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Plucking Grain on the Sabbath (Matthew 12:1-8 , Mark 2:23-28 ) In Luke 6:1-5 we have the story of Jesus plucking grain on the Sabbath. The emphasis of this story is to show that Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath. That is, Jesus has authority over the Sabbath, thus, He is Lord over the Sabbath.
The Response from Jesus Leaders - In this narrative Luke records Jesus’ second confrontation with the Pharisees, the first being Luke 5:17-26 when He forgave the man with the palsy of his sins and raised him from his sick bed. Therefore, the tension increases between Jesus and the religious leaders begins to increase as they look for ways to find fault in His public ministry. It is possible that the Jewish Sabbath traditions were one of the most esteemed and sacred doctrines of the Pharisees, so violations were quickly addressed in this society.
Luke 6:1 And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.
Luke 6:1 “And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first” Word Study on “after the first” - The phrase “after the first” is the Greek word δευτεροπρω ́ τω ͅ (G1207), which literally means, “second-first” ( δευτερο ́ ) and ( πρωτος ). This word occurs nowhere else in the Scriptures. Strong translates it to mean, “ second-first, i.e. (specially) a designation of the Sabbath immediately after the Paschal week (being the second after Passover day, and the first of the seven Sabbaths intervening before Pentecost.” BDAG says this word is of doubtful meaning, and may correspond to the word δευτερέσχατος (next to the last), and mean “first but one,” referring to the second Sabbath after the first, being counted from Easter Sunday, or Passover.
Comments - Scholars have offered many suggests as to the identification of this “second-first” Sabbath referred to in Luke 6:1: (1) a Sabbath that fell upon one of the three great Jewish festivals (Passover, Pentecost, or Tabernacles), making it special, (2) a Sabbath that fell upon the first day of the Jewish ecclesiastical new year in the month Nisan, with the civil calendar coming prior to this in the month Tisri; thus, the first Sabbath of Tisra would be the “first first” Sabbath, and the first Sabbath of Nisan would be the “second first” Sabbath, (3) the first Sabbath after the second day of Passover, when the harvest officially began, since the Jews counted seven Sabbaths from then to Pentecost (John Gill,  JFB  ).
 John Gill, Luke, in John Gill’s Expositor, in e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Luke 6:1.
 Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, The Gospel According to Luke, in Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc., 1997), in P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000), notes on Luke 6:1.
John Gill notes, “ The eastern versions, Syriac, Arabic, Persic, and Ethiopic, not knowing what should be meant by it, have only rendered it, ‘on the sabbath day.’”  Recent English translations omit this Greek word, as does the UBS 3.
 John Gill, Luke, in John Gill’s Expositor, in e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Luke 6:1.
ASV, “Now it came to pass on a sabbath…”
Goodspeed, “One Sabbath…”
NIV, “ One Sabbath…”
RSV, “On a Sabbath…”
The modern translations that include it reflect a variety of meanings:
ISV, “ Once, on the second Sabbath after the first…”
LO, “ On the Sabbath called second prime…”
YLT, “And it came to pass, on the second-first sabbath…”
The parallel passages in Matthew and Mark make no distinction regarding this Sabbath day.
Matthew 12:1, “At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.”
Mark 2:23, “And it came to pass, that he went through the corn fields on the sabbath day; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn.”
If the word δευτεροπρω ́ τω ͅ is to be translated, we find a strong argument to interpret the phrase as “on the second Sabbath after” ( KJV) based upon the context of this passage, noting in Luke 6:6, “And it came to pass also on another sabbath…” Therefore, I believe a fourth view to be considered with the three listed above is to interpret this “second first” Sabbath in reference to the first Sabbath mentioned earlier in Luke 4:16, “And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.”
Luke 6:1 “that he went through the corn fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands” Comments - Under the Mosaic Law it was legal for a Jew to pluck from his neighbour’s vineyard or grain field at his pleasure (Deuteronomy 23:24-25).
Deuteronomy 23:24-25, “When thou comest into thy neighbour's vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes thy fill at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel. When thou comest into the standing corn of thy neighbour, then thou mayest pluck the ears with thine hand; but thou shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour's standing corn.”
Luke 6:2 And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?
Luke 6:2 Comments We get the impression from Luke 6:2 that the Pharisees were watching Jesus in the grain fields in order to find something of which to accuse Him, as is clearly stated soon in Luke 6:7, “And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath day; that they might find an accusation against him.”
The Pharisees based their argument upon Jewish tradition rather than the Mosaic Law. John Gill notes two violations by which Jesus and His disciples may have offended the Pharisees. Their traditions prohibited harvesting their fields on the Sabbath, and eating before the third hour of the day when the Sabbath morning prayers and fast were not yet finished. 
 John Gill, Luke, in John Gill’s Expositor, in e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), comments on Luke 6:2.
Luke 6:3 And Jesus answering them said, Have ye not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him;
Luke 6:4 How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?
Luke 6:3-4 Comments - Jesus replies to the Pharisees in Luke 6:3-4 by telling them a similar story from their Scriptures in 1 Samuel 21:1-6 about David eating what seemed was also unlawful. In this story David fled from the wrath of King Saul to the city of Nob, where the high priest Ahimelech met him. David made the priest believe that he was on a royal assignment and convinced him to hand over the loaves of bread that were placed in the Tabernacle before the Lord, which bread was only for the priests.
Luke 6:5 And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
Luke 6:5 Comments Luke 6:5 records the second time in Luke’s Gospel that Jesus calls himself the Son of Man, the first time being his earlier confrontation with the Pharisees (Luke 5:24). Jesus always used the phrase “Son of man” concerning Himself and not as a reference to mankind in general.
The phrase “Lord of the Sabbath” is unique to Scriptures, being found only in its parallel passages in Matthew 12:8 and Mark 2:28. Jesus Christ was Lord over the Sabbath in that He instituted it, interprets it and oversees its activities. He created it to bless man, and not to bring man into religious bondages, which aspect of the Sabbath Mark’s Gospel records, saying, “The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath.” (Mark 2:27)
Jesus has just revealed His authority over man’s sins by forgiving the paralytic (Luke 5:20-24). He now reveals His authority over the most sacred Jewish institution, the Sabbath; thus, implying His Lordship over all Jewish traditions and lifestyle, and even the Jewish people as well. This revelation of divine authority will culminate on the Mount of Transfiguration where Jesus will reveal Himself to His disciples in a measure of His heavenly glory (Luke 9:28-36). This ultimate revelation will be given to only a few select disciples whom Jesus knew would believe in Him as the Son of God, and would carry this testimony to the world.
Testimony of Jesus’ Authority over Jewish Customs (The Mental Realm) In Luke 5:27 to Luke 6:11 the author gives us three testimonies of Jesus’ authority over Jewish customs. When Jesus calls Levi, He also answers the questions of the scribes and Pharisees about their traditions of avoiding fellowship with publicans and sinners (Luke 5:27-29). Jesus then plucks grain on the Sabbath contrary to their tradition in order to demonstrate that He is Lord of the Sabbath (Luke 6:1-5). This story is followed by Him healing in the synagogue on the Sabbath, which angered the scribes and Pharisees because it again conflicted with their traditions (Luke 6:6-11).
Outline Here is a proposed outline:
1. Calling Disciples from their Traditions Luke 5:27-39
2. Authority over the Sabbath Luke 6:1-5
Witnesses of Jesus Justifying Him as the Saviour of the World (God the Father’s Justification of Jesus) Luke 4:31 to Luke 21:38 contains the testimony of Jesus’ public ministry, as He justifies Himself as the Saviour of the world. In this major section Jesus demonstrates His divine authority over man, over the Law, and over creation itself, until finally He reveals Himself to His three close disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration as God manifested in the flesh. Jesus is the Saviour over every area of man’s life and over creation itself, a role that can only be identified with God Himself. This was the revelation that Peter had when he said that Jesus was Christ, the Son of the Living God. Luke 4:14 to Luke 9:50 begins with His rejection in His hometown of Nazareth and this section culminates in Luke 9:50 with Peter’s confession and testimony of Jesus as the Anointed One sent from God. In summary, this section of material is a collection of narratives that testifies to Jesus’ authority over every aspect of humanity to be called the Christ, or the Saviour of the world.
Luke presents Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world that was presently under the authority of Roman rule. He was writing to a Roman official who was able to exercise his authority over men. Thus, Luke was able to contrast Jesus’ divine authority and power to that of the Roman rule. Jesus rightfully held the title as the Saviour of the world because of the fact that He had authority over mankind as well as the rest of God’s creation. Someone who saves and delivers a person does it because he has the authority and power over that which oppresses the person.
In a similar way, Matthew portrays Jesus Christ as the Messiah who fulfilled Old Testament prophecy. Matthew’s presentation of Jesus as the King of the Jews supports His claim as the Messiah. John gives us the testimony of God the Father, who says that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. John uses the additional testimonies of John the Baptist, of His miracles, of the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies and of Jesus Himself to support this claim. Mark testifies of the many miracles of the Lord Jesus Christ by emphasizing the preaching of the Gospel as the way in which these miracles take place.
This major section of the public ministry of Jesus Christ can be subdivided into His prophetic testimonies. In Luke 4:31 to Luke 6:49 Jesus testifies of true justification in the Kingdom of God. In Luke 7:1 to Luke 8:21 Jesus testifies of His doctrine. In Luke 8:22 to Luke 10:37 Jesus testifies of divine service in the Kingdom of God as He sets His face towards Jerusalem. In Luke 10:38 to Luke 17:10 Jesus testifies of perseverance in the Kingdom of God as He travels towards Jerusalem. Finally, in Luke 17:11 to Luke 21:38 Jesus teaches on glorification in the Kingdom of God.
The Two-Fold Structure in Luke of Doing/Teaching As Reflected in the Prologue to the Book of Acts - The prologue to the book of Acts serves as a brief summary and outline of the Gospel of Luke. In Acts 1:1 the writer makes a clear reference to the Gospel of Luke, as a companion book to the book of Acts, by telling us that this “former treatise” was about “all that Jesus began to do and to teach.” If we examine the Gospel of Luke we can find two major divisions in the narrative material of Jesus’ earthly ministry leading up to His Passion. In Luke 4:14 to Luke 9:50 we have the testimony of His Galilean Ministry in which Jesus did many wonderful miracles to reveal His divine authority as the Christ, the Son of God. This passage emphasized the works that Jesus did to testify of Himself as the Saviour of the world. The emphasis then shifts beginning in Luke 9:51 to Luke 21:38 as it focuses upon Jesus teaching and preparing His disciples to do the work of the Kingdom of God. Thus, Luke 4:14 to Luke 21:38 can be divided into this two-fold emphasis of Jesus’ works and His teachings. 
 We can also see this two-fold aspect of doing and teaching in the Gospel of Matthew, as Jesus always demonstrated the work of the ministry before teaching it in one of His five major discourses. The narrative material preceding his discourses serves as a demonstration of what He then taught. For example, in Matthew 8:1 to 9:38, Jesus performed nine miracles before teaching His disciples in Matthew 10:1-42 and sending them out to perform these same types of miracles. In Matthew 11:1 to 12:50 this Gospel records examples of how people reacted to the preaching of the Gospel before Jesus teaches on this same subject in the parables of Matthew 13:1-52. We see examples of how Jesus handled offences in Matthew 13:53 to 17:27 before He teaches on this subject in Matthew 18:1-35. Jesus also prepares for His departure in Matthew 19:1 to 25:46 before teaching on His second coming in Matthew 24-25.
Jesus’ Public Ministry One observation that can be made about Jesus’ Galilean ministry and his lengthy travel narrative to Jerusalem is that He attempts to visit every city and village in Israel that will receive Him. He even sends out His disciples in order to reach them all. But why is such an effort made to preach the Gospel to all of Israel during Jesus’ earthly ministry? Part of the answer lies in the fact that Jesus wanted everyone to have the opportunity to hear and believe. For those who rejected Him, they now will stand before God on the great Judgment Day without an excuse for their sinful lifestyles. Jesus wanted everyone to have the opportunity to believe and be saved. This seemed to be His passion throughout His Public Ministry. Another aspect of the answer is the impending outpouring of the Holy Ghost and the sending out of the Twelve to the uttermost parts of the earth. Jesus understood the necessity to first preach the Gospel to all of Israel before sending out the apostles to other cities and nations.
The Man with the Withered Hand (Matthew 12:9-14 , Mark 3:1-6 ) In Luke 6:6-11 we have the story of Jesus healing the man with the withered hand in the synagogue on the Sabbath. This story emphasizes the fact that Jesus had authority over the Sabbath. In contrast, the story of Jesus healing the man with an unclean spirit in the synagogue at Capernaum (Luke 4:31-37) places emphasis upon Jesus’ authority and power over sickness.
Operating in the Gifts of the Spirit - The primary way in which Jesus Christ healed the sick was by teaching, preaching and healing the multitudes (Matthew 4:23). However, there were times when Jesus Christ preached in demonstration of the Spirit and of power (1 Corinthians 2:4). We find this taking place when Jesus healed the man with the withered hand. Note that in this story, Jesus Christ had to confront the scribes and Pharisees in His preaching and this is often the manner that God chooses to move during such times. Other examples of Jesus Christ preaching and healing in demonstration of the Spirit and of power would be the healing of the woman with the spirit of infirmity (Luke 13:10-17) and when He healed the man with the dropsy in the house of the Pharisee (Luke 14:1-6).
Jesus Appoints the Twelve Apostles (Matthew 10:1-4 , Mark 3:13-19 ) In Luke 6:12-16 Jesus calls twelve of His disciples as apostles to serve in the Kingdom of God. When comparing this passage to the parallel passages in Matthew and Mark, it becomes clear that each Gospel account mentions a different aspect of this event in order to reflect the underlying theme of each Gospel. For example, Matthew’s account states that Jesus gave them authority to cast out devils and to heal the sick. This statement emphasizes the theme of this division of Matthew’s Gospel, which is the sending out of the twelve to do the work of the ministry. In contrast, Mark’s account places emphasis upon the proclamation of the Gospel with miracles accompanying their preaching. Thus, Mark’s account says, “And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils:” (Luke 3:14-15) These verses sound similar to the commission of Jesus Christ that closes Mark’s Gospel. Thus, Mark places emphasis upon the preaching of the Gospel with signs following, which is the underlying theme of his Gospel. However, Luke’s account makes no reference to the twelve apostles preaching of the Gospel or miracles, but rather to Jesus’ time in prayer to choose the Twelve and their appointment, for prayer is the prerequisite of the prophetic utterance. Luke is placing emphasis upon the training of the Twelve to become witnesses of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Luke is also unique in its account of Jesus sending out the seventy, which follows the theme of Jesus training His disciples to be witnesses of Him.
The Names of the Twelve We are given the list of the twelve apostles in Matthew 10:2-4, Mark 3:16-19 and Luke 6:14-16. We note that these names are listed in the order of their important in Church history.
Matthew 10:2-4, “Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus ; Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.”
Mark 3:16-19, “And Simon he surnamed Peter; And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James; and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder: And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus , and Simon the Canaanite, And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they went into an house.”
Luke 6:14-16, “Simon, (whom he also named Peter,) and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon called Zelotes, And Judas the brother of James , and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.”
When we compare the three parallel passages in the Synoptics listing the names of the twelve apostles, there appears to be a discrepancy at first glance between the name of Judas the brother of James in Luke’s account and Lebbaeus, surnamed Thaddaeus in Matthew and Mark’s account. Jerome says Judas of James is the same person as Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus ( Commentary on Matthew 10:4).  Many conservative scholars also believe that this is the same person as well.
 See PL 26 col. 62C-D.
1. Simon surnamed Peter
2. Andrew Peter’s brother
3. James son of Zebedee surnamed Boanerges
4. John son of Zebedee surnamed Boanerges
6. Bartholomew Perhaps the same as Nathanel
7. Matthew Levi (the publican in Matthew 10:3)
9. James son of Alphaeus
10. Simon Zelotes (the Canaanite in Matthew 10:4 and Mark 3:18)
11. Judas brother of James (Lebbaeus, surnamed Thaddaeus in Matthew 10:3 and Mark 3:18)
12. Judas Iscariot
In addition, Matthew’s list is unique in that he groups the Twelve into six pairs.
Luke 6:13 “And when it was day, he called unto him his disciples” - Comments - Disciples are “learners,” apostles are “sent-out ones.” The twelve most attentive and faithful men were now ready to be sent out to bear fruit because they had been faithful disciples. These twelve had believed in Jesus as the Saviour sent from God (justification), they had listened to His teachings and learned about the Kingdom of God (indoctrination), and now they were ready for the next phase of God’s plan for their lives, which was divine service.
Luke 6:13 “and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named apostles” Word Study on “apostle” Jesus did not invent the term “apostle” for the Twelve whom He commissioned and sent out to preach the Gospel and heal the sick. Rather, He reached into His culture and chose a word that accurately described the office and anointing for which He had commissioned the Twelve. The Greek word ἀπόστολος (G652) (apostle) was in frequent use during the time of Jesus and it is found throughout Classical Greek literature centuries prior to the birth of Christ. The word ἀπόστολος is associated in ancient literature with the sending out of someone with a commission. It is found as a technical term in secular Greek literature to describe someone who has been send forth with divine authorization. The word ἀπόστολος and its derivatives are used more than 700 times in the LXX, being used as a rendering of the Hebrew word שָׁלַח (H7971) (to send), so that it was a familiar term in Judaism as well as Hellenism, describing a messenger in the Old Testament given a particular task. For example, God says in His commission to Isaiah, “Who shall I send?” (Isaiah 6:8) In the New Testament, the word ἀπόστολος is used 135 times, being found all but 12 times in the Gospels and the book of Acts. As a result of its usage by the early Church and the New Testament writings, the word ἀπόστολος became a theological term to denote one of the five-fold offices of the Church. ( TDNT)
Comments Matthew and Mark use the word ἀπόστολος (G652) (apostle) on one occasion each as a direct reference to the Twelve apostles appointed by Jesus Christ (Matthew 10:2, Mark 6:30). Luke uses this word six times in his Gospel, and thirty times in the book of Acts. Luke is the only Evangelist that tells us in his Gospel that Jesus named the Twelve with the title of an apostle. The theme of Luke-Acts justifies Luke’s more frequent use of the word ἀπόστολος , since the book of Acts places emphasis upon the office of the apostle within the five-fold ministry. The Evangelist tells us in Luke 6:13 that Jesus named them apostles as a way of forshadowing their future ministry in the book of Acts.
Matthew 10:2, “Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;”
Mark 6:30, “And the apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught.”
Luke 6:13 Comments - Luke 6:13 implies that Jesus Christ walked up to many others besides the twelve and told them to come follow Him. Although the Evangelists only recorded the callings of the twelve because of their key roles in the ministry of the early Church, Jesus asked others to “Come follow Me!” Note:
Luke 9:57-62, “And it came to pass, that, as they went in the way, a certain man said unto him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. And he said unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God. And another also said, Lord, I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell, which are at home at my house. And Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.”
This would fit the context of Jesus’ statement that many are called, but few are chosen.
Matthew 22:14, “For many are called, but few are chosen.”
Luke 6:14 Comments - The name “Nathanael” is only mentioned in John’s Gospel (John 1:45-49; John 21:2). Since John does not mention Bartholomew, while the Synoptics do not mention Nathanael, but instead use the name Bartholomew (Matthew 10:3, Mark 3:18, Luke 6:14), scholars suggest that Nathanael was the same person as Bartholomew. Also, the fact that the Synoptic Gospels list Bartholomew with the five earliest disciples (Andrew [John], Philip, Simon Peter, Nathanael) suggests he was one of those early disciples mentioned in John 1:35-51.
Discourse: Jesus Teaches on True Justification (Galilee) In Luke 6:12-49 Jesus teaches on the meaning of true justification.
Outline Here is a proposed outline:
1. Jesus Appoints the Twelve Luke 6:12-16
2. Jesus Heals the Multitudes Luke 6:17-19
3. Jesus Teaches the Multitudes Luke 6:20-49
Jesus Heals the Multitudes (Matthew 4:23-25 ) In Luke 6:17-19 we have the story of Jesus healing the multitudes. Luke continually emphasizes the fact that Jesus’ public ministry was not carried out in secret, but many people bore witness to His miracles.
Jesus Trains His Disciples by Example - This passage of Scripture demonstrates the need to train disciples to do the work of the ministry by example. Also, note that on this occasion Jesus healed the people before teaching them.
Luke 6:17 “which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases” Comments - The people who were healed are those received from Jesus because they believed in His Words. When the Scriptures say that they came “to hear Him and to be healed of their diseases,” it describes the attitude of their hearts. Those who heard were the people whose heart was opened and they believed His Gospel and were able to receive healing.
Luke 6:19 Word Study on “virtue” In Luke 6:19 the Greek word δύναμις (G1411) is translated “virtue” ( KJV).
Comments It is interesting to note that Jesus Christ healed the multitude of all of their illnesses prior to teaching them.
Comments Jesus touched those who needed healing as a means of imparting the power of the Holy Spirit to heal. Jesus appeared to Kenneth Hagin and gave him a special healing anointing by touching the palms of his hands with Jesus’ finger. Kenneth Hagin says that when he laid hands upon someone, he could feel the anointing flow through him and into the individual if the person believed. If the person was doubting, then the anointing would not flow. 
 Kenneth Hagin, A Commonsense Guide to Fasting (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1981, 1994), 21-2; Kenneth Hagin, I Believe In Visions (Tulsa, Oklahoma: Faith Library Publications, c1984, 1986), 53-4, 57.
Scripture References - Note other examples of people who came to touch Him:
Mark 5:28, “For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole.”
Mark 6:56, “And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.”
Jesus Teaches the Multitudes (Luke’s Version of The Sermon on the Mount) In Luke 6:20-49 we have Luke’s version of the Sermon on the Mount, which version has popularly been referred to as “The Sermon on the Plain.” While the Sermon on the Mount is delivered by Jesus Christ in the office of a teacher, the Sermon on the Plain is actually a message He delivered under the anointing of the prophet.
It becomes easy to see within this passage in Luke how Jesus deals with the development of the believer into maturity. He opens by explaining true righteousness before God and contrasts it with the hypocrisy of the affluent upper class, such as the Pharisees, scribes and Jewish leaders (Luke 6:20-26). He then explains the heart of the Law as it teaches mankind to walk in love with others (Luke 6:27-36). He deals with divine service for those who offer themselves as servants of the Lord to give to others and help unconditionally without judging them (Luke 6:37-42). He teaches on a lifestyle of persevering in the faith using an illustration of a tree and its fruit (Luke 6:43-45). He closes His discourse by exhorting His hearers to establish themselves in a life of obedience to God’s Word using an illustration of building a solid foundation for a house. We are to lay a good foundation in our lives by doing the Word of God so that we can persevere during the storms of life and receive our eternal rewards (Luke 6:46-49).
Outline - I outline this message in the following way:
Justification (Beatitudes & Woes) Luke 6:20-26
Indoctrination (The Love Walk) Luke 6:27-36
Divine Service (Helping Others) Luke 6:37-42
Perseverance (Good Fruit) Luke 6:43-45
Glorification (Building on a Rock) Luke 6:46-49
Similarities with Matthew 5:1 to Matthew 7:29 Just as Jesus Christ visited the synagogues of Galilee and probably delivered the same speech out of Isaiah 61:1-2, do did He probably deliver similar messages to the multitudes in the Sermon on the Mount (Luke 6:20-49) and the Sermon on the Plain (Luke 5:1 to Luke 7:29). In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus chose the twelve apostles prior to the Sermon on the Plain, while this event is yet to take place in Matthew’s Gospel. This helps to explain what many scholars otherwise see as conflicting accounts of the same events.
Luke 6:20-23 Justification: The Beatitudes in Luke (Matthew 5:1-12 ) In Luke 6:20-23 Jesus blesses the lowly. This passage is parallel to the Beatitudes in Matthew 5:1-12. The poor could refer to those who lack financially in this world (Luke 6:20). The hungry could refer to those who lack physical sustenance in this world (Luke 6:21). Those who weep could refer to the ones whose mental needs are lacking, since our emotions are in the soulish realm (Luke 6:21). All of these people described in the Beatitudes shall be rich spiritually and be filled with joy. In other words, God’s blessings do not come from earthly means, but descend from Heaven above.
Luke 6:23 “for in the like manner did their fathers unto the prophets” Comments The phrase “their fathers” would refer to the evil men who also persecuted the prophets of God in the Old Testament. Jesus was using this language in the same sense that He did when telling the Pharisees and Jewish leaders that they were of their father the devil because they did his works.
John 8:44, “Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.”
Luke 6:26 Comments - We see in the books of Kings, Chronicles and Jeremiah how the false prophets always prophesied good things to the wicked kings in order to find their favor. However, the prophets of God were not afraid to speak the truth about sin and were therefore hated.
Luke 6:24-26 Comments - Woes to the Rich of this World After Jesus gives blessings to those who are lowly, He gives woes to those who are high minded and rich. The phrase “those who are rich” (Luke 6:24) is a reference to this world’s material blessings. The phrase “those who are full” (Luke 6:25) is a reference to someone who has his physical needs filled with this world’s blessings. The phrase “those who laugh” (Luke 6:25) refers to someone whose mind is focused upon the pleasures of this world, but who is lacking spiritually. We find a description of this person in Luke 12:19, when the rich man says to himself, “Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry.” Thus, Jesus addresses the whole person in these three woes. We could compare this passage to what Jesus told the church of the Laodiceans in Revelation 3:14-22 when they said to themselves that they were rich and had need of nothing, when in fact, they were wretched, miserable, poor, blind and naked.
Revelation 3:17, “Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked:”
In addition, there is reason to assume these woes refer to eternal damnation, so that in Hell there will be no comfort, but intense and eternal discomfort; and in Hell there will be intense, everlasting hunger and a sense of lack; and in Hell there will be unending weeping and wailing.
Luke 6:27-36 Indoctrination: Love Your Enemies (Matthew 5:38-48 ; Matthew 7:12 a) In Luke 6:27-36 Jesus tells us to love our enemies (Luke 6:27). He then gives a lengthy list of ways in which we can love our enemies. (Luke 6:28-35). He then closes by summarizing this list and telling us to be merciful even as our Heavenly Father is merciful (Luke 6:36).
Luke 6:29 Comments - Creflo Dollar, teaching on the Law of God’s Love, give this testimony. He had about one million U. S. dollars in the bank to pay for television airtime. When he found out that his accountant had allowed the bills to accumulate unpaid while he embezzled the money for personal use, Dollar was angry. He said that he had never experienced anger like that before in his life. When he went to pray about the situation, the Lord replied, “I want you to forgive him and take him and give him counsel and instruction. Remember that I told you, “If he takes away thy cloke, give him your coat also.” Dollar replied, “Yes, God, but this is not a coat. It’s a million dollars.” The Lord replied, “It takes the same amount of faith to give away a coat as it does a million dollars.” Dollar replied, “Yes, but I do have the right to take him to court and sue him and put him in jail.” The Lord said, “Yes, you do have the right, but you will be establishing your own righteousness and not mine. I do not want you to sue him. You call up these television stations and tell them what has happened and I will take care of the rest.” Dollar began to call these stations. One after the other forgave him of his outstanding debt. He said that he was forgiven of a million dollars of bills that day. Then, one of his “sons in the faith” came by to see him. Although Dollar was not in the mood to seen anyone this day because he was still dealing with this situation, the young man was insistent. Finally, the young minister was allowed to come in to the office. As this man handed Dollar an envelope, this young man said that the Lord had instructed him to give this ministry one million dollars.  What a testimony for us to follow as we walk in the Law of Love.
 Creflo Dollar, Changing Your World (College Park, Georgia: Creflo Dollar Ministries), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.
Luke 6:30 “and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again” - Illustration:
Hebrews 10:34, “For ye had compassion of me in my bonds, and took joyfully the spoiling of your goods, knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring substance .”
Luke 6:35 “hoping for nothing again” Comments - We are to expect nothing in return “from men”; for our trust is in God in whom we expect our reward. We give knowing that God will reward us in the way that He sees best to do so.
Luke 6:36 Comments - F. F. Bruce gives the reading of the Pseudo-Jonathan Targum in Leviticus 22:28 as, “And whether it be cow or ewe, ye shall not kill it and her young both in one day.” After this verse is added the words, “As our Father is merciful in heaven, so be ye merciful on earth.” Therefore, the Jews saw mercy as the basis of this divine statute in the book of Leviticus. F. F. Bruce notes the possibility that Luke may have borrowed this wording in Luke 6:36 when writing his Gospel. After all, the Targum was often read along with the Hebrew Scriptures in the synagogues, thus making this phrase well-known. 
 F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963), 138.
Luke 6:37-42 Divine Service: Helping Others (Matthew 7:1-5 ) In Luke 6:37-42 Jesus deals with the subject of judging others and helping others.
Luke 6:37 Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:
Luke 6:38 Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.
Luke 6:38 “Give” - Comments - The opening word “Give” in Luke 6:38 is in the imperative mood. Thus, it is a command. Note that Luke 6:38 does not say, “Pray, and it shall be given to you,” but “Give…” This verse is emphasizing the principle, or spiritual law, of giving and receiving, or sowing and reaping. Praying without giving will not reap a harvest of receiving. Luke 6:38 teaches us that God does not give to us according to our measure of prayer, but rather, according to our measure of giving. We can pray for God’s provision; but unless we also reach out and give, our needs will not be met. The Lord once spoke to me and said, “You take care of my needs first.”
John 12:24 teaches us that the seed produces the harvest. We could paraphrase John 12:24 to read, “But if it die, it fulfills its destiny.” For the destiny of every seed is to reproduce after itself, which is the reason it was created. None of us will reap a harvest unless we sow a seed. When we have a need, 2 Corinthians 9:10 teaches that God gives seed to the sower. This is His divine principle of meeting our needs. We read in Genesis 1:29 that God gave Adam dominion over the plant kingdom, a kingdom that operated by the principles of seed-faith and harvest. The harvest of any need we have is in sowing of the seed.
John 12:24, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.”
2 Corinthians 9:10, “Now he that ministereth seed to the sower both minister bread for your food, and multiply your seed sown, and increase the fruits of your righteousness;)”
Genesis 1:29, “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.”
Luke 6:38 “and it shall be given unto you” - Comments - This is a promise from our Lord Jesus Christ.
Luke 6:38 “good measure” Comments Webster says the English word “good” can mean, “ adequate; sufficient .”
Illustration - The word “good” or “adequate” is in contrast to buying a package containing a candy bar and finding small candy bar inside a large package, or is it like buying box of corn flakes and finding the contents settled down to the middle of a box, thus feeling cheated.
Luke 6:38 “and shaken together” Comments The Greek word σαλεύω (G4531) means, “caused to move to and fro” ( BDAG).
Luke 6:38 “and running over” - Comments When God blesses us, He over flows us with blessing. See Malachi 3:8-12.
Malachi 3:10, “Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, saith the LORD of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it.”
Luke 6:38 “shall men give into your bosom” Comments BDAG translates the Greek word κόλπος (G2859) (bosom) in Luke 6:38 to mean, “a fold in the garment.” The KJV reads “bosom.” The NASB, NIV, and RSV read “lap.” The bosom means that God will seek you and lay it right in your lap. God has ordained that men will do the giving. He will move upon men to give to those who are givers on this earth.
Luke 6:38 “For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again” Comments The verb “ye mete” means, “to give out, deal out, apportion.” BDAG translates the Greek word ἀντιμετρέω as “measure in return.” Thus, our giving will result in the same measure being returned back to us. Therefore, it is biblical to give expecting something in return.
Luke 6:38 teaches us that God does not give to us according to our measure of prayer, but rather, according to our measure of giving. Paul the apostle writes, “But this I say, He which soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully.” (2 Corinthians 9:6)
Luke 6:38 Comments Luke 6:38 is a summary of the entire proceeding passage. If you do not have the virtues listed in verse 37 and proceeding, you will never be a “giver.” When Jesus concludes this thought in Luke 6:38 He says, “For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.” The entire context of Luke 6:27-36 deals with the theme of giving to others, knowing that our Heavenly Father will be the one to reward us. We are to love when hated, bless when cursed, pray for those who abuse us, withhold retaliation when persecuted, give when stolen from, and give when asked. In other words, we are to be merciful like our heavenly Father. We can do this when we believe that God is our source and not man, which is emphasized in this passage.
Illustration (1) - Luke 6:38 illustrates the principles on sowing and reaping. The Lord spoke to Paul Crouch and said, “Did I give my best, My Son on the Cross, expecting nothing in return?”  In other words, when we give our best, we are to expect something in return. For God’s Word promises this in Luke 6:38.
 Paul Crouch, “Behind the Scenes,” on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program.
Illustration (2) - On Sunday morning, 11 February 1996, Bob Seymour from Canada, told the story to illustrate this text. Years ago, when he was dealing with a particular church member who was being very critical the church, he asked the staff to guess her annual giving. The staff guessed that she gave from US$ 3000 to 7000 annually because she was a professional worker. Her actual giving in six months was only US$ 25. 
 Bob Seymour, “Sermon,” Calvary Cathedral International, Fort Worth, Texas, 11 February 1996.
Luke 6:43-45 Perseverance: A Tree is Known by its Fruit (Matthew 7:17-20 ; Matthew 12:34-35 ) In Luke 6:43-45 Jesus uses the analogy of the fruit of a tree to illustrate our works, whether they are good or bad.
Luke 6:46-49 Glorification: Two Foundations (Matthew 7:24-27 ) In Luke 6:46-49 Jesus uses an analogy of a house on a foundation to illustrate how a person builds stability in his life for the storms ahead. If this foundation is not laid, a person will be moved in troubled times.
Luke 6:49 Comments Note the parallel teaching in Proverbs 24:10, “If thou faint in the day of adversity, thy strength is small.”
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Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Luke 6". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Sunday after Epiphany