paul, and seven catholic epistles, being of James , one, and two of Peter, and three of John again, and Jude is seven. You have all. And if there is some (other than) these seven, not (are they) among the genuine ones." (Carminum 1) (PG 37 Colossians 474) (author's translation)

m) Jerome (A.D 342to 420) - Jerome gives us quite a bit of information about Luke. He tells us that he wrote this Gospel largely from the testimony of Paul, and also from other apostles who were eyewitnesses.

" Luke , a physician of Antioch as his writings indicate, was not unskilled in the Greek language. An adherent of the apostle Paul, and companion of all his journeying, he wrote a Gospel, concerning which the same Paul says, "We send with him a brother whose praise in the gospel is among all the churches" and to the Colossians "Luke the beloved physician salutes you," and to Timothy "Luke only is with me." He also wrote another excellent volume to which he prefixed the title Acts of the Apostles, a history which extends to the second year of Paul"s sojourn at Rome, that is to the fourth year of Nero, from which we learn that the book was composed in that same city. Therefore the Acts of Paul and Thecla and all the fable about the lion baptized by him we reckon among the apocryphal writings, for how is it possible that the inseparable companion of the apostle in his other affairs, alone should have been ignorant of this thing. Moreover Tertullian who lived near those times, mentions a certain presbyter in Asia, an adherent of the apostle Paul, who was convicted by John of having been the author of the book, and who, confessing that he did this for love of Paul, resigned his office of presbyter. Some suppose that whenever Paul in his epistle says "according to my gospel" he means the book of Luke and that Luke not only was taught the gospel history by the apostle Paul who was not with the Lord in the flesh, but also by other apostles. This he too at the beginning of his work declares, saying "Even as they delivered unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word." So he wrote the gospel as he had heard it, but composed the Acts of the apostles as he himself had seen. He was buried at Constantinople to which city, in the twentieth year of Constantius, his bones together with the remains of Andrew the apostle were transferred." (Lives of Illustrious Men 7)

Jerome also affirms that Luke wrote a second volume called the Acts of the Apostles.

"He (Luke) also wrote another excellent volume to which he prefixed the title Acts of the Apostles…" (Lives of Illustrious Men 9)

n) St. John Chrysostom (A.D 347 to 407) - John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, supports Luke as the author of his Gospel.

"Now Luke tells us also the cause wherefore he proceeds to write: "that thou mayest hold," saith Hebrews , "the certainty of the words wherein thou hast been instructed;" that Isaiah , that being continually reminded thou mayest hold to the certainty, and abide in certainty." (Homilies on the Gospel According to St. Matthew 1:7)

o) Sophronius (A.D 560 to 638) - Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, says Luke wrote his Gospel and the book of Acts.

"Luke wrote the Gospel to which Paul himself refers when he says, And we have sent with him the brother, whose praise is in the Gospel throughout all the churches ( 2 Corinthians 8:18). And in his letter to the Colossians he says, Luke , the beloved physician, greets you ( Colossians 4:14). And to Timothy he says, Only Luke is with me ( 2 Timothy 4:11). Luke wrote another excellent book entitled The Acts of the Apostles, a history which ends with Paul's two-year stay in Rome, that Isaiah , in the fourth year of Nero's reign. This leads us to believe that The Acts of the Apostles was written in Rome." (The Life of the Evangelist Luke) (PG 123col 675) 18]

18] Sophronius, The Life of the Evangelist Luke , in Orthodox Classics in English (House Springs, MO: The Chrysostom Press) [on-line]. Accessed 1December 2010. Available from http://www.chrysostompress.org/the-four-evangelists; Internet.

p) Coptic Inscription (6th or 7th century) - Geoffrey C. Bingham tells us that an inscription found in a 6th or 7th century Coptic chapel on Mount Assuit in Egypt reads:

"As for Luke the physician, he was a disciple of the apostles until he followed Paul. He lived eighty-four years. He wrote his Gospel in Achaia. Then he wrote Acts." 19]

19] Geoffrey C. Bingham, The Acts of the Apostles, in New Creation Publications Commentary Series (Adelaide, South Australia, c 1982) [on-line]; accessed 10 July 2010; available from http://www.newcreation.org.au/books/pdf/029_ActsApostles.pdf; Internet, "Introduction: Authorship (A) External Evidence."

q) Photius (A.D. c 810 to c 895) - Alfred Plummer cites Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, who says that the authorship of the book of Acts was questioned as belonging to Clement of Rome or Barnabas, but it clearly belongs to Luke:

"Some say that the writer of the Acts was Clement of Rome, others Barnabas, and others again Luke the Evangelist; but Luke himself decides the question, for at the beginning of his preface he mentions that another treatise containing the acts of the Lord had been composed by him." (Ad Amphilochium Quaestio 123) (PG 123col 716A-B) 20]

20] Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), xiv.

3. Manuscript Evidence of Lucan Authorship- The earliest Greek manuscripts of the third and fourth centuries contain the Gospels and Acts. Daniel Wallace says some of the earliest fourth century manuscripts of the Gospel of Luke are entitled κατα λουκᾶς (according to Luke) (Codex Sinaiticus [ א], Codex Vaticanus [B]). The word "Gospel" was added to the title at a later date. For example, he says several fifth century manuscripts lengthen the title to εύαγγέλιον κατα λουκᾶς (the Gospel according to Luke) (Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis [D], Freer Gospels [W]), while some later Byzantine manuscripts read, "The Holy Gospel According to Luke." 21] This title also tells us that other Gospels were known at the time the title was added. The word "saint" applied to Matthew's name in the title of some Holy Bibles is of later Roman Catholic origin and lacks any ancient authority.

21] Daniel B. Wallace, Luke: Introduction, Argument, and Outline (Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas) [on-line]; accessed 6 July 2010; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/ Luke -introduction-argument-and-outline; Internet.

The fact that the title of this Gospel in ancient manuscripts bore Luke's name from the beginning of the early Church testifies to Luke's authorship. This title was never was contested by the early Church fathers. No manuscript titles attribute the authorship to anyone but Luke.

George Salmon notes that if the phrase "according to" only refers to the fact that these Gospels contain the traditions that emanated from the four Evangelists, but was not written by them, then it would follow that Mark's Gospel would be entitled "according to Peter" and Luke's Gospel "according to Paul." 22] Thus, much weight can to be placed upon these most ancient titles of the four Gospels to support authorship.

22] George Salmon, Matthew , in The Biblical Illustrator, ed. Joseph S. Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Pub. House, 1954), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2002), "Introduction: Titles of the Gospels."

Thus, we see an unbroken tradition from the early Church fathers in support of Lucan authorship. This widespread support comes from many geographical regions of the known Christian world. The tradition until the time of the Reformation was that Matthew wrote his Gospel in the Hebrew language and someone translated it into Greek.

It is easy to see how canonicity is a testimony to Lucan authorship when we understand that the debates of the early Church fathers to accept the general epistles of 2Peter, 2,3John, and Jude was simply a debate about their authorship. Apostolic authorship meant that the works were authentic, and thus, authoritative. It was the writing's apostolic authority that granted its inclusion into the New Testament canon. Therefore, canonicity was based upon apostolic authority, and this apostolic authority was based upon the authenticity of the writing, and its authenticity was based upon the fact that it was a genuine work of one of the apostles or one who was serving directly under that apostolic authority.

B. Church Orthodoxy- The second phase in the development of the New Testament canon placed emphasis upon Church orthodoxy, or the rule of faith for the catholic Church. F. B. Westcott says, "To make use of a book as authoritative, to assume that it is apostolic, to quote it as inspired, without preface or comment, is not to hazard a new or independent opinion, but to follow an unquestioned judgment." 23] The early Church fathers cited these apostolic writings as divinely inspired by God, equal in authority to the Old Testament Scriptures. They understood that these particular books embodied the doctrines that helped them express the Church's Creed, or generally accepted rule of faith. As F. B. Westcott notes, with a single voice the Church fathers of this period rose up from the western to the eastern borders of Christendom and became heralds of the same, unified Truth. 24] This phase is best represented in the writings of the early Church fathers by the collection of the apostolic writings into the distinctive groups of the Gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the Catholic epistles, and their distribution among the churches as the rules of the Christian faith (late 2nd century thru 3rd century). These collected works of the apostles were cited by the Church fathers as they expounded upon the Christian faith and established Church orthodoxy. We will look at two aspects of the development of Church Orthodoxy: (1) the Patristic Support of Authenticity, Authority, and Orthodoxy and (2) Early Versions.

23] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan anc Co, 1875), 12.

24] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan anc Co, 1875), 331.

1. Patristic Support of Authenticity, Authority, and Orthodoxy- In addition to direct statements by the early Church fathers declaring Lucan authorship, patristic support for the authenticity and authority of Luke -Acts can be found in the form of direct quotes, strong allusions and weak allusions. Direct quotes are word for word citations from this book, strong allusions are apparent paraphrases, and weak allusions are words or phrases that appear to come from this book. Scholars tell us that references are made to Luke's Gospel and the book of Acts in the writings of some of the earliest church fathers. H. D. M. Spence-Jones notes that there are many quotes from the time of Justin Martyr until Eusebius, such as The Epistle of Barnabas (c 70-130), Polycarp (c 110- 50), the Didache (A.D 80 to 100), Irenaeus (c 130-200), Justin Martyr (c 100-165), Clement of Alexandria (c 150-215), Tertullian (c 160-225), Julius Africanus (A.D 160 to 240), Hippolytus (A.D 170 to 236) and Origen (c 185-254), which supports the authenticity of the Gospel of Luke and Acts by alluding to or quoting verses from the Gospel of Luke. 25] Thus, the Gospel of Luke was used by the Church fathers to establish Church orthodoxy.

25] H. D. M.Spence-Jones and John Marshall Lang, Luke , in The Pulpit Commentary, ed. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction."

Here are some examples of the earliest quotes of the Gospel of Luke: 26]

26] There are many other citations available from the early Church fathers that I have not used to support the traditional views of authorship of the books of the New Testament. Two of the largest collections of these citations have been compiled by Nathaniel Lardner (1684-1768) in The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, 10 vols. (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829, 1838), and by Jacques Paul Migne (1800-1875) in the footnotes of Patrologia Latina, 221vols. (Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1844-55) and Patrologia Graecae, 161vols. (Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1857-66).

a) Clement of Rome (c 96) - In his first epistle to the Corinthians, Clement of Rome clearly quotes from the Sermon on the Mount out of Matthew or Luke.

"…being especially mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus which He spake, teaching us meekness and long-suffering. For thus He spoke: ‘Be ye merciful, that ye may obtain mercy; forgive, that it may be forgiven to you; as ye do, so shall it be done unto you; as ye Judges , so shall ye be judged; as ye are kind, so shall kindness be shown to you; with what measure ye mete, with the same it shall be measured to you.'" (1Clement 13)

Clement of Rome also quotes from Matthew 18:6; Matthew 26:24, Mark 9:42, or Luke 17:1-2.

"Remember the words of our Lord Jesus Christ, how He said, "Woe to that man [by whom offences come]! It were better for him that he had never been born, than that he should cast a stumbling-block before one of my elect. Yea, it were better for him that a millstone should be hung about [his neck], and he should be sunk in the depths of the sea, than that he should cast a stumbling-block before one of my little ones. Your schism has subverted [the faith of] many, has discouraged many, has given rise to doubt in many, and has caused grief to us all. And still your sedition continueth." (1Clement 46)

b) The Epistle of Barnabas (A.D 70 to 100) - The Epistle of Barnabas has been ascribed by Clement of Alexandria to the apostle Barnabas, 27] who is referred in the book of Acts as an early co-worker on Paul's first missionary journey. However, many scholars believe that the author was a Christian of Alexandria who wrote between A.D 70,100. 28] Regardless of the author's identity of this early epistle, he alludes to Luke 4:18.

27] Clement of Alexandria was the first to ascribe this epistle to the apostle Barnabas. He writes, "Rightly, therefore, the Apostle Barnabas says, ‘From the portion I have received I have done my diligence to send by little and little to you; that along with your faith you may also have perfect knowledge. Fear and patience are then helpers of your faith; and our allies are long-suffering and temperance. These, then,' he says, ‘in what respects the Lord, continuing in purity, there rejoice along with them, Wisdom of Solomon , understanding, intelligence, knowledge.'" (Stromata 26) and, "And Barnabas the apostle having said, ‘Woe to those who are wise in their own conceits, clever in their own eyes,' added, ‘Let us become spiritual, a perfect temple to God; let us, as far as in us lies, practise the fear of God, and strive to keep His commands, that we may rejoice in His judgments.'" (Stromata 27)

28] The Epistle of Barnabas, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D 325, vol 1: The Apostolic Fathers With Justin Martyr and Ireneaus, American ed, eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Grand Rapids; Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1997, electronic edition), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2009), "Introduction."

"And again, the prophet saith, ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; because He hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the humble: He hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind; to announce the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompense; to comfort all that mourn.'" (The Epistle of Barnabas 14)

Again he quotes from either Luke 6:30 or Matthew 5:42.

"Thou shalt not hesitate to give, nor murmur when thou givest. ‘Give to every one that asketh thee,'" (The Epistle of Barnabas 19)

c) Ignatius of Antioch (A.D 35 to 107) - Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, quotes from Acts 10:41; Acts 1:11 showing his familiarity of the writings of Luke and his consideration of them as divine Scripture.

"And on this account also did they despise death, for it were too little to say, indignities and stripes. Nor was this all; but also after He had shown Himself to them, that He had risen indeed, and not in appearance only, He both ate and drank with them during forty entire days. And thus was Hebrews , with the flesh, received up in their sight unto Him that sent Him, being with that same flesh to come again, accompanied by glory and power. For, say the [holy] oracles, ‘This same Jesus, who is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come, in like manner as ye have seen Him go unto heaven.'" (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyraeans 3)

Note:

Acts 10:41, "Not to all the people, but unto witnesses chosen before of God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him after he rose from the dead."

Acts 1:11, "Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven."

In The Epistle to the Magnesians, Ignatius appears to take the phrase "every one shall go unto his own place" from Acts 1:25.

"Seeing, then, all things have an end, these two things are simultaneously set before us--death and life; and every one shall go unto his own place." (The Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 5)

Note:

Acts 1:25, "That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place."

d) The Didache (A.D 80 to 100) - The Didache, or The Teachings of the Twelve Apostles, was a short early Christian manual on morals and Church practice. The Gospel of Matthew is used extensively throughout the sixteen chapters of this ancient manual, particularly from the Sermon on the Mount, as well as the parallel passages in Luke (See The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations) (ANF 7). Note the following examples:

"…and all things whatsoever thou wouldst should not occur to thee, thou also to another do not do." (The Didache 1)

Luke 6:31, "And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise."

"For what thank is there, if ye love them that love you? Do not also the Gentiles do the same? But do ye love them that hate you; and ye shall not have an enemy. Abstain thou from fleshly and worldly lusts. If one give thee a blow upon thy right cheek, turn to him the other also; and thou shalt be perfect. If one impress thee for one mile, go with him two. If one take away thy cloak, give him also thy coat. If one take from thee thine own, ask it not back." (The Didache 1)

e) Polycarp (A.D 69 to 155) - The epistle of Polycarp contains numerous quotes and allusions from the Gospels, revealing the fact that he was acquainted with them.

"…or blow for blow, or cursing for cursing, but being mindful of what the Lord said in His teaching: Judge not, that ye be not judged; forgive, and it shall be forgiven unto you; be merciful, that ye may obtain mercy; with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again; and once more, Blessed are the poor, and those that are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of God." (The Epistle of to the Philippians 2) ( Matthew 5:3; Matthew 5:10; Matthew 7:1-2; Matthew 6:12; Matthew 6:14, Luke 6:20; Luke 6:36-38)

"…but temperate in all things, compassionate, industrious, walking according to the truth of the Lord, who was the servant of all. " (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 5) ( Matthew 20:28)

"If then we entreat the Lord to forgive us, we ought also ourselves to forgive;" (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 6) ( Matthew 6:12-14)

"…beseeching in our supplications the all-seeing God ‘not to lead us into temptation,' as the Lord has said: ‘The spirit truly is willing, but the flesh is weak.'" (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 7) ( Matthew 6:13; Matthew 26:41, Mark 14:38)

"Pray also for kings, and potentates, and princes, and for those that persecute and hate you," (The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 12) ( Matthew 5:44)

f) Justin Martyr (A.D 100 to 165) - Justin Martyr made ample use of the Gospel of Luke by the middle of the second century. Benjamin Bacon estimates that there are nearly fifty allusions to Gospel history in his Apology and seventy in his Dialogue. 29] A. Lukyn Williams gives us a list of some of this narrative material used by Justin Martyr that is only found in the Gospel of Luke.

29] "Justin, his younger contemporary, as we have seen, employs our four Gospels as directly or indirectly Apostolic. Occasionally he takes up an uncanonical tradition, but in all his seventeen or eighteen express references to the ‘Memoirs' he uses our Synoptics, while his fifty allusions in the two Apologies (152-153 A.D.) and seventy in the Dialogue (155-160 A.D.) point to the same authorities." [See Benjamin Wisner Bacon, Introduction to the New Testament (London: The Macmillan Company, 1900), 45.]

"i. the coming of Gabriel to Mary

ii. that John the Baptist's mother was Elisabeth

iii. the census under Cyrenius

iv. that Jesus was thirty years old when He began His ministry

v. that on His trial He was sent from Pilate to Herod

vi. special passages are quoted from the commission given to the seventy disciples

vii. references occur about the Lord's Supper, and the agony in the Garden, and to the Resurrection and Ascension, in a form found only in Luke." 30]

30] A. Lukyn Williams and Benjamin C. Caffin, John , in The Pulpit Commentary, eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction: External Evidences of the Early Existence of the Four Gospels 3."

g) Titian's edition of the Diatessaron (A.D 150 to 160) - The Diatessaron is an edition of the four Gospels compiles as a Harmony and written as one continuous narrative. It was compiled by Titian, a pupil of Justin Martyr, about A.D 150-60. At an early date, it began to circulate widely in the Syriac-speaking churches and became the standard text of the Gospels down to the fifth century, before it was finally replaced by four separate Gospels.

"But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the Gospels, I know not how, to which he gave the title Diatessaron, and which is still in the hands of some." (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 4296)

h) The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (2nd century) - The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (ANF 8), generally believed to be an early Church writing of the second century, contains many New Testament thoughts and expressions as well as quotes. It makes several possible allusions to the Gospel of Luke.

"And Beliar shall be bound by Him, and He shall give power to His children to tread upon the evil spirits." (The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: III The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance 18)

Luke 10:18-19, "And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you."

"The good mind hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of insult and of honour, of sorrow and of joy, of quietness and of trouble, of hypocrisy and of truth, of poverty and of wealth; but it hath one disposition, pure and un-corrupt, concerning all men. It hath no double sight, nor double hearing." (The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: XII The Testament of Benjamin Concerning a Pure Mind 6)

Luke 11:34, "The light of the body is the eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when thine eye is evil, thy body also is full of darkness."

i) Hegesippus (2nd century) - Eusebius records for us some of the fragmentary writings of Hegesippus, a contemporary of Justin Martyr. In these writings William Sandy suggests that two statements made by him allude to the Gospel of Luke. 31]

31] William Sanday, The Gospels in the Second Century: An Examination of the Critical Part of a Work Entitled ‘Supernatural Religion' (London: Macmillan and Co, 1876), 142-143.

Eusebius cites Hegesippus, using the same Greek phrase found in Luke 20:21, " καὶ οὐ λαμβάνεις πρόσωπον," 32] which can be translated, "and not do you accept any person," Hegesippus says, "For we bear thee witness, as do all the people, that thou art just, and dost not respect persons." (Ecclesiastical History 22310) (See PG 20, Colossians 200A for the Greek text) While Matthew 22:16 and Mark 12:14 use the word βλέπω, Luke 20:21 and Hegesippus use the word λαμβάνω.

32] Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds, The Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology) (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993, 2006), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), Luke 20:21.

Luke 20:21, "And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly:"

Eusebius cites Hegesippus, using the same Greek phrase found in Luke 23:34, " πάτερ, ἄφες αὐτοῖς, οὐ γὰρ οἴδασιν τί ποιοῦσιν." 33] Hegesippus says, "So they went up and threw down the just Prayer of Manasseh , and said to each other, ‘Let us stone James the Just.' And they began to stone him, for he was not killed by the fall; but he turned and knelt down and said, ‘I entreat thee, Lord God our Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.'" (Ecclesiastical History 22316) (See PG 20, Colossians 201A for the Greek text)

33] Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds, The Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology) (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993, 2006), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), Luke 23:34.

Luke 23:34, "Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots."

j) Treatise On the Resurrection (late 2nd Century) - In a fragment of a second century Gnostic writing called Treatise On the Resurrection, there is a reference made to one of the Gospels where it records the appearance of Elijah and Moses ( Matthew 17:3, Mark 9:4, Luke 9:30). It reads, "For if you remember reading in the Gospel that Elijah appeared and Moses with him, do not think the resurrection is an illusion." 34] This writing also discusses the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and His appearance to His disciples prior to His Ascension, which reflects the Gospels. 35]

34] "The Treatise on the Resurrection," trans. Malcom L. Peel, in The Nag Hammadi Library, in The Gnostic Society Library [on-line]; accessed 29 March 2010; available from http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/res.html; Internet.

35] "The Treatise on the Resurrection," trans. Malcolm L. Peel, in The Nag Hammadi Library in English, revised edition, ed. James M. Robinson (Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, c 1977, 1996), 52-57.

The Gnostic literature in the New Testament Apocrypha, written largely during the second century after Christ, and the refutations of heresies by the early Church fathers, reveal to us that the Christian Gnostic heretics largely supported the canonicity of the New Testament and their apostolic authority in an attempt to identify themselves with Christianity. 36] For example, the heretic Marcion (d.c 160) compiled his own version of the New Testament canon, which Tertullian refutes in his work Against Marcion. Philip Schaff says, "The Gnostics of the second century, especially the Valentinians and Basilidians, made abundant use of the fourth Gospel, which alternately offended them by its historical realism, and attracted them by its idealism and mysticism. Heracleon, a pupil of Valentinus, wrote a commentary on it, of which Origen has preserved large extracts; Valentinus himself (according to Tertullian) tried to explain it away, or he put his own meaning into it. 37] Basilides, who flourished about A.D 125, quoted from the Gospel of John such passages as the ‘true light, which enlighteneth every man was coming into the world' ( John 1:9), and, ‘my hour is not yet come.'( Luke 2:4)….Celsius, in his book against Christianity, written about A.D 178, he refers to several details which are peculiar to John , as, among others, the blood which flowed from the body of Jesus at his crucifixion ( John 19:34), and the fact that Christ ‘after his death arose and showed the marks of his punishment, and how his hands had been pierced' ( Luke 20:25; Luke 20:27)." 38] Philip Schaff tells us that a disciple of Valentinus named Heracleon (A.D 145 to 180), a Gnostic heretic, went so far as to write a commentary on the Gospels of Luke and John. 39] Others wrote Gnostic Gospels and Acts.

36] Philip Schaff writes, "The Old Testament they [the Gnostics] generally rejected, either entirely, as in the case of the Marcionites and the Manichseans, or at least in great part; and in the New Testament they preferred certain books or portions, such as the Gospel of John , with its profound spiritual intuitions, and either rejected the other books, or wrested them to suit their ideas." Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 2 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1922), 451-452.

37] See Tertullian's work On the Flesh of Christ 15.

38] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 707.

39] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 707; "Herecleon," in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, revised, eds. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 637.

The fact that the early Church fathers quoted from the Gospel of Luke along with other Holy Scriptures bears witness to the truth that they believed that this Gospel was authentic.

2. Early Versions- In addition, the earliest translations of the New Testament included the four Gospels and the book of Acts; Tatian's Diatessaron (c 170) (a harmony of the four Gospels) (ANF 9), the Old Latin (2nd to 4th c), the Coptic (3rd to 4th c), the Old Syriac and Peshitta (4th c), the Armenian (5th c), the Georgian (5th c), and the Ethiopic (6th c). 40] Luke's Gospel would not have been translated with the other New Testament writings unless it was considered a part of the orthodox beliefs of the Church at large.

40] The Old Latin Bible manuscripts of the fifth century, Codex Bezae (Gospels, Acts , Catholic epistles), Codex Claromontanus (Pauline epistles), and Codex Floriacensis ( Acts , Catholic epistles, Revelation) were used prior to Jerome's Vulgate (beginning A. D 382), and these Old Latin manuscripts testify to the canonization of the twenty-seven books of the New Testament at an early date. See Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds, The Greek New Testament, Third Edition (United Bible Societies, c 1966, 1968, 1975), xxxi-xxxiv.

C. Catholicity- The third and final phase of New Testament canonicity placed emphasis upon the aspect of catholicity, or the general acceptance of the canonical books. F. B. Westcott says, "The extent of the Canon, like the order of the Sacraments, was settled by common usage, and thus the testimony of Christians becomes the testimony of the Church." 41] This phase is best represented in the period of Church councils of the fourth century as bishops met and agreed upon a list of canonical books generally accepted by the catholic Church. However, approved canons were listed by individual Church fathers as early as the second century. These books exhibited a dynamic impact upon the individual believers through their characteristic of divine inspiration, transforming them into Christian maturity, being used frequently by the church at large. We will look at two testimonies of catholicity: (1) the Early Church Canons, and (2) Early Church Councils.

41] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 12.

1. Early Church Canons- Every major canon of the early Church lists four Gospels as an authentic writings. Although the Muratorian Canon does not begin its damaged text until the Gospel of Luke , Matthew and Mark can be assumed to be a part of this early canon (A.D 180) (Fragments of Caius 3: Canon Muratorianus 2) (ANF 5). Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) includes them in his list of "acknowledged books." 42] The four Gospels are listed in the Cheltenham List (A.D 359). 43] Athanasius gives us a canonical list that includes them (c 367). 44] Cyril of Jerusalem (A.D 315-386) includes them in his list. 45] The Apostolic Constitutions includes all but the book of Revelation (late 4th c.). 46] Inclusion into these canons indicates that the Gospels were universally accepted by the Church at large.

42] See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 331-7; 324-25.

43] W. Sanday, The Cheltenham List of the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament and the Writings of Cyprian, in Studia Biblica ed Ecclesiastica: Essays Chiefly in Biblical and Patristic Criticism, vol 3 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1891) 217-303.

44] See Athansius, Festal Letters 395 (Easter, 367) (NPF 2 4).

45] See Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures 436 (NPF 2 7).

46] See The Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles 4785 (ANF 7).

2. Early Church Councils- The earliest major Church councils named the four Gospels and Acts as authentic writings; Nicea (c 325-40), Hippo (393), Carthage (397), and Carthage (419). This would not have been done unless the Church at large believed them to be canonical.

During the fourth century, the Roman emperor Constantine was converted to Christianity and ordered Eusebius to produce fifty copies of the Scriptures. 47] The production and distribution of these Bibles, along with the Church synods that followed, served to confirm the twenty-seven books of the New Testament as canonical and authoritative. The early Church traditions of authorship and authenticity became firmly embedded within their canonicity. Therefore, citations of the New Testament Scriptures and later manuscript evidence after this period of Church history only serve to repeat traditions that had already become well-known and established among the churches of the fourth century.

47] Brooke Foss Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, fourth edition (London: Macmillan and Co, 1875), 422-426.

We see an unbroken tradition from the early Church fathers in support of Lukan authorship. This widespread support comes from the many geographical regions of the known Christian world in ancient times. For a modern scholar to reject Lucan authorship means that he has to reject all of the testimonies listed above. Such a person would have to lean upon speculations that have no ancient support. This is why Lucan authorship is the most widespread view today.

D. Luke's Biography- Luke , the beloved physician and companion of Paul, penned more of the New Testament than did any other writer. He is perhaps the only Gentile chosen by God to write a book in the Holy Bible, with the understanding that the other sixty-four books were authored by Jews. He wrote the best Greek of any New Testament writer and he is considered the first church historian, because of the manner in which he organized his writings of Luke -Acts.

Luke's biography discusses (1) Luke's Identity in the New Testament, (2) Luke's Identity in Extra-biblical Literature, (3) Luke as Paul's Companion, (4) Luke's Later Years, and (5) Luke's Death.

1. Luke's Identity in the New Testament- The name Luke (or Lucas) is mentioned only three times in the New Testament. His Gentile name is spelled the same in all three passages, although the KJV translates it as "Lucas" in one of those passages. It is possible that his name is a contraction of "Lucilius" or "Lucanus." In fact, the name "Lucanus" has been found among ancient inscriptions. These abbreviations in names were not uncommon, as we can see in other names, such as Annas from Ananus, Apollos from Apollonius, Artemas from Artemidorus, Demas from Demetrius, etc.

From the Holy Scriptures we learn that Luke was a physician, who was much loved by Paul.

Colossians 4:14, " Luke , the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you."

We also know from Scriptures that he traveled with Paul on his missionary journeys as a fellowlabourer with others.

2 Timothy 4:11, "Only Luke is with me. Take Mark , and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry."

Philemon 1:24, "Marcus, Aristarchus, Demas, Lucas, my fellowlabourers."

The context of Colossians 4:10-11 indicates that Luke was a Gentile, since Paul lists here all of his Jewish friends "of the circumcision" in verses 10-11before making a reference to his Gentile friends in verses 12-17, of which Luke is mentioned in verse 14with other Gentiles.

Colossians 4:10-11, "Aristarchus my fellowprisoner saluteth you, and Marcus, sister"s son to Barnabas, (touching whom ye received commandments: if he come unto you, receive him;) And Jesus, which is called Justus, who are of the circumcision. These only are my fellowworkers unto the kingdom of God, which have been a comfort unto me."

Scholars do not think that Lucius of Cyrene is the same as Luke the physician.

Acts 13:1, "Now there were in the church that was at Antioch certain prophets and teachers; as Barnabas, and Simeon that was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene, and Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul."

Some scholars identify Luke the physician with Lucius in Romans 16:21.

Romans 16:21, "Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you."

This is all of the evidence within the Scriptures concerning Luke the physician.

2. Luke's Identity in Extra-biblical Literature- The early Church fathers provide additional information regarding Luke's identity. Eusebius says he was born of parents who lived in Antioch and that he had been trained as a physician by profession.

"But Luke , who was of Antiochian parentage and a physician by profession, and who was especially intimate with Paul and well acquainted with the rest of the apostles, has left us, in two inspired books, proofs of that spiritual healing art which he learned from them." (Ecclesiastical History 347)

During the early Christian era, only free men or their sons were allowed to be trained as physicians. We know that many, if not the majority, of them were Asiatic Greeks. In fact, the most prestigious medical school of this era was found in Tarsus, the hometown of Paul the apostle. Jerome verifies this tradition that Luke was a physician and adds that he accompanied Paul on all of his missionary journeys.

" Luke , a physician of Antioch as his writings indicate, was not unskilled in the Greek language. An adherent of the apostle Paul, and companion of all his journeying," (Lives of Illustrious Men 7)

Isho'dad of Merv (c. A.D 850), the Syriac bishop of Hadatha, gives a lengthy tradition of Luke in the introduction to his commentary on the Gospel of Luke.

"Matthew and John were of the Twelve, but Mark and Luke of the Seventy." 48]

48] Margaret Dunlop Gibson, ed. and trans, The Commentaries of Isho'dad of Merv Bishop of Hadatha (c 850 A.D.) in Syriac and English, in Horae Semiticae, vol 5 (Cambridge: The University Press, 1911), 123.

"Luke was from Antioch; having been of old a disciple of Galenus; after he heard about our Lord; that it was said that a certain man had appeared in the land of Judaea who was working many cures and miracles without roots and drugs; he and his Master doubted whether this were not true, or if it were an imagination or a fancy; a fact, or if somewhat of the divine nature were in it. Therefore, in order to make sure of the report by means of experience, they directed their journey to Judaea; and his Master died in the way, and he came to our Lord, became His disciple, and was counted in the band of the Seventy Apostles; and after a long time of his wonderful struggles, he died in peace in the great city of the Thebais." 49]

49] Margaret Dunlop Gibson, ed. and trans, The Commentaries of Isho'dad of Merv Bishop of Hadatha (c 850 A.D.) in Syriac and English, in Horae Semiticae, vol 5 (Cambridge: The University Press, 1911), 146.

Phillip Schaff says the book of Acts places emphasis upon the city of Antioch as an indication of Luke's attachment to that city.

"He was probably a Syrian of Antioch, and one of the earliest converts in that mother church of Gentile Christianity. This conjecture is confirmed by the fact that he gives us much information about the church in Antioch ( Acts 11:19-30; Acts 13:1-3; Acts 15:1-3; Acts 15:22-35), that he traces the origin of the name "Christians" to that city ( Luke 11:19), and that in enumerating the seven deacons of Jerusalem he informs us of the Antiochian origin of Nicolas ( Acts 6:5), without mentioning the nationality of any of the others." 50]

50] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1955) 650-651.

The book of Acts , written by Luke , places emphasis upon the city of Antioch, mentioning it of it seventeen times ( Acts 6:5; Acts 11:19-27; Acts 13:1; Acts 13:14; Acts 14:19-26; Acts 15:22-35; Acts 18:22). Of the seven deacons chosen in Acts 6:5, we are given the city of origin of only the one deacon, who happened to be from Antioch, "from Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch." This suggests that the author was very interested in the role that the church at Antioch played in early Church history.

There is one tradition from early church history that Luke was a Jewish Christian, and one of the seventy disciples whom Jesus sent out in Luke 10:1. Matthew Henry tells us that this tradition was held by Origen and Epiphanius, thus warranting our consideration. 51] Spence-Jones and Lang tell us that Epiphanius (Heresies 5111) (PG 41col 908D) and Adamantius (Pseudo-Origen) held this belief. 52] Luke is listed among the seventy in the Chronicon Paschale (early 7th c.) (PG 92cols 543D-544D). Louis Berkhof says that Theophylact 53] and Euthymius also held this view. 54] Nicephorus Callistus mentions this in his biography concerning Luke. 55] However, this tradition contradicts the opening verses of Luke's Gospel, which excludes himself from being an eyewitness. Tertullian credits the conversion of Luke , not to Jesus Christ, but to Paul the apostle. 56] Yet, it is interesting to note that Luke is the only Evangelist to record the commissioning of the seventy ( Luke 10:1-24). In addition, Gregory the Great 57] and Theophylact 58] believed him to be the companion to Cleopas on the road to Emmaus after the Resurrection. It is interesting to note that Luke mentions Cleophas and omits the other individual in the story of the two on the road to Emmaus ( Luke 24:13-35). However these traditions would require Luke to be of Jewish origin. Thus, most scholars today do not support such views. One tradition from the Apostolic Constitutions (late 4th c.) associates Luke with the church in Alexandria. 59] Jerome says Luke was a native of Antioch and a disciple of Paul, having never seen Christ. 60]

51] Matthew Henry, An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Gospel According to St. Luke, in Matthew Henry"s Commentary on the Whole Bible, New Modern Edition, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 1991), in P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000), "Introduction."

52] H. D. M. Spence-Jones, and John Marshall Lang. Luke ,.in The Pulpit Commentary, ed. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction."

53] Theophylact writes in his prologue to the Gospel of Luke , "Luke the divine, he was indeed of Antioch, and a physician, and the one out of much wisdom. Not only, but also he was well trained with a Hebrew upbringing." (PG 123col 685) He also lists him among the seventy in his prologue to Matthew (PG 123col 145C).

54] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 49.

55] Nicephorus writes the following heading when introducing a brief biography of Mark and Luke , "Concerning the holy apostles and evangelists Mark and Luke who were of the seventy." (Ecclesiastical History 242) (PG 145 Colossians 876A) (author's translation)

56] Tertullian writes, " Luke , however, was not an apostle, but only an apostolic man; not a master, but a disciple, and so inferior to a master—at least as far subsequent to him as the apostle whom he followed (and that, no doubt, was Paul." (Against Marcion 42)

57] Gregory the Great writes, "…hence Luke says, that two of them were walking by the way, Cleophas and another; which other indeed, while he was so carefully silent about him, he shewed to have been no other than himself, as some assert." (Morals on the Book of Job, preface) See S. Gregory the Great, Morals on the Book of Job , vol 1pts 1 & 2, in A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, Anterior to the Division of the East and the West (Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1844), 15.

58] Theophylact writes in his comments on Luke 24:13-24, "Certain ones report the one of these two to be Luke." (PG 123, Colossians 1113)

59] The Constitutions of the Holy Apostles reads, "Of Alexandria, Annianus was the first, ordained by Mark the evangelist; the second Avilius by Luke , who was also an evangelist." (Constitutions of the Holy Apostles 746)

60] Jerome writes, "The third is Luke , the physician, by birth a native of Antioch, in Syria, whose praise is in the Gospel. He was himself a disciple of the Apostle Paul, and composed his book in Achaia and Boeotia. He thoroughly investigates certain particulars and, as he himself confesses in the preface, describes what he had heard rather than what he had seen." (Preface to Matthew) (NPF 2 6)

In light of the testimony of the early Church fathers it is very possible that Luke was converted in the church at Antioch, and where he first met Paul. In addition, the skill in which Luke wrote his work using pure Greek suggests that he was of Greek origin. Yet, his familiarity with Jewish customs and his use of Hebrew phraseology in his writings reveals his closeness to the Jewish religion. Therefore, many scholars suggest that Luke was a Jewish proselyte before becoming a Christian.

3. Luke as Paul's Companion- From the book of Acts , it appears that Luke began to accompany Paul on his second missionary journey as he passed through Syria and Cilicia ( Acts 16:10-17). The "we" passages do not pick up again until Paul's third missionary journey, when they sail away from Philippi ( Acts 20:5-15). This leads to some speculation that Paul left Luke in Philippi during the second missionary journey. Luke accompanied Paul to Jerusalem ( Acts 21:1-18) and on his voyage to Rome ( Acts 27:1 to Acts 28:16). Therefore, it is possible that Luke stayed with Paul during his imprisonment at Caesarea while awaiting his trip to Rome. We know from Scripture that Luke was with Paul during his first imprisonment at Rome ( Colossians 4:14, Philemon 1:24) and he was the only companion that was with Paul during final days before his death ( 2 Timothy 4:11), thus showing how close Luke was to Paul. It was Luke's close companionship to Paul that qualified him to be an author of the Gospel of Luke. It was Paul's approval of Luke and of his writings that gave the stamp of apostolic authority to this two-volume work.

4. Luke's Later Years- The later years of Luke's life are unclear. Epiphanius (A.D 315-403) tells us that Luke preached first in Gaul, and later in Dalmatia, Gaul, Italy and Macedonia. 61] Alfred Plummer says Oecumenius (6th c.) tells us that "Luke went from Rome to preach in Africa (PG 118-119)." 62] Plummer also says comments from Simeon Metaphrastes (fl. A.D 960) 63] and Nicephorus Callistus (A.D 1256-1335) 64] gave rise to a tradition that Luke was a painter who painted portraits of the Blessed Virgin, of the apostles, and of Jesus Christ, 65] with the strongest witness coming from Theodorus Lector (6th-8th c.), who claims Luke painted a picture of a particular individual, a painting that is with us today, which can be traced back to A.D 847. 66]

61] Epaphanius, speaking regarding the textual problem of 2Timothy , tells us that Luke "preached in Dalmatia, Gaul, Italy and Macedonia first, but originally in Gaul, as Paul says of certain of his followers in his epistles, ‘Crescens is in Gaul'. It does not say, ‘in Galatia", as some wrongly believe, but ‘in Gaul'." (The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Heresy 51116) (PG 41col 910A) See Carrol D. Osburn, The Text of the Apostolos in Epiphanius of Salamis (Koninklijke Brill, Netherlands: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004), 232See S. Epiphanii Episcopi Constantiensis Panaria Eorumque Anacephalaeosis, tomi prioris, pars posterior, ed. Franciscus Oehler, in Corporis Haereseogolici, tomus secundus (Berolini:Apud A. Asher et Socios, 1860), 66.

62] Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), xxi.

63] The Menology of Emperor Basil (PG 114-116).

64] Ecclesiastical History 243 (PG 145).

65] Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), xxi-xxii.

66] PG 86a Colossians 165A.

5. Luke's Death- Gregory Nazianzen (A.D 329-389) calls Luke a martyr. 67] Nicephorus states that Luke was martyred while working in Greece, being hung upon an olive tree. 68] The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke states that Luke was from Antioch in Syria, that he never married, and that he died at the age of eighty-four years.

67] Gregory Nazianzen writes, "Hadst thou no respect for the victims slain for Christ"s sake? Didst thou not fear those mighty champions, that John , that Peter, Paul, James , Stephen, Luke , Andrew, and Thecla?" (Oration Against Julian 169) (PG 35 Colossians 789B-C), trans. C. W. King [on-line]; accessed 10 July 2010; available from http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Orations_of_Gregory_of_Nazianzus/First_invective_against_Julian_the_Emperor; Internet.

68] Ecclesiastical History (PG 145 Colossians 876). H. D. M. Spence-Jones and John Marshall Lang, Luke , in The Pulpit Commentary, eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001), "Introduction: Conclusion."

"Indeed Luke was an Antiochene Syrian, a doctor by profession, a disciple of the apostles: later however he followed Paul until his martyrdom, serving the Lord blamelessly.He never had a wife, he never fathered children, and died at the age of eighty-four, full of the Holy Spirit, in Boetia." 69]

69] The Anti-Marcionite Prologues to the Gospels, trans. Roger Pearse (2006) [on-line]; accessed 16 April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/anti_marcionite_prologues.htm; Internet. The translation was made from the text published by Donatien De Bruyne, "Les plus anciens prologues latines des vangiles," Revue Bndictine, vol 40, (October 1928), 193-214. See also R. G. Heard, "The Old Gospel Prologues," Journal of Theological Studies n.s 6 (1955), 1-16. See also Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, c 1990).

Everett Harrison tells us that the Monarchian Prologue to Luke (c. A.D 200) gives a description of Luke that is similar to the Anti-Marcionite Prologue (c. A.D 175), except it states that Luke died at the age of seventy-four in Bythinia. 70] The "Prefatio vel Argumentum Luc," an ancient document dating back to Julius Africanus (A.D 160-240), states that he was "unmarried, that he wrote the Gospel, in Achaia, and that he died at the age of seventy-four in Bithynia (probably a copyist"s error for Boeotia), filled with the Holy Ghost." 71] Jerome (A.D 342-420) says his bones were later transferred to Constantinople by the Emperor Constantius I.

70] The Monarchian Prologue to Luke reads, "Luke from Syria, by birth Antiochian, by profession a physician, a disciple of the apostles, later was a follower of Paul until Paul's martyrdom, serving God without fault. Then, not having ever had a wife or children, at age 74 [according to another variant, 84], he died in Boeotia full of the Holy Spirit. As the Gospels of Matthew , in Judea, and Mark , in Italy, had already been written, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit he wrote this gospel in the area of Achaia, he too revealing at the beginning that the others had already been written earlier...." Andrea Tornielli, "The Beloved Luke" [on-line]; accessed 10 July 2010; available from http://www.traces-cl.com/archive/2000/novembre/luca.htm; Internet.

71] Cited on various websites. "Lives of the Saints," [on-line]; accessed 10 July 2010; available from http://www.catholic-saints.net/saints/st-luke.php; Internet.

"Are we, therefore guilty of sacrilege when we enter the basilicas of the Apostles? Was the Emperor Constantius I. guilty of sacrilege when he transferred the sacred relics of Andrew, Luke , and Timothy to Constantinople?"(Against Vigilantius 7) (NPF 2 6)

The Roman Martyrdom reads, "The birthday of blessed Luke , evangelist, who, after having suffered much for the name of Christ, died in Bithynia, filled with the Holy Ghost. His relics were taken to Constantinople, and thence conveyed to Padua." (18 October) 72]

72] The Roman Martyrology: Published by Order of Gregory XIII (Baltimore, MD: John Murphy Company, 1916), 321.

Sophronius (A.D 560 to 638), patriarch of Jerusalem, says, "Luke's relics were taken up and carried to Constantinople, together with the relics of the Apostle Andrew, in the twentieth year of the reign of Constantius." (The Life of the Evangelist Luke) (PG 123col 675) 73]

73] Sophronius, The Life of the Evangelist Luke , in Orthodox Classics in English (House Springs, MO: The Chrysostom Press) [on-line]. Accessed 1December 2010. Available from http://www.chrysostompress.org/the-four-evangelists; Internet.

In summary, Philip Schaff says that although they are often unreliable, ancient Church traditions says that "he lived to the age of eighty-four, labored in several countries, was a painter of portraits of Jesus, of the Virgin, and the apostles, and that he was crucified on an olive-tree at Elaea in Greece. His real or supposed remains, together with those of Andrew the apostle, were transferred from Patrae in Achaia to the Church of the Apostles in Constantinople." 74]

74] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1955), 652.

III. Date and Place of Writing

The date and place of writing of the Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts is uncertain according to many scholars. There are two major traditions proposed by the early Church. Some ancient witnesses adhere to the belief that Luke wrote his books in Rome while Paul was in his first Roman imprisonment. Other witnesses say that he wrote years later while residing in the regions of Achaea. I support the first view because it has stronger internal evidence, such as the facts that the book of Acts ends with Paul's two-year imprisonment and Luke -Acts makes no reference to the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D 70. However, external evidence is divided and difficult to use in making a judgment. Thus, I place the writings in Rome during the early 60's.

A. Date - There is both internal and external evidence to support the view that Luke wrote his books while Paul was imprisoned in Rome. He may have relied upon previously written notes and memoranda and speeches in order to compile these books. Luke could not have written them earlier because Luke -Acts represents a continuous flow of events up until Paul's imprisonment. This view is strongly supported by the fact that Acts ends with Paul's two-year imprisonment. Therefore, a conclusion may be drawn that states it could not have been written later, since tradition tells us that Paul was released from this first imprisonment and Luke would have recorded this important event. This would give us a date of writing in the early 60's.

1. Internal Evidence- Internal evidence supports a date of writing in the early 60's.

a) Acts Ends With Paul's First Roman Imprisonment- We know that the book of Acts had to have been written after Paul's first Roman imprisonment, for this book ends with Paul's two-year imprisonment in Rome. The fact that Acts has such an abrupt ending after spending about eight chapters on this event suggests that the author recorded this event during or shortly after Paul's imprisonment. This means that Luke could not have written before the mid-60's. The fact that no mention is made of Paul's trial before Nero, his acquittal, his possible trip into Spain, his second imprisonment and ultimate martyrdom suggests that these events have not yet taken place. The fact that Luke was with Paul years later during his second imprisonment ( 2 Timothy 4:11) suggests that Luke had completed his two written works because he had no need to include into the book of Acts these later events.

2 Timothy 4:11, "Only Luke is with me. Take Mark , and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry."

b) The Status of the Jews With Rome - The book of Acts clearly shows that the Jews held a positive status with the Roman government at the time of its writing. This would not have been the case hade Luke -Acts been written after the Jew's treacherous treatment by Emperor Nero in the mid-60's and by Titus in A.D 70 when he destroyed the city of Jerusalem. The Jewish leaders both in Jerusalem and during Paul's missionary journeys wrongly accused the Christians before the Roman rulers. If Luke wrote the book of Acts after A.D 70, he would not have had the need to defend the Christian faith against Jewish accusations as is clearly seen in his stories. Luke bases his arguments upon the facts that the Jews were a legal religion in Rome at the time and that they had a strong voice under Roman rule.

c) Geography - Luke's accuracy in describing the locations of cities and territories and in political events suggests that Acts was written during the period of history when Paul the apostle and the other apostles traveled throughout the Rome and Asia Minor and not at a much later date when the geography and politics were different.

d) No Reference to Pauline Letters - Somewhere in the latter half of the first century, Paul's thirteen epistles were collected and began to circulate among the churches. Luke makes no reference to these epistles or their significance, neither to the early church nor to the unique biographical stores of Paul found in these epistles. Luke apparently did not use these epistles as his source for Acts. This indicates that Luke wrote before these epistles gained wide circulation and importance to the early Church.

e) No Reference to the Destruction of Jerusalem - If Luke -Acts would have been written after the terrible destruction of Jerusalem in A.D 70, it is almost certain that the author of history would have made some reference to this important event and those events of the Roman war with the Jews (A.D 66 to 70). This leads to the conclusion of a date for the early 60's.

2. External Evidence - Most witnesses from early Church history tells us that the four Gospels were written in the order of Matthew ,, Mark , Luke then John. This is the order that we find them placed in the New Testament.

a) The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke (A.D 160 to 180) - The Anti-Marcionite Prologue to Luke tells us that Luke wrote his Gospel after Matthew and Mark:

"Indeed Luke was an Antiochene Syrian, a doctor by profession, a disciple of the apostles: later however he followed Paul until his martyrdom, serving the Lord blamelessly.He never had a wife, he never fathered children, and died at the age of eighty-four, full of the Holy Spirit, in Boetia.Therefore--- although gospels had already been written---- indeed by Matthew in Judaea but by Mark in Italy---- moved by the Holy Spirit he wrote down this gospel in the parts of Achaia, signifying in the preface that the others were written before his, but also that it was of the greatest importance for him to expound with the greatest diligence the whole series of events in his narration for the Greek believers, so that they would not be led astray by the lure of Jewish fables, or, seduced by the fables of the heretics and stupid solicitations, fall away from the truth.And so at once at the start he took up the extremely necessary [story] from the birth of John , who is the beginning of the gospel, the forerunner of our Lord Jesus Christ, and was a companion in the perfecting of the people, likewise in the introducing of baptism and a companion in martyrdom.Of this disposition the prophet Malachi , one of the twelve, certainly makes mention.And indeed afterwards the same Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles.Later the apostle John wrote the Apocalypse on the island of Patmos, and then the Gospel in Asia." 75]

75] The Anti-Marcionite Prologues to the Gospels, trans. Roger Pearse (2006) [on-line]; accessed 16 April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/anti_marcionite_prologues.htm; Internet. The translation was made from the text published by Donatien De Bruyne, "Les plus anciens prologues latines des vangiles," Revue Bndictine, vol 40, (October 1928), 193-214. See also R. G. Heard, "The Old Gospel Prologues," Journal of Theological Studies n.s 6 (1955), 1-16. See also Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, c 1990).

b) Irenaeus (A.D 130 to 200) - Eusebius, quoting Irenaeus, gives to us the order in his history in which Luke wrote his Gospel. He says that the Gospels were written in the order of Matthew ,, Mark , Luke and John.

"Since, in the beginning of this work, we promised to give, when needful, the words of the ancient presbyters and writers of the Church, in which they have declared those traditions which came down to them concerning the canonical books, and since Irenaeus was one of them, we will now give his words and, first, what he says of the sacred Gospels: ‘Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome. After their departure Mark , the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also transmitted to us in writing those things which Peter had preached; and Luke , the attendant of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. Afterwards John , the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on his bosom, published his Gospel, while staying at Ephesus in Asia.' He states these things in the third book of his above-mentioned work." (Ecclesiastical History 581-5)

c) Clement of Alexandria (A.D 150 to 215) - Later in his work, Eusebius tells us that Clement of Alexandria gives a slightly different order of the writing of the Gospels than that of Irenaeus. Clement gives the order as Matthew and Luke , then Mark and John.

"Again, in the same books, Clement gives the tradition of the earliest presbyters, as to the order of the Gospels, in the following manner: The Gospels containing the genealogies, he says, were written first. The Gospel according to Mark"s had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark , who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it. When Peter learned of this, he neither directly forbade nor encouraged it. But, last of all, John , perceiving that the external facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel. This is the account of Clement." (Ecclesiastical History 6145-7)

d) Origen (A.D 185 to 254) - Eusebius then quotes Origen, who gives us the same order of the writing of the four Gospels as Irenaeus gives us. They are given by him as Matthew ,, Mark , Luke and John.

"In his [Origen] first book on Matthew"s Gospel, maintaining the Canon of the Church, he testifies that he knows only four Gospels, writing as follows: ‘Among the four Gospels, which are the only indisputable ones in the Church of God under heaven, I have learned by tradition that the first was written by Matthew , who was once a publican, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, and it was prepared for the converts from Judaism, and published in the Hebrew language. The second is by Mark , who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, who in his Catholic epistle acknowledges him as a Song of Solomon , saying, "The church that is at Babylon elected together with you, saluteth you, and so doth Marcus, my son." And the third by Luke , the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts. Last of all that by John.'" (Ecclesiastical History 6253-6)

e) The Muratorian Canon (c. A.D 200) - The Muratorian Canon, an ancient Latin document dated around A.D 200, tells us that Luke omitted the deaths of Peter and Paul since they occurred in his absence. This implies that Luke could have written years after their deaths, which are dated in the mid-60's.

"Moreover, the Acts of all the Apostles are comprised by Luke in one book, and addressed to the most excellent Theophilus, because these different events took place when he was present himself; and he shows this clearly—i.e, that the principle on which he wrote was, to give only what fell under his own notice—by the omission of the passion of Peter, and also of the journey of Paul, when he went from the city—Rome—to Spain." (The Fragments of Caius 32) (ANF 5)

f) Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) - Eusebius tells us that Luke probably wrote the book of Acts while Paul was in his second imprisonment in Rome, just before his death.

"And Luke , who wrote the Acts of the Apostles, brought his history to a close at this point, after stating that Paul spent two whole years at Rome as a prisoner at large, and preached the word of God without restraint. Thus after he had made his defense it is said that the apostle was sent again upon the ministry of preaching, and that upon coming to the same city a second time he suffered martyrdom. In this imprisonment he wrote his second epistle to Timothy, in which he mentions his first defense and his impending death...In his second epistle to Timothy, moreover, he indicates that Luke was with him when he wrote, but at his first defense not even he. Whence it is probable that Luke wrote the Acts of the Apostles at that time, continuing his history down to the period when he was with Paul." (Ecclesiastical History 2221-2, 6)

According to Eusebius, Luke was with Paul during this second imprisonment, which the Scriptures confirm. Paul's second epistle to Timothy is considered his last epistle and was probably written during this second imprisonment. In it, Paul notes that Luke is with him ( 2 Timothy 4:11).

2 Timothy 4:11, "Only Luke is with me. Take Mark , and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry."

Eusebius tells us that early tradition puts the order of writing as Matthew ,, Mark , Luke and John (Ecclesiastical History 581-4, 6146-7, 6254-6). If Luke in fact wrote the book of Acts after Paul's first imprisonment of Paul, which took place around A.D 61-63, then Matthew and Mark would have to have been written prior to this date.

g) Jerome (A.D 342to 420) - Jerome says Luke wrote Luke -Acts during the fourth year of Nero (A.D 58). He gives us the place of writing as the city of Rome.

"He also wrote another excellent volume to which he prefixed the title Acts of the Apostles, a history which extends to the second year of Paul"s sojourn at Rome, that is to the fourth year of Nero, from which we learn that the book was composed in that same city." (Lives of Illustrious Men 7)

h) Sophronius (A.D 560 to 638) - Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, follows the tradition of Jerome in placing Luke in Rome during the fourth year of Nero (A.D 58) when writing his Gospel and Acts.

"Luke wrote the Gospel to which Paul himself refers when he says, And we have sent with him the brother, whose praise is in the Gospel throughout all the churches ( 2 Corinthians 8:18). And in his letter to the Colossians he says, Luke , the beloved physician, greets you ( Colossians 4:14). And to Timothy he says, Only Luke is with me ( 2 Timothy 4:11). Luke wrote another excellent book entitled The Acts of the Apostles, a history which ends with Paul's two-year stay in Rome, that Isaiah , in the fourth year of Nero's reign. This leads us to believe that The Acts of the Apostles was written in Rome." (The Life of the Evangelist Luke) (PG 123col 675) 76]

76] Sophronius, The Life of the Evangelist Luke , in Orthodox Classics in English (House Springs, MO: The Chrysostom Press) [on-line]. Accessed 1December 2010. Available from http://www.chrysostompress.org/the-four-evangelists; Internet.

i) Eutychius (A. D 877-940) - Louis Berkhof cites Eutychius, the patriarch of Alexandria, who states that Luke wrote his Gospel in the time of Nero (Annals, PG 111cols 889-1232). 77]

77] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 51.

j) Theophylact (11th to 12th) - Louis Berkhof quotes Theophylact, archbishop of Ochrid and Bulgaria, who says, "Luke wrote fifteen years after Christ"s ascension" (Argument of the Gospel According to Luke) (PG 123col 685C). 78] Theophylact also says:

78] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 51.

"Hence, Matthew first of all wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew language to those who believed of the Hebrews eight years after the ascension of Christ, and this John translated it from the Hebrew tongue to the Greek, as they say; and Mark wrote ten years after the Ascension from the teachings of Peter; and Luke after fifteen years; and John the theologian after thirty-two [years]." (Preface to Matthew) (PG 123col 145C-D) (author's translation)

k) Euthymius Zigabenus (early 12th C.) - Euthymius Zigabenus writes, "And after fifteen years of the ascension of the Saviour, being instructed by Paul, he [Luke] composed the Gospel to a certain Theophilos…" (Interpretation of Luke the Evangelist) (PG 129 Colossians 857C) (author's translation).

l) St. Thomas Aquinas (A.D 1225 to 1274) - In the 1200's St. Thomas Aquinas, writing in his Catena Aurea on Matthew , quotes Remigius of Auzerre (c. A.D 841to c. A.D 908) (PL 131cols 47-970), a medieval philosopher, who also wrote a commentaries on Genesis ,, Psalm , and Matthew. 79] In this quote, we see the thoughts of later centuries as to the dates and places of writings of the four Gospels:

79] F. L. Cross, and E. A. Livingstone, eds, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, revised (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 1173.

"Matthew wrote in Judaea in the time of the Emperor Caius Caligula [A.D 37-41]; Mark in Italy, at Rome, in the time of Nero [A.D 54-68] or Claudius [A.D 41-54], according to Rabanus (referring to Rabanus Maurus [A.D 776 or 784to A.D 856]); Luke in the parts of Achaia and Baeotia, at the request of Theophilus; John at Ephesus, in Asia Minor, under Nerva [began rule A.D 96]." 80]

80] Thomas Aquinas, Catena Aurea: Commentary on the Four Gospels, Collected out of the Works of the Fathers, vol 1, part 1, second edition (Oxford: John Henry, 1864), 5.

John Gill tells us that "the time of the writing of it [Luke] is not certain; some say it was written in the fifteenth year after the ascension of our Lord; others in the twenty second; and others in the twenty seventh." 81] From these witnesses, Louis Berkhof dates Luke as early as A.D 54and no later than A. D 68. 82]

81] John Gill, Luke , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), "Introduction."

82] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 51.

In these quotes, we see that many of the early Church fathers accepted the traditional order of the writing of the four Gospels as Matthew ,, Mark , Luke and John , which is the same the order found in the New Testament. With the rise of higher criticism in Europe in the 1700's, this order of writing and their respective dates began to be challenged.

My conclusion is that Luke most likely wrote Luke -Acts during Paul's first two-year Roman imprisonment (A.D 61-63), since Acts ends with a reference to this event. Some of the early Church fathers seem to support this view when they add that Luke wrote his Gospel after Mark , who wrote before the death of Peter (A.D 64-65). Also, Luke must have written before Nero's persecution of the Christians (A.D 64) and before the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D 70), since Jesus predicts this event in Luke 21:20-24. The book of Acts makes no reference to either event. If the book of Acts was prepared as a defense for Paul's trial, it would certainly have been prepared before A.D 64, when Nero began an intensive persecution against all Christians because of the fire in Rome in that year. Luke wrote before the death of Paul (A.D 64-65), since he ends the book with Paul in prison. Therefore, Luke most likely wrote Luke -Acts in the early 60's.

In summary, most conservative scholars will date Luke -Acts between A.D 58 to 63, since this is supported by the early Church fathers, such as Eusebius and Jerome. These proposed dates precede the fall of Jerusalem in A.D 70 and allow Acts to be written shortly after Paul's first Roman imprisonment.

B. Place of Writing - Some of the early Church fathers offer testimony that Luke wrote his Gospel in Achaia, while others mention Alexandria. For example, the Anti-Marcionite Prologue (early 2nd c. or later) for Luke says Luke wrote his Gospel in the regions of Achaea:

"Indeed Luke was an Antiochene Syrian, a doctor by profession, a disciple of the apostles: later however he followed Paul until his martyrdom, serving the Lord blamelessly.He never had a wife, he never fathered children, and died at the age of eighty-four, full of the Holy Spirit, in Boetia.Therefore--- although gospels had already been written---- indeed by Matthew in Judaea but by Mark in Italy---- moved by the Holy Spirit he wrote down this gospel in the parts of Achaia, signifying in the preface that the others were written before his." 83]

83] The Anti-Marcionite Prologues to the Gospels, trans. Roger Pearse (2006) [on-line]; accessed 16 April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/anti_marcionite_prologues.htm; Internet. The translation was made from the text published by Donatien De Bruyne, "Les plus anciens prologues latines des vangiles," Revue Bndictine, vol 40, (October 1928), 193-214. See also R. G. Heard, "The Old Gospel Prologues," Journal of Theological Studies n.s 6 (1955), 1-16. See also Helmut Koester, Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, c 1990).

Gregory Naziansen (A. D 329-389), the Church theologian, says after listing the books of the Old Testament canon, tells us Luke wrote his gospel in Achaia:

"And already for me, I have received all those of the New Testament. First, to the Hebrews Matthew the saint composed what was according to him the Gospel; second, in Italy Mark the divine; third, in Achaia Luke the all-wise; and John , thundering the heavenlies, indeed preached to all common men; after whom the miracles and deeds of the wise apostles, and Paul the divine herald fourteen epistles; and catholic seven, of which one is of James the brother of God, and two are of Peter the head, and of John again the evangelist, three, and seventh is Jude the Zealot. All are united and accepted; and if one of them is found outside, it is not placed among the genuine ones." (PG 38 Colossians 845) (author's translation) 84]

84] Cited by Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 582.

In his preface to the commentary on Matthew , Jerome mentions that Luke wrote in parts of Achaia and Boeotia, 85] which contradicts his statement in Lives of Illustrious Men that gives the place of writing in Rome. 86] John Gill explains that the titles prefixed to the Syriac and Persic versions say that Luke wrote his Gospel in Alexandria. He says the Syriac version reads, "The Gospel of Luke , the Evangelist, which he spake and published in Greek in Alexandria the great," and the Persic version reads, "The Gospel of Luke , which he wrote in the Greek tongue in Alexandria of Egypt." 87]

85] Jerome writes, "The third is Luke , the physician, by birth a native of Antioch, in Syria, whose praise is in the Gospel. He was himself a disciple of the Apostle Paul, and composed his book in Achaia and Boeotia. He thoroughly investigates certain particulars and, as he himself confesses in the preface, describes what he had heard rather than what he had seen." (Preface to Matthew) (NPF 2 6)

86] Jerome writes, " Luke , a physician of Antioch as his writings indicate, was not unskilled in the Greek language. An adherent of the apostle Paul, and companion of all his journeying, he wrote a Gospel, concerning which the same Paul says, "We send with him a brother whose praise in the gospel is among all the churches" and to the Colossians "Luke the beloved physician salutes you," and to Timothy "Luke only is with me." He also wrote another excellent volume to which he prefixed the title Acts of the Apostles, a history which extends to the second year of Paul"s sojourn at Rome, that is to the fourth year of Nero, from which we learn that the book was composed in that same city. (The Lives of Illustrious Men 7)

87] John Gill, Luke , in John Gill's Expositor, in e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), "Introduction."

As quoted above, an inscription found in a 6th or 7th century Coptic chapel on Mount Assuit in Egypt states that Luke wrote Luke and Acts while in Achaia. 88] St. Thomas Aquinas, writing in his Catena Aurea on Matthew , quotes Remigius of Auzerre (c. A.D 841to c 908) as saying that Luke wrote his Gospel while residing in the parts of Achaia and Baeotia, at the request of Theophilus. 89] Ebedjesu (d 1318), the Syrian bishop, reflects medieval tradition saying Luke wrote His Gospel in Alexandria. 90]

88] Geoffrey C. Bingham tells us that an inscription found in a 6th or 7th century Coptic chapel on Mount Assuit in Egypt reads, "As for Luke the physician, he was a disciple of the apostles until he followed Paul. He lived eighty-four years. He wrote his Gospel in Achaia. Then he wrote Acts." See Geoffrey C. Bingham, The Acts of the Apostles, in New Creation Publications Commentary Series (Adelaide, South Australia, c 1982) [on-line]; accessed 10 July 2010; available from http://www.newcreation.org.au/books/pdf/029_ActsApostles.pdf; Internet, "Introduction: Authorship (A) External Evidence."

89] Thomas Aquinas, Catena Aurea: Commentary on the Four Gospels, Collected out of the Works of the Fathers, vol 1, part 1, second edition (Oxford: John Henry, 1864), 5.

90] Ebedjesu writes, " Luke , in Alexandria, spoke and wrote in Greek." See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol 4 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 321; George Percy Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals, vol 2 (London: Joseph Masters, 1852), 362.

Goodspeed defends the city of Ephesus as the place of writing on the basis that the content of the book of Acts places more emphasis upon this city than any other New Testament book. 91] Some modern conservative suggest that Luke wrote his Gospel while waiting with Paul on his two-year imprisonment in Caesarea and the book of Acts during Paul's two-year imprisonment in Rome. This view is strengthened by the fact that Luke was with Paul during his arrest in Jerusalem until his arrival at Rome. Thus, it has been difficult for scholars to agree upon a place of writing. I favor the place of writing of Luke -Acts in Rome in the early 60's during Paul's two-year Roman imprisonment.

91] Edgar J. Goodspeed, An Introduction to the New Testament (Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1937), 208.

IV. Recipients

Internal evidence supports the view that Luke's primary recipient was an unknown individual named Theophilus with the intent of the Church at large being secondary recipients. External evidence supports the view that Luke wrote to the Church, primarily the Gentile believers.

A. Internal Evidence- Luke opens both of his books with a dedication to an individual named "Theophilus," which means "lover of God." Some scholars suggest by its meaning that this name is intended to refer to believers and not to an individual. However, most scholars think that this was a Greek or Roman individual whom Luke esteemed, or who financed or supported the writing of Luke -, Acts , or he may have been a prominent leader in the Church or a Roman leader in the region that Luke lived. One indication to his prominence is the fact that Luke addresses him as "most excellent," a word used only three other times in the New Testament to refer to Roman officials, the other uses found when Paul addresses Felix ( Acts 23:26; Acts 24:3) and Festus ( Acts 26:25). Daniel Wallace says that the prologue to both the Gospel and Acts emulates so much the ancient historians' prefaces that it is quite evident that he wanted the work published. 92] Most likely, and the majority of scholars agree, Luke intended his work for a larger audience of believers even though he initially dedicated this work to an individual named Theophilos. Note the following internal evidence that supports non-Jewish recipients of the Gospel of Luke:

92] Daniel B. Wallace, Luke: Introduction, Argument, and Outline (Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas) [on-line]; accessed 6 July 2010; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/ Luke -introduction-argument-and-outline; Internet, "D. Destination."

1. Explanations of Jewish Customs and Geography- Luke's description of Jewish geography, laws and customs appears to be addressed to someone who was not familiar with such details. He takes the time to explain these details.

Luke 1:9, "According to the custom of the priest"s office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord."

Luke 2:4, "And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)"

Luke 2:22-24, "And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord; (As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;) And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons."

Luke 2:27, "And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law,"

Luke 2:39, "And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth."

Luke 2:42, "And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast."

Luke 4:31, "And came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the sabbath days."

Luke 5:14, "And he charged him to tell no man: but go, and shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them."

Luke 8:26, "And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is over against Galilee."

Luke 21:37, "And in the day time he was teaching in the temple; and at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is called the mount of Olives."

Luke 23:51, "(The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God."

Luke 23:56, "And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment."

Luke 24:13, "And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs."

Acts 3:1, "Now Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour."

Acts 5:17, "Then the high priest rose up, and all they that were with him, (which is the sect of the Sadducees,) and were filled with indignation,"

Acts 5:34, "Then stood there up one in the council, a Pharisee, named Gamaliel, a doctor of the law, had in reputation among all the people, and commanded to put the apostles forth a little space;"

Luke's comments that Cornelius was of the Italian band suggesting that his reader(s) were Italian, or Romans.

Acts 10:1, "There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band,"

Note how Luke refers to the Jews in Acts 1:19 in the third person singular as being a distinct group from his Gentile readers.

Acts 1:19, "And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their proper tongue, Aceldama, that is to say, The field of blood."

2. Little Emphasis Upon Fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures- After Luke's first two chapters, he places very little emphasis upon the fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures, implying that a Gentile audience would not have found it of great interest since they lacked a knowledge of Jewish literature. Of the five direct references to the fulfillment of the Old Testament and three general references, only one prophetic quote is directed to the readers ( Luke 3:4). All others were addressed to the Jews by the person speaking within the narrative material.

a) To the readers:

Luke 3:4, "As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight."

b) To the Jews following Jesus:

Luke 7:27, "This is Hebrews , of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee."

c) To Jesus' disciples:

Luke 18:31, "Then he took unto him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished."

d) To the people in the Temple:

Luke 20:17, "And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?"

e) To Peter the apostle:

Luke 22:37, "For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end."

f) General: to the people in the Temple:

Luke 21:22, "For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled."

g) General: to Jesus' disciples:

Luke 24:44, "And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the Psalm , concerning me."

h) General: to Jesus' disciples:

Luke 24:46, "And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:"

3. Lack of Aramaic Phrases- Luke's Gospel lacks the use of Aramaic phrases, unlike the other three Gospels. This is probably due to the fact that Luke was directing his writing to a Gentile audience who would not understand Aramaic phrases.

4. Tendency to Avoid Hebraisms - On a number of occasions, Luke uses terms that are better understood by Gentile readers than by Jewish readers.

a) On three occasions Luke uses the word αληθως for the phrase "Truly I say unto you" ( Luke 9:27; Luke 12:44; Luke 21:3), while Matthew and Mark use only a Hebrew word that has been transliterated into a Greek word αμή ν.

b) On three occasions Luke -Acts uses the Greek word διδά σκαλος (teacher) in place of the Hebraic γραμματεύ ς (scribe). All other Gospels restrict themselves to the word γραμματεύ ς.

c) When telling of Christ's triumphant entry into Jerusalem, Matthew ( Luke 21:9; Luke 21:15), Mark ( Luke 11:9-10) and John ( Luke 12:13) all use the Hebrew phrase "hosanna" when quoting the shouts of the people. Only Luke avoids this Hebraism.

Louis Berkhof believes Luke was writing to a Greek audience, if not a Roman such as Theophilus, saying that the Greek used in his Gospel is less Hebraic than in the other Evangelists. 93]

93] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 48.

5. References of Roman Exoneration and Unjust Blame from Jews- Luke's description of Jesus' trial before Pilate shows the Roman governor repeatedly trying to absolve Jesus of guilt. At Philippi, Paul and Silas were accused of "teaching customs, which are not lawful for us to receive, neither to observe, being Romans" ( Acts 16:20-21). When they were let go, the magistrates apologized to them for beating them unlawfully ( Acts 16:35-39). At Thessalonica, Paul was accused of "doing contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus" ( Acts 17:7), but was immediately set free. At Corinth, Paul was accused of "persuading men to worship God contrary to the law" ( Acts 18:13). However, Gallio the proconsul was not able to determine any violation of Roman law. When the Jews accused Paul of sacrilege in Jerusalem, the governors Felix and Festus found no wrongdoing and would have let him go had he not appealed to Caesar ( Acts 19-26). The author attempts to reveal that Christianity was not a threat to the Roman Empire, as the Judaizers had accused them of being.

In contrast, Luke -Acts repeated shows how the Jews unjustly accused Christ Jesus and the early Church.

6. References to Salvation for the Gentiles - The Gospel of Luke makes repeated references to the fact that the Gospel of Jesus Christ is for the Gentiles. See the comments below on the Secondary Theme of Luke.

7. Emphasis Upon Jesus' Wisdom of Solomon - Only Luke mentions Jesus in the temple as a child, probably to reveal the wisdom that He had even before becoming an adult. This would be an important characteristic to the Greek mind, which sought men who were considered wise. Paul tells us that the Greeks seek Wisdom of Solomon , while the Jews seek after a sign ( 1 Corinthians 1:22).

B. External Evidence- Since Luke -Acts appears to be addressed to the same person, it is logical to quote the early Church fathers regarding what they said about Luke's intended readers for his Gospel as well as the book of Acts. External evidence supports the internal evidence regarding the identity of Luke's recipients.

1. Origen (A.D 185 to 254) - Eusebius quotes Origen as telling us that Luke was encouraged by Paul to write his Gospel for the Gentile converts.

"And the third by Luke , the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts." (Ecclesiastical History 6256)

This statement would agree with Luke's prologue whether the word "Theophilus" was addressed to an individual or to the church community at large.

2. Gregory Naziansen (329-389) - Gregory Naziansen, the theologian, gives us a list of the primary recipients of the four Gospels that reflects the traditions of his day, saying, "In the first place, Matthew wrote to the Hebrews of the miracles of Jesus, then Mark to Italy, Luke to those of Achaia, and John to all, a great herald who walked in heaven." (Gregorii Nazianzeni Carmen de Libris Canonicis 15]) (PG 38, Colossians 843-845.) (author's translation). 94] This tradition has been interpreted modern scholars to say that Matthew wrote to the Hebrews , Mark to the Romans , Luke to the Greeks and John to Christians. 95] The three Synoptic Gospels addressed the three mindsets of the civilized world of their day. Matthew , Mark and Luke lived in a world where the Jewish mind took religion to the world's most ancient past. The Roman mind was focused on dominating and subduing nations. The Greek mindset sought the highest wisdom that man could find. Matthew wrote primarily to the Hebrews to establish Jesus as their Messiah. Mark addressed his Gospel to the Romans , who would bow before the Miracle-working power of the Jesus Christ. Luke gave attention to the Greek mind, where he spoke to logic and reason to convince his readers of the wisdom of believing in Jesus Christ as the Savior of the world. Why would Matthew's Gospel come first? Perhaps it is placed first because to the Jews first was the message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ prepared.

94] Cited by Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 582.

95] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol 1: Apostolic Christianity A.D 1-100 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 582.

3. St. John Chrysostom (A.D 347 to 407) - John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, appears to agree with Eusebius when he tells us that Luke wrote to the Christians in general, compared to Matthew's Gospel, which was written to the Hebrews.

For this cause then Matthew , as writing to Hebrews , sought to shew nothing more, than that He was from Abraham, and David; but Luke , as discoursing to all in general, traces up the account higher, going on even to Adam. And the one begins with His generation, because nothing was so soothing to the Jew as to be told that Christ was the offspring of Abraham and David: the other doth not Song of Solomon , but mentions many other things, and then proceeds to the genealogy." (Homilies on the Gospel According to St. Matthew 1:7)

In the nineteenth century, a popular view was to apply a four-fold scheme for the recipients of the Gospels, such as D. S. Gregory, who said Matthew wrote to Jews, Mark to the Romans , Luke to the Greeks, and John to Christians. 96]

96] D. S. Gregory, Why Four Gospels? Or, The Gospel for All the World (New York: Sheldon and Company, 1877), 346-347.

We can conclude this section of the identity of Luke's recipients by pointing to the Gentile church amidst a Greek culture of his time.

V. Occasion

There are a number of reasons that we can find as to what occasioned the need for Luke to write Luke -Acts.

A. A Need to Give Theophilus An Account of the Christian Faith- In the 1200's, St. Thomas Aquinas, writing in his Catena Aurea on Matthew , quotes Remigius of Auzerre (c. A.D 841to c 908), a medieval philosopher, who also wrote a commentary on Matthew. In this quote, we are told that Luke wrote his works in the parts of Achaia and Baeotia, at the request of Theophilus. 97] Thus, this request by Theophilus would have occasioned the writing of Luke -Acts.

97] Thomas Aquinas, Catena Aurea: Commentary on the Four Gospels, Collected out of the Works of the Fathers, vol 1, part 1, second edition (Oxford: John Henry, 1864), 5.

B. A Need to Give An Accurate Account of the Life of Christ- We find a clear remark by Eusebius (A.D 260 to 340) as to why Luke wrote his Gospel. We are told in this most ancient record of church history that Luke felt the need to give an accurate account of the life of Christ because other accounts were bringing into question issues concerning Christ Jesus. This Luke was qualified to do because he was acquainted with Paul and the other apostles. Note:

"But as for Luke , in the beginning of his Gospel, he states that since many others had more rashly undertaken to compose a narrative of the events of which he had acquired perfect knowledge, he himself, feeling the necessity of freeing us from their uncertain opinions, delivered in his own Gospel an accurate account of those events in regard to which he had learned the full truth, being aided by his intimacy and his stay with Paul and by his acquaintance with the rest of the apostles. So much for our own account of these things. But in a more fitting place we shall attempt to show by quotations from the ancients, what others have said concerning them." (Ecclesiastical History 32415-16)

C. A Need to Prepare A Defense for Paul's Roman Trial- Some modern scholars suggest that a probable occasion as to the writing of Luke was his need to prepare a defense for Paul's Roman trial and that Theophilus was a Roman who could influence the outcome of such a trial. The impending trial of Paul would be a proper time for Luke to write to a Roman official in order to justify the Christian message as being worthy of acceptance in the Roman world. The early Church tradition that Theophilus was a Roman citizen of importance living in Italy finds some support within the text of Luke -Acts.

1. The descriptions of Jewish customs and geography of the land of Palestine suggest that the reader(s) was not familiar with them. In contrast, Luke's description of cities in Italy are so brief as to suggest the reader's knowledge of them ( Acts 28:11-16).

2. Luke's comments that Cornelius was of the Italian band in Acts 10:1 suggest that this comment carried some important to the reader.

3. The ending of the book of Acts suggests such a trial needed a legal defense. We know that the book of Acts had to have been written after Paul's first Roman imprisonment, for this book ends with Paul's two-year imprisonment in Rome. The fact that Acts has such an abrupt ending suggests that the author recorded this event during or shortly after Paul's imprisonment. This means that Luke could not have written before the mid-60's. The fact that no mention is made of Paul's trial before Nero, his acquittal, his possible trip into Spain, his second imprisonment and ultimate martyrdom suggests that these events have not yet taken place. The fact that Luke was with Paul years later during his second imprisonment ( 2 Timothy 4:11) suggests that Luke had completed his work because he had no need to include into the book of Acts these later events.

2 Timothy 4:11, "Only Luke is with me. Take Mark , and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry."

D. A Need to Record the Events of the Early Church - Within thirty years of the Lord's resurrection, the Gospel of Jesus Christ had spread to the ends of the known world. There certainly would have arisen a need to explain the rapid spread of the Christian faith.

LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)

"Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.

If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew."

(Thomas Schreiner) 98]

98] Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011), 11.

Within the historical setting of the early church, the authors of the four Gospels and Acts chose to write their accounts of the Lord Jesus Christ using a literary style similar to the Greco-Roman biographies; however, they adopted a unique aspect within their ancient biographies by including kerygmatic material consisting of the teachings of Jesus Christ. Thus, the Gospels and Acts are given a distinct literary genre called a "gospel," which combines biographical narrative material and kerygmatic teachings. In the introductory section of literary style, a comparison of the Gospels will be made, as well as comments on its external influences, and a brief look at the grammar and syntax of the Gospel of Luke.

VI. Comparison of the Gospels

A comparison of the Synoptic Gospels shows to us that there are many verses that are shared between the three Synoptic Gospels. Note these comment from Richard Heard:

"Of Mark's 661verses, some 430 are substantially reproduced in both Matthew and Luke. Of the remaining 231verses 176 occur in Matthew and the substance of 25 in Luke. Only 30 verses in Mark do not appear in some form in either Matthew or Luke. Moreover, both Matthew and Luke normally follow Mark's order of events, but, when one departs from the Marcan sequence, the other supports Mark's order." 99]

99] Richard Heard, An Introduction to the New Testament (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950) [on-line]; accessed 7 July 2010; available from http://www.religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?title=531&C=551; Internet, "Chapter 7: The Gospel of Mark."

Thomas Constable tells us that about ninety percent of Mark's content is found in the Gospel of Matthew and about forty percent of its material is found in Luke. 100] However, there are many differences between the Gospels despite their common material. The unique characteristics of the Gospel of Luke reflect its purposes and themes.

100] Thomas L. Constable, Notes on Mark (Garland, Texas: Sonic Light, 2008) [on-line]; accessed 28 December 2008; available from http://www.soniclight.com/constable/notes.htm; Internet, 4.

A. Comparison of Usage of the Old Testament- H. Berkhof says there are 613direct quotes and 1640 allusions to the Old Testament found within the books of the New Testament. 101] The index of the UBS3 lists Old Testament citations for each New Testament book: Matthew (61), Mark (30), Luke (26), and John (16). Allusions to the Old Testament are also cited in the footnotes of the UBS3, of which I count the following number: Matthew (138), Mark (47), Luke (161), and John (73). 102]

101] H. Berkholf, "Hoe leest het Nieuwe Testament het Oude?," in Homiletica en Biblica, vol 22, no 11 (Dec 1963), 242.

102] Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds, The Greek New Testament, Third Edition (United Bible Societies, 1975), 900.

Regarding Luke's use of the Old Testament, F. F. Bruce tells us that the New Testament writers who quote from the LXX most often are Luke and the author of Hebrews. 103] Therefore, we see that Luke relied more heavily upon the LXX than did the other three Evangelists.

103] F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963), 153-4.

B. Comparison of Discourses and Narrative Material- Luke's Gospel is the longest book in the New Testament simply due to the fact that he has a more pronounced biographical interest in the life of Christ than do the other three Evangelists. When adding the book of Acts , Luke wrote 2157 verses in the New Testament, with Paul comes in second at 2032verses, John gives us 1416 verses, Matthew recorded 1071verses and Mark 678 verses. The other New Testament authors made much smaller contributions.

Luke's Gospel gives us the fullest account of the life and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. For example, Luke records many unique events of Jesus' birth, giving us some of the earliest events of the Jesus' life. For example, the testimonies of Zacharias, Elisabeth, Mary, the shepherds, Simeon and Anna in the temple are not found elsewhere. Jesus' encounter with the priests in the temple at the age of twelve ( Luke 2:41-52), and the lengthy biography and teachings of John the Baptist ( Luke 3:1-20) are all unique to Luke's Gospel. There are also a number of unique stories such as the widow of Nain's son being raised from the dead ( Luke 7:11-17). Luke also records for us the longest narrative of Jesus' trip to Jerusalem ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 19:44). In this passage of material we find most of Luke's unique parables and miracles. Only Luke gives us Jesus' walk on the road to Emmaus and Jesus' ascent into Heaven. Thus, we see that the two sections of Luke that give us most of the unique material is the early life of Jesus and His final trip to Jerusalem. All total, there are twenty-nine events in the life of Christ that are uniquely recorded in Luke. Thus, Luke's Gospel gives us much important information about the earliest accounts as well as the last accounts of the life and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ.

In all, about one third of Luke's Gospel is unique. According to Nelson's Complete Book of Maps and Charts, there are thirty-seven miracles recorded by the four Evangelists, of which twenty-two of these are found in Luke. Of these twenty recorded miracles, seven are unique to Luke (the draught of fishes, the widow of Nain"s Song of Solomon , the man with dropsy, the ten lepers, Malchus" ear and the spirit of infirmity). It also tells us that there are about thirty-nine recorded parables in the Gospels, of which twenty-seven are found in Luke. Of these parables, seventeen are unique to Luke (the good Samaritan, the friend at midnight, the rich fool, the servants watching, the two debtors, the barren fig-tree, the chief seats, the great supper, the rash builder, the rash king, the lost coin, the prodigal Song of Solomon , the unjust steward, the rich man and Lazarus, the unprofitable servants, the unjust Judges , the Pharisee and publican and the parable of the pounds). 104] The parables of the Prodigal Son and of the Good Samaritan are some of the best-known passages in the entire Scriptures.

104] Nelson's Complete Book of Maps and Charts: Old and New Testaments, revised and updated edition (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, c 1993, 1996), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "The Four Gospels."

As a result of Luke's comprehensive nature, it is the longest book in the New Testament, with Luke -Acts making up about 27% of the Greek New Testament.

One final note on Lucan narratives. The Gospel of Luke does not have nearly as many examples of how the Jews rejected the Lord Jesus Christ as is found in John's Gospel. This is because their narrative material places emphasis upon separate themes.

VII. Various Themes Emphasized in the Gospel of Luke

C. Emphasis Upon Jesus' Public Ministry After John the Baptist's Imprisonment- The Synoptic Gospels begin their account of Jesus' public ministry after the imprisonment of John the Baptist ( Matthew 4:12. Mark 1:14, Luke 3:19-21).

Matthew 4:12, "Now when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee;"

Mark 1:14, "Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God,"

Luke 3:19-21, "But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip"s wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done, Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison. Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened,"

This implies that Jesus did the majority of His public miracles after John's imprisonment. In contrast, John's Gospel begins at the beginning of Jesus' water baptism and records Jesus' earliest miracles. With the growing resentment of the Pharisees and the imprisonment of John the Baptist in Judea ( Matthew 4:12), Jesus moves His residence into Galilee to the city of Capernaum in fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy ( Matthew 4:13). The Gospels do not tell us at which time during Jesus' public ministry that John was imprisoned. Jerome says the Gospels of Matthew , Mark and Luke reveal to us only one year of Jesus' earthly ministry, beginning after the imprisonment of John the Baptist:

"But there is said to be yet another reason for this work, in that when he (John) had read Matthew ,, Mark , and Luke , he approved indeed the substance of the history and declared that the things they said were true, but that they had given the history of only one year, the one, that Isaiah , which follows the imprisonment of John and in which he was put to death." (Lives of Illustrious Men 9)

However, the Gospel of John suggests that the imprisonment of John the Baptist took place between the First Passover ( John 2:13) and the Second Passover ( John 6:4) of Jesus' ministry, because He departed into Galilee when the Pharisees noticed the increased influence of Jesus' public ministry in Judea above that of John the Baptist ( John 4:1-3). 105] Reading further in the Gospel of John , the author refers to the public ministry of John in the past tense ( John 5:33).

105] William Duncan says, "The easiest and most satisfactory expedient which we can adopt, is evidently to suppose that it was not the first journey to Galilee (Jno 1: 44. ff.), but the second (Jno .) which was prompted by the imprisonment of the Baptist; in favor of which view in particular is the fact that John himself (4:1.) assigns as the reason of this second journey the knowledge which Jesus had that the Pharisees had. heard that he was making more disciples than the Baptist." See William C. Duncan, The Life, Character, and Acts of John the Baptist: and the Relationship of His Ministry to the Christian Dispensation (New York: Sheldon and Company, 1860), 225

John 2:13, "And the Jews" passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,"

John 6:4, "And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh."

John 4:1-3, "When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John , (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,) He left Judaea, and departed again into Galilee."

John 5:33, "Ye sent unto John , and he bare witness unto the truth."

D. Emphasis Upon Jesus' Passion and Resurrection- We know that each of the four Gospels devotes about one third of their story to the passion and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ. We know that this event was the central and dominant theme of the early preaching by the Church. So naturally, it formed the most important events of Jesus' earthly ministry, and thus dominated events recorded in the Gospels. A large portion of the material in the book of Luke is about Jesus' last few weeks and days of His ministry. As early as chapter 9, Jesus is heading towards Calvary.

Luke 9:51, "And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,"

E. Emphasis Upon Dating of Historical Events- Luke takes the time to date events using historical references. His careful use of places and names reveals his intent for accuracy. He intends to add credibility to his story using these details. This accuracy would be required for such a dedicated work as stated in the Luke's prologue.

Luke attaches every major event in the life of Jesus and of the early Church to a well-known political or religious event. Luke fixes the births of John the Baptist and Jesus within the days of Herod, king of Judea ( Luke 1:5), when Caesar Augustus made a decree for all of the world to be taxed ( Luke 2:1), and Cyrenius being governor of Syria ( Luke 2:2). John and Jesus began their ministries in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests ( Luke 3:1-2). Jesus faces the Cross during the leadership of Pilate and Herod Antipas ( Luke 23:1; Luke 23:7).

In the book of Acts it was on the day of Pentecost during the reigns of Pilate and Herod Antipas that the Holy Spirit was poured out upon the Church ( Acts 2:1). Agabus spoke accurately about a great dearth, which came to pass during the time of Claudius Caesar ( Acts 11:28). The persecutions against the Church began under Herod Agrippa I ( Acts 12:1). Paul and Barnabas were sent out by men who had been brought up under Herod Antipas ( Acts 13:1). Claudius Caesar's decree that all Jews depart Rome resulted in Paul meeting Aquila and Priscilla in Corinth ( Acts 18:2). Paul was brought to trial in Corinth during the days when Gallio was deputy of Achaia ( Acts 18:12). Paul was imprisoned for two years in Judea when Herod Agrippa II was king and Felix and Festus were governors over Judea and Ananias was the high priest in Jerusalem ( Acts 24-26).

F. Emphasis Upon Individuals- Because the Gospel of Luke is a collection of eyewitness accounts, the author places much emphasis upon the lives of individuals. Luke uses these events in the lives of individuals to build a testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ. The Gospel of Jesus Christ is for everyone. Therefore, there are narratives that show Jesus' concern for the Publicans and sinners. There are stories of how Jesus understands the needs of women. Even the social outcasts are shown concern by Jesus in His ministry. He rebukes the rich and sympathizes with the poor. Jesus spends time with children. He visits the homes of Pharisees as well as that of Publicans. The Gospel of Luke shows Jesus as a man who is willing to build a relationship with all people. This emphasis upon individuals is structured in a way that reveals that the Gospel of Jesus Christ is for the salvation of the world and not just for the Jews. See a more detailed discussion on this subject under the secondary theme of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world.

G. Emphasis Upon the Prayer Life of Jesus- There are many passages about prayer in the book of Luke when compared to the other Gospels. Of the nine prayers of Jesus recorded in Luke seven of them are unique to his Gospel.

1. Jesus prays at his baptism— Luke 3:21—Unique

2. Jesus withdraws Himself to pray— Luke 5:15-16—Unique—

3. Jesus prayed before choosing 12disciples— Luke 6:12—Unique

4. Jesus prays and disciples join him— Luke 9:18—Unique

5. Jesus prayers at His transfiguration— Luke 9:29—Unique

6. Jesus prays when Seventy return— Luke 10:21-22

7. Jesus prays then teaches on prayer— Luke 11:1-13—Unique

8. Jesus prays in the Garden— Luke 22:39-46

9. Jesus prays on the Cross— Luke 23:34; Luke 23:46—Unique

Jesus also prayed for Peter ( Luke 22:31-32).

In addition, Jesus also taught on prayer.

1. His disciples asked Jesus to teach on prayer.

a) The Lord's Prayer— Luke 11:1-4

b) Parable of Friend at Midnight— Luke 11:5-8

c) Ask, Seek, Knock— Luke 11:9-13

2. Jesus teaches His disciples to pray.

a) Parable of the Persistent Widow— Luke 18:1-8

b) Parable of Pharisee & Tax Collector— Luke 18:9-14

VIII. External Influences Upon the Gospel of Luke

H. External Influences: Luke the Physician's Use of Medical Language- Many scholars believe that Luke gave more descriptive accounts of healings than did the other Evangelists simply because of his background as a physician. William Hobart published a work on this subject in 1882entitled The Medical Language of St. Luke , in which he used the writings of four ancient physicians to support his view that Luke's use of "medical language" was comparable to other Greek physicians of his time. 106] Louis Berkhof 107] and Barry Davis 108] summarize some of these issues:

106] William Kirk Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke (London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1882).

107] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 48-49.

108] Barry L. Davis, "The Authorship of Luke -, Acts ," [on-line]; accessed 12August 2010; available from http://www.angelfire.com/ok/bibleteaching/lukeauthorship.html; Internet.

1. Luke uses the term παραλύ ω ( Luke 5:18; Luke 5:24) to describe a man "taken with the palsy" while Matthew and Mark use παραλυτικό ς ( Matthew 9:2, Mark 2:3) to describe a man "sick of the palsy." Luke's term is more descriptive than are the other Evangelists. Note that the Greek word παραλύ ω is used five times in the New Testament ( Luke 2, Acts 2, Hebrews 1) while the Greek word παραλυτικό ς is used nine times in the New Testament ( Matthew 4, Mark 5).

2. Luke describes Peter's mother-in-law as being "taken with a great fever" ( Luke 4:38). As is done today, he may well be making a distinction between a low grade and a high-grade fever. Matthew 8:14 and Mark 1:30 simply call it "a fever."

3. Luke tells us that a certain man was "full of leprosy" ( Luke 5:12), while Matthew 8:2 and Mark 1:40 simply describe him as "a leper." Luke may well be describing the degree of the man's condition.

4. Luke is very descriptive about the healing of the woman with the issue of blood by saying "immediately her issue of blood stanched" ( Luke 8:44). Matthew simply says, "the woman was made well from that hour" ( Matthew 9:22). However, Mark gives as detailed a description of her healing, as does Luke ( Mark 5:29).

5. Luke is more descriptive of the healing of Jarius' daughter by giving her age and method of recovery ( Luke 8:42; Luke 8:55). Matthew simply says that the girl rose up ( Matthew 9:25). Mark gives about as much detail as Luke gives ( Mark 5:40-43). When she was raised from the dead, only Luke mentions that Jesus "commanded that she be given something to eat" ( Luke 8:55; Matthew 9:25; Mark 5:42).

6. Luke makes a distinction between diseases and demoniac possession, "Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures" ( Luke 13:32), "bringing sick people and those who were tormented by unclean spirits" ( Acts 5:16), "and the diseases left them and the evil spirits went out of them" ( Acts 19:12).

7. Luke tends to include the length of the infirmity when describing the illness. The crippled man at the Gate Beautiful had been lame "from his mother's womb" ( Acts 3:2). Aeneas "had been bedridden eight years and was paralyzed" ( Acts 9:33). The crippled man of Lystra had been so "from his mother's womb" ( Acts 14:8).

8. Luke points out that the man in the synagogue had his "right" hand withered ( Luke 6:6), while Matthew 12:10 and Mark 3:1 simply say "a withered hand."

9. In the story of the Gadarene demoniac, only Luke points out that the man "wore no clothes" ( Luke 8:27; Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:2).

10. Only Luke's Gospel describes a man who suffered from the dropsy ( Luke 14:2-4).

11. Only Luke's Gospel describes the physical agony of Jesus in the Garden by saying that "his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground."

12. In Acts 3:7 Luke gives a very detailed description of the lame man's healing by explaining that his feet and ankle bones received strength and he began to leap on them.

13. Luke gives a number of healings that the other Evangelists do not record. Out of the six miracle accounts that are unique to Luke"s Gospel, five of them are miracles of healing, [the case of the dead man from Nain receiving resurrection from Jesus ( Luke 7:11-15), Jesus healing the woman who had been bent over double for eighteen years ( Luke 13:11-13), Jesus healing the man with dropsy ( Luke 14:2-4), the cleansing of the ten lepers ( Luke 17:12-14), and the restoring of Malchus" ear ( Luke 22:51)].

14. Hobart notes that the word Luke uses to describe how the dead man "sat up" in Luke 7:15 is used by medical writers, saying "And in this intransitive sense its use seems, with a few exceptions, to be almost altogether confined to the medical writers, who employ it to describe patients sitting up in bed." 109]

109] William Kirk Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke (London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1882), 11.

15. Hobart notes the phrase "the eye of the needle" in Luke 18:25 uses medical terms, saying, "The words used by St. Luke are those which a medical man would naturally employ, for βελόνη was the surgical needle, and τρῆμα the great medical word for a perforation of any kind." 110] In contrast, Matthew 19:24 and Mark 10:25 use the Greek word ῥαφίς (G 4476) for "needle," which is derived from ( ῥάπτω) meaning, "to sew" (Strong).

110] William Kirk Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke (London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1882), 60.

16. Hobart says the unique use of the word "proofs" found in Acts 1:3 "was technically employed in medical language." 111]

111] William Kirk Hobart, The Medical Language of St. Luke (London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1882), 184.

Some scholars feel that an evaluation of Hobart's arguments do not lead to such definite conclusions, denying that Luke used such specific medical language. For example, Alfred Plummer believes that the medical terms used by Luke are much less than Hobart proposes. 112]

112] Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), lxiv.

I. External Influences: Pauline Influence- Luke does not appear to be as dependent upon Paul as Mark was upon Peter in writing their two Gospels. Luke relied upon a great many sources, while Mark was most likely limited to Peter's preaching. Luke certainly used Paul as one of his sources, since Pauline influence can been seen in Luke's Gospel. Louis Berkhof gives several similarities of this influence. 113]

113] Louis Berkhof, The Gospel of Luke , in Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02 (Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library) [on-line]; accessed 23April 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet, 49.

1. In Vocabulary- Alfred Plummer lists one hundred seventy-four (174) words and phrases that are peculiar to the Gospel of Luke and the Pauline epistles. 114] The use of the term "justification," which Paul used so often in his epistles, is found numerous times in Luke's Gospel ( Luke 7:29; Luke 10:29; Luke 16:15; Luke 18:14). Luke uses the terms "grace" and "faith" more than do the other Evangelists.

114] Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902), liv-lix.

In addition, John Hawkins 115] and J. M. Bebb 116] that there are 32words unique to Matthew and the Pauline epistles, 22between Mark and Paul, 21between John and Paul, and 101words that are found only in Luke's writings and the Pauline epistles. These figures show distinct Pauline influence in Luke's writings when compared to the other Gospels.

115] John C. Hawkins, Horae Synopticae: Contributions to the Study of the Synoptic Problem (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1909), 189.

116] J. M. Bebb, " Luke , Gospel of," in A Dictionary of the Bible, vol 3, ed. James Hastings (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1901), 168.

2. Jesus, the Saviour of the World- The theme of Luke's Gospel to testify of Jesus Christ to the uttermost parts of the earth is reflective of Paul's ministry. Luke presents Jesus as the Saviour of the World. Paul was an apostle to the Gentiles with a passion to preach the Gospel to the world; and Luke's writings place emphasis upon the Gospel being sent to all nations.

3. The Lord's Supper- Scholars also see a similarity in Luke's description of the Lord's Supper ( Luke 22:19-20) and Paul's description in 1 Corinthians 11:24-25.

4. The Last Adam- Luke's genealogy presents Jesus Christ as the "last Adam," a theme used by Paul in 1Corinthians 15 and Romans 5, rather than as the Son of a prophetic lineage as in Matthew.

5. Preach the Word - In 2 Timothy 4:2 Paul tells Timothy, "Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine." If we examine the outline and structure of Jesus' journey to Jerusalem in Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38, we see how it is structured with Jesus preaching the Word by reproving, rebuking and exhorting His hearers. We see Pauline influence in this method of teaching the Gospel as it was typical of Paul's style.

J. External Influences: Marcan Influence- Luke was acquainted with John Mark ( Colossians 4:10; Colossians 4:14) as a person, as Luke ministered under Paul and Mark under Peter. Therefore, they could have discussed stories or written notes between one another that they later recorded in their Gospels. When comparing the order of the narrative material within the Synoptic Gospels, it is obvious that Luke followed very closely to Mark's order is certain passages, while Matthew deviated much more extensively from Mark. About three-fifths of Mark's narrative material appears in Luke's Gospel. Except for two passages, Luke follows Mark's order with precision. Luke tends to follow Mark's Gospel in large portions, while Matthew's Gospel has Marcan material interspersed with other material. Note one author's summary of such similar passages:

Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:11 = Mark 1:21 to Mark 3:6

Luke 8:4 to Luke 9:50 = Mark 3:31 to Mark 9:40

Luke 18:15-43 = Mark 10:13-52

Luke 19:29 to Luke 22:13 = Mark 11:1 to Mark 14:16

Luke's efforts to compile the testimonies of eyewitnesses and other sources best explains why he would incorporate blocks of material into his Gospel, while Matthew did not so do.

IX. Grammar and Syntax

K. Grammar and Syntax: Greek Language at its Best- Luke used the Greek language at its best. Many scholars agree that Luke writes with superb knowledge of the Greek language, showing excellent style and structure as a writer. He also combines Semitic style in the first two chapters, showing his familiarity with Aramaic, the native language of Palestine. However, this may be an indication that Luke relied on Semitic sources. Overall, Luke expresses the most diversity of any New Testament writers, moving from Hebraistic Greek to pure classical Greek.

When comparing Luke to Acts , scholars point out that the author used fewer Hebraisms in Acts than in the Gospel of Luke simply because he was less dependent upon Jewish sources when writing the book of Acts.

L. Grammar and Syntax: Analysis of Word Usage in Luke -, Acts - Robert Grant gives us some insightful information as to the word usage of Luke -Acts. He says Luke's Gospel contains a total of 19 ,400 words while the book of Acts contains 13 ,380; Luke uses a total of 2 ,055 different Greek words while Acts uses 2 ,038; together, they use a total of 2 ,700 Greek words; Luke uses 261words that are unique to the Gospel while Acts uses 413unique words. 117]

117] Robert M. Grant, "A Historical Introduction to the New Testament- Part Two: New Testament Literature, Chapter 10: The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts ," (New York: Harper and Row, 1963) [on-line]; accessed 12August 2010; available from http://www.religion-online.org/showbook.asp?title=1116; Internet.

M. Grammar and Syntax: Names of Jesus Christ Found in Luke - There are a number of unique characteristics in Luke's Gospel regarding the names of Jesus Christ.

1. Jesus as "Lord" - Daniel B. Wallace says that Jesus is never referred to as "Lord" in the narrative sections of Matthew and Mark , while Luke refers to Him fourteen times as Lord in his narratives. 118]

118] Daniel B. Wallace, Luke: Introduction, Argument, and Outline (Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas) [on-line]; accessed 6 July 2010; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/ Luke -introduction-argument-and-outline; Internet, "C. Sources and Methods of Composition."

2. Jesus as "the Son of Man" - Jesus is called the "Son of Man" twenty-six times in the New Testament. Luke seems to place more emphasis upon the human side of Jesus than the other Gospels. For example, he shows Jesus toiling with his hands, becoming tired and weary, weeping over Jerusalem and agonizing in prayer.

It is interesting to note that the Hebrew word for "man" ( אָדָם) is also the same word that is used for "Adam." Since Luke's genealogy takes Jesus back to Adam, then it is appropriate to call Jesus "the Son of Adam" as well as "the Son of Adam."

According to Boyd Hunt, this title was an indirect reference to Jesus being the Messiah, since He could not use term "Messiah" publicity. 119]

119] Boyd Hunt, "Class Lecture in Systematic Theology," Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, 11March 1983.

THEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK

"Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework."

(Andreas Ksenberger) 120]

120] Andreas J. Ksenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.

Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the Gospel of Luke , an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or periscopes within the Gospel of Luke for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.

X. Purpose

The Gospels and Acts served a number of purposes for the early Church. They were written primarily to establish and defend the foundational doctrines of the New Testament Church; thus, there was a doctrinal and apologetic purpose. However, the authors chose to frame their work within a historical biography of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ, and each Gospel writer selected historical material that emphasized his own particular didactic purpose. Finally, the Gospels and Acts served a practical and kerygmatic purpose in calling the reader to believe in Jesus Christ and to proclaim the Gospel to the nations.

A. Doctrinal and Apologetic: To Establish and Defend the Foundational Doctrines of the New Testament Church - The primary purpose of the Gospels was to establish and defend the claim that Jesus Christ was the Son of God, which was the foundational doctrine of the New Testament Church.

The Doctrinal and Apologetic Purpose of the Gospel of Luke -, Acts - There is evidence throughout Luke's writings of an apologetic nature, as Luke presents to Theophilus a defense for the legitimacy of the Christian faith. The timing of Luke's publication suggests that it was used in preparation for a defense at Paul's impending trial. Some scholars have suggested that the book of Acts was prepared as a legal brief in anticipation of Paul's trial before Caesar. This would mean that Luke wrote the book of Acts in order to defend Paul during his trial. Although some scholars say that the clear fact that Luke -Acts is a two-volume work negates this option, a close study of the structure of Luke -Acts does reveal an underlying theme that shows these writings as a defense for the preaching of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ as well as defending the ethics of these Christians who were accused by their adversaries of committing evil atrocities. We can easily surmise that the author did not intend this dual work to be purely a historical record of the early Church, since many important events were left out. A careful study reveals that Luke placed narrative material within his work in order to achieve an intended purpose. Scholars give internal support for its apologetic nature.

1. References to Exoneration by Romans and Unjust Accusation by Jews- Luke appears to emphasize the fact that Jesus' rejection by the Jewish leaders was unwarranted as well as reveal Jesus as a man of great wisdom. Luke's description of Jesus' trial before Pilate shows the Roman governor repeatedly trying to absolve Jesus of guilt. At Philippi, Paul and Silas were accused of "teaching customs, which are not lawful for us to receive, neither to observe, being Romans" ( Acts 16:20-21). When they were let go, the magistrates apologized to them for beating them unlawfully ( Acts 16:35-39). At Thessalonica, Paul was accused of "doing contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus" ( Acts 17:7), but was immediately set free. At Corinth, Paul was accused of "persuading men to worship God contrary to the law" ( Acts 18:13). But Gallio, the proconsul was not able to determine any violation of Roman law. When Demetrius the silversmith causes a riot in Ephesus by accusing Paul wrongly, Alexander stood up and defended Paul's innocence ( Acts 19:21-41). When the Jews accused Paul of sacrilege in Jerusalem, the governors Felix and Festus found no wrongdoing and would have let him go had he not appealed to Caesar ( Acts 19-26).

The author attempts to reveal that Christianity was not a threat to the Roman Empire, as the Judaizers had accused them of being. It was rather, the fulfillment of the hope of all Jews, and because Judaism was legalized, Christianity should be treated by Rome as a part of this religion. Thus, Luke -Acts also has an apologetic purpose.

2. Reference in Pauline Epistle to Paul's Defense- The Goodspeed translation of Philippians 1:7; Philippians 1:17 shows that Paul appealed to Caesar in order to win a case for legalizing Christianity, which was seen at this time as an illegal sect of Judaism. This would support the view that Luke -Acts served in Paul's defense.

Philippians 1:7, "And I have a right to feel in this way about you all, because both when I am in prison and when I am defending and vindicating our right to preach the good news, I have you in my heart as all sharing that privilege with me." (Goodspeed)

Philippians 1:16, "These later do it from love for me, for they know that God has put me where I am to defend our right to preach the good news." (Goodspeed)

3. Luke's Preface Indicates a Petition- Daniel Wallace says the Greek word κρά τιστος is used in the vocative case here. He says, "The vocative is used almost universally in the papyri only in petitions, as far as my own cursory research reveals (an examination of the first two volumes on the papyri in LCL[Loeb Classical Library]). If this is the case here, then a petition is implied in Luke -, Acts , even though none is stated." Wallace uses this argument to support his belief that Luke -Acts is primarily written as an apologetic work addressed primarily to a Roman official in defense of the Christian faith. 121]

121] Daniel B. Wallace, Acts: Introduction, Argument, and Outline (Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas, 1998) [on-line]; accessed 6 July 2010; available from; Internet, 11.

4. Emphasis in Luke -Acts upon the Trials of Jesus and His Apostles- Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53 records the lengthiest account of Jesus' arrest and trials leading up to His crucifixion. The trials recorded in Luke -Acts are numerous: of Jesus before the Sanhedrin ( Luke 22:66-71), before Pontus Pilate ( Luke 23:1-5; Luke 23:13-25), before King Herod ( Luke 23:6-12), and Peter's two trials before the Sanhedrin ( Acts 4:1-22; Acts 5:17-42), and Stephen's unjust trial and stoning ( Acts 6:8 to Acts 7:60), and Peter's imprisonment by King Herod Agrippa I ( Acts 12:1-19), and Paul's arrest in the Temple and address to the Jewish mob ( Acts 21:26 to Acts 22:29), his hearings before the Sanhedrin ( Luke 22:30 to Luke 23:10), the chief captain sending Paul to Felix the governor with a letter ( Acts 23:11-35), his defense before Felix ( Acts 24:1-27), his defense before Festus ( Acts 25:1-12), his defense before King Herod Agrippa II ( Acts 25:13 to Acts 26:32), and his voyage to Rome to await his trial before Nero ( Acts 27:1 to Acts 28:31). There is an enormous amount of the content of Acts given to Paul's trials, both during his missionary journeys and before the Roman governors Felix and Festus. The last eight chapters focus entirely upon Paul's defense before Roman officials. All of these trials and events surrounding them serve as testimonies to prove the innocence of Jesus and His apostles.

5. Story of Shipwreck Tied to Ancient Belief of Innocence - Donald Guthrie and others note the suggestion by D. Ladouceur that it was a pagan belief in New Testament times that survival of a shipwreck proved a man's innocence. Perhaps Luke included this lengthy story as a defense for Paul's innocence. 122]

122] Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grover, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990), 373; see D. Ladouceur, "Hellenistic Preconceptions of Shipwreck and Pollution as a context for Acts 27-28 ," HTE 73, 1980, pp 435-449 and G. B. Miles & G. Tromph, "Luke and Antiphon: The Theology of Acts 27-28 in the Light of Pagan Beliefs about Divine Retribution, Pollution and Shipwreck," THE 69, 1976, pp 259-267.

This view finds support from a verse in Acts 28:4 which alludes to such a belief

Acts 28:4, "And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live."

6. An Abrupt Ending- Some scholars feel that the abrupt ending to the book of Acts is an indication that the author is prompting Theophilus to do something about Paul's case, which has delayed for two years.

Luke -Acts appears to be a defense for the preaching of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ as well as defending the ethics of these Christians who were accused by their adversaries of committing evil atrocities. Thus, whether Luke -Acts was directly intended to be used at one of Paul's trials or not, it certainly is structured as a defense for the Christian faith against the persecutions of the Rome government and from Judaizers. This structure is certainly a reflection of Pauline preaching of the Gospel, in that it reflects Paul's efforts to legalize the Christian faith in a Roman world.

Conclusion- This doctrinal and apologetic purpose of Luke -Acts reflects the foundational theme of the Gospels claiming that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

B. Historical and Didactic: To Record the Early Church Eye-Witness Testimonies of the Life and Ministry of Jesus Christ and the Apostles that Prove He was the Son of God - The Historical-Didactic Nature of the Gospels- While the early Church used the Gospels to defend the testimony of the Gospel of Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the authors of the Gospels chose to present this testimony within a historical biography of the life and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. In the writings of the four Gospels, the characteristic of selectivity is clearly seen. They all have the common thread as a biography of record of the life and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. However, each Gospel arranges these events in a way that teaches us a particular lesson. For example, the Gospel of Matthew emphasizes the fact that Jesus Christ fulfilled the prophecies of the Old Testament Scriptures. He arranges his Gospel in a format that presents Jesus as the coming King, who delivers the laws of the kingdom of heaven to His people, how He performs the work of the kingdom, how man responds to this ministry, how to handle offences and persecution, and the departure of the King. Matthew's Gospel is packaged with the message of the coming King being woven within the major theme that Jesus is the fulfillment of the Old Testament Messiah. Matthew closes his Gospel with the message of Jesus giving the commission to His disciples to teach all nations the laws of the kingdom of heaven. The Gospel of Mark also tells us of the events in the life of our Lord Jesus Christ. However, Mark's intent is to testify that Jesus Christ was the Son of God because of His many miracles that accompanied His preaching. Mark presents his material by following the outline of Peter's proclamation of the Gospel message to Cornelius in Acts 10:34-43. His Gospel shows John the Baptist's commission and proclamation, then shows Jesus' commission and preaching ministry, first in Galilee, then the regions round about. Jesus then made His way to Judea and into Jerusalem to face the Cross. Mark closes his Gospel with a commission to the disciples to preach the Gospel with these same signs and miracles following. The Gospel of Luke serves to give testimony from men. It gives the most extensive story on the birth, life and testimony of John the Baptist. It also gives the testimonies of many others, such as Zacharias, Elisabeth, Mary, Simeon, and Anna. Thus, Luke tells us the life of our Lord Jesus Christ in a format of testimonies that were compiled by those who were eyewitnesses of our Lord and Saviour. The Gospel of John emphasizes the events in the life of Christ that confirm His deity. John weaves within his Gospel seven divine names that Jesus declares about Himself, seven miracles that show His deity, seven Old Testament Scriptures that Jesus fulfilled. John closes His Gospel with Jesus calling His disciples to follow Him. Thus, we see in the book of Acts that it is not just a chronology of the history of the early church. Rather, Luke selected particular people and events in order to reveal most accurately the situations that Christians lived in during this part of history. The book of Acts is then able to explain why the Holy Spirit was able to move so mightily in the hearts and lives of certain men. The book of Acts becomes more than a history book. It provides a moral foundation for the establishment of the doctrines of the New Testament church in the midst of persecution from all established religions. It provides a defense for the preaching of the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ as well as defending the ethics of these Christians who were accused by their adversaries of committing evil atrocities. Finally, an additional theme can be found woven within all four Gospels and Acts , which is the lesson that persecutions always accompany those who choose to follow Christ. Thus, we see that these five books not only give us a biography of the life of Christ and of a history of the early Church, but they each weave within their collections of events a unique theme and a lesson to be learned.

The Historical and Didactic Purpose of Luke -, Acts - Luke goes to great lengths to place the origins and expansion of Christianity within a historical framework. Thus, Luke -Acts also has a historical purpose, although it is framed in a document that presents the beginnings and expansion of Christianity in order to convince the readers that the advance of the Gospel is the work of God through the resurrection of Jesus Christ and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.

This story begins in Luke's Gospel with the births of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ during the time of Herod king of Judea ( Luke 1:5) and during the reign of Caesar Augustus, while Quirinius was governor of Syria ( Luke 2:1-2). Luke gives much narrative material that took place in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas" ( Luke 3:1-2). Jesus' death took place under the trials of Pilate and Herod Antipas ( Luke 23:1-25).

The book of Acts continues telling us that the Gospel of Jesus Christ began at Jerusalem, spread throughout Judea and Samaria until it reached Rome. Walter Liefeld says that Luke dates these events "during the reign of the emperor Claudius ( Acts 11:28; Acts 18:2), when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia ( Acts 18:12-17), when Felix and Festus ruled in Judea and Ananias was the high priest in Jerusalem ( Acts 24-25), and between the times of the Jewish kings Herod Agrippa I ( Acts 12:1-23) and Herod Agrippa II ( Acts 25:13 to Acts 26:32)." 123]

123] Walter L. Liefeld, "Introduction," in Luke , in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 8, eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992), in Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] (Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001), in "Section 4: Luke's Purpose in Writing Acts."

Conclusion- The historical and didactic purpose of Luke -Acts reflects the secondary theme, which is the testimony of the Old Testament Scriptures that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Although the doctrinal and apologetic purpose are primary, they are less apparent than the historical and didactic because the historical material the heavier weight of content within the Gospel.

C. Practical and Kerygmatic: To Proclaim the Gospel to the Nations through the office of the Prophet and Apostle - The Gospel of Luke and the book of Acts serve a practical purpose as the readers are called to follow the teachings of Jesus Christ as the Son of God in faith and obedience to Him. The book of Acts reveals that the early disciples of the Church "continued stedfastly in the apostles" doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers." ( Acts 2:42) Alongside this practical application, the Gospels serve a kerygmatic purpose. The book of Acts reveals that these early believers were scattered abroad beginning with the persecutions in Jerusalem and "went everywhere preaching the word." ( Acts 8:1-4) In addition, the commissions of Jesus Christ at the close of each of the Gospels call believers to go forth and proclaim the Gospel to the nations. The commission in the Gospel of Luke ( Luke 24:44-49) commands believers to proclaim the Gospel through testifying through the infilling of the Holy Spirit, which reflects the office of the prophet. The commission in the book of Acts ( Luke 1:8) commands believers to proclaim the Gospel to the nations through the infilling of the Holy Spirit, which reflects the office of the apostle. Luke -Acts serves as a manual that empowers the Church to take the Gospel to the ends of the earth.

Luke opens his Gospel by stating his purpose for writing this book. He said it was so that Theophilus (and the Gentile readers) "mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed." (Luke refers to the same individual in Acts 1:1 in a similar way that ancient Greek historians commonly arranged such opening dedications.) He wanted this person to know with certainty and with accuracy that the stories of the Lord Jesus Christ were genuine, being confirmed by many eyewitnesses. Therefore, Luke compiles testimonies from the best sources available. Luke also made an effort to place these events around historical dates and events of contemporary people in order to give support to his own historical accuracy.

Eusebius states that Luke composed his work for a Gentile audience, saying, "And the third by Luke , the Gospel commended by Paul, and composed for Gentile converts…" (Ecclesiastical History 6256)

John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople, tells us that Luke wrote his Gospel so the believers might be continually reminded of the certainty of the events regarding the life of Christ Jesus. Note:

"Now Luke tells us also the cause wherefore he proceeds to write: "that thou mayest hold," saith Hebrews , "the certainty of the words wherein thou hast been instructed;" that Isaiah , that being continually reminded thou mayest hold to the certainty, and abide in certainty." (Homilies on the Gospel According to St. Matthew 1:7)

We can easily surmise that the author did not intend this dual work to be purely a historical record of the early Church, since many important events were left out. A careful study reveals that Luke placed narrative material within his work in order to achieve an intended purpose.

The purpose that is stated in the opening of the Gospel of Luke applies to the book of Acts as well. Therefore, the primary purpose of Luke -Acts is kerygmatic in that Luke's intent is to proclaim a true and accurate message of Jesus Christ and of the early Church. In order to give an accurate proclamation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the author attempts to:

1. Give the fullest account of the story of Jesus, starting at its beginning.

2. Use as many eyewitness accounts as possible.

3. Place these eyewitness accounts in an orderly manner.

4. Place these events within the time frame of current secular events.

5. Present his as a Gospel to the Greeks by making Jesus the Savior of the world to a sinful people.

6. Show that the Gospel has spread to the "ends of the earth" by the power of the Holy Spirit.

Conclusion- The practical and kerygmatic purpose of Luke -Acts reflects the third, imperative theme, which is a call to faith and obedience to Jesus Christ from the spirit-filled testimonies sent forth to the nations claiming that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. This third purpose is clearly seen within sermons using the text of the Gospels as the preacher calls believers to apply the teachings of Jesus Christ to their daily lives.

D. Conclusion of Three-fold Purpose of the Gospels and Acts - Having identified three purposes to the Gospels and Acts , it is logical to conclude that there are three themes embedded within these writings, with each theme supporting a particular purpose. Therefore, the three-fold thematic schemes of these books will be discussed next.

XI. Thematic Scheme

Introduction- Each book of the Holy Scriptures contains a three-fold thematic scheme in order to fulfill its intended purpose, which is to transform each child of God into the image of Jesus Christ ( Romans 8:29). The primary, or foundational, theme of a book offers a central claim that undergirds everything written by the author. The secondary, or structural theme, of the book supports its primary theme by offering reasons and evidence for the central "claim" made by the author as it fully develops the first theme. Thus, the secondary theme is more easily recognized by biblical scholars than the other two themes because they provide the literary content of the book as they navigate the reader through the arguments embedded within the biblical text, thus revealing themselves more clearly. 124] The third theme is imperative in that it calls the reader to a response based upon the central claim and supporting evidence offered by the author. Each child of God has been predestined to be conformed into the image and likeness of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Scriptures, and they alone, have the power to accomplish this task. This is why a child of God can read the Holy Scriptures with a pure heart and experience a daily transformation taking place in his life, although he may not fully understand what is taking place in his life. In addition, the reason some children of God often do not see these biblical themes is because they have not fully yielded their lives to Jesus Christ, allowing transformation to take place by the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit. Without a personal relationship with the Holy Spirit, a child of God is not willing to allow Him to manage his life and move him down the road that God predestined as his spiritual journey. This journey requires every participant to take up his cross daily and follow Jesus, and not every believer is willing to do this. In fact, every child of God chooses how far down this road of sacrifice he is willing to go. Very few of men and women of God fulfill their divine destinies by completing this difficult journey. In summary, the first theme drives the second theme, which develops the first theme, and together they demand the third theme, which is the reader's response.

124] For an excellent discussion on the use of claims, reasons, and evidence in literature, see Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, The Craft of Research (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003).

The Three-fold Thematic Scheme of the Gospel of Luke - There are three major themes woven throughout the framework of the Gospel of Luke. The primary theme serves as a foundation, while the secondary theme builds it structure upon this foundation, and the third theme gives support to this entire work. These three fit together in much the same way that a house is built.

The primary theme of the four Gospels declares that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. This theme lays a foundation within the Gospel upon which the message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ is built. The secondary theme of the Gospel of Luke is that the author compiles the testimonies of eyewitnesses who declare that Jesus has come into the world. The secondary theme reveals through these eyewitnesses that Jesus, the Saviour of the world, must be preached to all nations. This secondary theme serves as the framework of this Gospel. Thus, the Gospel of Luke can be outlined based upon the way the Gospel of Jesus began to be preached. The third theme found within Luke is a responsive, imperative theme that calls us to take up our cross and follow Him, and all those who follow Him will suffer persecution as their Saviour suffered; for this is the message of the Cross, which gives muscle, or power, to the proclamation of Jesus Christ. Luke's Gospel reveals how we serve the Lord by fulfilling the office and ministry of the prophet, which is one of the five-fold offices of the New Testament Church. In Luke -Acts the crucified life is seen in our obedience to Jesus' final commission to become witnesses of Him beginning where we are at unto the uttermost parts of the earth; for the plan of fulfilling this final command of Jesus Christ is laid out in Luke -Acts. This work best reflects the office and ministry of the prophet (Luke) and apostle (Acts) in the five-fold ministry. Thus, we see the concept of how the early apostles saw themselves as building a house that is founded upon the Lord Jesus Christ, whose house are we ( 1 Corinthians 3:10-11). The apostles took this concept of building a house from the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ ( Matthew 16:18).

1 Corinthians 3:10-11, "According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon. For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ."

Matthew 16:18, "And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it."

Note a further explanation of the three-fold structure to the Gospel of Luke:

A. The Primary Theme of the Gospels and Acts (Foundational): The Claim that Jesus Christ is the Son of God - The Gospels and Acts share the primary theme presenting the claim that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Each of the Gospels offers unique supporting evidence to this central claim. This emphasis continues through the book of Acts , where the office and ministry of the Holy Spirit also begins to merge with the Gospel theme, making a theme transitional from regeneration to sanctification.

1. The Primary Theme of the Holy Scriptures- The central theme of the Holy Bible is God's plan of redemption for mankind. This theme finds its central focus in the Cross, where our Lord and Saviour died to redeem mankind. The central figure of the Holy Scriptures is the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, the Cross is the place where man meets God and where we die to our selfish ambitions and yield our lives to the God who created all things. Therefore, the Holy Scriptures are not intended to be a precise record of ancient history. Rather, its intent is to provide a record of God's divine intervention in the history of mankind in order to redeem the world back to Himself through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on Calvary.

Every book of the Holy Bible makes a central claim that undergirds the arguments or message contained within its text. For example, the central claim of the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 6:4, "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD," to which all additional material is subordinate. The bulk of the material in the Old Testament is subordinate in that it serves as reasons and evidence to support this central claim. This material serves as the secondary theme, offering the literary structure of the book. In addition, the central claim calls for a response, which is stated in the following verse, "And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." ( Deuteronomy 6:5) Such a response is considered the third, imperative theme that runs through every book of the Holy Scriptures. This central claim is the primary, or foundational, theme and is often obscured by the weight of evidence that is used to drive the central message, which weight of evidence makes up the secondary theme; and thus, it contains more content than the primary theme. Therefore, the secondary themes of the books of the Holy Scripture are generally more recognizable than the primary theme. Nevertheless, the central claim, or truth, must be excavated down to the foundation and made clearly visible in order to understand the central theme driving the arguments contained within the book. Only then can proper exegesis and sermon delivery be executed.

2. Why Four Gospels? - The New Testament opens with the four Gospels and the book of Acts. The Gospels of Matthew ,, Mark ,, Luke , and John , and the book of Acts serve primarily as testimonies, or witnesses, of the deity of Lord Jesus Christ. 125] God could have included dozens of Gospels into the Holy Bible, but He only chose four. Why is this so? One reason is that a matter, or truth, is confirmed in the mouth of two or three witnesses ( 2 Corinthians 13:1). Two or three Gospels were enough to establish the validity of Jesus' ministry. Skeptics would not believe in the Savior even if there were dozens of Gospels. In essence, there was no need for additional Gospels. The question arises as to why there are four Gospels, and not three or five records of Jesus' life and ministry. The answer can be found clearly in the witnesses that Jesus lists of Himself in John 5:1-47. In this passage of Scripture Jesus tells us there are four witnesses to His Deity beside Himself: the testimonies of the Father ( Luke 5:19-30), of John the Baptist ( Luke 5:31-35), of the works of Jesus ( Luke 5:36-38), and of the Old Testament Scriptures ( Luke 5:39-39). The structure of the Gospel of John is built around these four witnesses. The Synoptic Gospels emphasis one of these particular witnesses: Matthew emphasizes the testimony of the Scriptures; Mark emphasizes the testimony of Jesus' works and miracles; Luke emphasizes the testimony of John the Baptist and other eye-witnesses; John emphasizes primarily the witness of the God the Father. Although each of the four Gospels emphasizes one particular witness, the testimonies of the other three witnesses are also found in each Gospel.

125] Ernest Burton expresses a distinction between the primary and secondary themes of the Gospels, saying, "To us today the highest value of our gospels is in the testimony they bring us concerning the deeds, words, and character of our Lord Jesus. The ideas and purpose of the author, and even his personal identity, are to us matters of secondary consideration." See Ernest De Witt Burton, "The Purpose and Plan of the Gospel of Matthew ," in The Biblical World 111 (January 1898): 37.

2 Corinthians 13:1, "This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established."

The four Gospels and the book of Acts reveal man's need for salvation, or the redemptive plan of regeneration, through faith in Jesus Christ, as He shed His blood on Calvary and made a way for man to be restored back into fellowship with the Heavenly Father through faith and obedience to His Word. Man's response to this claim results in his salvation, or regeneration, so that he becomes a child of God, which serves as the third, imperative, theme of the Gospels and Acts.

B. Secondary Theme of the Gospel of Luke (Structural): The Testimony of Men - Introduction- The secondary themes of the books of the Holy Scriptures support the primary themes by offering reasons and evidence for the central "claim" of the book made by the author. Thus, the secondary themes are more easily recognized by biblical scholars than the other two themes because they provide the literary structure of the book as they navigate the reader through the arguments embedded within the biblical text, thus revealing themselves more clearly. For example, the central claim of the Pentateuch declares that the Lord God of Israel is the only God that man should serve, and man is to love the Lord God with all of his heart, mind, and strength, a statement found in the Shema of Deuteronomy 6:4-5, which is the foundational theme of the Old Testament. The books of Hebrew poetry provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his heart as its secondary theme. The books of the prophets provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his mind as its secondary theme, as he set his hope in the coming of the Messiah to redeem mankind. The historical books provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his strength as its secondary theme.

The central claim of the four Gospel writers is that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, which is the foundational theme of this division of the Holy Scriptures. In addition, each Gospel writer offers evidence as its secondary theme to support his claim. The Gospel of John offers the five-fold testimony of God the Father, John the Baptist, the miracles of Jesus, the Old Testament Scriptures, and the testimony of Jesus Christ Himself as its secondary theme. Matthew expounds upon the testimony of the Old Testament Scriptures as its secondary theme; Mark expounds upon the testimony of the miracles of Jesus as its secondary theme; Luke expounds upon the testimony of John the Baptist and other eye-witnesses and well as that of the apostles in the book of Acts as its secondary theme.

The central claim of the Pauline Church Epistles is that the Gospel of Jesus Christ alone how the power to redeem and transform man into the image of Jesus, which is the foundational theme of this division of the Holy Scriptures. The epistle of Romans supports this claim by offering evidence of mankind's depravity and God's plan of redemption to redeem him as its secondary theme. The epistles of Ephesians and Philippians expound upon the role of God the Father in His divine foreknowledge as their secondary theme; the epistles of Colossians and Galatians expound upon the role of Jesus Christ as the head of the Church as their secondary theme; the epistles of 1, 2 Thessalonians , 1, 2Corinthians expound upon the role of the Holy Spirit in sanctifying the believers as their secondary theme.

The central claim of the Pastoral Epistles is that believers must serve God through the order of the New Testament Church. The epistles of 1, 2Timothy expound upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a pure heart, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Titus expounds upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a renewed mind, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Philemon expounds upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a genuine lifestyle, which is its secondary theme.

The central claim of the General Epistles is that believers must persevere in the Christian faith in order to obtain eternal redemption. The epistles of Hebrews ,, James , and 1Peter modify this theme to reflect perseverance from persecutions from without the Church. The epistle of Hebrews expounds upon the High Priesthood of Jesus Christ, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of James expounds upon a lifestyle of perseverance through the joy of the Holy Spirit, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of 1Peter expounds upon our hope of divine election through God the Father, which is its secondary theme. The epistles of 2Peter, 1, 2, 3, John and Jude reflect perseverance from false doctrines from within. The epistle of 2Peter expounds upon growing in the knowledge of God's Word with a sound mind, which is its secondary theme. The epistles of 1, 2, 3John expound upon walking in fellowship with God and one another with a pure heart, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Jude expounds how living a godly lifestyle with our bodies, which is its secondary theme.

The Apocalypse of John , though not considered an epistle, emphasizes the glorification of the Church, giving believers a vision of the hope that is laid up before them as a source of encouragement for those who persevere until the end. The central claim of the book of Revelation is that Jesus Christ is coming to take His Bride the Church to Glory. The secondary theme supports this claim with the evidence of Great Tribulation Period.

1. The Secondary Theme of the Gospel of John - The secondary theme of the Gospel of John is the five-fold testimony that supports the primary claim that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, 126] which is the fundamental tenet of the Christian faith. This explains why many new believers are asked to read this Gospel early in their conversion experience. Such a declaration of Christ's deity requires evidence. When a testimony is given in a court of law, it is accompanied by all of the available evidence. This is how John the apostle presents his case of the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ. In John 5:1-47, Jesus tells us there are four witnesses to confirm His Deity, which are the testimonies of the Father, of John the Baptist, of the works and miracles of Jesus, and of the Old Testament Scriptures. Jesus declares Himself as a fifth witness in John 8:18.

126] The emphasis on the deity of Jesus Christ in the Gospel of John is widely recognized by scholars. For example, Louis Berkhof says, "The gospel of John emphasizes more than any of the others the Divinity of Christ." See Louis Berkhof, New Testament Introduction (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans-Sevensma Co, 1915), 104.

The secondary theme of John , which provides the structure to this Gospel, is built upon this five-fold testimony. John's Gospel relies on the testimonies of these five sources in order to declare the deity of the Savior. These five witnesses of Christ's deity support the primary theme of the Gospel of John , which is the declaration that Jesus is the Son of God. This is why John ends his testimony of witnesses with the declaration, "But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name." ( John 20:31). The secondary theme of John's Gospel states that all available, supporting witnesses confirm that Jesus is truly God manifested in the flesh, the Son of God. Therefore, John's Gospel is a collection of five testimonies which are use to witness to this fact. The Gospel of John opens with the testimony of the Father declaring Jesus' eternal Sonship ( John 1:1-18). This is followed by the testimony of John the Baptist and his disciples ( John 1:19-51), the testimony of six of His miracles, the seventh being His resurrection ( John 2:1 to John 11:54), the testimony of seven Old Testament passages ( John 11:55 to John 20:31), and the testimony of Jesus Christ Himself ( John 21:1-23). Together these five witnesses support the claim that Jesus is the Son of God. John's Gospel also emphasizes Jesus' relationship with the Father much more than the other Gospels.

2. The Secondary Themes of the Synoptic Gospels- An examination of the secondary themes of the Synoptic Gospels find that they serve as additional witnesses to the deity of the Lord Jesus Christ by emphasizing one of these five witnesses stated in John. Thus, the Gospel of John will serve as the foundational book of the Gospels, and of the entire New Testament. In fact, a person can simply believe in Jesus Christ as the Son of God and be saved, whether or not he has a deeper and fuller revelation our Saviour and the other New Testament books. Faith in Christ Jesus as the Son of God is the foundational message of the John's Gospel, while the other Gospels support this message. The Gospel of Matthew portrays Jesus Christ as the Messiah who fulfilled the prophecies of Old Testament Scripture. Matthew testifies from the Scriptures that Jesus Christ is the King of the Jews to support His claim as the Messiah; for in this Gospel is a chronological list of Scriptures that were fulfilled in the life of Jesus Christ. Therefore, Matthew serves as the testimony from Scriptures that Jesus is the Messiah sent to usher in the Kingdom of Heaven. The Gospel of Mark testifies of the many miracles of the Lord Jesus Christ by emphasizing the preaching of the Gospel as the way in which these miracles take place. The Gospel of Mark centers it theme on the miracles of our Lord and Savior. Thus, the witness of Jesus' works and miracles is revealed by Mark. The Gospel of Luke serves to give testimony from men who were eye-witnesses of the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. It gives the most extensive story on the birth, life and testimony of John the Baptist. It also gives the testimonies of many others, such as Zacharias, Elisabeth, Mary, Simeon, and Anna. Luke presents Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world that was under the authority of Roman rule, and he was writing to a Roman official who was able to exercise his authority over men. Thus, Luke was able to contrast Jesus' divine authority and power to that of the Roman rule. Jesus rightfully held the title as the Saviour of the world because of the fact that He had authority over mankind as well as the rest of God's creation. Someone who saves and delivers a person does it because he has the authority and power over that which oppresses the person. Finally, the book of Acts gives the testimonies of the Apostles and early Church. In summary, Matthew represents the testimony of the Scriptures, which sees Jesus Christ as the Messiah and coming King of the Jews. Mark represents the works and miracles of Jesus, and sees Him as the Preacher of the Gospel with signs and wonders following. Luke represents John the Baptist and other eyewitnesses, who testify of Jesus as the Saviour of the World. It is important to note that although each of the four Gospels emphasizes one particular witness, the testimonies of the other three witnesses can be found within the framework of each Gospel, but only one has a major emphasis. Finally, the book of Acts gives us the testimony of the early disciples, which builds upon Luke's theme, as they testify of Jesus as the Saviour of the World ( John 15:26-27).

John 15:26-27, "But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me: And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning."

In fact, every book of the Holy Bible serves as some form of a testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus stated this in John 5:39.

John 5:39, "Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me."

Although each of the four Gospels emphasizes one particular witness, the testimonies of the other three witnesses are also woven within the framework of each Gospel.

3. The Secondary Theme of the Gospel of Luke - The secondary theme of Luke supports its primary theme by revealing the eye-witness testimonies of men concerning of the deity of Jesus Christ. The secondary theme also gives the book its structure, or outline. The primary and secondary themes are woven together in order to present a narrative of how these eye-witnesses testimonies were delivered through prophetic utterances. Together, the secondary theme of Luke/Acts supports its primary theme by revealing the way in which to testify of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the ends of the earth, which is through the infilling of the Holy Spirit. The secondary theme of Luke/Acts supports its primary theme of the testimony of eyewitnesses by stating that Jesus and the apostles taught and ministered the Gospel with under the anointing and authority as the Saviour of the World.

The Gospel of Luke serves to give one of the 5-fold testimonies of the deity of Jesus Christ, that of John the Baptist and other eyewitnesses. The introduction to this Gospel itself reflects the theme that Luke is a collection of testimonies from men.

Luke 1:1-4, "Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us, Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word; It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed."

The sources of many of the accounts recorded in Luke's Gospel can only be speculated. Most scholars believe that Luke collected testimonies during his missionary journeys with Paul. For example, during Paul's two-year imprisonment in Caesarea Philippi Luke could have met many of those people he mentions in his Gospel. We know from the writings of the early Church fathers that many of Paul's companions mentioned by Luke and others became some of the early bishops. In this list of early bishops, we find many possible witnesses that Luke could have talked with, and some of them are mentioned only in Luke -Acts. The names include: James the bishop of Jerusalem, the brother of our Lord, Simeon the son of Cleopas, Judas the son of James , Zacchaeus, who was once a publican, Cornelius, Theophilus, Euodius, Ignatius Annianus, Mark the evangelist, Avilius, Linus, the son of Claudia, Clemens, Timotheus, Aristo, Strataeas the son of Lois, Aristo, Gains, Demetrius, Lucius, Titus , Dionysius, Marathones, Archippus, Philemon , Onesimus, once the servant of Philemon , Crescens, Aquila, Nicetas, and Crispus. (Constitutions of the Holy Apostles 7446)

Luke gives us the most extensive story on the birth, life and testimony of John the Baptist. It also gives the testimonies of many others, such as Zacharias, Elisabeth, Mary, Simeon, and Anna. We see the fact that the testimony of angels comes as men standing in broad daylight in Luke's writings ( Luke 1:11, Luke 2:9; Acts 12:7-10), while they appear in the form of dreams in the Gospel of Matthew ( Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:13; Matthew 2:19). After the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, Luke's Gospel uniquely records the eyewitness accounts of Mary Magdalene and the other women at the empty tomb, of the two on the road to Emmaus, of His appearance to the eleven and of His ascension into Heaven. In addition, Jesus gives a commission in the last chapter of Luke that corresponds with the theme of this Gospel. He tells the disciples to become witnesses of the things that they had seen and heard.

Luke 24:48, "And ye are witnesses of these things."

Luke -Acts also addresses the anointing behind the testimonies and sermons of these early apostles. Jesus' commission in Luke's Gospel not only told them to become witnesses of these things ( Luke 24:48), but to tarry in Jerusalem until they are filled and anointed with the Holy Spirit.

Luke 24:49, "And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high."

Since the secondary theme carries the structure, the Gospel of Luke is structured around the events of those who were filled with the Holy Spirit prophesying and testifying that Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world. It is important to note how Luke's narrative material places emphasis upon the filling of the Holy Spirit to enable these people to declare their testimonies through prophecy. For example, regarding the three testimonies that prophesied John and Jesus' births, in the Witness of Zacharias ( Luke 1:5-25) the angel tells Zacharias that his son would be filled with the Holy Spirit from the womb ( Luke 1:15) and go forth preaching in the spirit and power of Elias ( Luke 1:17). In the Witness of Mary ( Luke 1:26-56) the angel tells Mary that the Holy Spirit would come upon her and overshadow her, and the babe leaped in Elisabeth's womb as she was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied. In the witness of Zacharias and Elisabeth ( Luke 1:57-80), Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit at the birth of John and prophesied ( Luke 1:67; Luke 1:70). In the story of Jesus' birth, Simeon came into the Temple by the Spirit and prophesied when he met the baby Jesus concerning what was revealed to him by the Spirit about the child. Anna the prophetess also came and gave her prophecy under the unction of the Spirit. The Holy Spirit descended upon Jesus at His water baptism ( Luke 3:22). He was led into the wilderness by the Spirit ( Luke 4:1) and returned in the power of the Spirit ( Luke 4:14). Jesus read out of the book of Isaiah that the Spirit of the Lord was upon Him as He spoke in the synagogue in Nazareth ( Luke 4:18). Jesus spoke with power while in Capernaum, "And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power" ( Luke 4:32), and He healed under this same anointing ( Luke 5:17). He then trained the Twelve and the seventy to minister in the authority in preparation to take the Gospel to the uttermost parts of the world ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38). Jesus sent His twelve disciples out with power and authority ( Luke 9:1). When Jesus healed the epileptic son the people were amazed at the mighty power of God ( Luke 9:43). He sent out the seventy with power ( Luke 10:19). Jesus promised His disciples the anointing of the Holy Spirit to those who ask ( Luke 11:13). When Jesus warns His disciples of the leaven of the Pharisees, He exhorts them to speak fearlessly because the Holy Spirit would give them the words to say in that hour ( Luke 12:12).

The prophetic testimony of Luke's eyewitnesses testified that Jesus Christ was the Saviour of the World, and that the Gospel was for all races, classes and genders of people.

a) Jesus is the Saviour of the World- The Gospel of Luke serves to testify that Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world who makes known the mercy of God to all people, regardless of race, gender, class or condition in life, and not to the Jew only. Thus, the Gospel must be preached to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Luke portrays the Gospel as a message to the Gentiles as well as to the Jews. Mary calls him God my Saviour ( Luke 1:47). The angels announce the birth of Jesus as the Saviour ( Luke 2:11), as well as good will towards all men ( Luke 2:14). Simeon said that Jesus was a "light to lighten the Gentiles" ( Luke 2:32). Luke's quotation of Isaiah 40:3-5 is the only one of the four Gospels ( Matthew 3:3, Mark 1:3, John 1:23) that includes the phrase "And all flesh shall see the salvation of God" ( Luke 3:4-6). Jesus was the son of Adam ( Luke 3:23-38) as well as Abraham. Jesus tells of His rejection by the Jews by illustrating two Gentiles who received Elijah and Elisha ( Luke 4:25-27). Jesus places the Samaritans on an equal level with the Jews ( Luke 9:56; Luke 10:33; Luke 17:16). When Matthew's Gospel sends out the twelve two by two, Jesus tells them not to go into the way of the Gentiles ( Matthew 10:5), while Luke places no restrictions upon their ministry ( Luke 10:1-12) in this parallel passage. Jesus condemns Jewish cities while commending Gentile ones ( Luke 10:13-16). Luke says that many Gentiles will be in Heaven, while many Jews are thrust out ( Luke 13:28-29). Luke's eschatological discourse refers to the "times of the Gentiles" ( Luke 21:24), while Matthew's parallel passage describes no such period in history ( Matthew 23-25). Jesus commissions His disciples to preach the Gospel to all nations beginning at Jerusalem ( Luke 24:47). The book of Acts continues this theme by emphasizing how the Gospel spread from Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria unto Rome itself.

Luke's Gospel draws clear pictures of individual from all walks of society as they encounter the Saviour: Zechariah , Elisabeth, Mary, the shepherds, Simeon, Anna, John the Baptist, the Samaritan woman, Mary and Martha, Zacchaeus, Cleopas, as well as those who rejected Him, such as Pontius Pilate and Herod. The author demonstrates to the readers how individuals responded to an encounter with the One who could save them from their sins. Luke's Gospel is a list of testimonies of how people react when they encountered Jesus Christ.

b) The Gospel is for All People- The Gospel of Luke also emphasizes Jesus' concern for people from all walks of life. Luke shows us God's love for the sinner. It makes a great deal of references to Jesus' concern for publicans and sinners as well as His judgment against the Pharisees and other Jewish leaders, the rich and those who reject the Gospel. Our Saviour has come to set the captives free ( Luke 4:18-19): he has some to save men's lives ( Luke 9:56): and he has come to seek and to save that which is lost ( Luke 19:10). Note the many unique references to sinners in Luke's Gospel:

Peter's confession as a sinful man—( Luke 5:8)

Jesus eats with sinners—( Luke 5:27-39)

Love your enemies—( Luke 6:27-36)

Jesus a friend of publicans and sinners—( Luke 7:34)

The story of the sinful woman —( Luke 7:36-50)

The Galilean sinners—( Luke 13:1-5)

The parable of the lost sheep—( Luke 15:1-7)

The parable of the lost coin—( Luke 15:8-10)

The parable of the prodigal son—( Luke 15:11-32)

The parable of the publican and sinner—( Luke 18:9-14)

The salvation of Zaccheus—( Luke 19:1-10)

The repentant malefactor on the Cross—( Luke 23:40-43)

In Luke's Gospel, Jesus shows sympathy for the social outcasts, such as the immoral woman who anointed the feet of Jesus ( Luke 7:36-50), the Good Samaritan ( Luke 10:30-37), the Prodigal Son ( Luke 15:11-32), the repentant publican ( Luke 18:9-14), a tax collect named Zaccheus ( Luke 19:1-10) and the thief on the Cross who repented ( Luke 23:39-43).

Luke's Gospel places emphasis upon women as well as the social outcasts. He tells the stories of Mary, Eliazbeth and Anna (chapters 1-2), the widow of Nain ( Luke 7:11-17), the immoral woman ( Luke 7:36-50), those women who gave to support Jesus ( Luke 8:1-3), Mary and Martha ( Luke 10:38-42), the poor widow who gave two mites ( Luke 21:1-4), the women who lamented Jesus ( Luke 23:27-31), those women who watched His crucifixion ( Luke 23:49) and the women who witnessed His resurrection ( Luke 23:55 to Luke 24:11). He mentions thirteen women not found elsewhere in the Gospels.

Luke shows sympathy for women and children as well as those who were sick and demoniac. Therefore, we see Jesus befriending the outcasts and oppression in society, telling them that He has come to save all people from their sins. Jesus shows concern for the poor by contrasting them to the evils of the rich.

The theme that Jesus has come to save the sinner and to declare judgment upon those who reject His message is woven within the framework of the testimonies of men. We see this focus on individual evangelism stated in Luke 19:10.

Luke 19:10, "For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost."

Thus, Luke places emphasis upon individuals and their need for Christ throughout His Gospel.

c) Proclaim the Gospel to All Nations, Beginning at Jerusalem- Another passage that reveals the duel themes of Luke -Acts can be seen in Luke 24:45-47.

Luke 24:45-47, "Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures, And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem."

In this passage of Scripture, we see that the theme of the Gospel of Luke is the eyewitness testimonies of our Lord's suffering and resurrection in Jerusalem, while the book of Acts is that this testimony as it is preached to all nations beginning at Jerusalem.

Luke's Gospel carefully places the beginning of the Gospel in Jerusalem. The travel narrative to Jerusalem contained in Luke 9:51 to Luke 19:27 takes up the bulk of Luke's Gospel. This story emphasizes the importance role of Jerusalem in the beginning of the Gospel. Luke places Jesus in the Temple in Jerusalem talking to the Scribes in order to begin the life of our Lord, and then places Jesus in Jerusalem at His ascension to close His Gospel. In contrast, Matthew closes his Gospel with Jesus in Galilee. Thus, Luke makes the city of Jerusalem the strategic location of the beginning of the Gospel, while the book of Acts reveals its expansion to all nations. This is why the book of Acts opens with the disciples in Jerusalem, as Jesus commanded in Luke's Gospel.

4. Comparison of the Great Commissions of the Four Gospels- We can clearly see the themes of the four Gospels clearly emphasized in each of their Great Commissions. When Matthew's Great Commission is compared to the one in Mark , the distinction is obvious. The Great Commission ending the Gospel of Matthew serves as a final commission to the Church to build itself upon the foundational doctrines laid down in these five discourses through the teaching ministry. Mark's Gospel emphasizes the preaching of the Gospel with signs following. This supports the major themes of each Gospel. Matthew's underlying theme is to testify of Jesus through Scriptures, which lays the foundation for doctrine. Mark's theme is the testimony of Jesus through His miracles, which Gospel He delivers to His disciples. The structural theme of Luke's Gospel is the collection of verifiable eyewitness accounts as to the life and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. As a result, Jesus commands His disciples to be witnesses of these events by preaching the Gospel to all nations beginning at Jerusalem ( Luke 24:47), and to tarry in Jerusalem unto they be endued with power on high ( Luke 24:49). Thus, he is making a clear reference to the contents of the book of Acts; and thus, he establishes its theme. The structural theme of John's Gospel is the five-fold testimony of the deity of the Lord Jesus Christ. John's Gospel reveals His deity with the testimony of the Father, of John the Baptist, of Jesus' miracles, by the fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures and finally in the last chapter by the testimony of Jesus Himself. This is why John's commission is simply, "Come, follow Me."

C. Third Theme (Imperative): The Proclamation of the Cross and the Persecution of the Church (The Office of the Prophet and Apostle: Being Prophetic Witnesses of the Gospel to the Ends of the Earth) - Introduction- The third theme of each book of the Holy Scriptures is a call by the author for the reader to apply the central truth, or claim, laid down in the book to the Christian life. It is a call to a lifestyle of crucifying the flesh and taking up one's Cross daily to follow Jesus. Every child of God has been predestined to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ ( Romans 8:29), and every child of God faces challenges as well as failures in the pursuit of his Christian journey. For example, the imperative theme of the Old Testament is that God's children are to serve the Lord God with all of their heart, mind, and strength, and love their neighbour as themselves ( Deuteronomy 6:4-5).

The child of God cannot fulfill his divine destiny of being conformed into the image of Jesus without yielding himself and following the plan of redemption that God avails to every human being. This 4-fold, redemptive path is described in Romans 8:29-30 as predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. The phase of justification can be further divided into regeneration, indoctrination, divine service, and perseverance. Although each individual will follow a unique spiritual journey in life, the path is the same in principle for every believer since it follows the same divine pattern described above. This allows us to superimpose one of three thematic schemes upon each book of the Holy Scriptures in order to vividly see its imperative theme. Every book follows a literary structure that allows either (1) the three-fold scheme of Father, Song of Solomon , and Holy Spirit: or (2) the scheme of spirit, soul, and body of man; or (3) the scheme of predestination, calling, justification (regeneration, indoctrination, divine service, and perseverance), and glorification in some manner.

1. The Third Theme of the Gospel of Luke - The third theme of Luke/Acts involves the response of the recipient to God's divine calling revealed in its primary and secondary themes, which is the prophetic testimony of eye witnesses that Jesus is the Son of God. As believers we are predestined to be conformed to the image of Christ Jesus ( Romans 8:29). In order to go through this process of transformation, we, too, must live a crucified life daily through obedience to the divine calling given in this book in proclaiming the Cross. Jesus endured the Cross for the sins of mankind and we must take up our cross daily to follow Him. This means that we must endure persecution just as our Saviour endured. The rejection of Jesus by the Jews and acceptance by the Gentiles is played out in many passages of this Gospel as an underlying theme. The Gospel of Luke shows how the Jews rejected Jesus Christ and how the Gospel was for all nations. The early Church faced persecution from both the Jews and the Roman Empire. We see this supporting theme in Luke 24:45-47.

Luke 24:45-47, "Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures, And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem."

The Filling of the Holy Spirit Empowered Jesus and Empowers Us to Testify to All Nations that Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the World - The third theme of Luke/Acts supports its secondary theme by revealing the way in which to testify of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the ends of the earth, which is through the infilling of the Holy Spirit. Jesus taught and ministered the Gospel under the anointing and authority as the Saviour of the World through His office as a Prophet. Jesus' first prophetic utterance is found in Luke 4:18 when He said, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me…" The people recognized His prophetic ministry in Luke 4:32, "And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power." Jesus stayed filled with the Holy Spirit through a lifestyle of prayer, so that the emphasis upon prayer in Luke's Gospel, which is noted by scholars, is a part of the prophetic theme of the book. Jesus moved in His prophetic office by staying filled with the Spirit of God. Acts continues this theme by stating that this Gospel must be testified to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem, by witnesses that are filled with the Holy Ghost. It is important to note how Luke's narrative material places emphasis upon the filling of the Holy Spirit to enable these people to declare their testimonies through prophecy. The Gospel of Luke is structured around the events of those who were testifying that Jesus Christ is the Saviour of the world, but these testimonies came when people were filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied. For example, regarding the three testimonies that prophesied the births of John and Jesus, in the Witness of Zacharias ( Luke 1:5-25) the angel tells Zacharias that his son would be filled with the Holy Spirit from the womb. In the Witness of Mary ( Luke 1:26-56) the angel tells Mary that the Holy Spirit would come upon her and overshadow her, and the babe leaped in Elisabeth's womb as she was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied. In the witness of Zacharias & Elisabeth ( Luke 1:57-80), Zacharias was filled with the Holy Spirit and prophesied. In the story of Jesus' birth, Simeon came by the Spirit and prophesied what was revealed to him by the Spirit about the child Jesus, and Anna the prophetess also came and gave her prophecy under the unction of the Spirit. Jesus Christ was first filled with the Holy Spirit ( Luke 3:22; Luke 4:1), then testified in power and authority under His anointing that He was the Saviour of the World ( Luke 4:14 to Luke 9:50). He then trained the Twelve and the seventy to minister in the authority in preparation to take the Gospel to the uttermost parts of the world ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38). The book of Acts opens with the disciples in the upper room being filled with the Holy Spirit and preaching the Gospel under their anointing ( Acts 2:1-4). Paul will be filled with the Holy Spirit at the inception of his ministry by the laying on of hands by Ananias. Thus, the secondary theme is the role of the anointing of the Holy Spirit in order to empower men who are chosen to take the Gospel to the world.

In the overall scheme of Luke -, Acts , the crucified life is seen in our obedience to Jesus' final commission to become witnesses of Him beginning where we live unto the uttermost parts of the earth; for the plan of fulfilling this final command of Jesus Christ is laid out in Luke -Acts. I have seen this fulfillment in the life and ministry of Bob Nichols, who began as an associate pastor in a small Assembly of God church in Fort Worth, Texas in the 1950's. The Lord used this church to touch its neighbourhood. In 1964he started a church in Fort Worth. In the 1970's the Lord brought a revival to this church that touched the city. In 1974the Lord moved him to a large church building in downtown Fort Worth. In 1993the Lord brought a revival in this church through Evangelist Rodney Howard-Brown that touched a nation. Then, in 1997 Nichols opened a Christian television station in Uganda, East Africa. After being on the air for nine years, it has changed this nation into a Christian nation. I know, because I have managed this station for those years. But the point of this story is to show how God used one man to reach first his neighbour, then his city, his nation and finally other nations of the world. This is the evidence of a life that has followed the plan laid out in Luke -Acts for New Testament church growth. Luke/Acts best reflects the office and ministry of the prophet and apostle in the five-fold ministry of the Church. The prophetic voice gives the Church a vision and direction, while the apostolic office leads the Church in that vision. Both of these voices work in unison in fulfilling the Great Commission. Thus, according to Luke -Acts the Kingdom of God is established upon earth through the prophetic and apostolic ministry working together to testify of the Saviour of the World through the anointing of the Holy Spirit.

XII. Literary Structure

The literary structure of the Gospel of Luke must follow the thematic scheme of the book. It is important to note that such a breakdown of this book of the Holy Bible was not necessarily intended by the original author, but it is being used as a means of making the interpretation easier. It is hoped that this summary and outline can identify the underlying themes of the book, as well as the themes of its major divisions, sections and subsections. Then individual verses can more easily be understood in light of the emphasis of the immediate passages in which they are found.

Summary of the Book (Geographical Outline) - Luke 1:3 declares that his Gospel is an "orderly account" of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. We can conclude that this Gospel has an order that can be identified and outlined. Thus, before we can give a summary and outline of the Gospel of Luke , we must decide upon its structure. Luke tells us that his Gospel an orderly account of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ ( Luke 1:1-4). Thus, this Gospel is structured as an orderly collection of eyewitness accounts. However, he sets his material within a geographical framework, to which geographical structure most scholars adhere. As you examine the following summary and outline, you will discover that the Gospel of Luke has an amazingly detailed structure that only God could have orchestrated. Also, because Luke places such emphasis upon these eyewitness testimonies, his Gospel tends to discuss particular events at much more length than in the other Gospels.

The Travel Narrative- Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38 is traditionally called the Travel Narrative and gives us the longest account of His final journey to Jerusalem, which begins with His rejection by the Samaritans and culminates in His triumphant entry into the city of David and His daily teaching in the Temple. He gives us much unique narrative material in this section of his Gospel in an effort to again show how all events lead to His death in Jerusalem. This section places emphasis upon Jesus training the twelve apostles to become witnesses of Him through His teaching ministry. We see Jesus' teaching ministry mentioned in Luke 13:22.

Luke 13:22, "And he went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem."

In Luke 9:51 Jesus sets His face towards Jerusalem with the decision that His time in Galilee was ending, where He has enjoyed a successful ministry, and it was time to face Calvary. His objective has been reached as He had revealed Himself to the Twelve as the Savior of the World and the Son of God and they had embraced Him. These disciples now saw Him as the Christ, the Son of the Living God ( Luke 9:20). With this phase of His ministry complete, it was now time for His destiny to Calvary to be fulfilled.

The emphasis in the Travel Narrative changes from Jesus revealing His divine authority and power to His disciples towards an emphasis upon teaching and instructing His disciples on how to walk in the authority of His name. The Travel Narrative begins by showing Jesus training and sending out the seventy disciples to become witnesses of the Kingdom of God. We find Him exhorting, correcting and rebuking the people He meets along this journey. This journey to Jerusalem, thus, serves as a training ground for the twelve apostles to learn how to fulfill their divine commission after His ascension into Heaven. They, too, will embark upon their own separate journeys to the Cross, while testifying of the Kingdom of God as will be recorded in the book of Acts. They, too, will encounter people on a daily basis and learn how to minister to them by watching Jesus during His journey to the Cross. Jesus' final words before His ascension will be a commission to His disciples to be witnesses of the Kingdom of God ( Luke 24:46-49).

In 2 Timothy 4:1-2 Paul instructs young Timothy in a similar manner. He says, "I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom; Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine." Thus, Paul's phrase "be instant in season, out of season" means to be always ready to speak under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit because He will be there every time to anoint a preacher of the Gospel. Paul was simply telling this young preach from years of personal experience that God would be faithful to speak through him on all occasions and with all types of messages. Young Timothy must learn to let the Holy Spirit lead him on what needed to be said for each occasion, whether it was with reprove, rebuke, or exhortation with all longsuffering and doctrine. For we see Jesus Christ in the Gospel speaking different ways to different people. Some He instructed and encouraged because of their good hearts. Others He rebuked because of the hardness of their hearts. While others Jesus corrected because of their simple ignorance. This is what we find Jesus doing in His Travel Narrative from Galilee to Jerusalem.

It is interesting to note that much of this material in the Travel Narrative ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 19:48) is unique to the four Evangelists. This is because Luke is giving a unique message to his readers, which message is the equipping and training of the Twelve to take the Gospel to the uttermost parts of the world.

Characteristics of Section Breaks- The Gospel of Luke can be divided into five major sections. Luke opens with a prologue ( Luke 1:1-4), then he provides witnesses regarding the predestination of His birth, infancy and childhood ( Luke 1:5 to Luke 2:52), His calling ( Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:15), His justification ( Luke 4:16 to Luke 19:27), and His glorification ( Luke 19:28 to Luke 24:53). We can identify particular characteristics to the sections breaks in the Gospel of Luke.

1. Five-Fold Plan of Redemption - As is characteristic of all of the Gospels, God's plan of redemption is woven through the biblical text: predestination, calling, justification, indoctrination, divine service, perseverance, and glorification.

2. Testimony of Jesus' Ministry as Doing and Teaching- The Gospel of Luke can be broken into a two-fold scheme of narrative and discourse. The prologue to the book of Acts serves as a brief summary and outline of the body of the Gospel of Luke. In Acts 1:1 the writer makes a clear reference to the Gospel of Luke as a companion book by telling us that this "former treatise" was about "all that Jesus began to do and to teach." Thus, the Gospel of Luke is the former treatise that tells us about the life of the Lord Jesus Christ concerning "doing" and "teaching." For this reason, the subject material of the Gospel of Luke regarding the two sections of His calling ( Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:15) and His justification ( Luke 4:16 to Luke 19:27) can be divided into two sections, narrative passages (doing) followed by its companion discourse (teaching). If we examine the Gospel of Luke , we can find narrative material that testifies to the topic, followed by a discourse in which Jesus Christ teaches on the topic. 127]

127] We can also see this two-fold aspect of doing and teaching in the Gospel of Matthew , as Jesus always demonstrated the work of the ministry before teaching it in one of His five major discourses. The narrative material preceding his discourses serves as a demonstration of what He then taught. For example, in Matthew 8:1 to 9:38, Jesus performed nine miracles before teaching His disciples in Matthew 10:1-42and sending them out to perform these same types of miracles. In Matthew 11:1 to 12:50 this Gospel records examples of how people reacted to the preaching of the Gospel before Jesus teaches on this same subject in the parables of Matthew 13:1-52. We see examples of how Jesus handled offences in Matthew 13:53 to 17:27 before He teaches on this subject in Matthew 18:1-35. Jesus also prepares for His departure in Matthew 19:1 to 25:46 before teaching on His second coming in Matthew 24-25.

3. Geographical Testimony of Jesus' Travel- The sections breaks of witnesses regarding Jesus' prophetic birth and childhood are divided by the timeframes of Roman leadership over Palestine. However, the section breaks of Jesus' public ministry are characterized by comments on Jesus' travel through Palestine as He ultimately makes His way to Jerusalem to face His Passion and the Cross. These sections begin by telling that Jesus enters Capernaum, or travels through villages, or faces Jerusalem, or travels through Samaria and Galilee or enters Jerusalem.

4. Prophetic Testimony- Many of the sections contain a key prophetic testimony that reflects the emphasis of Luke's Gospel as that of prophecy.

I. Prologue to Luke's Gospel ( Luke 1:1-4) - Luke 1:1-4 serves as a preface, or prologue, to the Gospel, setting forth Luke"s purpose in writing his Gospel. The theme of any book in the Holy Bible can be found in the first verse or passage of the book. For example, the opening verse of the Gospel of Mark reflects the preaching ministry of Jesus Christ as He proclaims the arrival of the Kingdom of God, which reflects the secondary theme of the Gospel of Mark: the testimony of the miracles of Jesus Christ through the preaching of the Gospel that Jesus is the Son of God. The opening verse of the Gospel of Matthew reveals the genealogy of Jesus Christ, which is takes the form of a chronological fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures of the coming of the Messiah, and this verse reflects the secondary theme of Matthew: the testimony of the Old Testament Scriptures that Jesus is the Son of God. The opening verses of Luke's Gospel ( Luke 1:1-4) make the claim that this book is a collection of eye-witness accounts of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ, which reflects the secondary theme of Luke: the testimony of John the Baptist and other eye witnesses through prophetic utterances that Jesus is the Son of God. The theme of a collection of many testimonies is declared in the closing verse of the Gospel of Luke as well, saying, "And ye are witnesses of these things." ( Luke 24:48)

II. Prophetic Witnesses Predicting the Birth of Jesus and His Infancy & Childhood (God the Father's Predestination and Calling of Jesus Christ) ( Luke 1:5 to Luke 2:52) - Luke 1:5-80 gives three testimonies of prophecies predicting Jesus' divine birth and His predestined office and ministry as Saviour of the World, while Luke 2:1-52 gives three prophetic witnesses of Jesus' infancy and childhood. These six prophetic witnesses of His birth and childhood reveal the fact that Jesus Christ has been predestined to His divine office as the Saviour of the World. In contrast, Matthew's parallel account emphasizes the birth of the Messiah as a King. Matthew's Gospel introduces the King in a way that follows proper protocol for royalty. Matthew reveals Jesus as a descendent of the royal lineage of King David and the fulfillment of the promises that God made to Abraham. Luke's genealogy reveals Him as the promised seed of woman.

A. Predestination: Prophetic Witnesses Predicting the Birth of Jesus ( Luke 1:5-80) - Luke 1:5-80 gives three testimonies as prophecies predicting Jesus' divine birth and His predestined office and ministry as Saviour of the world.

1. The Vision of Zacharias ( Luke 1:5-25) - Luke 1:5-25 contains the vision of Zacharias, in which the angel Gabriel gives Zacharias a prophecy of the birth of his Song of Solomon , who will go forth as a herald of the coming of the Lord. This passage concludes with Zacharias and Elisabeth awaiting the fulfillment of this prophecy after having conceived ( Luke 1:24-25).

Luke 1:24-25, "And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying, Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) A Description of Zacharias and Elisabeth ( Luke 1:5-7) - Luke 1:5-7 provides the context of the eye-witness account of the angel appearing to Zacharias to announce the birth of his son John the Baptist. These opening verses describe the two main characters involved in this narrative, and the setting in which the vision took place.

ii) The Angelic Prophecy Given to Zacharias ( Luke 1:8-20) - Luke opens his testimony with a Jewish priest receiving a divine oracle from the Lord through the angel Gabriel.

iii) The Fulfillment of the Divine Prophecy ( Luke 1:21-25) - Luke 1:21-25 records the fulfillment of the angel Gabriel's divine prophecy as Zechariah was struck dumb and Elisabeth conceived.

2. The Prophecies of Gabriel, Elisabeth, & Mary ( Luke 1:26-56) - Luke 1:26-56 contains three prophecies of Gabriel, Mary, and Elisabeth predicting the birth of the Saviour, who is to be named Jesus. This passage concludes with Mary awaiting this birth in fulfillment of prophecy ( Luke 1:56).

Luke 1:56, "And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) The Birth of Jesus Foretold to Mary by the Angel Gabriel ( Luke 1:26-38) - Luke 1:26-38 gives the testimony of Jesus' divine birth with the appearing of the angel Gabriel to His mother Mary.

ii) The Testimony of Elisabeth's Babe Leaping in Her Womb ( Luke 1:39-45) - Luke 1:39-45 gives the testimony of Elisabeth's babe leaping in her womb. This visit served as confirmation to both Elisabeth and Mary that the prophetic words from the angel Gabriel were sure and steadfast since both had received a similar divine visitation.

iii) The Testimony of Mary's Prophecy ( Luke 1:46-56) - Luke 1:46-56 gives the testimony of Mary's prophecy regarding Jesus as the Saviour of the world.

3. The Prophecy of Zacharias ( Luke 1:57-80) - Luke 1:57-80 contains the prophecy of Zacharias, who offers praise for the coming Saviour and a prediction of the office and ministry of his son John the Baptist. This passage concludes with the child in the desert awaiting his manifestation to Israel in fulfillment of this prophecy ( Luke 1:80).

Luke 1:80, "And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) The Birth of John the Baptist ( Luke 1:57-66) - Luke 1:57-66 records the birth of John the Baptist. Luke records the purpose of John the Baptist"s ministry according to the prophecies given before his birth ( Luke 1:17; Luke 1:76-79), which was to prepare for the coming of the Messiah through preaching repentance of one's sins and faith in God.

Luke 1:17, "And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord."

Luke 1:76-79, "And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; To give knowledge of salvation unto his people by the remission of their sins, Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us, To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace."

ii) The Prophecy of Zacharias Concerning the Ministry of His Son John ( Luke 1:67-80) - In Luke 1:67-80 we have the record of the prophecy of Zacharias concerning the ministry of his son John.

B. Calling: Three Prophetic Witnesses of Jesus' Birth, Infancy and Childhood that Testify of His Deity as the Saviour of the World ( Luke 2:1-52) - In Luke 2:1-52 we have the record of three testimonies regarding Jesus' birth, infancy and childhood. These testimonies confirm that Jesus was called by God to His office as Saviour of the World. Most likely, the testimonies of this passage came to Luke from the lips of Mary, the mother of Jesus.

1. The Witness of the Shepherds at His Birth ( Luke 2:1-20) - Luke 2:1-20 contains an angelic prophecy to shepherds in the field, who testified of a babe wrapped in swaddling clothes lying in a manager. This passage concludes with the shepherds rejoicing at the fulfillment of this prophecy just as the angels told them ( Luke 2:20).

Luke 2:20, "And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) The Birth of Jesus Christ ( Luke 2:1-7) - In Luke 2:1-7 we have one of the most precious passages in all of Scripture as we read of the humble birth of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

ii) The Witness of the Shepherds ( Luke 2:8-21) - In Luke 2:8-21 we have the record of the shepherds who came to visit baby Jesus because of the announcement of his birth by the heavenly angels. Just as we are excited when a baby is born to us or to our loved ones, so did Heaven rejoice at the birth of the Redeemer.

2. The Witnesses in the Temple at His Dedication ( Luke 2:21-40) - Luke 2:21-40 contains the story of Jesus being named and later taken to the Temple for his presentation and circumcision, at which time Mary receives the prophecies of Simeon and Anna in the Temple, as they testified of Jesus' divine birth and ministry in the redemption of mankind. This passage concludes with Jesus awaiting His manifestation to Israel while growing up in Nazareth ( Luke 2:39-40).

Luke 2:39-40, "And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) The Naming of the Child Jesus ( Luke 2:21) - Luke 2:21 records the dedication and naming of the child Jesus.

ii) The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple ( Luke 2:22-24) - In Luke 2:21-24 we have the story of Jesus being presented in the Temple. Notice how Joseph and Mary bring the baby Jesus to the Temple according to the Mosaic Law (See Leviticus 12:1-8). They gave the offering that poor people were allowed to give.

iii) The Witness of Simeon ( Luke 2:25-35) - Both Simeon and Anna recognized the Christ-child. It pleased God to record their two prophecies. In Luke 2:25-35 we have the testimony of Simeon by a word of prophecy confirming the divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ.

iv) The Testimony of Anna the Prophetess ( Luke 2:36-38) - Both Simeon and Anna recognized the Christ-child. It pleased God to record their two prophecies. We have the testimony of Anna the prophetess in Luke 2:36-39.

v) Jesus Returns with His Family to Nazareth ( Luke 2:39-40) - Luke 2:39-40 tells us how Jesus and His family returned to Nazareth after His birth. However, we must be able to reconcile this account with that of Matthew 2:13-15, which describes Joseph's flight to Egypt until the death of King Herod before returning to Nazareth. Apparently, the family did not go immediately to Nazareth, but first fled to Egypt and later made their way to Nazareth. We know from Luke 2:22 that His parents stayed in the area of Bethlehem at least one month, during which time they dedicated baby Jesus in the Temple. We do not know precisely the time of the visit of the wise men from the East, but it was within the first two years of Jesus' birth. A popular way to harmonize the Gospel narratives on Jesus' childhood is give the following order of events: Jesus' birth ( Luke 2:1-7), the visit by the shepherds ( Luke 2:8-20), Jesus' dedication in the Temple ( Luke 2:22-38), the visit by the wise men ( Matthew 2:1-12), His flight to Egypt and the killing of the children in Bethlehem ( Matthew 2:13-18), Jesus' return to Nazareth ( Matthew 2:19-23, Luke 2:39), His childhood in Nazareth ( Luke 2:40). 128]

128] A. T. Robertson, A Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ Based on the Broadus Harmony of the Revised Version (New York: George H. Doran Company, 1922), xiv.

3. The Witness of His Dialogue with the Priests ( Luke 2:41-52) - Luke 2:41-52 contains a prophecy of Jesus while yet a child regarding His future ministry of redemption, which took place while He was having a dialogue with the priests in the Temple at the age of twelve.. This event serves as a prophecy of His future public ministry, testifying also to the divinity of Jesus Christ. This passage concludes with Jesus awaiting His manifestation to Israel while being subject to Joseph and Mary.

Luke 2:51-52, "And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man."

III. Witnesses of Jesus' Justification as the Saviour of the World (God the Father's Justification of Jesus) ( Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:30) - In Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:30 the narrative story jumps ahead about eighteen years in the life of Jesus Christ to the time of His public appearance. This passage of Scripture testifies of how God the Father justifies His Son Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the World using four testimonies: the testimony of John the Baptist, of God the Father, of Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit ( Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:15). This passage is followed by a discourse in which Jesus Christ justifies calling as the Saviour of the World ( Luke 4:16-30).

A. Narrative: Four Witnesses of Jesus' Justification ( Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:15) - Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:15 offers four witnesses of Jesus Christ's justification: John the Baptist, God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit.

1. The Witness of John the Baptist ( Luke 3:1-20) - In Luke 3:1-20 we have the prophetic testimony of John the Baptist as he receives a word from the Lord and bears witness to the prophetic fulfillment of the coming Saviour of the world saying, "all flesh shall see the salvation of God." ( Luke 3:6) In his sermon, John the Baptist declares everyone a sinner and in need of baptism as an outward sign of inward repentance for his sins. John also declares that the Christ is coming, who is worthy to judge man's sins, requiring that He Himself must be sinless.

2. The Witness of the Father in Baptism & Genealogy ( Luke 3:21-38) - In Luke 3:21-38 we are given the prophetic witness of God the Father speaking from Heaven, declaring Jesus as His beloved Son in whom He is pleased. This testimony is supported by Luke's version of the genealogy of the Lord Jesus Christ, which goes back to Adam and God. In Luke 3:22 God the Father declared that Jesus Christ was His Song of Solomon , in whom He is well pleased. No man had ever fully pleased God by his own merits. The Jews spent their lives under the Mosaic Law trying to please God by obeying its statues and later associated traditions. However, their own consciences told them that they had come short of pleasing God. Now God speaks from Heaven to declare Jesus Christ justified in His sight as sinless, perfectly pleasing God in every aspect of His life.

3. The Witness of Jesus Christ being without Sin ( Luke 4:1-13) - Luke 4:1-13 contains the story of Jesus' temptation in the wilderness by Satan prior to His entrance into His public ministry. Although the Synoptic Gospels give parallel accounts of Jesus' wilderness temptation, Luke's Gospel places emphasis upon His empowerment by the Spirit ( Luke 4:14-15). This empowerment was a prerequisite to the prophetic office, which is emphasized throughout Luke. For example, the opening narrative material in Luke 1:5 to Luke 3:38 clearly provides testimonies of Jesus' deity by those who were filled with the Spirit and prophesied.

The Gospels narrate the temptation story of Jesus Christ in order to offer the third of three testimonies that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who is without sin. The Scriptures tell us that the Holy Spirit led Jesus Christ into the wilderness to face this temptation ( Luke 4:1). As God allowed Satan to tempt Job , so did God the Father allow His Son to face temptations by Satan as well. The purpose of Jesus experiencing this temptation was to prove His sinless nature, serving as a testimony to justify our Lord as a worthy sacrifice for the sins of mankind. He was tempted by the devil on three occasions during His 40-day trial in the wilderness, in His flesh, His spirit, and His soul.

When rebuking Satan, Jesus gives three prophetic statements from three Old Testament passages. Specifically, He quoted all three times from a popular passage in Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 6:13; Deuteronomy 6:16. It is in this same discourse of Moses in Deuteronomy that the famous "Shema" is found:

Deuteronomy 6:4-5, "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD: And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might."

In this Old Testament passage of Scripture, God commands Israel to keep the Law with their heart, mind and strength; thus, fulfilling the Law. However, the children of Israel failed to fulfill the Law throughout their history. The story of the temptation of Jesus Christ in the wilderness will serve as valid testimony that Jesus Christ fulfilled the entire Law of Moses by living without sin, thus justifying Him as sinless. The first century Jews would understand that Jesus Christ alone fulfilled the Shema, perhaps the most important passage in the Old Testament.

In this context, we can clearly see how Satan tempted Jesus in all three realms of His life: physically, mentally and spiritually. Satan tempted Him in the physical ( Luke 4:3-4) by asking Him to turn the stones into bread. He was attempting to get Jesus to yield to His physical desires rather than the commandments of God. Satan then tempted Jesus in the spiritual realm ( Luke 4:5-8) by asking Him to bow down and give His heart to Satan in worship. Satan then tempted Jesus in his mental realm ( Luke 4:9-12) by asking Him to jump off the pinnacle of the Temple. He was asking Jesus to make a foolish decision that was not in God's plan for His life. For you or I to jump off a tall building would be the dumbest decision of our lives.

4. The Conclusion to the Testimony Jesus' Justification ( Luke 4:14-15) - Luke 4:14-15 serves as a conclusion to the three-fold testimony of Jesus' justification to redeem mankind. These verses also record the beginning of Jesus' Galilean ministry as He ministered under the anointing. The rest of the narrative material of His Galilean ministry ( Luke 4:16 to Luke 9:50) serves as a testimony that Jesus ministered under the power and anointing of the Spirit. It characterizes His ministry from the time He returned from His wilderness temptation until He taught His last discourse in the Temple ( Luke 21:38). In other words, the fame referred to in Luke 4:14 does not refer to the people's excitement as He returned from the wilderness; but rather, this fame describes the growing hope and expectation that grew in the hearts of the Galileans during the course of His public ministry there. Throughout His public ministry the people were amazed at His words and anointing (see Luke 4:32; Luke 4:36-37; Luke 4:44; Luke 13:17), which serves as a testimony that Jesus ministered under the power and anointing of the Spirit.

Luke 4:32, "And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power."

Luke 4:36-37, "And they were all amazed, and spake among themselves, saying, What a word is this! for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out. And the fame of him went out into every place of the country round about."

Luke 4:44, "And he preached in the synagogues of Galilee."

Luke 13:17, "And when he had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him."

B. Discourse: Jesus Justifies Himself as Saviour ( Luke 4:16-30) - Luke 4:16-30 tells us the story of how Jesus Christ stood up in the synagogue of His home town of Nazareth to justify His calling and ministry as Saviour of the world. He will spend part of His ministry testifying of Himself ( Luke 4:16 to Luke 9:50). Then He will begin to train His disciples how to become witnesses of Him ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38). After His Passion He will give them His final commission to be witnesses of Him and the things they have seen.

1. Discourse: Jesus Declares His Calling as Saviour ( Luke 4:16-30) - Luke 4:16-30 tells us the story of how Jesus Christ stood up in the synagogue of His home town of Nazareth to testify of His calling and ministry as Saviour of the world. He will spend part of His ministry testifying of Himself ( Luke 4:16 to Luke 9:50). Then He will begin to train His disciples how to become witnesses of Him ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38). After His Passion He will give them His final commission to be witnesses of Him and the things they have seen.

2. Jesus Illustrates His Message from the Old Testament ( Luke 4:22-27) - In Luke 4:22-27 Jesus illustrates His sermon by quoting two Old Testament prophets who were not accepted by the children of Israel, but were accepted by the Gentiles, to whom God worked a miracle. Despite the many widows and lepers in nation of Israel, two non-Israelites accepted Elijah and Elisha as prophets of God and received their miracles. Both of these Gentiles of the Old Testament responded in faith to the words of the man of God and received their miracles. Also, these two examples of how the Gentiles received the man of God fit into the theme of the Gospel of Luke , which presents Jesus as the Savior of the World, and not just the Messiah to the Jews only.

3. The Rejection of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in Nazareth ( Luke 4:28-30 ) - In Luke 4:28-30 the people of Nazareth reject the Gospel that Jesus Christ preached in their synagogue.

IV. Witnesses of Jesus Justifying Him as the Saviour of the World (God the Father's Justification of Jesus) ( Luke 4:31 to Luke 21:38) - Luke 4:31 to Luke 21:38 contains the testimony of Jesus' public ministry, as He justifies Himself as the Saviour of the world. In this major section Jesus demonstrates His divine authority over Prayer of Manasseh , over the Law, and over creation itself, until finally He reveals Himself to His three close disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration as God manifested in the flesh. Jesus is the Saviour over every area of man's life and over creation itself, a role that can only be identified with God Himself. This was the revelation that Peter had when he said that Jesus was Christ, the Son of the Living God. Luke 4:14 to Luke 9:50 begins with His rejection in His hometown of Nazareth and this section culminates in Luke 9:50 with Peter's confession and testimony of Jesus as the Anointed One sent from God. In summary, this section of material is a collection of narratives that testifies to Jesus' authority over every aspect of humanity to be called the Christ, or the Saviour of the world.

Luke presents Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world that was presently under the authority of Roman rule. He was writing to a Roman official who was able to exercise his authority over men. Thus, Luke was able to contrast Jesus' divine authority and power to that of the Roman rule. Jesus rightfully held the title as the Saviour of the world because of the fact that He had authority over mankind as well as the rest of God's creation. Someone who saves and delivers a person does it because he has the authority and power over that which oppresses the person.

In a similar way, Matthew portrays Jesus Christ as the Messiah who fulfilled Old Testament prophecy. Matthew's presentation of Jesus as the King of the Jews supports His claim as the Messiah. John gives us the testimony of God the Father, who says that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. John uses the additional testimonies of John the Baptist, of His miracles, of the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies and of Jesus Himself to support this claim. Mark testifies of the many miracles of the Lord Jesus Christ by emphasizing the preaching of the Gospel as the way in which these miracles take place.

This major section of the public ministry of Jesus Christ can be subdivided into His prophetic testimonies. In Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:49 Jesus testifies of true justification in the Kingdom of God. In Luke 7:1 to Luke 8:21 Jesus testifies of His doctrine. In Luke 8:22 to Luke 10:37 Jesus testifies of divine service in the Kingdom of God as He sets His face towards Jerusalem. In Luke 10:38 to Luke 17:10 Jesus testifies of perseverance in the Kingdom of God as He travels towards Jerusalem. Finally, in Luke 17:11 to Luke 21:38 Jesus teaches on glorification in the Kingdom of God.

A. Justification: Jesus Testifies of True Justification ( Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:49) - Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:49 records Jesus' Galilean ministry prior to the Travel Narrative, at which time He heads towards Jerusalem for the final Passover and His Passion. In Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:11 Jesus demonstrates God's standard of justification. Since Luke's Gospel reveals Jesus as the Saviour of the world, this narrative demonstrates His authority to offer redemption in every area of people's lives. The narrative material about His Galilean ministry reveals Jesus offering healing over sickness in man's body, forgiveness over sin in man's heart, and freedom from earthly tradition in man's mind. He demonstrated His authority over sickness ( Luke 4:31-44), over sin ( Luke 5:1-26), and over tradition ( Luke 5:27 to Luke 6:11). Sickness dwells in the physical body of man; Sin dwells in the heart of man; and, tradition dwells in the mind of men. Jesus gives a prophetic word in each of the three sections, when healing the sick in Luke 4:43, when forgiving sin in Luke 5:24, and when breaking Jewish tradition in Luke 6:5.

Luke 4:43, "And he said unto them, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also: for therefore am I sent."

Luke 5:24, "But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins, (he said unto the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, and go into thine house."

Luke 6:5, "And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath."

Thus, Jesus reveals His authority to redeem the three-fold make-up of man. However, Jesus first declared His authority as Saviour of the world in His hometown of Nazareth, where He was rejected ( Luke 4:16-30). In Luke 6:12-49 Jesus delivers a discourse on God's standard of justification in the Kingdom of God. Here is a proposed outline:

1. Narrative: He Demonstrates Justification (Capernaum) ( Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:11) - Prior to Jesus Christ teaching on true justification, He demonstrates to His disciples His authority over sin, sickness, and customs. He has authority to redeem man's physical, spiritual, and mental being.

a) Jesus Demonstrated His Authority Over Sickness: Jesus Teaches in Capernaum and Other Cities of Galilee (The Physical Realm) ( Luke 4:31-44) - In Luke 4:31-44 Jesus demonstrated His authority over sickness and disease. Jesus was well received in Capernaum and so He visited there many times. It was the home of Peter, James and John , so it became a sort of home base that Jesus worked out of. This is the same principle that He would teach His disciples later when sending them out by saying to them, "And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, enquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence." ( Matthew 10:11)

Some cities did not receive Jesus, such as the city of Nazareth ( Luke 4:14-30). Therefore, Jesus did not spend much time in those cities. This passage of Jesus' acceptance by the Galileans follows the story of Jesus' violent rejection in Nazareth as an example of how warmly some cities received His message. In both of these passages of Scripture, demons testify of Jesus' divinity ( Luke 4:34; Luke 4:41).

i) Healing the Man with an Unclean Spirit ( Luke 4:31-37) - Luke 4:31-37 gives us the account of how Jesus healed a man with an unclean spirit in the synagogue at Capernaum. This story reflects back on and expounds upon Luke 4:15, "And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all." In this account of Jesus healing in the synagogue at Capernaum in Luke 4:31-37, Luke places emphasis upon Jesus' authority and power to heal sickness and disease. In contrast, the story of Jesus healing the man with the withered hand in the synagogue on the Sabbath places emphasis upon Jesus' authority over Jewish tradition, which angered the scribes and Pharisees ( Luke 6:6-11).

ii) The Healing of Peter's Mother-in-Law and Others ( Luke 4:38-41) - In Luke 4:38-41 we have the story of Jesus healing Peter's mother-in-law while visiting Peter's home. Later that evening, He healed the multitudes.

iii) Jesus Preaches and Heals Throughout Galilee ( Luke 4:42-44) - Luke 4:42-44 gives us the story of how Jesus went about Galilee preaching the Gospel and healing the sick.

b) Testimony of Jesus' Authority over Sin (The Spiritual Realm) ( Luke 5:1-26) - In Luke 5:1-26 the author gives us three testimonies that emphasize Jesus' authority over sin, or His power to save us from our sins. We have the story of Peter crying out that he was a sinful man ( Luke 5:8). We then have the account of Jesus cleansing a leper ( Luke 5:12-16), which sickness is associated with sin in the Law of Moses. Then Jesus tells a paralytic that his sins have been forgiven ( Luke 5:20). Peter confessed his sins because he was made mindful of them. The leper revealed sin in his physical body in the form of leprosy. The paralytic received the forgiveness of sins in his heart. Thus, these three stories appear to place emphasis on the manifestations of sin in the spirit, soul and body of men.

i) Jesus Calls His Disciples ( Luke 5:1-11) - In Luke 5:1-11 we have the account of Jesus calling some of His disciples by the Sea of Galilee. In this story, Peter gave to Jesus the use of an empty boat, and Jesus returned to them, by their obedience to His word, a boat full of fish. This is a good illustration of sowing and reaping. This story shows some of the reactions of people to Jesus' authority over sin by recording Peter's comment to Jesus, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful Prayer of Manasseh , O Lord." ( Luke 5:8)

ii) Jesus Heals a Leper ( Luke 5:12-16) - Luke 5:12-16 records the story of Jesus healing a leper. Within the context of the theme of Luke , which is the training of the Twelve to be witnesses of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, this leper himself became a witness of his miraculous healing. Jesus instructed him to simply give a testimony to the priest of his cleansing, but the leper takes his testimony much further, to the multitudes, so that Jesus had a difficult time entering the cities and had to withdraw into the wilderness for solitude.

iii) Jesus Heals a Paralytic ( Luke 5:17-26) - In Luke 5:17-26 we have the story of Jesus healing a paralytic. When comparing this narrative material in the Synoptic Gospels, their individual themes are clearly reflected. Mark makes the unique statement that He was preaching the Word unto them ( Mark 2:2), reflecting the office of the evangelist. Luke makes the unique statement that He was teaching the people and the power of the Lord was present to heal them ( Luke 5:17), reflecting the office and anointing of the prophet. Thus, we can see a clear emphasis in Mark's version of an evangelist preaching of the Gospel with signs following, which is the foundation theme of this Gospel. Luke's parallel passage emphasizes Jesus' power and anointing in the office of the prophet; and within the context of Luke's literary structure, Jesus is demonstrating to His disciples His authority over sin. Matthew makes no such comments, but rather places emphasis in this section of narrative material on His ability to heal all manner of sickness and disease in order to demonstrate the healing ministry to which He was about to commission His disciples.

c) Testimony of Jesus' Authority over Jewish Customs (The Mental Realm) ( Luke 5:27 to Luke 6:11) - In Luke 5:27 to Luke 6:11 the author gives us three testimonies of Jesus' authority over Jewish customs. When Jesus calls Levi, He also answers the questions of the scribes and Pharisees about their traditions of avoiding fellowship with publicans and sinners ( Luke 5:27-29). Jesus then plucks grain on the Sabbath contrary to their tradition in order to demonstrate that He is Lord of the Sabbath ( Luke 6:1-5). This story is followed by Him healing in the synagogue on the Sabbath, which angered the scribes and Pharisees because it again conflicted with their traditions ( Luke 6:6-11).

i) The Calling of Levi and Questions on Fasting ( Luke 5:27-39) - In Luke 5:27-39 we have the story of Jesus calling Levi as His disciple. This account places emphasis upon forsaking Jewish traditions, while the calling of Peter, Andrew, James and John placed emphasis upon the disciples forsaking their own sinful ways.

ii) Plucking Grain on the Sabbath ( Luke 6:1-5) - In Luke 6:1-5 we have the story of Jesus plucking grain on the Sabbath. The emphasis of this story is to show that Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath. That Isaiah , Jesus has authority over the Sabbath, thus, He is Lord over the Sabbath.

iii) The Man with the Withered Hand ( Luke 6:6-11) - In Luke 6:6-11 we have the story of Jesus healing the man with the withered hand in the synagogue on the Sabbath. This story emphasizes the fact that Jesus had authority over the Sabbath. In contrast, the story of Jesus healing the man with an unclean spirit in the synagogue at Capernaum ( Luke 4:31-37) places emphasis upon Jesus' authority and power over sickness.

2. Discourse: Jesus Teaches on True Justification (Galilee) ( Luke 6:12-49) - In Luke 6:12-49 Jesus teaches on the meaning of true justification.

a) Jesus Appoints the Twelve Apostles ( Luke 6:12-16) - In Luke 6:12-16 Jesus calls twelve of His disciples as apostles to serve in the Kingdom of God. When comparing this passage to the parallel passages in Matthew and Mark , it becomes clear that each Gospel account mentions a different aspect of this event in order to reflect the underlying theme of each Gospel. For example, Matthew's account states that Jesus gave them authority to cast out devils and to heal the sick. This statement emphasizes the theme of this division of Matthew's Gospel, which is the sending out of the twelve to do the work of the ministry. In contrast, Mark's account places emphasis upon the proclamation of the Gospel with miracles accompanying their preaching. Thus, Mark's account says, "And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils:" ( Luke 3:14-15) These verses sound similar to the commission of Jesus Christ that closes Mark's Gospel. Thus, Mark places emphasis upon the preaching of the Gospel with signs following, which is the underlying theme of his Gospel. However, Luke's account makes no reference to the twelve apostles preaching of the Gospel or miracles, but rather to Jesus' time in prayer to choose the Twelve and their appointment, for prayer is the prerequisite of the prophetic utterance. Luke is placing emphasis upon the training of the Twelve to become witnesses of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Luke is also unique in its account of Jesus sending out the seventy, which follows the theme of Jesus training His disciples to be witnesses of Him.

b) Jesus Heals the Multitudes ( Luke 6:17-19) - In Luke 6:17-19 we have the story of Jesus healing the multitudes. Luke continually emphasizes the fact that Jesus' public ministry was not carried out in secret, but many people bore witness to His miracles.

c) Jesus Teaches the Multitudes (Luke's Version of The Sermon on the Mount) ( Luke 6:20-49) - In Luke 6:20-49 we have Luke's version of the Sermon on the Mount, which version has popularly been referred to as "The Sermon on the Plain." While the Sermon on the Mount is delivered by Jesus Christ in the office of a teacher, the Sermon on the Plain is actually a message He delivered under the anointing of the prophet. I outline this message in the following way.

Justification (Beatitudes & Woes)

Indoctrination (The Love Walk)

Divine Service (Helping Others)

Perseverance (Good Fruit)

Glorification (Building on a Rock)

It becomes easy to see within this passage in Luke how Jesus deals with the development of the believer into maturity. He opens by explaining true righteousness before God and contrasts it with the hypocrisy of the affluent upper class, such as the Pharisees, scribes and Jewish leaders ( Luke 6:20-26). He then explains the heart of the Law as it teaches mankind to walk in love with others ( Luke 6:27-36). He deals with divine service for those who offer themselves as servants of the Lord to give to others and help unconditionally without judging them ( Luke 6:37-42). He teaches on a lifestyle of persevering in the faith using an illustration of a tree and its fruit ( Luke 6:43-45). He closes His discourse by exhorting His hearers to establish themselves in a life of obedience to God's Word using an illustration of building a solid foundation for a house. We are to lay a good foundation in our lives by doing the Word of God so that we can persevere during the storms of life and receive our eternal rewards ( Luke 6:46-49).

i) Justification: The Beatitudes in Luke ( Luke 6:20-23) - In Luke 6:20-23 Jesus blesses the lowly. This passage is parallel to the Beatitudes in Matthew 5:1-12. The poor could refer to those who lack financially in this world ( Luke 6:20). The hungry could refer to those who lack physical sustenance in this world ( Luke 6:21). Those who weep could refer to the ones whose mental needs are lacking, since our emotions are in the soulish realm ( Luke 6:21). All of these people described in the Beatitudes shall be rich spiritually and be filled with joy. In other words, God's blessings do not come from earthly means, but descend from Heaven above.

ii) Indoctrination: Love Your Enemies ( Luke 6:27-36) - In Luke 6:27-36 Jesus tells us to love our enemies ( Luke 6:27). He then gives a lengthy list of ways in which we can love our enemies. ( Luke 6:28-35). He then closes by summarizing this list and telling us to be merciful even as our Heavenly Father is merciful ( Luke 6:36).

iii) Divine Service: Helping Others ( Luke 6:37-42) - In Luke 6:37-42 Jesus deals with the subject of judging others and helping others.

iv) Perseverance: A Tree is Known by its Fruit ( Luke 6:43-45) - In Luke 6:43-45 Jesus uses the analogy of the fruit of a tree to illustrate our works, whether they are good or bad.

v) Glorification: Two Foundations ( Luke 6:46-49) - In Luke 6:46-49 Jesus uses an analogy of a house on a foundation to illustrate how a person builds stability in his life for the storms ahead. If this foundation is not laid, a person will be moved in troubled times.

B. Indoctrination: Jesus Testifies of His Word ( Luke 7:1 to Luke 8:21) - In Luke 7:1 to Luke 8:21 Jesus testifies about His Word. He first demonstrates the power of His Word to heal the centurion's servant ( Luke 7:1-10), to raise the dead son of the widow of Nain ( Luke 7:11-17), to work miracles ( Luke 7:18-35), and to forgive sins ( Luke 7:36-50). He then teaches a discourse on the Parable of the Sower in order to explain how the preaching of the Gospel affects the hearts of men ( Luke 8:1-21).

1. Narrative: Jesus Demonstrates His Doctrine (Capernaum) ( Luke 7:1-50) - In Luke 7:1-50 Jesus demonstrates the authority and power of God's Word.

a) Jesus Heals the Centurion's Servant ( Luke 7:1-10) - Luke 7:1-10 records the story of Jesus healing the centurion's servant. This story reveals that Jesus' divine authority of His Word to redeem mankind. He came to the centurion as the Saviour of the world, crossing social boundaries.

b) Jesus Raises from the Dead the Widow of Nain's Son ( Luke 7:11-17) - In Luke 7:11-17 we have the story of how Jesus raised from the dead the widow of Nain's son. This passage of Scripture testifies of the power of God's Word even over death itself. It was the raising of the dead that provoked John the Baptist to ask Jesus about his Messiahship in the following passage ( Luke 7:18-35).

c) John's Disciples Ask Jesus Questions ( Luke 7:18-35) - In Luke 7:18-35 we have the story of John the Baptist's disciples coming to Jesus and asking Him to confirm His Messiahship. John's ministry had fully decreased and Jesus had reached His fullness in the public ministry. John had been given the revelation of the Messiah as the Lamb of God, but he had not been given the understanding of the fullness of Jesus' ministry. Thus, John the Baptist is simply asking if these signs and miracles are a part of the ministry of the Messiah; or, is someone else coming after Him. Jesus replies by explaining how God's Word is received by those who are children of God and of His divine wisdom.

d) Jesus Demonstrates Forgiveness: The Pharisee and the Sinful Woman ( Luke 7:36-50) - In Luke 7:36-50 we have the account of Jesus rebuking the Pharisee and forgiving the sinful woman. This story is used to emphasize the authority of God's Word over the heart of man.

2. Discourse: Jesus Teaches on Obeying His Word (Galilee) ( Luke 8:1-21) - In Luke 8:1-21 Jesus teaches parables that reflect an emphasis on the Word of God and how it operates in the Kingdom of Heaven.

a) His Disciples in Service (The Women) ( Luke 8:1-3) - Luke 8:1-3 emphasizes the fact that many other disciples ministered to Jesus, especially women. Women are practical in that they understand a family's daily physical needs. They understand the need to dress the children, to cook the food and to have comforts in life. Although they were not ordained as were the twelve apostles, they joined together and began to do what they can do, which was to give financial and material support to the ministry. They were obedient to God's Word. This passage of Scripture is contrasted to Luke 8:19-21 where the family of Jesus comes to Him and He declares that His mother and brothers are those who hear and do the Word of God.

b) The Parable of the Sower ( Luke 8:4-15) - Luke 8:4-15 gives us the Parable of the Sower and its interpretation. Luke places this story at a strategic place in the narrative of Jesus' Galilean ministry. His public ministry has now reached its peak of acceptance among the multitudes. Jesus needed to balance the true picture for His disciples of what was taking place in the hearts of the people. They were seeing some people reject His ministry, while others simply sought Jesus for their own personal gain. The disciples observed others following Him with some devotion for a while and then depart. There were a few who fully committed themselves to Jesus and served Him, such as the women listed in the opening verses of Luke 8:1-3. After this teaching, we are about to see even His own family reject His Messiahship. In the midst of these many relationships and observations, Jesus took the opportunity to teach His disciples about the hearts of men by using an analogy of a sower sowing seed in the ground.

c) The Parable of the Light Under the Bushel ( Luke 8:16-18) - In Mark 4:21-25 Jesus gives us the illustration of the light hid under the bushel as way of explaining how hearing and receiving God's Word works in our lives. This parable follows immediately after the Parable of the Sower. He explained that if we will hear and obey what we know to do, more understanding would be given unto us.

The Parable of the Light Under the Bushel teaches us that as the light of the Gospel shines forth into our hearts, we become indoctrinated with God's Word; and we are not to hide this light and hold back our testimonies of God's goodness in our lives, but are to continue sowing seeds of God's Word to others. This light is symbolic of our indoctrination into the Word of God, which follows our justification after having received God's Word.

As we examine this parallel passage in Luke 8:16-18 we gain further insight into the meaning of this parable. As the Gospel is preached, the hearts of men are exposed to the light and their true qualities identified ( Luke 8:17). For those who repent, their hearts are transformed so that they can receive more light. But for those whose hearts are hardened and reject what little light they have been given, their hearts are darkened even more ( Luke 8:18).

d) His Family are Those who Obey the Word ( Luke 8:19-21) - Luke 8:19-21 gives us the account of Jesus being approached by His family and how He responded to their requests to see Him. His passage of Scripture is contrasted to Luke 8:1-3 where the twelve disciples are following Jesus while certain women minister to them of their substance. These are the ones who are truly obeying God's Word.

C. Divine Service: Jesus Testifies of Divine Service ( Luke 8:22 to Luke 10:37) - In Luke 8:22 to Luke 10:37 Jesus testifies of divine service in the Kingdom of God. In Luke 8:22-56 He demonstrates His authority in divine service by calming a storm (the natural realm), casting out demons (the spiritual realm), and healing two individuals who exercised faith in His word (the physical realm). He then delegates this authority to His disciples and allows them to go out and preach the Gospel, heal the sick, and feed the five thousand ( Luke 9:1-17). This experience will culminate on the Mount of Transfiguration with Peter's confession that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ( Luke 9:18-50). Jesus will deliver a discourse to the Seventy to prepare them for divine service ( Luke 10:1-24). It is the story of the Good Samaritan that best illustrates the spirit of divine service, which is loving our neighbour ( Luke 10:25-37).

1. Narrative: Jesus Demonstrates Divine Service ( Luke 8:22 to Luke 9:50) - In Luke 8:22 to Luke 9:50 Jesus demonstrates divine service to His disciples, then delegates to them His divine authority to work miracles among the people. He then reveals His divinity to His three closest disciples.

a) Jesus Demonstrates His Authority and Anointing ( Luke 8:22-56) - In Luke 8:22-56 Jesus demonstrates His authority and anointing over the natural realm by calming the storm, over the spirit realm by casting demons out of the Gadarene demonic, and over the physical realm by healing Jarius' daughter and the woman with the issue of blood.

i) Jesus Calms the Storm ( Luke 8:22-25) - Luke 8:22-25 gives us the account of Jesus calming the storm. It reveals to us how Jesus had authority over nature itself. The importance of this story is that it revealed a new aspect of His divinity and authority to the disciples. Thus, the key verse in this passage Isaiah , "What manner of man is this! for he commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey him." ( Luke 8:25)

ii) Jesus Heals the Gadarene Demoniac ( Luke 8:26-39) - Luke 8:26-39 gives us the account of Jesus healing the Gadarene demoniac. This story represents perhaps the most dramatic deliverance that Jesus performed during His ministry. It reveals to us how Jesus had authority over the spiritual realm as well as the natural realm.

iii) Jesus Heals Jarius' Daughter and the Woman with the Issue of Blood ( Luke 8:40-56) - Luke 8:40-56 gives us the story of how Jesus raised Jarius' daughter from the dead and how virtue flowed from His body to heal the woman with the issue of blood.

b) Jesus Delegates His Authority to the Apostles ( Luke 9:1-17) - In Luke 9:1-17 we have two stories of how Jesus delegated His authority to His disciples. He sends them out to use the authority of His name and heal the sick, and He tests their faith in the miracle of feeding the five thousand.

i) Jesus Sends Out His Disciples ( Luke 9:1-6) - In Luke 9:1-6 we have the story of Jesus sending out His twelve apostles by delegating to them the authority of His name.

ii) Herod's Perplexity ( Luke 9:7-9) - Luke 9:7-9 records the story of Herod's perplexity about Jesus' ministry and the death of John the Baptist. When comparing this story in the Synoptic Gospels, we see that Mark 6:14-29 records the most lengthy account of the death of John the Baptist. Mark gives more detail of the reason for his death, which was because of his preaching a Gospel of repentance to King Herod, and it records Herod's perplexity of Jesus' miracles; thus making an emphasis upon preaching and miracles. Luke's Gospel gives the shortest account by simply noting Herod's testimony of perplexity as to who Jesus was, having heard so many things about Him. Matthew's record of this account is placed among a collection of accounts of how to handle offences in the Kingdom of God; for the death of John the Baptist was an opportunity to get offended.

iii) The Feeding of the Five Thousand ( Luke 9:10-17) - Luke 9:10-17 records the story of the feeding of the five thousand. This story is place in the same subsection of narrative material as Jesus sending out His twelve disciples because these twelve apostles were a part of this miracle of feeding the five thousand by handing out the bread and fish. Thus, they were partaking of the same anointing that Jesus ministered under to perform this miracle.

c) Jesus' Authority Revealed ( Luke 9:18-50) - After the disciples of Jesus saw His divine authority displayed in every area of human life and even over creation itself, and after they were sent out and walked in this authority, Luke 9:18-50 records how they came to the place of understanding Him as the Christ, the Son of the Living God.

i) Peter's Confession About Jesus as the Christ ( Luke 9:18-27) - Luke 9:18-27 gives us the story of Peter making his famous confession to Jesus Christ that He is truly the Christ, the Son of the Living God and Jesus response by prophesying to the disciples of His death and resurrection. This story is a pivotal point in the ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ as He begins for the first time to explain to His disciples His need to suffer and die on Calvary. In the Gospel of Luke , this event immediately precedes the point at which Jesus sets His face towards Jerusalem ( Luke 9:51). This became the time for Jesus to be received up.

We see that Peter's confession was the culmination of the Lord's training for His disciples. Peter's confession represented the voice of the twelve apostles. Jesus had called many disciples. These twelve had forsaken all to follow Him. They had been sent out and learned how to minister the Gospel to others and set people free. Now they understood who Jesus Christ was, the Son of the living God.

Jesus could have continued His earthly ministry for the sake of healing the multitudes and teaching the principles of the Kingdom of God, but He his goal was to delegate this duty to the apostles so that He could redeem mankind at Calvary and send the Holy Spirit from heaven to empower His disciples. Thus, Peter's confession is the culmination of Jesus' training and now Jesus set His face towards Calvary to bring His earthly ministry to an end.

Within the context of the theme of Luke's Gospel, which is the prophetic testimonies of Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world, Peter makes his first prophetic utterance on the Mount of Transfiguration.

ii) The Transfiguration of Jesus ( Luke 9:28-36) - Luke 9:28-36 records the events during the day that Jesus was transfigured upon the mount revealing Himself in His heavenly glory to three disciples. This passage supports the previous story of Peter's confession as Jesus reveals Himself to the disciples to a greater degree.

iii) A Healing that Revealed His Majesty ( Luke 9:37-45) - Luke 9:37-45 gives the account of Jesus healing the boy with the unclean spirit. This healing is placed within the subsection emphasizing Jesus revealing Himself to His disciples as the Christ, the Son of the Living God. This healing is place here because it also reveals Jesus' majesty, for the people were all amazed at the "majesty" of God.

Luke 9:43, "And they were all amazed at the mighty power of God. But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples,"

iv) The Disciples Dispute Over Greatness ( Luke 9:46-50) - Luke 9:46-50 reveals the respond of the disciples to the revelation of Jesus Christ as the Son of God, who dwells in glory and majesty. They become covetous to share in this glory ( Luke 9:46-48) and jealous of others who may possess some of it ( Luke 9:49-50). Both of these vices are the results of pride in man's heart. Thus, Jesus spoke to them on humility ( Luke 9:46-48) and unity ( Luke 9:49-50) among His disciples. These two issues are a great problem among Christian leaders in the body of Christ today.

2. Training for Discipleship ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 10:37) - Luke 9:51 to Luke 10:37 give us three accounts of Jesus teaching His disciples on different aspects of serving in the Kingdom of God. He teaches on the right attitude of a disciple, which is to walk in love ( Luke 9:51-56), on the cost of discipleship, which involves a person's willingness to serve the Lord with all of his heart, mind, body and finances ( Luke 9:57-62), and on using the authority of the name of Jesus ( Luke 10:1-24). These narrative stories reveal the progressive training of Christian disciples. One must first have the right attitude of the heart, always desiring to save others rather than to destroy lives ( Luke 9:51-56). This is the preparation of the heart. Then a disciple has to be willing to give himself entirely to the Lord ( Luke 9:57-62). This involves a mental decision of the mind. When one takes these two steps, he is ready to go out with authority and power in the name of Jesus and work signs and miracles ( Luke 10:1-24). This is the physical service of our bodies yielded to Him. Thus, we have three lessons by Jesus Christ on the spiritual, mental and physical preparations for discipleship. Just as He "stedfastly set His face to go to Jerusalem," so must His disciples be ready to do the same.

a) Jesus Rebukes His Own Disciples: Rejection by the Samaritans ( Luke 9:51-56) - In Luke 9:51-56 we have the unique story of Jesus and His disciples being rejected by a village in Samaria. Jesus has been rejected before, such as the story of His visit to the city of Nazareth. But this story of a village in Samaria places emphasis, not upon His lack of healings, but rather upon Jesus training His disciples on how to handle rejection with the right attitude of the spirit, or the heart. Thus, a key phrase in this passage is "Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of," ( Luke 9:55).

b) Jesus Corrects His Disciples: Three Examples of the Cost of Discipleship ( Luke 9:57-62) - In Luke 9:57-62 we have the story of Jesus confronting His followers with the true cost of discipleship. Jesus is still calling disciples at this time in His public ministry, because in the following passage he sends out the Seventy for training. The early Church fathers testify that many of these Seventy served in the early Church.

The emphasis in Luke 9:57-62 is how Jesus corrected some of the disciples who followed Him because of their unwillingness to forsake all to follow Him. Thus, it deals with a person's mental preparation for Christian service. In this passage, Jesus encounters three followers whose hearts were eager to follow Him. Jesus tests their willingness to do so. He first deals with the cost of forsaking all material pursuits ( Luke 9:57-58), then of putting the work of the Kingdom first ( Luke 9:59-60), and finally of perseverance ( Luke 9:61-62). Although our hearts may be willing to serve the Lord as these three followers showed, they must develop discipline in their finances ( Luke 9:57-58), in their physical activity ( Luke 9:59-60) and determine by their will to stick to their calling ( Luke 9:61-62). Thus, after one gives their heart to the Lord, they must then determine by their will to forsake all, in finances, in body and in mind in order to be a true disciple. Thus, this passage of Scripture teaches us that a true disciple of Christ Jesus must be willing to give himself entirely to the Lord, his heart, his mind and will, his body in service and his finances. It places emphasis upon the mind of man.

We find Jesus referring to the cost of discipleship and the need to forsake all in Matthew 19:23-30. In Matthew's passage, He has just spoken to the rich young rule and told him to sell all that he has and come follow Him. After this man turned away sorrowful, Jesus said that "every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name"s sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life." Thus, He noted that when we are willing to forsake these things, He would return them to us both in this life and in the life to come. Song of Solomon , the point is not that He does not want us to have these nice things, but that He does not want them to have us and to control us and to prevent us from serving the Lord. If we will give our lives totally to Him, then He will give us back these things the way He sees it is best for us.

Note that Luke 9:57-62 immediately precedes the passage where Jesus appoints another seventy disciples in order to send them out. Thus, in this passage of Scripture Jesus was identifying those who were not willing to forsake all and follow Him and excluding them from this higher calling.

c) Jesus Exhorts the Other Disciples: He Sends Out the Seventy ( Luke 10:1-24) - In Luke 10:1-24 we have the story of Jesus sending out seventy of His disciples in order to train them to preach and minister to others regarding the Kingdom of God. This passage of Scripture places emphasis upon a person's physical preparation to become a true disciple of the Lord Jesus Christ. After their heart and attitude are right ( Luke 9:51-56), and after they have set their mind and will to forsake all, if necessary, to follow Him ( Luke 9:57-62), then they are ready to physically go out and do the work of the ministry.

We observe that the story of Jesus sending out the seventy in Luke 10:1-24 is one of many passages in the Travel Narrative ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38) that is unique to Luke's Gospel. The theme of the Travel Narrative will be on training of His disciples for the work of the ministry. While the other Evangelists omit this narrative material, this story of the seventy being sent out is an important part of this theme in Luke's Gospel.

Jesus Commissions Seventy Disciples ( Luke 10:1-12) - In Luke 10:1-12 Jesus gives another seventy disciples the same commission that He had given the twelve in Luke 9:1-6. This story is unique to the Gospels and emphasizes the secondary theme of Luke , which is the training of the disciples to take the Gospel to the ends of the earth.

Jesus Rebukes the Unrepentant Cities ( Luke 10:13-16) - In Luke 10:13-16 Jesus speaks woes upon those cities who have rejected the Good News of the Kingdom of God. Jesus was not just speaking to vent His feelings. He was actually talking to those cities in the spirit realm and setting in motion God's judgment for that hour.

Luke 10:13-16 actually belongs to the previous verses of Luke 10:10-13, in which Jesus is teaching His disciples how to respond when a city either received or rejects them.

The Seventy Return Rejoicing ( Luke 10:17-20) - In Luke 10:17-20 we have the story of how the seventy disciples whom Jesus had sent out returned rejoicing at what God had done through them.

Jesus Rejoices Over the Success of the Disciples ( Luke 10:21-24) - After Jesus debriefs His disciples upon their return, He rejoices in His heart over what they had done for the Kingdom of God and then blesses them.

d) The Story of the Good Samaritan: Illustration of Loving Others With All of Our Hearts ( Luke 10:25-37) - In Luke 10:25-37 Jesus is approached by a lawyer who asks Him the true meaning of eternal life. When Jesus defined it as loving God and loving our neighbours, He felt the need to illustrate with the story of the Good Samaritan. This is an illustration of how to serve the Lord with our hearts.

D. Perseverance: Jesus Testifies of Striving to Enter Into Heaven ( Luke 10:38 to Luke 17:10) - In Luke 10:38 to Luke 17:10 Jesus testifies of striving to enter into Heaven through perseverance.

1. Narrative: Jesus Demonstrates Perseverance (In a Village) ( Luke 10:38 to Luke 13:21) - In Luke 10:38 to Luke 13:21 Jesus Christ demonstrates perseverance. For example, He begins by teaching Martha to persevere in His Word as Mary, who sat at His feet ( Luke 10:38-42). He then teaches the disciples to persevere in prayer ( Luke 11:1 to Luke 13:21)

a) Jesus Corrects Martha: Illustration of Willingness to Forsake All (Serving the Lord With All of our Minds) ( Luke 10:38-42) - The story of Jesus visiting Martha and Mary serves as an excellent illustration of what it means to be willing to forsake all and follow Jesus. The key statement in this passage of Scripture is when Jesus tells Martha, "Mary hath chosen that good part." In other words, Jesus explained that it was an act of Mary's will to choose that which was better. This is an illustration of how to serve the Lord with our soul because a person's will is located in the soulish realm.

b) Jesus Exhorts His Disciples: Illustration of Serving in Prayer (Serving the Lord with all of our Strength) ( Luke 11:1-13) - In Luke 11:1-13 Jesus teaches His disciples on prayer. The underlying emphasis of Luke 9:51 to Luke 19:48 is on the training of His disciples. Thus, in Luke 11:1-13 Jesus is teaching to His disciples how to serve the Lord with our bodies as we place ourselves before God in prayer.

i) The Lord's Prayer ( Luke 11:1-4) - In Luke 11:1-4 we have the Lord giving to His disciples the Model Prayer, or the Lord's Prayer, which is also found in Matthew 6:9-15.

ii) Persistence in Prayer ( Luke 11:5-13) - While Matthew's passage on the Lord's Prayer is followed by a teaching on forgiveness ( Matthew 6:14-15), the parallel passage in Luke 11:5-13 deals with an important ingredient in prayer, and that is persistence. He gives the example of how a friend responds to persistence ( Luke 11:5-8) and explains how much more our Heavenly Father responds to it ( Luke 11:9-13). The context of the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew is emphasizing the pureness of heart in prayer, while Luke's Gospel is emphasizing the method of prayer by which we subject our bodies in prayer as His disciples.

(1) A Friend Comes at Midnight ( Luke 11:5-8) - In Luke 11:5-8 Jesus gives the disciples a natural illustration in order to explain a spiritual truth. He tells the story of how a man came to his friend at midnight and received what he needed because of persistence.

(2) Asking, Seeking and Knocking ( Luke 11:9-13) - After Jesus gives His disciples an illustration of persistence in prayer from the story of the friend at midnight ( Luke 11:5-8), He explains how much more our Heavenly Father is willing to answer our prayers when we ask seek and knock with persistence.

c) Jesus Corrects People About the Kingdom of God ( Luke 11:14-36) - In Luke 11:14-36 Jesus is confronted by the people as they express their rejection of His public ministry in their after having cast out a demon. Luke 11:14-16 serve as an introduction to this passage by stating the two issues that Jesus would address, which is the Kingdom of God verses the kingdom of Satan ( Luke 11:15), and signs from Heaven ( Luke 11:16). Jesus deals with the issue of Satan's kingdom in Luke 11:17-28. He then addresses the issue of signs from Heaven in Luke 11:29-32. Then He concludes by speaking to both groups of people in Luke 11:33-36. This conclusion places emphasis upon the people's heart being evil and dark.

Thus, the deliverance of the mute from the demon is not as much the focus of this passage of Scripture as it is the hardness of the hearts of those people who were evaluating and judging what Jesus was doing under the anointing of the Holy Spirit. This is the secondary them of the passage, but the underlying emphasis, or primary theme, of this passage is that Jesus took this opportunity to teach His disciples how to correct those who speak against them in ignorance. Since Jesus is teaching them to preach the Word of the Kingdom of God, being instant in season and out, to reprove those in ignorance, to rebuke those who have knowingly rejected God's Word and to exhort those who accept their message of the Kingdom ( 2 Timothy 4:2). In the next passage in Luke's Gospel ( Luke 11:37 to Luke 12:12) Jesus will rebuke the Pharisees and lawyers who have knowingly rejected God's Word.

2 Timothy 4:2, "Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) Introduction ( Luke 11:14-16) - Luke 11:14-16 serves as an introduction to Jesus teaching the people about the Kingdom of God. After He casts out a demon and the mute spoke, the people responded in one of two ways. Some accused Jesus of operating under the influence of the demonic realm ( Luke 11:15). Others asked Jesus to prove His identity with signs from Heaven ( Luke 11:16). Thus, Jesus response to the first comment in Luke 11:17-28 by contrasting the Kingdom of God with the kingdom of Satan. Then in Luke 11:29-36 Jesus addresses the issue of requiring a sign from Heaven.

ii) Jesus Teaches on the Kingdom of God verses the Kingdom of Satan (Beelzebul) (The First Issue is Addressed) ( Luke 11:17-28) - In Luke 11:14 Jesus heals a mute by casting out a demon. The people then accused Him of casting out demons by Beelzebul the prince of the devils ( Luke 11:15). Jesus then takes this opportunity to teach these people about the Kingdom of God that has come to them by contrasting it to the kingdom of Satan, of which they say Beelzebul is the leader. Thus, He used this opportunity to speak to the people on their level to explain that the Kingdom of God was at hand. He told them that hearing God's Word would deliver them from demonic possession, but keeping God's Word would keep them free.

iii) Jesus Replies to the People's Request for a Sign (The Second Issue is Addressed) ( Luke 11:29-32) - In Luke 11:14-16 the people confronted Jesus on two issues. Some accused Him of casting out demons by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils ( Luke 11:15). Jesus responded to this accusation in Luke 11:17-26. Now in Luke 11:29-32 Jesus responds to the second statement from the people who sought a sign from heaven ( Luke 11:16). In this passage of Scripture Jesus addresses their ability to reason with their minds.

iv) Conclusion ( Luke 11:33-36) - In Luke 11:33-36 Jesus concludes His message to the people. In this message, He addresses both those who accused him of working under the power of Satan ( Luke 11:15) as well as those who sought after a sign from Heaven ( Luke 11:16). He uses a natural example of a lamp illuminating a room to explain the spiritual truth of how the heart illuminates the entire body. Jesus uses the word "eye" figuratively of the heart of man. He will tell them that when their heart is pure, they will be able to distinguish between light and darkness, or between good and evil. When their heart is evil, they cannot see because they are in darkness. Thus, these people rejected Him because their hearts were hardened and evil. J. Lyle Story notes that the unbelief of the Jews was not due to a lack of seeing signs and wonders in Jesus' public ministry, but rather, to the blindness of their own hearts. 129]

129] J. Lyle Story, Spirit Filled Life Bible: New King James Version, ed. Jack W. Hayford (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, c 1991), notes on Luke 11:33-36).

d) Jesus Rebukes the Pharisees and Lawyers Over Hypocrisy ( Luke 11:37-54) - In Luke 11:37-54 Jesus rebukes the Pharisees ( Luke 11:37-44) and lawyers ( Luke 11:38-54) because of their hypocrisy and rejection of God's Word.

e) Jesus Teaches on Faithfulness and Stewardship ( Luke 12:1-59) - In Luke 12:1-12 Jesus instruct His disciples on how to deal with persecution in Christian service. He then corrects a person in the crowd who asks for part of his inheritance ( Luke 12:13-21) by telling him a parable of the rich fool. He then turns to His disciples and exhorts them on this same issue ( Luke 12:22-53). He finishes this subject by rebuking the people for not being able to judge the times that they were in during Jesus' earthly ministry ( Luke 12:54-59).

i) Jesus Instructs Disciples on Persecutions in Service ( Luke 12:1-12) - Jesus Christ has now entered a phase in His life where persecutions will begin to challenge His public ministry. He will serve as our example of how to serve the Lord in the midst of persecutions. In Luke 12:1-12 Jesus first warns His disciples about hypocrisy ( Luke 12:1-3) and then He exhorts them to preach the Gospel of the Kingdom without fearing man ( Luke 12:4-12). He tells the disciples not to fear men, but to fear God who will give them the words to say by the anointing of the Holy Spirit.

ii) Jesus Corrects a Person over Covetousness ( Luke 12:13-21) - In Luke 12:13-21 Jesus is asked by a person in the crowd to judge between him and his brother over an inheritance. He corrects this person by dealing with the covetousness of his heart. The remedy for covetousness that Jesus gives him is to fear the Lord because of His impending judgment.

iii) Jesus Warns His Disciples About Covetousness and Exhorts Them to Seek First the Kingdom of God ( Luke 12:22-53) - After Jesus corrects a person in the crowd who asks for part of his inheritance ( Luke 12:13-21) by telling him a parable of the rich fool He then turns to His disciples and exhorts them on this same issue ( Luke 12:22-53). He will finish this subject by rebuking the people for not being able to judge the times that they were in during Jesus' earthly ministry ( Luke 12:54-59).

(1) Jesus Speaks on the Cares of this World and Seeking the Kingdom First ( Luke 12:22-34) - In Luke 12:22-34 Jesus turns to His disciples and warns them about the cares and anxieties of this life. He exhorts them to seek first the Kingdom of God and know that their Heavenly Father will watch over them.

Although this passage of Scripture is also found in the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus probably taught it on many occasions during His public ministry, so this passage cannot be considered out of place relative to its position in the Sermon on the Mount.

(2) The Parable of the Watchful and the Careless Servants ( Luke 12:35-48) - In Luke 12:35-48 Jesus tells a parable about faithfulness and watchfulness for the Lord's Coming.

(3) Jesus Came to Bring Division ( Luke 12:49-53) - In Luke 12:49-53 Jesus addresses the issue of division that the disciples will experience when they faithfully serve the Lord. Jesus Christ has entered into a season of persecutions, culminating in His Passion ( Luke 53-54).

Luke 11:53-54, "And as he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things: Laying wait for him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him."

iv) Jesus Rebukes the People For Their Hypocrisy ( Luke 12:54-59) - In Luke 12:54-59 Jesus turns to the people and rebukes them for their hypocrisy. They were not able to judge the times that they were living in ( Luke 12:54-56) and they were not being willing to make peace with their accusers ( Luke 12:57-59). This is Jesus' closing remarks in response to the individual in the crowd who asked Jesus to arbitrate his inheritance. He summarizes by telling them that they can judge events in nature, yet they cannot judge righteously among themselves on moral matters.

(1) Discerning the Times ( Luke 12:54-56) - In Luke 12:54-56 Jesus rebukes the people for not being able to judge the times that they were living in while being able to judge the natural world around them.

(2) Making Peace with Your Adversaries ( Luke 12:57-59) - In Luke 12:57-59 Jesus continues His rebuke to the people for their unwillingness to make peace with one another instead of dragging each other to court. This statement is made within the context of Luke 12:13-59 in which He was asked to be an arbitrator between an inheritance of two brothers.

f) Jesus Teaches the People About Divine Judgment ( Luke 13:1-9) - In Luke 13:1-9 some people spoke to Jesus about the wicked deeds of Pilate against their fellow countrymen. He gave them an additional example of the eighteen people who perished when the Tower of Siloam fell upon them in Jerusalem. Jesus used this tragic event to call the people to repentance, warning them of a greater judgment if they themselves did not repent ( Luke 13:1-5). Then He spoke to them the Parable of the Barren Fig Tree to illustrate how God patiently works with mankind to bring them to repentance prior to eternal judgment ( Luke 13:6-9). God does not pour out His wrath upon men each time they sin, as He did under the Law ( Hebrews 2:2). However, God's judgment is undergirded with much longsuffering and patience; yet with ultimate certainty. God's laws of divine judgment supersede those of this natural world, and do not necessarily coincide with natural disasters. However, God uses such tragedies to call men to repentance as Jesus Christ did so in this story. Thus, the emphasis of this teaching is on eternal judgment.

Hebrews 2:2, "For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;"

Here is a proposed outline:

i) Jesus Makes a Call to Repentance ( Luke 13:1-5) - In Luke 13:1-5 Jesus uses the examples of tragic events in the Jewish society to call sinners to repentance in order to avoid a greater, eternal judgment.

ii) The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree ( Luke 13:6-9) - In Luke 13:6-9 we have the Parable of the Barren Fig Tree, which is unique to the Gospel of Luke. This parable is immediately preceded by Jesus' statements about the Great White Throne Judgment when God will judge the wicked for their sins. Therefore, this parable is cast within the context of eternal judgment. The fig tree would represent an individual who lived his entire life receiving God's blessings but never gave his life to Him to serve Him. This parable is not directly addressing the issue of how much God will reward His servants based upon their fruitfulness in the Kingdom of Heaven, though the divine principles found in this parable may apply in both situations.

g) Jesus Rebukes the Leader of a Synagogue for His Hypocrisy ( Luke 13:10-17) - Luke 13:10-17 gives us the account of Jesus rebuking a leader of a synagogue because of his hypocrisy, which was manifested when Jesus healed a woman with an issue of blood. Therefore, this passage is known primarily for this healing. However, its greater emphasis is on hypocrisy.

h) The Parable of the Mustard Seed and the Leaven ( Luke 13:18-21) - In Luke 13:18-21 Jesus tells the Parables of the Mustard Seed ( Luke 13:18-19) and of the Leaven ( Luke 13:20-21) in order to teach them about the Kingdom of God. If we examine the Parable of the Mustard Seed in Mark's Gospel, we see that it tells us the end result of our faithfulness to preach the Gospel; for it will cause the Kingdom of God to grow into the greatest kingdom upon the earth. This parable reflects our glorification at the end of our journey.

2. Discourse: Jesus Teaches on Perseverance: Persecutions (Towards Jerusalem) ( Luke 13:22 to Luke 17:10) - In Luke 13:22 to Luke 17:10 Jesus moves further towards Jerusalem as He makes His way through the villages of Samaria and Galilee. In this section Jesus trains His disciples in the area of perseverance in the midst of persecutions. The way into the Kingdom of God is narrow ( Luke 13:22-30). The decision to leave all behind and follow Jesus begins with humility ( Luke 14:1-11) and benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14). A disciple of Christ forsakes the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24) as well as his family bonds ( Luke 14:25-35). A disciple begins to seek and to save the lost souls ( Luke 15:1-32). Good stewardship to this calling is needed ( Luke 16:1-13) and managing the riches that God entrusts to us ( Luke 16:14-31). Only then can a disciple begin to understand what true faith in God involves ( Luke 17:5-10). This kind of faith is not a one-time decision, but a series of daily decision of being a faithful servant.

Luke 15:1 to Luke 17:10 contains a continuous discourse by the Lord Jesus on perseverance in relation to the office of the prophet. The fundamental duty of the prophet is to preach the Gospel to the lost ( Luke 15:1-32), being good stewards of one's prophetic gifts ( Luke 16:1-13), not covetous ( Luke 16:14-31), neither offensive ( Luke 17:1-4), so that their gifts may grow and flourish ( Luke 17:5-10).

a) Salvation in the Kingdom of God (The Narrow Gate) ( Luke 13:22-30) - In Luke 13:22-30 Jesus teaches the people about the principles of obtaining Heaven by enter in by the narrow gate. Jesus will begin teaching that this narrow way is a reference to the pureness of the heart, or true righteousness. The decision to leave all behind and follow Jesus begins with humility ( Luke 14:7-11) and benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14). A person then forsakes the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24) as well as their own family bonds ( Luke 14:25-35). They begin to seek and to save the lost souls ( Luke 15:1-32). Good stewardship to this calling is needed ( Luke 16:1-13) and managing the riches that God entrusts to us ( Luke 16:14-31). Only then can a person begin to understand what true faith in God involves ( Luke 17:5-10). This kind of faith is not a one-time decision, but a series of daily decision of being a faithful servant.

b) Jesus Laments Over Jerusalem ( Luke 13:31-35) - In Luke 13:31-35 Jesus laments over Jerusalem, the city that could have received Him, but chose to crucify Him. Here Jesus expresses His determination to fulfill His destiny and face the Cross of Calvary.

c) Jesus Corrects the Pharisees on the Law ( Luke 14:1-6) - In Luke 14:1-6 Jesus takes the opportunity to teach the Pharisees on the Law by healing a man with the dropsy on the Sabbath.

d) Jesus Teaches on Humility ( Luke 14:7-11) - In Luke 14:7-11 Jesus took the opportunity to teach the people who were with Him at house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees about humility and benevolence. Jesus saw in crowds of people, not the splendor of men and their outward appearance, but their inner heart. The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. Humility is a virtue that leads us towards a pure heart.

e) Jesus Teaches on Benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14) - In Luke 14:12-14 Jesus teaches on benevolence. The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. Benevolence is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11).

f) Jesus Teaches on Forsaking Cares of the World: The Parable of the Great Banquet ( Luke 14:15-24) - In Luke 14:15-24 we have the Parable of the Great Banquet. Jesus Teaches on Forsaking Cares of the World. The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. The need to forsake the entanglement of the cares of this world is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11) and benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14).

g) Jesus Teaches the Forsaking Family: The Cost of Discipleship ( Luke 14:25-35) - In Luke 14:25-35 Jesus teaches the people about the cost of discipleship. It will cost more than forsaking the cares of this world. It will also require us to forsake the bonds of those loved ones who are not willing go the journey with us. The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. The need to forsake the bonds of family ties is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11), benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14) and forsaking the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24).

h) Discourse: Jesus Teaches on Perseverance ( Luke 15:1 to Luke 17:10) - In Luke 15:1 to Luke 17:10 Jesus teaches a continuous discourse that places emphasis on perseverance. He discusses our need to love the sinner ( Luke 15:1-32), to be good stewards of what God has given us in this life ( Luke 16:1-13), to avoid covetousness ( Luke 16:14-31) and offenses ( Luke 17:1-4), and to live a lifestyle of servanthood as an expression of faith in God ( Luke 17:5-10).

i) Jesus Teaches Pharisees on Loving Souls ( Luke 15:1-32) - In Luke 15:1-32 Jesus addresses the Pharisees and teaches them about God's love for all mankind. He uses three parables to illustrate His point.

The Parable of the Lost Sheep ( Luke 15:3-7)

The Parable of the Lost Coin ( Luke 15:8-10)

The Parable of the Lost Son ( Luke 15:11-32)

The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. The need to love others as God loves is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11), benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14), forsaking the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24) and forsaking family bonds ( Luke 14:25-35).

(1) Introduction ( Luke 15:1-2) - Luke 15:1-2 serves as an introduction to the setting of Jesus teaching the people on the principles of God's love for mankind in the Kingdom of God. These publicans and sinners were coming to Jesus, which testified of their faith in God and Jesus' message of redemption.

(2) The Parable of the Lost Sheep ( Luke 15:3-7) - In Luke 15:3-7 Jesus teaches the Parable of the Lost Sheep to the murmuring scribes and Pharisees. It is generally agreed among scholars that the Parable of the Lost Sheep and the Parable of the Lost Coin are parallel in a number of ways. For example, they both address the same theme. They can be contrasted in that the Parable of the Lost Sheep describes the setting of a man's vocational duties, while the Parable of the Lost Coin describes the setting of a woman with her domestic duties.

(3) The Parable of the Lost Coin ( Luke 15:8-10) - In Luke 15:8-10 Jesus teaches the Parable of the Lost Coin to the murmuring scribes and Pharisees.

(4) The Parable of the Lost Son ( Luke 15:11-32) - In Luke 15:11-32 Jesus teaches the Parable of the Lost Son to the murmuring scribes and Pharisees. This story is also called the Parable of the Prodigal Son.

ii) The Parable of the Unjust Steward ( Luke 16:1-13) - In Luke 16:1-13 Jesus turns to His disciples and teaches them the Parable of the Unjust Steward, which addresses the dangers of covetousness. He tells the parable proper in Luke 16:1-8, then elaborates on the moral truth taught in this parable in Luke 16:9-13. Jesus concludes this parable with a moral truth in Luke 16:9. He then elaborates on this truth in Luke 16:10-13. We are taught to be wise stewards of this world's goods so that we can enter the Kingdom of Heaven. Jesus contrasts faithfulness to unfaithfulness regarding this world's goods. Jesus describes this world's goods as least in importance, while God's riches are described as the most important.

This world's goods are described as (1) least [ Luke 16:10], (2) unrighteous mammon [ Luke 16:11], and (3) another man's (God's) [ Luke 16:12]. In contrast, Heaven's riches are (1) much [ Luke 16:10], (2) true riches [ Luke 16:11], and (3) that which is our own [ Luke 16:12].

Being faithful with what God has entrusted us with on earth is small when compared to what God will entrust us with in eternity regarding spiritual riches. While the world measures success by the amount of financial gain, God measures success by a person's degree of faithfulness.

He then rebukes the Pharisees because of their covetousness ( Luke 16:14-18). Within the context of the Travel Narrative ( Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38), Jesus is teaching the disciples how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping their hearts pure.

iii) Jesus Rebukes the Pharisees on Covetousness ( Luke 16:14-31) - In Luke 16:14-18 Jesus addresses the Pharisees who were covetous. When the Pharisees heard the Parable of the Unjust Steward they scoffed Jesus and He then turned to rebuke them ( Luke 16:14-18) and told them the Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:19-31). In this passage He teaches them about the dangers of earthly riches. The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. The need to avoid covetousness is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11), benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14), forsaking the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24), forsaking family bonds ( Luke 14:25-25), loving others as God loves ( Luke 15:1-32) and being faithful stewards of God's material blessings ( Luke 16:1-13).

(1) Jesus Rebukes the Pharisees on Covetousness ( Luke 16:14-18) - After teaching on stewardship, the Pharisees criticized Jesus because they themselves were guilty of being poor stewards because of covetousness. Jesus Now rebukes the Pharisees because of their covetousness.

(2) The Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:19-31) - In Luke 16:19-31 Jesus tells the story of the rich man and Lazarus. We should understand this story to be a true event rather than just a parable. When the Pharisees heard this story of the unfaithful steward ( Luke 16:1-13) they scoffed Jesus and He then turned to rebuke them ( Luke 16:14-18) and told them the Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:19-31).

iv) Jesus Teaches His Disciples On Offences ( Luke 17:1-4) - Jesus then turns to His disciples and warns them about offences ( Luke 17:1-4). The emphasis of this passage is found within the context of its narrative material where Jesus is teaching us how to enter into the narrow gate that leads to Heaven by keeping our hearts pure. The need to avoid offences is another virtue that leads us towards a pure heart after humility ( Luke 14:7-11), benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14), forsaking the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24), forsaking family bonds ( Luke 14:25-25), loving others as God loves ( Luke 15:1-32), being faithful stewards of God's blessings ( Luke 16:1-13) and avoiding covetousness ( Luke 16:14-31).

v) Jesus Teaches His Disciples on Faith ( Luke 17:5-10) - In Luke 17:5-10 Jesus teaches His apostles about faith. The context of Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38 is on the training of the Twelve to become prophetic witnesses of the Gospel through faith in His name. Thus, Jesus teaches on faith within the context of training them for the work of the ministry of taking the Gospel to the ends of the earth. (See a similar passage in Mark 11:22-26.) We see from Luke 14:25 that a multitude began to follow Jesus. At some point, however, the publicans and sinners drew near to hear Him ( Luke 15:1). Thus, it appears from the context of this particular passage in Luke 17:5-10 that Jesus is now responding to a question from the twelve while being with the publicans and sinners.

Luke 14:25, "And there went great multitudes with him: and he turned, and said unto them,"

Luke 15:1, "Then drew near unto him all the publicans and sinners for to hear him."

There is no parallel passage in the Gospels to this story, as is typical of much material in Luke's Travel Narrative. In this teaching, Jesus is responding to the question of the Twelve in verse 5, "Lord, Increase our faith." They were simply asking Jesus how they could walk in the faith and anointing as He walked, and how they could trust God for their needs as Christ looked to Him. Note the organized outline of Jesus' response: explanation ( Luke 17:6), illustration ( Luke 17:7-9), and application ( Luke 17:10).

Explanation ( Luke 17:7) - Jesus first shows them the great potential of faith, that it can accomplish the impossible. He explains how faith works in Luke 17:6 by comparing it to the growth of the mustard seed. If faith is planted in one's heart as a seed and allowed to grow, it allows a person to speak to mountains and they will be moved. Thus, the laws that govern the growth of faith in our lives are the same laws that govern seed-faith.

Illustration ( Luke 17:7-9) - He then illustrates how faith grows in Luke 17:7-9 by comparing the disciples' work to that of a common household servant. He tells us the story of the unprofitable servant, who serves his master out of obedience because that is his office and ministry. Obedience is translated into trust or faith in God in Christian service. In other words, when we obey His Words, we are placing our faith in His Words.

Application ( Luke 17:10) - Finally, in Luke 17:10 Jesus tells His disciples to serve the Lord just like the unprofitable serves his master and their faith will grow. Our faith increases as we learn to abandon our will and desires in order to do the will of the Father. When we are serving the Lord with all of our heart, "Whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight." ( 1 John 3:22)

Another passage of Scripture that gives us insight into the growth and development of faith in God is seen in Romans 10:17, "So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." This verse teaches us that faith is imparted to us by hearing the Word of God. As we hear it and obey it, our faith develops and we become increasing confident that God's Word, or the laws of faith, will operate in our lives.

Perhaps another way to understand the answer that Jesus gave His disciples in this passage is to look at the context of the narrative material in which it is found. In Luke 13:22 to Luke 17:10 Jesus is moving towards Jerusalem to face Calvary. His emphasis in this group of stories is about forsaking all to follow Him. The decision to leave all behind and follow Jesus begins with humility ( Luke 14:7-11) and benevolence ( Luke 14:12-14). A person then forsakes the cares of this world ( Luke 14:15-24) as well as their own family bonds ( Luke 14:25-35). They begin to seek and to save lost souls ( Luke 15:1-32). Good stewardship to this calling is needed ( Luke 16:1-13) and managing the riches that God entrusts to us ( Luke 16:14-31). Only then can a person begin to understand what true faith in God involves ( Luke 17:5-10). This kind of faith is not a one-time decision, but a series of daily decisions of being a faithful servant.

E. Glorification: Jesus Testifies on the Kingdom of God ( Luke 17:11 to Luke 21:38) (Passing thru Samaria and Galilee) - In Luke 17:11 to Luke 21:38 Jesus testifies about the Kingdom of God as He passes through Samaria and Galilee towards Jerusalem. This part of the journey will take Jesus into the Temple to teach the people for the last time. At this time the emphasis of Jesus' teachings focuses on eschatology, or His Second Coming and the Kingdom of God.

He first enters a village and heals ten lepers ( Luke 17:11-19) and is able to teach His disciples about thankfulness. He then responds to a question by the Pharisees and teaches about the coming of the Kingdom of God and tells them the importance of watchfulness ( Luke 17:20-37). Jesus followed this teaching with the Parable of the Persistent Widow in order to explain to them how to persevere in faith while awaiting His Second Coming ( Luke 18:1-8). To the self-righteous Jesus taught on humility using the Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector ( Luke 18:9-14). Jesus then blesses the children who are brought to Him in order to teach on childlikeness ( Luke 18:15-17). When a rich young ruler asks Jesus about inheriting eternal life, Jesus teaches him and those with Him on the dangers of riches and covetousness ( Luke 18:18-30). Thus, each one of these stories tell us virtues that we are to pursue as children of the Kingdom of God awaiting His Second Coming. Jesus concludes this teaching session with a prediction to His twelve disciples about His pending death ( Luke 18:31-34). After healing a blind man ( Luke 18:35-43), dining with Zacchaeus ( Luke 19:1-10), and teaching of faithfulness in the Kingdom of God ( Luke 19:11-27), Jesus gives three prophecies concerning His arrival in Jerusalem ( Luke 19:28-47), His rejection ( Luke 20:1-19), and His exaltation ( Luke 20:20-47). This major division closes with an eschatological discourse ( Luke 21:1-38).

1. Narrative: Jesus Teaches on the Kingdom of God in Samaria and Galilee ( Luke 17:11 to Luke 19:27) - As Jesus makes His way to Jerusalem through Samaria and Galilee, He turns His focus upon the Kingdom of God.

a) Jesus Heals Ten Lepers ( Luke 17:11-19) - In Luke 17:11-19 Jesus heals ten lepers. The emphasis in this story is the importance of having a heart of thankfulness in the Kingdom of God while awaiting Christ's Second Coming.

b) Jesus Teaches on the Coming of the Kingdom of God ( Luke 17:20-37) - In Luke 17:20-37 Jesus is asked by the Pharisees about the coming of the Kingdom of God. Jesus responds by teaching them about this event. He first gives the Pharisees a brief answer by focusing on their need to believe on Him from their heart, thus emphasizing His First Coming ( Luke 17:20-21). He then turns to His disciples and gives them further teaching on the Pharisees' question about the Kingdom of God, but with emphasis upon His Second Coming and the need to be ready and watchful ( Luke 17:22-37). The emphasis in the two stories of Noah and Lot in this passage is the importance of having a watchful heart while awaiting Christ's Second Coming.

Jesus will then teach on the perseverance of the saints ( Luke 18:1-8), then later rebuke those who reject this teaching ( Luke 18:9-14).

c) The Parable of the Unjust Judge ( Luke 18:1-8) - Jesus followed His teaching on the coming of the Kingdom of God with the Parable of the Unjust Judge (or the Parable of the Persistent Widow) in order to explain to them how to persevere in faith while awaiting His Second Coming ( Luke 18:1-8). This example of faith (verse 8) involves persistence in prayer. If a wicked man responds to persistence, then a good God will readily respond to the persistence of His children. The emphasis in this story is the importance of having a heart of persistence in the Kingdom of God while awaiting Christ's Second Coming.

The purpose of the Parable of the Unjust Judge ( Luke 18:2-5) is to show that we should always pray and not faint. The Parable of the Importunate Friend ( Luke 11:5-13) is similar in its message. These parables illustrate Proverbs 25:15, "By long forbearing is a prince persuaded, and a soft tongue breaketh the bone."

d) The Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector ( Luke 18:9-14) - In Luke 18:9-14 Jesus rebukes the Pharisees who were scoffing at His teachings by telling them the Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector. The Pharisee had his eyes on Prayer of Manasseh , judging himself by another man. But the publican had his eyes on God and His Holiness. Those in most need of confessing their sins are those who think they need it the least. Those who hide sin and deny it are the ones who should deal with it most. The self-righteous attitude has no place in God's throne room of prayer. The emphasis in this story is the importance of having a heart of humility in the Kingdom of God while awaiting Christ's Second Coming. Thus, the key word in this passage of Scripture is "humility."

e) Jesus Blesses the Little Children ( Luke 18:15-17) - In Luke 18:15-17 Jesus takes the time to bless the little children who are brought to Him. The emphasis in this story is the importance of having a childlike heart, in purity, in trust and in love, in the Kingdom of God while awaiting Christ's Second Coming.

f) Teaching on Covetousness: The Story of the Rich Young Ruler ( Luke 18:18-30) - In Luke 18:18-30 Jesus takes a question from a rich young ruler and teaches on the dangers of pursuing earthly riches. A person must be willing to forsake all and follow Jesus. The emphasis in this story is the importance of having a heart without covetousness the Kingdom of God while awaiting Christ's Second Coming.

Although this man was saddened by the Lord's request for him to forsake all and follow him, we have Matthew , who was also wealthy, responding positively to the same request. Matthew was sitting at his job collecting tax money when Jesus called him to leave his table and follow Him.

g) Jesus Foretells His Death and Resurrection for the Third Time ( Luke 18:31-34) - In Luke 18:31-34 Jesus tells His twelve apostles about His pending death and resurrection for the third time. Jesus first reveals His death and resurrection on the Mount of Transfiguration ( Luke 9:21-22). The second time is found in Luke 9:43-45.

h) Jesus Heals a Blind Man ( Luke 18:35-43) - In Luke 18:35-43 we have the story of Jesus healing a blind man.

i) The Story of Jesus and Zacchaeus ( Luke 19:1-10) - The story of Zacchaeus is unique to the Gospel of Luke. Why would Luke have chosen to tell the story of such an incident? One answer may be found in The Apostolic Constitutions, a collection of ecclesiastical law that is believed to have been compiled during the latter half of the fourth century. This ancient document states that a man named Zacchaeus, a former publican, became the first bishop of the church at Caesarea. This may not have been the same person recorded in Luke's Gospel. However, when the names of Cornelius and Theophilus are found alongside the name of Zacchaeus in the same sentence, and when all three names are found to be unique to Luke's writings, one has to believe that it was very likely the same Zacchaeus mentioned in Luke's Gospel. In other words, Luke -Acts were a compilation of testimonies of the life and works of Lord Jesus Christ and the early Church. For Luke to use the testimony of Zacchaeus, the living bishop of Caesarea at the time of his writing, would be fitting for the way in which Luke was gathering his testimonies for these writings.

"Now concerning those bishops which have been ordained in our lifetime, we let you know that they are these:--James the bishop of Jerusalem, the brother of our Lord;(5) upon whose death the second was Simeon the son of Cleopas; after whom the third was Judas the son of James. Of Caesarea of Palestine, the first was Zacchaeus, who was once a publican; after whom was Cornelius, and the third Theophilus." (Constitutions of the Holy Apostles 7446)

j) The Parable of the Pounds ( Luke 19:11-27) - Luke 19:11-27 gives us the Parable of the Pounds.

2. Discourse: Jesus Instructs (Into Jerusalem) ( Luke 19:28 to Luke 21:38) - In Luke 19:28 to Luke 21:38 Jesus enters Jerusalem. This part of the journey will take Jesus into the Temple to teach the people for the last time. At this time the emphasis of Jesus' teachings focuses on eschatology, or His Second Coming.

a) Prophecy of His Arrival ( Luke 19:28-48) - Luke 19:28-47 contains a prophecy of Jesus' arrival in Jerusalem when the multitudes cry out a passage from Psalm 118:26.

Psalm 118:26, "Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the LORD: we have blessed you out of the house of the LORD."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) The Triumphant Entry ( Luke 19:28-40) - Luke 19:28-40 gives us the story of Jesus' triumphant entry into Jerusalem during the week preceding His Passion.

ii) Jesus Weeps Over Jerusalem ( Luke 19:41-44) - In Luke 19:41-44 Jesus weeps over Jerusalem, knowing its pending judgment and destruction by the Romans in A.D 70.

iii) Jesus Cleanses the Temple ( Luke 19:45-48) - In Luke 19:45-48 we have the account of Jesus cleansing the Temple after He enters into Jerusalem. John's parallel account takes place at the beginning if Jesus' ministry, leading many scholars to suggest that this event took place at the beginning and at the end of His earthly ministry.

b) Prophecy of His Rejection ( Luke 20:1-19) - Luke 20:1-19 contains a prophecy of Jesus being rejected by the Jews as Jesus quotes Psalm 118:22.

Psalm 118:22, "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) The Jewish Leaders Question the Authority of Jesus ( Luke 20:1-8) - In Luke 20:1-8 the Jewish leaders question the authority of Jesus at a teacher of the Jews.

ii) The Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers ( Luke 20:9-19) - In Luke 20:9-19 we have the Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers. This parable is addressed to the people in order to help them see the wickedness of the Jewish leaders; for the final verse of this passage says that the chief priests and scribes knew that He has spoken this parable against them ( Luke 20:19).

c) Prophecy of His Exaltation ( Luke 20:20 to Luke 21:4) - Luke 20:20 to Luke 21:4 gives a prophecy of Jesus' exaltation as Jesus cites from Psalm 110:1.

Psalm 110:1, "A Psalm of David. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool."

Here is a proposed outline:

i) Jesus Is Questioned on Taxes ( Luke 20:20-26) - In Luke 20:20-26 Jesus responds to a question that is asked by the Jewish leaders about paying taxes to Caesar.

ii) Jesus Is Questioned on the Resurrection ( Luke 20:27-40) - In Luke 20:27-40 Jesus responds to a question asked by the Sadducees on the resurrection.

iii) Jesus Asks the Sadducees About David's Son ( Luke 20:41-44) - In Luke 20:41-44 Jesus asks the Sadducees a question about the resurrection by referring to Christ as the Son of David in the book of Psalm.

iv) Jesus Denounces the Jewish Leaders to the People ( Luke 20:45 to Luke 21:4) - After answering the questions from the Jewish leaders Jesus turns to the people and denounces the hypocrisy of these leaders ( Luke 20:45-47). He uses the illustration of a widow who was giving into the treasury to illustrate true service to God.

d) Jesus Gives His Eschatological Discourse ( Luke 21:5-38) - In Luke 21:5-38 Jesus gives His Eschatological Discourse to some of the people in the Temple. The parallel passages in Matthew and Mark tell us that He was addressing His disciples, which included more than the twelve apostles.

i) Prediction of the Destruction of Jerusalem ( Luke 21:5-6) - Jesus begins His eschatological discourse in Luke 21:5-6 by predicting the destruction of Jerusalem prior to His Second Coming.

ii) Signs Preceding this Event ( Luke 21:7-19) - In Luke 21:7-19 the disciples ask Jesus to give them the signs that will indicate the coming of this terrible event.

iii) The Destruction of Jerusalem ( Luke 21:20-24) - The description in Luke 21:20-24 is a reference to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman Emperor Titus in A.D 70. The time of the Gentiles will last another two thousand years.

iv) The Second Coming of Christ Jesus ( Luke 21:25-36) - In Luke 21:25-36 Jesus teaches on the rapture of the Church. The Rapture will be a glorious day for the Church, but a time of surprise and mourning for the world ( Matthew 24:29-44, Luke 21:25-36). Jesus first refers to a Rapture of the saints in His Eschatological Discourses recorded by Matthew and Luke.

v) The Setting of Jesus' Betrayal ( Luke 21:37-38) - Luke 21:37-38 serves a concluding remarks that describe the circumstances by which Judas Iscariot will betray the Lord Jesus Christ as recorded in Luke 22:1-6.

V. Witnesses of Jesus' Glorification: His Passion and Resurrection ( Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53) - Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53 organizes narrative material that testifies to Jesus' rejection by the Jews, His death and His resurrection. This collection of material is organized in a way that gives three witnesses to each of these four events surrounding His Passion; His betrayal and arrest, His trial, His crucifixion and His resurrection. This section begins with His rejection by the Jewish leaders and culminates with His resurrection and commission to His disciples to preach the Gospel to all the world. While Acts 1:1 reflects the two-fold emphasis of Jesus' ministry of doing and teaching, Acts 1:2-5 makes a clear reference to the rest of Luke's Gospel beginning from His Passion until His ascension ( Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53).

Acts 1:2-5, "Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen: To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God: And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith Hebrews , ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence."

Here is a proposed outline:

A. Witnesses of Jesus' Betrayal and Arrest ( Luke 22:1-54) - In Luke 22:1-54 the author records three predictions by Jesus Christ concerning His betrayal and arrest.

1. Prophecy of His Betrayal ( Luke 22:1-23) - In Luke 22:1-23 Jesus gives a prophecy of His betrayal by one of His disciples.

a) The Plot to Kill Jesus ( Luke 22:1-6) - In Luke 22:1-6 we have the account of Judas Iscariot plotting with the chief priests and the scribes to kill Jesus.

b) The Preparation for the Passover ( Luke 22:7-13) - In Luke 22:7-13 we have the account of Jesus and His disciples preparing for the Passover meal. When Jesus sent His disciples out to prepare a place for this meal, they asked Him where they should go. Rather than telling them the exact place, Jesus told them to look for a man carrying a pitcher of water. This lesson was to teach them about divine providence. He then told them to follow this man into a house, where they would be given a place to conduct the Passover meal. At this step in their act of obedience the disciples were to learn a lesson in divine provision. At an earlier time Simon Peter hesitated at such commandments from Jesus Christ ( Luke 5:1-11). When Jesus told Peter to cast his nets on the other side he said, "we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net." Now they were learning to trust His word.

Jesus had commanded the twelve not to take anything with them when He sent the out to preach the Gospel and heal the sick ( Luke 9:1-6). After teaching and healing the multitudes ( Luke 9:10-17), He then tested them by asking them to feed the five thousand when the disciples had no food ( Luke 9:13). Later, Jesus told His disciples to prepare for His triumphant entry into Jerusalem by going into the city and finding a colt tied ( Luke 19:28-38).

In addition, Jesus was operating in the gifts of a word of knowledge, which He had received from the Father through the Holy Spirit when He charged them these things. Thus, Jesus was simply telling His disciples about what He had seen. In other words, Jesus did not know any further details, because they had not been revealed to Him.

c) Jesus Institutes the Lord's Supper ( Luke 22:14-23) - In Luke 22:14-23 Jesus institutes the Lord's Supper using the bread and the wine.

2. Prophecy of the Disciples' Denial ( Luke 22:24-38) - Luke 22:24-38 contains a prophecy from Jesus regarding Peter's denial.

a) Jesus Teaches on Servanthood ( Luke 22:24-30) - In Luke 22:24-30 we have the unique story of Jesus teaching on the subject of servanthood at the Last Supper. This discourse was given because His disciples were striving about who should be exalted in this new kingdom ( Luke 22:24). He also demonstrated servanthood to His disciples at this time by washing their feet ( John 13).

b) Jesus Foretells Peter's Denial ( Luke 22:31-34) - In Luke 22:31-34 Jesus tells Peter that he will deny the Lord three times before sunrise.

c) Jesus Prepares His Disciples for His Arrest and Crucifixion ( Luke 22:35-38) - In Luke 22:35-38 Jesus prepares His disciples for His soon-coming arrest and crucifixion. This passage of Scripture, which records what Jesus taught at the Last Supper, is unique to Luke's Gospel in that the other Gospels make no reference to it. This passage reflects the underlying theme of Luke -, Acts , which is the prophetic-apostolic ministry of the Twelve being sent out to testify of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

3. Prophecy of Jesus' Arrest ( Luke 22:39-54) - In Luke 22:39-54 the author records a prophecy of His arrest.

a) Jesus Prays in the Garden of Gethsemane ( Luke 22:39-46) - In Luke 22:39-46 we have the account of Jesus withdrawing Himself to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane.

b) The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus ( Luke 22:47-54) - In Luke 22:47-54 we have the account of the betrayal and arrest of Jesus Christ.

B. Witnesses of His Trial ( Luke 22:55 to Luke 23:25) - In Luke 22:55 to Luke 23:25 the author records three witnesses of Jesus' trial.

1. Peter Denies the Lord ( Luke 22:55-62) - In Luke 22:54-62 we have the account of Peter denying the Lord three times in fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy.

2. Jesus' Prophecy to the Jewish Leaders ( Luke 22:63-71) - In Luke 22:63-71 Jesus prophesies to the Jewish leaders concerning His exaltation.

a) Jesus is Mocked and Beaten ( Luke 22:63-65) - In Luke 22:63-65 we have the account of Jesus being mocked and beaten by the Roman soldiers.

b) Jesus Before the Sanhedrin ( Luke 22:66-71) - In Luke 22:66-71 we have the account of Jesus standing before the Sanhedrin.

3. Jesus' Prophecy to Pontus Pilate ( Luke 23:1-25) - In Luke 23:1-25 Jesus confirms the opening words of Pilate to Him as a prophetic utterance.

a) Jesus Before Pilate the First Time ( Luke 23:1-5) - In Luke 23:1-5 we have the account of Jesus standing before Pontus Pilate for the first time before being sent to Herod. It was the destiny of Jesus Christ to stand before Pilate in order that Paul the apostle could one day stand before Caesar. Within three hundred years, the Roman Empire would bow before the Gospel of Jesus Christ as Emperor Constantine is converted to the faith.

b) Jesus Before Herod ( Luke 23:6-12) - In Luke 23:6-12 we have the unique account of Jesus being sent to Herod before returning to Pilate. This trial plays an important role in Luke -Acts as many scholars believe these two books were written as a legal brief prior to Paul's first trial before Nero during his first Roman imprisonment.

c) Jesus Before Pilate the Second Time ( Luke 23:13-25) - In Luke 23:13-25 we have the account of Jesus standing before Pilate the second time and being sentenced to death.

C. Witnesses of Jesus' Crucifixion ( Luke 23:26-56) - Luke 23:26-56 contains four witnesses of Jesus' crucifixion.

1. Jesus' Prophecy to the Multitudes ( Luke 23:26-38) - In Luke 23:26-38 Luke records the prophetic words of Jesus to the multitudes as He is led to Calvary. Luke the author may have records these words from the eye-witness testimony of Simon the Cyrenian who carried the cross for Jesus Christ.

2. Prophecy to Criminal on the Cross ( Luke 23:39-43) - Luke 23:39-43 records Jesus' prophecy to one of the thieves on the cross, telling him that he would be in paradise with him.

3. The Witness of the Roman Centurion Regarding the Death of Jesus ( Luke 23:44-49) - In Luke 23:44-49 we have the account of the death of Jesus Christ on the Cross through the eye-witness account of the Roman centurion.

4. Witness of Joseph of Arimathea Concerning the Burial of Jesus ( Luke 23:50-56) - In Luke 23:50-56 we have the account of the burial of Jesus Christ through the eye-witness account of Joseph of Arimathea, a Palestinian Jew.

D. Witnesses of His Resurrection ( Luke 24:1-49) - Luke 24:1-49 records three eye-witness accounts of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

1. The Witness of the Resurrection of Jesus by the Women ( Luke 24:1-12) - In Luke 24:1-12 we have the account of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ through the eye-witness account of the women at the tomb. The emphasis of this passage in Luke's Gospel is the testimony of this group of woman who first found out that Jesus had risen from the dead.

It is interesting to note that it was a group of women who first came to the tomb because they were not afraid to venture out after the crucifixion. The apostles may have found cause to hid, thinking that they may be next; for they had the pain of Jesus' crucifixion burned into their minds.

2. The Witness of His Resurrection on the Road to Emmaus ( Luke 24:13-35) - Luke 24:13-35 gives us a lengthy eye-witness account of Jesus' resurrection from two disciples who were walking on the road to Emmaus.

3. The Witness of Jesus' Resurrection by the Disciples ( Luke 24:36-49) - In Luke 24:36-49 we have the eye-witness account of Jesus' resurrection by His disciples.

E. The Ascension of Jesus ( Luke 24:50-53) - In Luke 24:50-53 we have the eye-witness account of Jesus' ascension into Heaven after instructing His disciples.

Summary: The Thematic Scheme of the Gospel of Luke - Jesus' first sermon to the people of Nazareth in their synagogue reveals the underlying theme of the book of Luke , which is the testimony of eye-witnesses as they are filled with the Holy Spirit. Jesus reads from the book of Isaiah and says that the Spirit of the Lord is upon Him because of two reasons, because He has been anointed to testify of the Gospel and because He has been sent from God with this testimony. Therefore, the structure of the book of Luke reflects Jesus as He retreats to be with the Lord and is filled with the Spirit, and as He returns to preach the Gospel and demonstrate His authority to deliver this testimony by His works.

XIII. Outline of Book

The following outline is a summary of the preceding literary structure; thus, it reflects the theological framework of the Gospel of Luke: its purpose, its three-fold thematic scheme, and its literary structure. As a result, this outline offers sermon sections that fit together into a single message that can be used by preachers and teachers to guide a congregation or class through the Gospel of Luke. This journey through Luke will lead believers into one aspect of conformity to the image of Christ Jesus that was intended by the Lord, which in this book of the Holy Scriptures is to prepare Christians to testify of the Gospel of Jesus Christ through prophetic proclamations.

I. Prologue— Luke 1:1-4

II. Witnesses of Jesus' Birth-Childhood— Luke 1:5 to Luke 2:52

A. Predestination: Witnesses Predicting Jesus' Birth— Luke 1:5-80

1. The Vision of Zacharias— Luke 1:5-25

2. The Prophecies of Gabriel, Elisabeth, & Mary— Luke 1:26-56

3. The Prophecy of Zacharias— Luke 1:57-80

B. Calling: Witnesses of Jesus' Infancy-Childhood— Luke 2:1-52

1. The Witness of the Shepherds at His Birth— Luke 2:1-20

a) The Birth of Jesus— Luke 2:1-7

b) The Visit of the Shepherds— Luke 2:8-20

2. The Witnesses in the Temple at His Dedication— Luke 2:21-40

a) The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple— Luke 2:21-24

b) The Witness of Simeon— Luke 2:25-35

c) The Witness of Anna— Luke 2:36-38

d) Jesus Returns to Nazareth— Luke 2:39-40

3. The Witness of His Dialogue with the Priests— Luke 2:41-52

III. Witnesses of Jesus' Justification as the Saviour (Calling)— Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:30

A. Narrative: Three Witnesses of Jesus' Calling— Luke 3:1 to Luke 4:15

1. The Witness of John the Baptist— Luke 3:1-20

2. The Witness of the Father in Baptism & Genealogy— Luke 3:21-38

3. The Witness of the Holy Spirit thru His Anointing— Luke 4:1-15

B. Discourse: Jesus Declares His Calling as Saviour— Luke 4:16-30

IV. Witnesses Justifying Jesus as Saviour (Justification)— Luke 4:31 to Luke 21:38

A. Justification: Jesus Testifies of True Justification— Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:49

1. Narrative: He Demonstrates Justification (Capernaum)— Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:11

a) Demonstration of His Authority over Sickness— Luke 4:31-44

i) Healing the Man with an Unclean Spirit— Luke 4:31-37

ii) The Healing of Peter's Mother-in-Law and Others— Luke 4:38-41

iii) Preaching & Healings in Capernaum & Galilee— Luke 4:38-44

b) Demonstration of His Authority over Sin— Luke 5:1-26

i) Calling Disciples from their Sins— Luke 5:1-11

ii) Healing a Leper— Luke 5:12-16

iii) Healing a Paralytic— Luke 5:17-26

c) Demonstration of His Authority over Customs— Luke 5:27 to Luke 6:11

i) Calling Disciples from their Traditions— Luke 5:27-39

ii) Authority over the Sabbath— Luke 6:1-5

iii) Authority over the Sabbath— Luke 6:6-11

2. Discourse: Jesus Teaches on True Justification (Galilee)— Luke 6:12-49

a) Jesus Appoints the Twelve— Luke 6:12-16

b) Jesus Heals the Multitudes— Luke 6:17-19

c) Jesus Teaches the Multitudes— Luke 6:20-49

B. Indoctrination: Jesus Testifies of His Word— Luke 7:1 to Luke 8:21

1. Narrative: Jesus Demonstrates His Doctrine (Capernaum)— Luke 7:1-50

a) Heals the Centurion's Servant (Body)— Luke 7:1-10

b) Jesus Raises the Widow's Son (Body)— Luke 7:11-17

c) Jesus Testifies of His Justification (Mind)— Luke 7:18-35

d) Jesus Demonstrates Forgiveness (Heart)— Luke 7:36-50

2. Discourse: Jesus Teaches on Obeying His Word (Galilee)— Luke 8:1-21

a) Jesus Ministers with His Disciples— Luke 8:1-3

b) Jesus Teaches the Parable of the Sower— Luke 8:4-15

c) The Parable of the Light Under the Bushel— Luke 8:16-18

d) His Family is the One Who Obeys the Word— Luke 8:19-21

C. Divine Service: Jesus Testifies of Divine Service— Luke 8:22 to Luke 10:37

1. Narrative: Jesus Demonstrates Divine Service (Galilee)— Luke 8:22 to Luke 9:50

a) Jesus Demonstrates His Authority— Luke 8:22-56

i) Calming the Storm (Natural Realm)— Luke 8:22-25

ii) Gadarene Demoniac (Spirit Realm)— Luke 8:26-39

iii) Jarius & Woman with Issue of Blood (Physical)— Luke 8:40-56

b) Jesus Delegates His Authority to the Apostles— Luke 9:1-17

i) Jesus Sends Out His Disciples Luke 9:1-6

ii) Herod's Perplexity— Luke 9:7-9

iii) Feeding Five Thousand— Luke 9:10-17

c) Jesus Reveals His Divinity— Luke 9:18-50

i) Peter's Confession— Luke 9:18-27

ii) The Transfiguration of Jesus— Luke 9:28-36

iii) A Healing that Reveals His Majesty— Luke 9:37-45

iv) The Disciples Dispute Over Greatness— Luke 9:46-50

2. Discourse: Jesus Trains 70 Disciples (Faces Jerusalem)— Luke 9:51 to Luke 10:37

a) Rejection by Samaritans— Luke 9:51-56

b) Three Examples of Cost of Discipleship— Luke 9:57-62

c) The Seventy Sent Out— Luke 10:1-24

d) Instructs Lawyer on Eternal Life— Luke 10:25-37

D. Perseverance: Jesus Testifies of Striving to Enter In— Luke 10:38 to Luke 17:10

1. Narrative: Jesus Demonstrates Perseverance (In a Village)— Luke 10:38 to Luke 13:21

a) Corrects Martha on Priorities— Luke 10:38-42

b) Instructs Disciples on Prayer— Luke 11:1-13

c) Jesus Corrects People About the Kingdom of God— Luke 11:14-36

i) Introduction— Luke 11:14-16

ii) The Kingdom of God vs. Satan— Luke 11:17-28

iii) The Request for a Sign— Luke 11:29-32

iv) Conclusion— Luke 11:33-36

d) Jesus Rebukes Pharisees on Hypocrisy— Luke 11:37-54

e) Jesus Teaches on Faithfulness & Stewardship— Luke 12:1-59

i) Instructs Disciples on Persecutions in Service— Luke 12:1-12

ii) Corrects People on Covetousness— Luke 12:13-21

iii) Instructs Disciples on Faithfulness & Stewardship— Luke 12:22-53

iv) Rebukes People for not Judging Themselves— Luke 12:54-59

f) Warns People on Eternal Judgment— Luke 13:1-9

g) Heals & Rebukes Jewish Leader on Hypocrisy— Luke 13:10-17

h) Teaches Parables on Growth of the Kingdom— Luke 13:18-21

2. Discourse: Jesus Teaches (To Jerusalem)— Luke 13:22 to Luke 17:10

a) Jesus Instructs on Striving to Enter the Kingdom — Luke 13:22-30

b) Corrects Pharisees on Fulfillment of His Ministry— Luke 13:31-35

c) Jesus Heals & Corrects the Pharisees on the Law— Luke 14:1-6

d) Jesus Teaches on Humility — Luke 14:7-11

e) Jesus Teaches on Benevolence— Luke 14:12-14

f) Jesus Teaches on Forsaking Cares of the World — Luke 14:15-24

g) Jesus Teaches on Forsaking All— Luke 14:25-35

h) Discourse: Jesus Teaches on Perseverance— Luke 15:1 to Luke 17:10

i) Jesus Corrects Pharisees on Seeking the Lord— Luke 15:1-32

1) Introduction— Luke 15:1-2

2) Parable of Lost Sheep— Luke 15:3-7

3) Parable of Lost Coin— Luke 15:8-10

4) Parable of Lost Son— Luke 15:11-32

ii) Jesus Instructs Disciples on Stewardship— Luke 16:1-13

iii) Jesus Rebukes Pharisees on Covetousness — Luke 16:14-31

iv) Jesus Teaches Disciples on Offences— Luke 17:1-4

v) Jesus Teaches the Apostles on Faith & Duty— Luke 17:5-10

E. Glorification: Jesus Testifies on Kingdom of God— Luke 17:11 to Luke 21:38

1. Narrative: Jesus Teachings (Thru Samaria & Galilee)— Luke 17:11 to Luke 19:27

a) Healing of the Ten Lepers (Thankfulness)— Luke 17:11-19

b) Jesus Instructs Disciples on Second Coming— Luke 17:20-37

c) Jesus Instructs Disciples on Prayer— Luke 18:1-8

d) Corrects Pharisees on Humility — Luke 18:9-14

e) Jesus Instructs Disciples on Childlikeness — Luke 18:15-17

f) Jesus Teaches Disciples on Covetousness— Luke 18:18-30

g) Jesus Predicts His Death— Luke 18:31-34

h) Jesus Heals a Blind Man — Luke 18:35-43

i) Jesus Dines with Zacchaeus— Luke 19:1-10

j) Jesus Teaches on the Faithfulness in the Kingdom— Luke 19:11-27

2. Discourse: Jesus Instructs (Into Jerusalem)— Luke 19:28 to Luke 21:38

a) Prophecy of His Arrival — Luke 19:28-48

i) Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem — Luke 19:28-40

ii) Jesus Weeps Over Jerusalem— Luke 19:41-44

iii) Jesus Cleanses the Temple — Luke 19:45-48

b) Prophecy of His Rejection— Luke 20:1-19

c) Prophecy of His Exaltation— Luke 20:20 to Luke 21:4

d) Eschatological Discourse— Luke 21:5-38

V. Witnesses of Jesus' Passion/Resurrection (Glorification)— Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53

A. Witnesses of His Betrayal & Arrest — Luke 22:1-54

1. Prophecy of His Betrayal— Luke 22:1-23

2. Prophecy of the Disciples' Denial— Luke 22:24-38

3. Prophecy of His Arrest— Luke 22:39-54

B. Witnesses of His Trial— Luke 22:55 to Luke 23:25

1. Jesus' Prophecy to Peter Fulfilled— Luke 22:55-62

2. Jesus' Prophecy to Jewish Leaders— Luke 22:63-71

3. Jesus' Prophecy to Pontus Pilate— Luke 23:1-25

C. Witnesses of His Crucifixion— Luke 23:26-56

1. Prophecy to the Multitude— Luke 23:26-38

2. Prophecy to Criminal on the Cross— Luke 23:39-43

3. Witness of the Centurion (a Roman)— Luke 23:44-49

4. Witness of Joseph of Arimathea (a Palestinian Jew)— Luke 23:50-56

D. Witnesses of His Resurrection— Luke 24:1-53

1. Witness of His Resurrection by Women— Luke 24:1-12

2. Witness of His Resurrection on Road to Emmaus — Luke 24:13-35

3. Witness of His Resurrection by the Disciples— Luke 24:36-49

E. Witness of His Ascension— Luke 24:50-53

BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, David L. "Class Lecture." Doctor of Ministry Seminar. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 25 July to 5 August 2011.

Aquinas, Thomas. Catena Aurea: Commentary on the Four Gospels, Collected out of the Works of the Fathers, vol 1, part 1, second edition. Oxford: John Henry, 1864.

Barnes, Albert. The Gospel According to Luke. In Barnes" Notes, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1997. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Bingham, Geoffrey C. The Acts of the Apostles. In New Creation Publications Commentary Series (Adelaide, South Australia, c 1982) [on-line]. Accessed 10 July 2010. Available from http://www.newcreation.org.au/books/pdf/029_ActsApostles.pdf; Internet.

Borland, James A. Gospel According to Luke. In The KJV Bible Commentary. Eds. Edward E. Hindson and Woodrow M. Kroll. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1994. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Bruce, F. F. The Acts of the Apostles. London: Tyndale, 1951.

Burton, Henry. Luke. In The Expositor's Bible. Eds. William R. Nicoll and Oscar L. Joseph. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1956. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM]. Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Calvin, John. Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew ,, Mark ,, Luke , 3 vols. Trans. William Pringle. Edinburgh: The Calvin Translation Society, 1845.

Clarke, Adam. The Book of the Prophet Jonah. In Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Clarke, Adam. The Gospel According to St. Luke , in Adam Clarke"s Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1996. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Constable, Thomas L. Notes on Mark. Garland, Texas: Sonic Light, 2008 [on-line]. Accessed 28 December 2008. Available from http://www.soniclight.com/constable/notes.htm; Internet.

Duncan, William C. The Life, Character, and Acts of John the Baptist: and the Relationship of His Ministry to the Christian Dispensation. New York: Sheldon and Company, 1860.

Exell, Joseph S, ed. Luke. In The Biblical Illustrator. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Pub. House, 1954. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM], Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2002.

Gill, John. Luke. In John Gill's Expositor. In e-Sword, v 777 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005.

Henry, Matthew. An Exposition, with Practical Observations, of The Gospel According to St. Luke, in Matthew Henry"s Commentary on the Whole Bible, New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc, 1991. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Jamieson, Robert. A. R. Fausset, and David Brown. The Gospel According to Luke , in Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc, 1997. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM] Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000).

Lange, John Peter. The Gospel According to Matthew , Together with a General Theological, and Homiletical Introduction to the New Testament, in A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homilectical, with Special Reference to Ministers and Students. Trans. Philip Schaff. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clarke, 1872.

Liefeld, Walter L. Luke. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary, vol 8. Eds. Frank E. Gaebelien, J. D. Douglas, Dick Polcyn. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976-1992. In Zondervan Reference Software, v 28 [CD-ROM] Grand Rapids, MI: The Zondervan Corp, 1989-2001.

Lightfoot, John. Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae: Hebrew and Talmudical Exercitations Upon the Gospels, the Acts , Some Chapters of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans and the First Epistle to the Corinthians, vol 2. Ed. Robert Gandell. Oxford: The University Press, 1859.

MacDonald, William. The Gospel According to Luke. In Believer's Bible Commentary, ed. Arthur Farstad. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1995. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

MacDonald, William. The Gospel According to Matthew. In Believer's Bible Commentary. Ed. Arthur Farstad. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1995. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

McGee, J. Vernon. The Gospel According to Luke. In Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1998. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Metzger, Bruce M, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker, eds. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007.

Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. In The Pillar New Testament Commentary Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.

Nolland, John. Luke 1:1 to Luke 9:20. In Word Biblical Commentary, vol 35A. Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Nolland, John. Luke 9:21 to Luke 18:34. In Word Biblical Commentary, vol 35B. Dallas, Texas: Word, Incorporated, 2002. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Osborne, Grant R. Matthew. In Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Ed. Clinton E. Arnold. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010.

Pfeiffer, Charles and Everett F. Harrison, eds. The Gospel According to Luke. In The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Chicago: Moody Press, c 1962. In P.C. Study Bible, v 31 [CD-ROM]. Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc, 1993-2000.

Plummer, Alfred. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel of Luke , in The International Critical Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. Eds. Charles A. Briggs, Samuel R. Driver, and Alfred Plummer. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902.

Poole, Matthew. Luke. In Matthew Poole's New Testament Commentary. In OnLine Bible, v 20 [CD-ROM]. Nederland: Online Bible Foundation, 1992-2005.

Radmacher, Earl D, Ronald B. Allen, and H. Wayne House, eds. The Gospel According to Luke. In Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub, 1999. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM]. Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Salmon, George. Matthew. In The Biblical Illustrator. Ed. Joseph S. Exell. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Pub. House, 1954. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2002.

Spence-Jones, H. D. M. and John Marshall Lang. Luke. In The Pulpit Commentary. Eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Williams, A. Lukyn and Benjamin C. Caffin. John. In The Pulpit Commentary. Eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Williams, A. Lukyn and Benjamin C. Caffin. Matthew. In The Pulpit Commentary. Eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell, Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1950. In Ages Digital Library, v 10 [CD-ROM] Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc, 2001.

Wordsworth, Christopher. The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, in the Original Greek: with Introductions and Notes, vol 1, fifth edition. London: Rivingtons, Waterloo Place, 1867.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adam of St. Victor. The Liturgical Poetry of Adam of St. Victor. Trans. Digby S. Wrangham, vol 1. London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co, 1881.

Adam of St. Victor. The Liturgical Poetry of Adam of St. Victor. Trans. Digby S. Wrangham, vol 3. London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Co, 1881.

Aland, Kurt, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds. The Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology). Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993, 2006. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Aland, Kurt, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds. The Greek New Testament, Third Edition. United Bible Societies, 1975.

Allen, David L. "Class Lecture." Doctor of Ministry Seminar. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 25 July to 5 August 2011.

Anderson, Robert. The Coming Prince. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1909.

The Anti-Marcionite Prologues to the Gospels. Trans. Roger Pearse (2006) [on-line]. Accessed 16 April 2010. Available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/anti_marcionite_prologues.htm; Internet.

Appian's Roman History, vol 3. Trans. Horace White. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, 1964.

Aquinas, Thomas. Catena Aurea: Commentary on the Four Gospels, Collected out of the Works of the Fathers, vol 1, part 1, second edition. Oxford: John Henry, 1864.

Badger, George Percy. The Nestorians and their Rituals, vol 2. London: Joseph Masters, 1852), 362.

Bacon, Benjamin Wisner. Introduction to the New Testament. London: The Macmillan Company, 1900.

Bailey, Kenneth E. "Poet and Peasant." Poet and Peasant and Through Peasant Eyes: A Literary-Cultural Approach to the Parables in Luke. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1983.

Barrack, William. Lexicon to Xenophone's Anabasis for the Use of Schools. London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1872.

Barton, David. (Wall Builders, Aledo, Texas). Interviewed by Kenneth Copeland. Believer's Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Bebb, J. M. " Luke , Gospel of." In A Dictionary of the Bible, vol 3. Ed. James Hastings. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1901.

Berkholf, H. "Hoe leest het Nieuwe Testament het Oude?" In Homiletica en Biblica, vol 22, no 11 (Dec 1963).

Berkhof, Louis. The Gospel of Luke. In Introduction to the New Testament, electronic edition 2004-04-02. Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library [on-line]. Accessed 23April 2010. Available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/berkhof/newtestament.html; Internet.

Berkhof, Louis. New Testament Introduction. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans-Sevensma Co, 1915.

Blessitt, Arthur. Interviewed on Praise the Lord. On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Blomberg, Craig L. Interpreting the Parables. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1990.

Blomberg, Craig L. Preaching the Parables: From Responsible Interpretation to Powerful Proclamation. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2004.

Bonar, Andrew A. and Robert Murray McCheyne. Narrative of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews from the Church of Scotland in 1839. Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1843.

Booth, Wayne C, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Brann, Henry A. The Triumphs and Glories of the Catholic Church. New York: Thomas Kelly, 1895.

Brim, Billye. Interviewed by Gloria Copeland. Believer's Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program, 22May 2003.

Bruce, F. F. The Books and the Parchments. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963.

Bullinger, E. W. Appendix 30: Massrah, in The Companion Bible Being The Authorized Version of 1611With The Structures And Notes, Critical, Explanatory and Suggestive And With 198 Appendixes. London: Oxford University Press, c 1909-22.

Burton, Ernest De Witt. "The Purpose and Plan of the Gospel of Matthew." In The Biblical World 111 (January 1898): 37-44.

Caelii Sedulii Opera Omnia. Ed. Francisco Antonio de Lorenzana. Romae, 1893.

Chazon, Esther G, Ruth A. Clements, and Avital Pinnick, eds. Liturgical Perspectives: Prayer and Poetry in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls; Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill, 2003.

Cicero. The Treatises of M. T. Cicero on the Nature of the Gods; on Divination; on Fate; on the Republic; on the Laws; and on Standing for the Consulship. Trans. C. D. Yonge. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853.

Copeland, Kenneth. Believer's Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Cotton, Hanna M. The Roman Census in the Papryi from the Judaean Desert and the Egyptian κατ ʼ ο κίαν πογραφή, in Semitic Papryology in Context: a Climate of Creativity, Papers from a New York University conference marking the retirement of Baruch A. Levine. Ed. Lawrence H. Schiffman. In Culture and History of the Ancient Near East, vol 14. New York: New York University, March 5-7, 2000.

Cross, F. L. and E. A. Livingstone, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, revised. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Crouch, Paul. "Behind the Scenes." On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

"Crucifixion." In Encyclopdia Britannica [on-line]. Accessed December 21, 2011. Available at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/144583/crucifixion; Internet.

Davis, Barry L. "The Authorship of Luke -Acts." [on-line]. Accessed 12August 2010. Available from http://www.angelfire.com/ok/bibleteaching/lukeauthorship.html; Internet.

de Broglie, Albert. "The First Christian Emperors." (130-190). In The Christian Remembrancer (vol 50 July-Decemeber) London: J. and C. Mozley, 1860.

de Bruyne, Donatien. "Les plus anciens prologues latines des vangiles." Revue Bndictine, vol 40, (October 1928), 193-214.

Dio Cassius. Dio's Roman History, vol 9. Trans. Ernest Cary. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, 1955.

Dionysius of Halicarnasus. The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnasus, vol 3. Trans. Earnest Cary. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, c 1940.

Dodd, C. H. The Parables of the Kingdom. London: Nisbet & Co. Ltd, 1935.

Dollar, Creflo. Changing Your World. (College Park, Georgia: Creflo Dollar Ministries). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Dollar, Creflo. "Sermon." (Kampala, Uganda: Miracle Center Cathedral), 14June 2007.

Donne, William Bodham. "Spartacus." In Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol 3. Ed. William Smith. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1849.

Duplantis, Jesse. Heaven Close Encounters of the God Kind. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Harrison House, 1996.

Edersheim, Alfred. The Bible History Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eedmann Publishing Company, c 1876-1887, 1984.

Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol 2. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1899.

Ephiphanius. S. Epiphanii Episcopi Constantiensis Panaria Eorumque Anacephalaeosis, tomi prioris, pars prior. Ed. Franciscus Oehler. In Corporis Haereseogolici, tomus secundus. Berolini:Apud A. Asher et Socios, 1859.

The Epistle of Barnabas. In The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D 325, vol 1: The Apostolic Fathers With Justin Martyr and Ireneaus, American ed. Eds. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Grand Rapids; Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1997, electronic edition. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2009.

Gibson, Margaret Dunlop. Ed. and trans. The Commentaries of Isho'dad of Merv Bishop of Hadatha (c 850 A.D.) in Syriac and English. In Horae Semiticae, vol 5. Cambridge: The University Press, 1911.

Goodspeed, Edgar J. An Introduction to the New Testament. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1937.

Goodwin, William W. Plutarch's Essays and Miscellanies, vol 3. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1911.

Grant, Robert M. "A Historical Introduction to the New Testament- Part Two: New Testament Literature, Chapter 10: The Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts." New York: Harper and Row, 1963 [on-line]. Accessed 12August 2010. Available from http://www.religion-online.org/showbook.asp?title=1116; Internet.

Gregory, D. S. Why Four Gospels? Or, The Gospel for All the World. New York: Sheldon and Company, 1877.

Gregory Nazianzen. Oration Against Julian. Trans. C. W. King [on-line]. Accessed 10 July 2010. Available from http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Orations_of_Gregory_of_Nazianzus/First_invective_against_Julian_the_Emperor; Internet.

Gregory the Great. Morals on the Book of Job , vol 1pts 1 & 2. In A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, Anterior to the Division of the East and the West. Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1844.

Guido, Michael. The Sower (Metter, Georgia). On Daystar Television (Beford, Texas, 2January 2008). Television program.

Gundry, Robert H. A Survey of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981.

Gunkel, Hermann. The Psalm: A Form-Critical Introduction. Trans. Thomas M. Horner. In Biblical Series, vol 19. Ed. John Reumann. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967.

Guthrie, Donald. New Testament Introduction. Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990.

Gyles, Mary Francis. "Augustus." In The Word Book Encyclopedia, vol 1. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1994.

Hagee, Diana. What Every Woman Wants in a Man. Lake Mary, Florida: Charisma House, 2005.

Hagee, John. John Hagee Today (San Antonio, Texas: John Hagee Ministries). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Hagin, Kenneth. A Commonsense Guide to Fasting. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1981, 1994.

Hagin, Kenneth. The Believer's Authority. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1984, 1992.

Hagin, Kenneth. Hear and Be Healed. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1987, 1991.

Hagin, Kenneth. He Gave Gifts Unto Men: A Biblical Perspective of Apostles, Prophets, and Pastors. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1992, 1993.

Hagin, Kenneth. I Believe In Visions. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1984, 1986.

Hagin, Kenneth. Following God's Plan For Your Life. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c 1993, 1994.

Harnack, Adolf. Luke the Physician: Author of the Third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. Trans. J. R. Wilkinson. In Crown Theological Library. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908.

Harrison, Everett F. Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, c 1964, 1971.

Hawkins, John C. Horae Synopticae: Contributions to the Study of the Synoptic Problem. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1909.

Hayford, Jack. "Spirit Formed with Jack Hayford." On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Heard, Richard. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950 [on-line]. Accessed 7 July 2010. Available from http://www.religion-online.org/showchapter.asp?title=531&C=551; Internet.

Heard, R. G. "The Old Gospel Prologues." Journal of Theological Studies n.s 6 (1955), 1-16.

Herodotus I. Trans. A. D. Godley. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, c 1920, 1975.

Herodotus II. Trans. A. D. Godley. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, c 1928.

Herodotus III. Trans. A. D. Godley. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, c 1938.

Hinn, Benny. "Fire Conference." Miracle Center Cathedral, Kampala, Uganda, 5-6 June 2009.

Hobart, William Kirk. The Medical Language of St. Luke. London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1882.

Hultgren, Arland J. The Parables of Jesus: A Commentary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 2000.

Hultgren, Arland J. The Parables of Jesus. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000; paperback 2002.

Hunt, Boyd. "Class Lecture in Systematic Theology." Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, 11March 1983.

"International News." Al Jazeera, Doha, Qatar, August 2009.

Jackson, F. J. Foakes and Kirsopp Lake. The Beginnings of Christianity: Part 1The Acts of the Apostles, vol 2. London: Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1922.

Jacobs, Cindy. With Benny Hinn. This is Your Day (Benny Hinn Ministries, Grapevine, Texas). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), Television program.

James , Montague Rhodes. The Apocryphal New Testament being the Apocryphal Gospels, Acts , Epistles, and Apocalypses with Other Narratives and Fragments newly Translated. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, c 1924, 1963.

Jameson, Anna. Sacred and Legendary Art, vol 1. Boston, MA: Houghton Miffin & Co, 1900.

Jeremias, Joachim. The Parables of Jesus. Translated by S. H. Hooke. London: SCM Press Ltd, 1954; Revised 1972.

Jeremias, Joachim. Rediscovering the Parables. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1966.

Josephus, Flavius. Flavius Josephus Against Apion. In The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged. Trans. William Whiston. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, c 1987, 1996. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Joyner, Rick. The Call, Charlotte, North Carolina: Morning Star Publications, 1999.

Joyner, Rick. The Final Quest. Charlotte, North Carolina: Morning Star Publications, 1977.

Jukes, Andrew. The Characteristic Differences of the Four Gospels. London: James Nisbet and Co, 1853.

Keathley, III, J. Hampton. "Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah." (Bible.org) [on-line]. Accessed 23May 2012. Available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.

Keating, Corey. The Criteria Used for Developing the New Testament Canon in the First Four Centuries of the Christian Church (2000). Accessed 15 April 2012. Available from http://www.ntgreek.org/SeminaryPapers/ChurchHistory/Criteria%20for%20Development%20of%20the%20NT%20Canon%20in%20First%20Four%20Centuries.pdf; Internet.

Kennedy, A. R. S. "Money-changers." In A Dictionary of the Bible Dealing with its Language, Literature, and Contents Including the Biblical Theology, vol 3. Eds. James Hastings and John A. Selbie. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1901.

Koester, Helmut. Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, c 1990.

Ksenberger, Andreas J. Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011.

Ladouceur, D. "Hellenistic Preconceptions of Shipwreck and Pollution as a context for Acts 27-28." HTE 73, 1980, pp 435-449.

Lang, G. H. Pictures and Parables: Studies in the Parabolic Teaching of Holy Scripture. London: Paternoster Press, 1955.

Lardner, Nathaniel. The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, 10 vols. London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829, 1838.

Lincoln, Abraham. Letters and Proclamations of the President. n.p, 1864.

"Lives of the Saints." [on-line]. Accessed 10 July 2010. Available from http://www.catholic-saints.net/saints/st-luke.php; Internet.

Lockyer, Herbert. All the Parables of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan Publishing House, 1963.

Lucian, vol 3. Trans. A. M. Harmon. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, 1960.

Lutzer, Erwin W. One Minute After You Die. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1997.

McCrossan, T. J. Bodily Healing and the Atonement. Revelation -edited by Roy H. Hicks and Kenneth E. Hagin, second edition. Tulsa, OK: Faith Library Publications, c 1982, 1992.

McPherson, James M. "Emancipation Proclamation." In The World Book Encyclopedia, vol 6. Chicago: World Book, Inc, 1994.

Migne, Jacques Paul. Patrologia Graecae, 161vols. Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1857-66.

Migne, Jacques Paul. Patrologia Latina, 221vols. Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1844-55.

Miles, G. B. and G. Tromph. "Luke and Antiphon: The Theology of Acts 27-28 in the Light of Pagan Beliefs about Divine Retribution, Pollution and Shipwreck." THE 69, 1976, pp 259-267.

Murray, Andrew. The Prayer Life. Chicago, Illinois: The Moody Press, n.d.

Nelson's Complete Book of Maps and Charts: Old and New Testaments, revised and updated edition. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, c 1993, 1996. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Osborne, Grant R. "Women in Jesus' Ministry." Westminster Theological Journal (Fall 1989): 259-91.

Osburn, Carrol D. The Text of the Apostolos in Epiphanius of Salamis. Koninklijke Brill, Netherlands: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004.

Pierce, Church D. The Future War of the Church. Ventura, CA: Regal Books, 2001.

Pliny. The Natural History of Pliny, vol 3. Trans. John Bostock and H. T. Riley. In Bohn's Classical Library. Ed. Henry G. Bohn. Londo: Henry G. Bohn, 1855.

Pliny. The Natural History of Pliny, vol 6. Trans. John Bostock and H. T. Riley. In Bohn's Classical Library. Ed. Henry G. Bohn. Londo: Henry G. Bohn, 1857.

Pollard, Edward Bagby "Money-changers." In International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Ed. James Orr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, c 1915, 1939. In The Sword Project, v 1511 [CD-ROM] Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008.

Prichard, C. H. "Oracle." In A Dictionary of the Bible, vol 3. Ed. James Hastings. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1901.

Quintus Curtius Rufus, Life and Exploits of Alexander the Great. Trans. William Henry Crosby. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1969.

Ramsay, George Gilbert. The Annals of Tacitus, Books I. - VI. An English Translation. London: John Murray, 1904.

Ramsay, William M. The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1915.

Ramsay, William M. Was Christ Born in Bethlehem. London: Hodder and Stoughton,1898.

Rendall, Robert. History, Prophecy and God. London, 1954.

Riley, H. T. The Pharsalia of Lucan. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853.

Roberts, Alexander and James Donaldson, eds. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1956. In Christian Classics Ethereal Library, v 20 [CD-ROM]. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Calvin College Campus Bookstore, 2001.

Roberts, Frances J. Come Away My Beloved. Ojai, California: King's Farspan, Inc, 1973.

Robertson, A. T. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. New York: Hodder and Stoughton, n.d.

Robertson, A. T. A Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ Based on the Broadus Harmony of the Revised Version. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1922.

The Roman Martyrology: Published by Order of Gregory XIII. Baltimore, MD: John Murphy Company, 1916.

Sanday, W. The Cheltenham List of the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testament and the Writings of Cyprian, in Studia Biblica ed Ecclesiastica: Essays Chiefly in Biblical and Patristic Criticism, vol 3. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1891.

Sanday, William. The Gospels in the Second Century: An Examination of the Critical Part of a Work Entitled ‘Supernatural Religion'. London: Macmillan and Co, 1876).

Scanlin, Harold. The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Translations of the Old Testament. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndall House Publishers, 1993. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church, vol 1. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955.

Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church, vol 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1922.

Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church, vol 3. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1891.

Schreiner, Thomas R. Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c 1990, 2011.

Scott, Emanuel. "Sermon." Chapel service, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, 26 January 1982.

Scott, S. P. The Civil Law. Cincinnati, Ohio: The Central Trust Company 1932 [on-line]. Accessed 17 January 2011. Available at

(vol 50 July-Decemeber) (London: J. and C. Mozley, 1860), 169; Philip Schaff, Histhttp://webu 2.upmf-grenoble.fr/Haiti/Cours/Ak/Anglica/Paul 5_Scott.htm#21; Internet.

Seneca, vol 4. Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, vol 3. Trans. Richard M. Gumere. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, 1971.

Seymour, Bob. "Sermon." Calvary Cathedral International, Fort Worth, Texas, 11February 1996.

The Sibylline Oracles. Trans. H. C. O. Lanchester. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 2. Ed. R. H. Charles (electronic edition). In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004.

Sirach. Trans. G. H. Box and W. O. E. Oesterley. In The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol 1. Ed. R. H. Charles, 268-517 Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.

Simpson, A. B. The Cross of Christ [on-line]. Accessed on 25 October 2010. Available at http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/e-books/holiness/Simpson/CrossChrist/TCOCindex.htm; Internet.

Singh, Sadhu Sundar. At the Master's Feet. Trans. Arthur Parker. London: Fleming H. Revell Co, 1922 [on-line]. Accessed 26 October 2008. Available from http://www.ccel.org/ccel/singh/feet.html; Internet.

Sophronius. The Life of the Evangelist Matthew. In Orthodox Classics in English. House Springs, MO: The Chrysostom Press [on-line]. Accessed 1December 2010. Available from http://www.chrysostompress.org/the-four-evangelists; Internet.

Stanley, Thomas, trans. Claudius Aelianus His Various History. London: Thomas Dring, 1665, Thomas Basset, 1670, 1677.

Stauffer, Ethelbert. Jesus and His Story. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974.

Stewart, Aubrey. L. Anneaus Seneca: Minor Dialogues. London: George Bell and Sons, 1889.

Story, J. Lyle. Spirit Filled Life Bible: New King James Version. Ed. Jack W. Hayford. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, c 1991.

Suetonius. The Lives of the Twelve Caesars by Suetonius. Trans. Joseph Gavorse. New York: Modern Library, 1931.

Sunukjian, Don. "Mustard Seeds and Moving Mulberries Luke 17:5-10." Evangelical Homiletics Society 2007 Conference, La Mirada, CA, 13October 2007.

Sutton, Hilton. Interviewed by Kenneth Copeland. Believer's Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

Tadlock, Jessie M. Greek and Roman Mythology. New York: The Century Company, 1917.

Thucydides, vol 1. Trans. Charles Forster Smith. In The Loeb Classical Library. Eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse. London: William Heinemann, c 1956.

Tornielli, Andrea. "The Beloved Luke." [on-line]. Accessed 10 July 2010. Available from http://www.traces-cl.com/archive/2000/novembre/luca.htm; Internet.

"The Treatise on the Resurrection." Trans. Malcom L. Peel. In The Nag Hammadi Library. In The Gnostic Society Library [on-line]. Accessed 29 March 2010. Available from http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/res.html; Internet.

Trench, Richard Chenevix. Notes on the Parables of Our Lord. London: Kegan Paul, 1906.

Vine, W. E, Merrill F. Unger, and William White. Vine"s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

Vines, Jerry and Jim Shaddix. Power in the Pulpit. Chicago, Illinois: Moody Press, 1999.

Wace, Henry and Philip Schaff, eds. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 1956. In Christian Classics Ethereal Library, v 20 [CD-ROM]. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Calvin College Campus Bookstore, 2001.

Wallace, Daniel B. Acts: Introduction, Argument, and Outline. Biblical Studies Foundation, Richardson, Texas, 1998 [on-line] Accessed 6 July 2010. Available from; Internet.

Wallace, Daniel B. Luke: Introduction, Outline, and Argument. In Biblical Studies Foundation. Richardson, Texas: Biblical Studies Press, 1998. [on-line]; Accessed 1September 2000. Available from http://www.bible.org; Internet.

Wiese, Bill. 23Minutes in Hell. Lake Mary, Florida: Charis House, c 2006.

Westcott, Brooke Foss. A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, fourth edition. London: Macmillan and Co, 1875.

Wommack, Andrew. "Effortless Change: Overcoming Doubt." Andrew Wommack Ministries, Colorado Springs, Colorado [on-line]. Accessed 22March 2012. Available from http://www.awmi.net/extra/audio/1018; Internet.

Wommack, Andrew. "Familiarity Breeds Contempt." [on-line]. In One Year With Jesus: February 16th. Accessed 17 February 2012. Available from http://www.awmi.net/devotion/jesus/feb 16; Internet.

Wommack, Andrew. "John the Baptist." In the series "A Sure Foundation." [on-line]. Accessed on 4January 2010. Available at http://www.awmi.net/podcasts/television/MP 3Audio; Internet.

Wommack, Andrew. "Laying a Sure Foundation." In the series "A Sure Foundation." [on-line]. Accessed on 4January 2010. Available at http://www.awmi.net/podcasts/television/MP 3Audio; Internet.

Wommack, Andrew. "Sermon." Andrew Wommack Bible Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 3June 2010.

Wommack, Andrew. "The War is Over." (Andrew Wommack Ministries, Colorado Springs, Colorado). On Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California). Television program.

"Works Ministry Must Be More Vigilant." In The New Vision, Kampala, Uganda, 4February 2008 [on-line]. Accessed 20 January 2008. Available at http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/14/609928//; Internet.

Yonge. C. D. The Works of Philo Judaeus, the Contemporary of Josephus, vol 1. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854.

Youngblood, R. F, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers. Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995. In Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004).

EXEGESIS AND COMMENTS

Lectionary Calendar
Monday, October 14th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
ADVERTISEMENT
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology