Bible Commentaries

Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures

Luke 20

Verses 1-19

Prophecy of His Rejection - Luke 20:1-19 contains a prophecy of Jesus being rejected by the Jews as Jesus quotes Psalm 118:22.

Psalm 118:22, "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner."

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. The Jewish Leaders Question the Authority of Jesus — Luke 20:1-8

2. The Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers — Luke 20:9-19

Luke 20:1-8 — The Jewish Leaders Question the Authority of Jesus ( Matthew 21:23-27, Mark 11:27-33) - In Luke 20:1-8 the Jewish leaders question the authority of Jesus at a teacher of the Jews.

Luke 20:4Comments - We find a similar phrase "of men" in Galatians 1:1, "Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by Prayer of Manasseh, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)"

Luke 20:9-19 — The Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers ( Matthew 21:33-46, Mark 12:1-12) - In Luke 20:9-19 we have the Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers. This parable is addressed to the people in order to help them see the wickedness of the Jewish leaders; for the final verse of this passage says that the chief priests and scribes knew that He has spoken this parable against them ( Luke 20:19).

Luke 20:19"for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them" - Comments- Note that the meaning was hidden ( Matthew 13:10-15). Yet they could tell that what Jesus spoke was against them.

Verse 20

Prophecy of His Exaltation - Luke 20:20 to Luke 21:4 gives a prophecy of Jesus' exaltation as Jesus cites from Psalm 110:1.

Psalm 110:1, "A Psalm of David. The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool."

Outline - Here is a proposed outline:

1. Jesus Is Questioned on Taxes — Luke 20:20-26

2. Jesus Is Questioned on the Resurrection — Luke 20:27-40

3. Jesus Asks the Sadducees About David's Son — Luke 20:41-44

4. Jesus Denounces the Jewish Leaders to the People — Luke 20:45 to Luke 21:4

Luke 20:20-26 — Jesus Is Questioned on Taxes ( Matthew 22:15-22, Mark 12:13-17) - In Luke 20:20-26 Jesus responds to a question that is asked by the Jewish leaders about paying taxes to Caesar.

Luke 20:24Comments - The penny is a British coin. However, the Greek text reads δηνά ριον (G 1220), which refers to the Roman denarius, which had the image of the Roman emperor impressed upon it. In contrast, Jesus refers to the mina in Luke 19:13, "And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I come."

Luke 20:27-40 — Jesus Is Questioned on the Resurrection ( Matthew 22:23-33, Mark 12:18-27) - In Luke 20:27-40 Jesus responds to a question asked by the Sadducees on the resurrection.

Luke 20:27Comments - The Sadducees did not believe in a resurrection or life after death. 271]

271] R. F. Youngblood, F. F. Bruce, R. K. Harrison, and Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nelson"s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, rev. ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995), in Libronix Digital Library System, v 21c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp, 2000-2004), "Sadducees."

Luke 20:28Comments - This law is found in Deuteronomy 25:5-10.

Deuteronomy 25:5, "If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband"s brother shall go in unto her, and take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an husband"s brother unto her."

Luke 20:35 — "neither marry, nor are given in marriage" - Comments - Is this a reference to marriage here on earth, now?

Luke 20:34-38Comments - Two Points of Doctrine- Jesus explains two points of doctrine in this passage:

1. God's view of marriage and the kingdom of God (verses 34-36).

2. The resurrection (verses 31-38).

Luke 20:41-44 — Jesus Asks the Sadducees About David's Son ( Matthew 22:41-46, Mark 12:35-37) - In Luke 20:41-44 Jesus asks the Sadducees a question about the resurrection by referring to Christ as the Son of David in the book of Psalm.

Luke 20:45 to Luke 21:4 — Jesus Denounces the Jewish Leaders to the People ( Matthew 23:1-36, Mark 12:38-40) - After answering the questions from the Jewish leaders Jesus turns to the people and denounces the hypocrisy of these leaders ( Luke 20:45-47). He uses the illustration of a widow who was giving into the treasury to illustrate true service to God.

The Widow's Mites ( Mark 12:41-44) - In Luke 21:1-4 Jesus takes the opportunity to teach the people by using the example of a widow woman whom He and the others saw casting in two mites into the Temple treasury. He contrasts her sincere giving to the hypocritical offers of the Jewish leaders.

A Lesson on Giving- This story teaches us how to give. This poor widow gave sacrificially. The rich men did not make a sacrifice. She also gave willingly. Paul, the apostle, teaches about these same attitudes of giving in 2Corinthians.

2 Corinthians 8:1-2, "Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia; How that in a great trial of affliction the abundance of their joy and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches of their liberality."

They also gave joyfully and out of poverty. Note that God accepts the gift we are able to give, no matter how small, and He does not expect us to give that which we do not have:

2 Corinthians 8:12, "For if there be first a willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man hath, and not according to that he hath not."

The Poor Verses the Rich- Those who were rich probably had many friends in the Temple court to greet and chat with that day ( Proverbs 19:6). Jesus probably observed the rich as they noisily dropped their many coins into the Temple treasury. The poor widow probably had not many friends to chat with ( Proverbs 19:7). She probably felt uneasy around so many richly dressed people. Probably, like many widows today, she had been done wrong by evil merchants to the point that now she did not trust many people (Also Proverbs 14:20)

Proverbs 19:6, "Many will intreat the favour of the prince: and every man is a friend to him that giveth gifts."

Proverbs 19:7, "All the brethren of the poor do hate him: how much more do his friends go far from him? he pursueth them with words, yet they are wanting to him."

Proverbs 14:20, "The poor is hated even of his own neighbour: but the rich hath many friends."

Luke 20:47 — "Which devour widows" houses" - Comments - The religious leaders lived a luxurious life from the offerings of the Temple, which was partly made up of the offerings of widows. The next passage of Scripture illustrates the widow's offering in Luke 21:1-4 when the widow gives two mites into the Temple treasury.

Luke 21:2Comments - Alfred Edersheim says that it was not lawful to contribute a lesser amount than two mites. 272]

272] Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol 2 (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1899), 388.

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Bibliographical Information
Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Luke 20". Gary H. Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. 2013.