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The Witness of the Resurrection of Jesus by the Women (Matthew 28:1-40.28.10 , Mark 16:1-41.16.8 , John 20:1-43.20.10 ) In Luke 24:1-42.24.12 we have the account of the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ through the eye-witness account of the women at the tomb. The emphasis of this passage in Luke’s Gospel is the testimony of this group of woman who first found out that Jesus had risen from the dead.
It is interesting to note that it was a group of women who first came to the tomb because they were not afraid to venture out after the crucifixion. The apostles may have found cause to hid, thinking that they may be next; for they had the pain of Jesus’ crucifixion burned into their minds.
Luke 24:1 Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.
Luke 24:1 Comments Biblical scholars hold two views as to the time and day when the women first visited the empty tomb, stating they either arrived Saturday evening or Sunday morning. Mark and Luke clearly state that the women discovered the empty tomb early Sunday morning (Mark 16:2, Luke 24:1). However, statements made by Matthew and John are not so clear, leaving room for debate (Matthew 28:1, John 20:1). Thus, scholars use the accounts of Matthew and John as the basis for an argument of a Saturday evening discovery of the empty tomb, although the Sunday morning view is generally preferred by scholars.
Matthew 28:1, “In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.”
Mark 16:2, “And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun.”
Luke 24:1, “Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them.”
John 20:1, “The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.”
Modern English versions offer translations that reflect both views, translating the Greek phrase Ὀψὲ δὲ σαββάτων in Matthew 28:1 as “after the Sabbath day” ( NIV, RSV), or “towards the end of the Sabbath day” ( ASV, AV, YLT). 
 A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (New York: Hodder and Stoughton, n.d.), 645-646.
Alfred Edersheim says the Jewish day begins at evening (6:00 p.m.) instead of midnight, as is used in the modern Western civilization.  Thus, if we understand the women to be making their way to the tomb before 6:00 p.m. Saturday evening, then they would have arrived as “the end of the Sabbath day” (Matthew 28:1), while it was still Saturday, so that the first day of the week “began to dawn” at 6:00 p.m. on our Saturday evening. This is how Rotherham brings out his translation:
 Alfred Edersheim says, “It is noteworthy that in Genesis 1:0 we always read, ‘And the evening and the morning were the first day,’ or second, or third day, etc. Hence the Jews calculate the day from evening to evening, that is, from the first appearance of the stars in the evening to the first appearance of stars next evening, and not, as we do, from midnight to midnight.” See Alfred Edersheim, The Bible History Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eedmann Publishing Company, c1876-1887, 1984) 19.
Rotherham, “And, late in the week, when it was on the point of dawning into the first of the week, came Mary the Magdalene, and the other Mary, to view the sepulchre.”
However, the NIV interprets Matthew 28:1 to mean the dawning of the following Sunday morning after the Sabbath. This is generally the preferred interpretation, that the women went to the tomb early Sunday morning as daylight began to dawn.
NIV, “After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.”
This issue over how to translate Matthew 28:1 is not a new one, but dates back to the early Church fathers. Eusebius gives an alternative explanation to these verses. Williams and Caffin quote Eusebius (A.D. 260 to 340) on his comparison of Matthew 28:1 and John 20:1 by saying,
“The expression, ‘on the eve of the Sabbath’, is due to the translator of the Scripture; for the Evangelist Matthew published his Gospel in the Hebrew tongue; but the person who rendered it into the Greek language changed it and called the hour of dawning on the Lord’s Day.” ( Quaestionum ad Marinum 2.1) 
 A. Lukyn Williams and Benjamin C. Caffin. Matthew, in The Pulpit Commentary, eds. H. D. M. Spence and Joseph Exell (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1950), in Ages Digital Library, v. 1.0 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc., 2001), “Introduction: 4 What Was the Original Language of the Gospel.” The Greek text of this passage is found in PG 22 col. 941a.
Luke 24:2 Comments - The stone was not rolled away so that Jesus Christ could come out of the tomb, for He could not pass through walls (John 20:26). The stone was rolled away so that His disciples could bear witness to His resurrection, and the angel could testify to them that He had risen. Thus, in Matthew 28:6 the angels invite the disciples to come and see the empty tomb.
John 20:26, “And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.”
Matthew 28:6, “He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.”
Luke 24:4 Comments - We know that the Jews believed that a matter was confirmed in the mouth of two or three witnesses. Therefore, in a court of law, at least two witnesses were needed to prove that a matter was true. This is very likely why the Lord sent two angels to testify to the disciples of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. This may help explain why Peter and John went to the tomb together to verify the resurrection.
This may be the reason why the Lord sent two angels in the appearance of men dressed in white apparel in order to testify of his Second Coming (Acts 1:10). Thus, we see how Luke frequently used two individuals in his writings when testifying of a particular event.
Witnesses of His Resurrection Luke 24:1-42.24.49 records three eye-witness accounts of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Outline Here is a proposed outline:
1. Witness of His Resurrection by Women Luke 24:1-42.24.12
2. Witness of His Resurrection on Road to Emmaus Luke 24:13-42.24.35
Witnesses of Jesus’ Glorification: His Passion and Resurrection - Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53 organizes narrative material that testifies to Jesus’ rejection by the Jews, His death and His resurrection. This collection of material is organized in a way that gives three witnesses to each of these four events surrounding His Passion; His betrayal and arrest, His trial, His crucifixion and His resurrection. This section begins with His rejection by the Jewish leaders and culminates with His resurrection and commission to His disciples to preach the Gospel to all the world. While Acts 1:1 reflects the two-fold emphasis of Jesus’ ministry of doing and teaching, Acts 1:2-44.1.5 makes a clear reference to the rest of Luke’s Gospel beginning from His Passion until His ascension (Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53).
Acts 1:2-44.1.5, “Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen: To whom also he shewed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God: And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence.”
Outline - Note the proposed outline:
A. Witnesses of His Betrayal & Arrest Luke 22:1-42.22.54
1. Prophecy of His Betrayal Luke 22:1-42.22.23
2. Prophecy of the Disciples’ Denial Luke 22:24-42.22.38
3. Prophecy of His Arrest Luke 22:39-42.22.54
B. Witnesses of His Trial Luke 22:55 to Luke 23:25
1. Jesus’ Prophecy to Peter Fulfilled Luke 22:55-42.22.62
2. Jesus’ Prophecy to Jewish Leaders Luke 22:63-42.22.71
3. Jesus’ Prophecy to Pontus Pilate Luke 23:1-42.23.25
C. Witnesses of His Crucifixion Luke 23:26-42.23.56
1. Prophecy to the Multitude Luke 23:26-42.23.38
2. Prophecy to Criminal on the Cross Luke 23:39-42.23.43
3. Witness of the Centurion (a Roman) Luke 23:44-42.23.49
4. Witness of Joseph of Arimathea (a Palestinian Jew) Luke 23:50-42.23.56
D. Witnesses of His Resurrection Luke 24:1-42.24.53
1. Witness of His Resurrection by Women Luke 24:1-42.24.12
2. Witness of His Resurrection on Road to Emmaus Luke 24:13-42.24.35
3. Witness of His Resurrection by the Disciples Luke 24:36-42.24.49
E. Witness of His Ascension Luke 24:50-42.24.53
Witnesses of His Passion and Resurrection (The Trials of Jesus and His Apostles) - Luke 22:1 to Luke 24:53 records the lengthiest account within the four Gospels of Jesus’ arrest and trials leading up to His crucifixion. The trials recorded in Luke-Acts are numerous: of Jesus before the Sanhedrin (Luke 22:66-42.22.71), before Pontus Pilate (Luke 23:1-42.23.5; Luke 23:13-42.23.25), before King Herod (Luke 23:6-42.23.12), and Peter’s two trials before the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:1-44.4.22; Acts 5:17-44.5.42), and Stephen’s unjust trial and stoning (Acts 6:8 to Acts 7:60), and Peter’s imprisonment by King Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1-44.12.19), and Paul’s arrest in the Temple and address to the Jewish mob (Acts 21:26 to Acts 22:29), his hearings before the Sanhedrin (Luke 22:30 to Luke 23:10), the chief captain sending Paul to Felix the governor with a letter (Acts 23:11-44.23.35), his defense before Felix (Acts 24:1-44.24.27), his defense before Festus (Acts 25:1-44.25.12), his defense before King Herod Agrippa II (Acts 25:13 to Acts 26:32), and his voyage to Rome to await his trial before Nero (Acts 27:1 to Acts 28:31). All of these trials and events surrounding them serve as testimonies to prove the innocence of Jesus and His apostles.
The Witness of His Resurrection on the Road to Emmaus (Mark 16:12-41.16.13 ) Luke 24:13-42.24.35 gives us a lengthy eye-witness account of Jesus’ resurrection from two disciples who were walking on the road to Emmaus.
Luke 24:16 Comments - These two disciples in Luke 24:16 may have not recognized Jesus because He appeared to them in a different, glorified form (Mark 16:12). There were several occasions after Jesus’ resurrection when His disciples did not recognize Him. For example, when the disciples met Jesus on a mountain in Galilee, some of them did not believe it was Him (Matthew 28:16-40.28.17). Mary did not recognize Jesus in the Garden (John 20:14). When Jesus stood in the midst of the disciples, some thought He was a spirit (Luke 24:37). By the shore of the Sea of Galilee His disciples did not recognize Him (John 21:4), and dared not ask Him who He was (John 21:12), which implies that His form was not the same.
Mark 16:12, “After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.”
Matthew 28:16-40.28.17, “Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.”
John 20:14, “And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.”
Luke 24:37, “But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.”
John 21:4, “But when the morning was now come, Jesus stood on the shore: but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus.”
John 21:12, ‘Jesus saith unto them, Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst ask him, Who art thou? knowing that it was the Lord.”
However, it is more likely that God simply hid certain knowledge from His disciples. There are other examples of God hiding knowledge from men. God hid the Shunammite’s request from Elisha (2 Kings 4:27). We read of how king Nebuchadnezzar’s mind returned to him after God turned his mind into a beast of the field for seven years (Daniel 4:34). Jesus said that God the Father had hidden the Gospel from the wise and prudent, and revealed them unto babes (Matthew 11:25, Luke 10:21; Luke 19:42, John 12:40). The disciples did not understand Jesus’ graphic descriptions of His future Passion because “this saying was hid from them” (Luke 18:34). The two on the road to Emmaus did not recognize Jesus until “their eyes were opened” (Luke 24:16; Luke 24:31). Jesus then appeared to the Twelve and “opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures” (Luke 24:31; Luke 24:45).
Bill Wiese tells the story of how the Lord took him to hell and back so that he would tell others that hell is a real place. His journey began when he was dropped into a prison cell inhabited by two large demons. He says, “I did not know how I had arrived there. The fact that I knew God was kept from my mind. This was explained to me later by the Lord Himself. In retrospect, I know that there are several scriptures indicating that God does sometimes hide things from man’s mind.”  In other words, Jesus sent Bill Wiese to hell with the mind that he was a sinner who had never known the Lord as his Saviour. Jesus returned and took Wiese out of hell, at which time his mind and memory were restored.
 Bill Wiese, 23 Minutes in Hell (Lake Mary, Florida: Charis House, c2006), 9.
Daniel 4:34, “And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the most High, and I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is from generation to generation:”
Matthew 11:25, “At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.”
Luke 10:21, “In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.”
Luke 18:34, “And they understood none of these things: and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken.”
Luke 19:42, “Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.”
Luke 24:16, “But their eyes were holden that they should not know him.”
Luke 24:31, “And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.”
Luke 24:45, “Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures,”
John 12:40, “He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.”
Luke 24:17 And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?
Luke 24:18 And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
Luke 24:18 Comments The identity of the companion of Cleophas on the road to Emmaus has always been a mystery. Perhaps it was his wife Mary (John 19:25).
John 19:25, “Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.”
Eusebius (A.D. 260 to 340) tells us in his Church History that Cleopas was a brother to Joseph, the father of Jesus. He also says that Symeon, the son of Cleopas, became the second bishop of Jerusalem after the martyrdom of James.
“After the martyrdom of James and the conquest of Jerusalem which immediately followed, it is said that those of the apostles and disciples of the Lord that were still living came together from all directions with those that were related to the Lord according to the flesh (for the majority of them also were still alive) to take counsel as to who was worthy to succeed James. They all with one consent pronounced Symeon, the son of Clopas, of whom the Gospel also makes mention; to be worthy of the episcopal throne of that parish. He was a cousin, as they say, of the Saviour. For Hegesippus records that Clopas was a brother of Joseph.” ( Ecclesiastical History 3.11.1-2)
Luke 24:19 And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
Luke 24:19 Comments The Gospel of Luke places emphasis upon the office and ministry of Jesus Christ as a Prophet. Jesus is referred to as a prophet five times in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 1:76; Luke 7:16; Luke 7:39; Luke 13:33; Luke 24:19). In contrast, Jesus is referred to a prophet by Matthew on two occasions (Matthew 21:11; Matthew 21:46), by John on two occasions (John 7:40; John 9:17), while Mark makes no such reference.
Luke 1:76, “And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;”
Luke 7:16, “And there came a fear on all: and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us; and, That God hath visited his people.”
Luke 7:39, “Now when the Pharisee which had bidden him saw it, he spake within himself, saying, This man, if he were a prophet, would have known who and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him: for she is a sinner.”
Luke 13:33, “Nevertheless I must walk to day, and to morrow, and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.”
Luke 24:19, “And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:”
Luke 24:21 Comments While the two on the road to Emmaus were discouraged, believing that their Redeemer had failed being crucified, Jesus had already been to the throne of God with His precious blood and obtained redemption for all of mankind.
Luke 24:25 Comments When Jesus met the two on the road to Emmaus, He found two people who were greatly discouraged. The heart of man cannot rise up in faith in the midst of discouragement. Thus, they were slow of heart to believe. In order to stir up their faith in God, Jesus begins to take them through the Old Testament prophecies concerning Him. This response teaches us that faith in God’s Word is more important than experiencing a miracle. Jesus did not work a miracle for these two as they travelled to Emmaus. Instead, He directed them to the Word of God. During times of discouragement, we should go to God’s Word to strengthen our faith in Him and bring us out of negative attitudes, because faith cannot operate in our lives in the midst of discouragement.
Luke 24:27 Comments Since the Gospel of Luke emphasizes the prophetic ministry, which prophecies offered testimonies of Jesus’ deity, Jesus explains in Luke 24:27 to the two disciples that all of the prophecies of Holy Scripture speak of Him. Jesus is spoken of in all three divisions of the Old Testament: in the Pentateuch of Moses, in the Writings, and prophetic books of the Hebrew Scriptures. The Jews call Joshua thru Esther the early prophets and Isaiah thru Malachi the latter prophets. So, David being a prophet who wrote much of the book of Psalms, it is easy to say that the prophets include all of the Old Testament books after the Pentateuch. Thus, Luke 24:27 says, “beginning at Moses and all the prophets.”
While the canon of the New Testament books was written under apostolic authority, the canon of the Old Testament Scriptures was written under the office of the prophets. When these prophets ceased to prophesy, the Old Testament canon was closed. This is confirmed by Josephus, who says, “It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time.” ( Against Apion 1.8) In addition, the opening verse of the book of Hebrews states that the Old Testament was delivered to us by His prophets, thus revealing the fact that the Old Testament prophets were the ones who kept the canon open. Thus, Luke 24:27 says, “beginning at Moses and all the prophets” as a way to reflect the roll of the prophet in delivering to us the Old Testament canon of books. Within the context of Luke’s Gospel, these prophets served as witnesses of the deity of Jesus Christ.
Billy Brim was teaching on the early childhood of Jesus Christ as a guest on the Kenneth Copeland Ministries television broadcast Believer’s Voice of Victory.  She said that a woman by the name of Clara Grace, who was a prophetess, received a vision from the Lord. In this vision, she saw the Lord Jesus Christ as a young man building his last piece of furniture before entering into the ministry. As He finished His work that day and turned to put up His tools, He looked at Clara Grace. She was then brought within Jesus Christ’s body and spirit and received insight into the eighteen silent years of Jesus’ life from the age of twelve until He was baptized by John in the river Jordan. In this vision, Jesus Christ told her that He never laid his head to rest without first meditating about who He was and what He was in God’s divine plan. Billye Brim refers to Deuteronomy 6:7 where it tells us to speak and meditate on God’s Word when we lay down and when we awake as an example of how Jesus did the same.
 Billye Brim, interviewed by Gloria Copeland, Believer’s Voice of Victory (Kenneth Copeland Ministries, Fort Worth, Texas), on Trinity Broadcasting Network (Santa Ana, California), television program, 22 May 2003.
Deuteronomy 6:7, “And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down , and when thou risest up.”
We find an additional testimony in Luke 24:27 of Jesus’ insight about God’s divine plan for Him within the Holy Scriptures. On the road to Emmaus Jesus expounded to two of His disciples all of the Scriptures concerning His personal spiritual journey. These must have been Scriptures that the heavenly Father revealed to Him by the Holy Spirit from His childhood up to Calvary.
Luke 24:31 “And their eyes were opened, and they knew him” - Comments It is only when we receive the bread that God gives to us will our eyes will be opened. This bread, or truths of God's Word, may come directly from the Lord by a dream, vision, or work of the Holy Spirit. Or, this divine bread may be sent to us through God's servants.
Note that when Adam and Eve ate of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, their eyes were opened.
Luke 24:31 “and he vanished out of their sight” - Comments Why did Jesus Christ choose to vanish the moment they recognized Him as the resurrected Lord? He did reveal Himself to the Twelve and other disciples in order to testify of His resurrection and to commission them to divine service. Perhaps the answer for Jesus hiding himself from the two on the road to Emmaus lies in the previous verses that show the undisclosed Jesus turning the disciples’ attention towards the Holy Scriptures. In the Church age, the Word of God serves as our instruction under the inspiration and insight of the Holy Spirit that indwells every believer. Jesus must shift focus from Himself to the Word of God because they will now have to learn to live by God’s Word and without His earthly presence.
Luke 24:30-42.24.31 Comments The two people hosting Jesus in their home in Emmaus did not recognize Jesus until He took bread, blessed it, broke it, and gave it to them. This event must have brought them back to the miracle of Jesus feeding the five thousand, and then the four thousand, by breaking bread with them. No one could do this the way Jesus did it. Thus, they recognized Jesus.
The Witness of Jesus’ Resurrection by the Disciples (Matthew 28:16-40.28.20 , Mark 16:14-41.16.18 , John 20:19-43.20.23 , Acts 1:6-44.1.8 ) In Luke 24:36-42.24.49 we have the eye-witness account of Jesus’ resurrection by His disciples.
Comparison of Parallel Passages of the Great Commission Luke 24:44-42.24.49 is considered to be Luke’s version of the Great Commission. However, we find that each of the Evangelists ends his Gospel with a similar commission. A careful study reveals that each commission is based upon the structural theme of its particular Gospel. The theme of Matthew is the coming of the King to establish the Kingdom of Heaven and lay down the doctrine of the Kingdom. Jesus does this in Matthew’s Gospel by delivering five major discourses, which establishes the structure of this Gospel. As a result, Jesus commissions His disciples to go and teach, or disciple, all nations, baptizing them and teaching them to observe His commandments, or doctrines, laid down in Matthew’s Gospel. This commission best reflects the office and ministry of the teacher in the five-fold ministry.
In contrast, the commission that closes Mark’s Gospel emphasizes the preaching of the Gospel with signs following. This is because Mark is structured around the proclamation of the Gospel with miracles accompanying it. Jesus tells His disciples in Mark to preach the Gospel and promised them that signs and miracles would accompany their preaching. This commission best reflects the office and ministry of the evangelist in the five-fold ministry.
The structural theme of Luke’s Gospel is the collection of verifiable eyewitness accounts as to the life and ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. As a result, Jesus commands His disciples to be witnesses of these events by preaching the Gospel to all nations beginning at Jerusalem (Luke 24:47), and to tarry in Jerusalem unto they be endued with power on high (Luke 24:49). He is making a clear reference to the contents of the book of Acts and establishes its structural theme. Since the Gospel of Luke does not reach this goal of spreading the Gospel, (this is why Luke’s commission seems incomplete) we must rely upon an additional volume to fulfill our Lord’s commission. The book of Acts opens with the fulfillment of power coming from on high and closes with the fulfillment of the spread of the Gospel to Greco-Roman world. Thus, Luke clearly links these two writings in an unmistakable way through this commission. This link is necessary because the office of the prophet and apostle work together in the Church. This commission best reflects the office and ministry of the prophet (Luke) and apostle (Acts) in the five-fold ministry.
The structural theme of John’s Gospel is the five-fold testimony of the deity of the Lord Jesus Christ. John’s Gospel reveals His deity with the testimony of the Father, of John the Baptist, of Jesus’ miracles, by the fulfillment of Old Testament Scriptures and finally in the last chapter by the testimony of Jesus Himself. This is why John’s commission is simply, “Come, follow Me.” This commission best reflects the office and ministry of the pastor in the five-fold ministry.
Luke 24:44 “which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.” - Comments The Jews divided the Old Testament into three sections, the Law, the Prophets and the Writings. This probably took place between the period that Ezra compiled the Old Testament canon and the Jews of Alexandria first translated the Old Testament into the Greek language several centuries before Christ, and possibly even earlier. The first written evidence we have of this three-fold division is found in the prologue to Ecclesiasticus or Sirach (dated by some scholars as early as 200-175 B.C.), which reads, “the Law, the Prophecies, and the rest of the books of our fathers.”  Jesus recognized this three-fold division of the Old Testament in Luke 24:44, as He lists them in this verse. F. F. Bruce tells us that He probably called the last section “the Psalms” instead of “the Writings” because this is the first and longest book in this third section. 
 Sirach, trans. G. H. Box and W. O. E. Oesterley, in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English With Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, vol. 1, ed. R. H. Charles, 268-517 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913), 316.
 F. F. Bruce, The Books and the Parchments (Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1963), 96, 101-2.
Luke 24:44 Comments Because the Gospel of Luke places emphasis upon the office of the prophet, Jesus is saying in Luke 24:44 that all Old Testament prophecies about the Messiah must be fulfilled.
Luke 24:46 Comments The NIV reads, “He told them, This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day,” Perhaps Jesus Christ was referring to the Old Testament passages on the Suffering Servant in Psalms 22:1-19.22.31 and Isaiah 53:1-23.53.12. He may have been referring to Hosea 6:2 as a prophecy of Christ’s resurrection on the third day.
Hosea 6:2, “After two days will he revive us: in the third day he will raise us up, and we shall live in his sight.”
Within the context of the Gospel of Luke, Jesus is referring to prophecies about the Messiah that have been fulfilled, since the office and ministry of the prophet is emphasized in this Gospel.
Luke 24:47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
Luke 24:47 Comments What better language to use than the Greek language, which was known in practically every civilized nation on earth at this period in history. What better time to come than the period when Rome has built an incredible network of roads throughout its Empire. The Gospel of Jesus Christ was carried to the ends of the Roman Empire by these twelve apostles, for this was their direct charge.
The early apostles took these words of Jesus Christ literally. The early Church fathers tell us that they scattered themselves into every region of the ancient civilized world, preaching the Gospel and performing miracles. Socrates, the early Church historian, tells us that the apostles went forth by lot among the nations.
“We must now mention in what manner Christianity was spread in this emperor's reign: for it was in his time that the nations both of the Indians in the interior, and of the Iberians first embraced the Christian faith. But I shall briefly explain why I have used the appended expression in the interior. When the apostles went forth by lot among the nations, Thomas received the apostleship of the Parthians; Matthew was allotted Ethiopia; and Bartholomew the part of India contiguous to that country but the interior India, in which many barbarous nations using different languages lived, was not enlightened by Christian doctrine before the times of Constantine.” (Socrates, The Ecclesiastical History, Book 1, chapter 19)
In his History of the Christian Church, Philip Schaff tells us the regions that these apostles were sent to by the leadership of the Holy Spirit:
“The apocryphal tradition of the second and later centuries assigns to Peter, Andrew, Matthew, and Bartholomew, as their field of missionary labor, the regions north and northwest of Palestine (Syria, Galatia, Pontus, Scythia, and the coasts of the Black Sea); to Thaddaeus, Thomas, and Simon Cananites the eastern countries (Mesopotamia, Parthia, especially Edessa and Babylon, and even as far as India); to John and Philip Asia Minor (Ephesus and Hierapolis).” 
 Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. 1 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1955), 200.
Hippolytus (A.D. 170 to 236), in his writing On the Twelve Apostles Where Each of Them Preached, and Where He Met His End, gives us the tradition handed down to him as to where each of the twelve apostles preached the Gospel.
“1. Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and Galatia, and Cappadocia, and Betania, and Italy, and Asia, and was afterwards crucified by Nero in Rome with his head downward, as he had himself desired to suffer in that manner.
2. Andrew preached to the Scythians and Thracians, and was crucified, suspended on an olive tree, at Patrae, a town of Achaia; and there too he was buried.
3. John, again, in Asia, was banished by Domitian the king to the isle of Patmos, in which also he wrote his Gospel and saw the apocalyptic vision; and in Trajan's time he fell asleep at Ephesus, where his remains were sought for, but could not be found.
4. James, his brother, when preaching in Judea, was cut off with the sword by Herod the tetrarch, and was buried there.
5. Philip preached in Phrygia, and was crucified in Hierapolis with his head downward in the time of Domitian, and was buried there.
6. Bartholomew, again, preached to the Indians, to whom he also gave the Gospel according to Matthew, and was crucified with his head downward, and was buried in Allanum, a town of the great Armenia.
7. And Matthew wrote the Gospel in the Hebrew tongue, and published it at Jerusalem, and fell asleep at Hierees, a town of Parthia.
8. And Thomas preached to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hyrcanians, Bactrians, and Margians, and was thrust through in the four members of his body with a pine spears at Calamene, the city of India, anti was buried there.
9. And James the son of Alphaeus, when preaching in Jerusalem. was stoned to death by the Jews, and was buried there beside the temple.
10. Jude, who is also called Lebbaeus, preached. to the people of Edessa, and to all Mesopotamia, and fell asleep at Berytus, and was buried there.
11. Simon the Zealot, the son of Clopas, who is also called Jude, became bishop of Jerusalem after James the Just, and fell asleep and was buried there at the age of 120 years.
12. And Matthias, who was one of the seventy, was numbered along with the eleven apostles, and preached in Jerusalem, and fell asleep and was buried there.
13. And Paul entered into the apostleship a year after the assumption of Christ; and beginning at Jerusalem, he advanced as far as Illyricum, and Italy, and Spain, preaching the Gospel for five-and-thirty years. And in the time of Nero he was beheaded at Rome, and was buried there.” ( Appendix to the Works of Hippolytus 49: On the Twelve Apostles Where Each of Them Preached, and Where He Met His End) ( ANF 5)
Luke 24:49 Comments While the book of Acts places emphasis upon the apostolic ministry, Luke’s Gospel emphasizes the prophetic ministry. Therefore, Jesus’ final words to His disciples in Luke 24:49 reflect the infilling of the Holy Spirit by which prophecy proceeds out of man, “And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.” The opening narratives of Luke reflect men and women being filled with the Holy Spirit, followed by prophetic utterances. In comparison, the book of Acts will emphasize the apostolic calling that results from prophecy by saying, “But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth.” (Acts 1:8) Jesus’ words in Acts 1:8 emphasize the spread of the Gospel to the ends of the earth, while Luke 24:29 emphasizes the need to first be filled with the Holy Spirit.
The Ascension of Jesus (Mark 16:19-41.16.20 , Acts 1:9-44.1.11 ) In Luke 24:50-42.24.53 we have the eye-witness account of Jesus’ ascension into Heaven after instructing His disciples.
Luke 24:50 Comments When Jesus lifted His hands to bless the disciples in Luke 24:50, everyone could see the nail-scarred hands. This is the only recorded time that Jesus prayed with lifted hands.
According to Luke 1:22, the people were anticipating Zacharias to speak to them. The Jewish Tamid (7.2) instructs the priest to offer a blessing over the people according to Numbers 6:24-4.6.26 on the steps that ascended to the Sanctuary after the daily sacrifice.  Some scholars suggests the possibility that Jesus’ final blessing in Luke 24:50 fulfilled the priestly blessing that Zecharias was not able to perform because the angel struck him with dumbness in the opening passage of Luke’s Gospel (Luke 1:21-42.1.22).  This blessing would make an appropriate closing to the Gospel, and it alludes the fact that Jesus Christ is now our Great High Priest.
 Esther G. Chazon, Ruth A. Clements, and Avital Pinnick, eds, Liturgical Perspectives: Prayer and Poetry in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls; Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium of the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature (Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill, 2003), 122.
 David L. Allen, “Class Lecture,” Doctor of Ministry Seminar, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 25 July to 5 August 2011; John Nolland, Luke 1:1-42.9.20 , in Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 35A (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 2002), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), comments on Luke 1:22.
Luke 1:21-42.1.22, “And the people waited for Zacharias, and marvelled that he tarried so long in the temple. And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple: for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless.”
Numbers 6:23-4.6.27, “Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying, On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel, saying unto them, The LORD bless thee, and keep thee: The LORD make his face shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee: The LORD lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace. And they shall put my name upon the children of Israel; and I will bless them.”
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Everett, Gary H. "Commentary on Luke 24". Everett's Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures. https://www.studylight.org/
the First Week of Advent