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fash´un ( משׁפט , mishpāṭ ; σχῆμα , schḗma , the make, pattern, shape, manner or appearance of a thing (from Latin faction-em , "a making," through Old French facon , fachon )): In the Old Testament the noun "fashion" represents 3 Hebrew words:

(1) Mishpāṭ = literally, "judgment," hence, judicial sentence, right, custom, manner; usually translated "judgment" (very frequent), but also a few times "sentence," "cause," "charge," and more frequently "manner" (nearly 40 times in the King James Version). In 3 passages it is translated "fashion," in the sense of style, shape, make, in each case of a building or part of a building (Exodus 26:30 ; 1 Kings 6:38 ; Ezekiel 42:11 ).

(2) Ṭekhūnāh = literally, "arrangement," "adjustment" (compare tākhan , "to set right," "adjust," from kūn , hēkhı̄n , "to set up," "establish"); Ezekiel 43:11 , "the form of the house, and the fashion thereof." A cognate word in the preceding verse is translated "pattern" (the Revised Version, margin "sum").

(3) Demūth = "resemblance" (from dāmāh , "to be similar"), generally translated "likeness" in English Versions of the Bible, but "fashion" in 2 Kings 16:10 , where it means pattern or model. The verb "to fashion" stands for (a ) yācar , "to form," "fashion" (Psalm 33:15 ; Psalm 139:16 the King James Version; Isaiah 22:11 the King James Version; Isaiah 44:12 ; Isaiah 45:9 ); (b ) ‛āsāh , "to work," "make," "form" (Job 10:8 ); (c ) kūn , "to set up," "establish," "prepare" (Job 31:15 ; Psalm 119:73 ; Ezekiel 16:7 ); (d ) cūr , "to bind up together," "compress" (Exodus 32:4 , of Aaron fashioning the golden calf out of the golden rings).

In the New Testament, the noun represents 5 Greek words:

(1) Of these, the most interesting is schēma , "figure," "shape," "fashion" (from σχεῖν , scheı́n , aorist of ἔχειν , échein , "to have," compare Latin habitus , from habeo , "I have"). Schēma denotes a transient, external semblance or fashion, and so it may be distinguished from its synonym μορφή , morphḗ , which denotes the essential intrinsic form of a thing, expressing its real nature. (See Lightfoot, Detached Note on Phil 2; Trench, New Testament Syn ., 252ff; Gifford, Incarnation , 22ff. The distinction is rejected by Meyer, on Romans 12:2 , and by others.) In the New Testament, the noun schēma occurs but twice: 1 Corinthians 7:31 , "The fashion of this world passeth away," where there seems to be an allusion to theatrical scenes, which are in their very nature transitory (compare 2 Macc 4:13); and Philippians 2:8 , "being found in fashion as a man," i.e. having the outward figure and bearing of a man, such marks of human nature as strike the senses (contrast morphē Theoū , "form of God," Philippians 2:6 , and morphē doúlou , "form of servant," Philippians 2:7 , which describe Christ's real inner nature). The word schēma is found in compound verbs in the following passages: Romans 12:2 , "Be not fashioned (sunschēmatı́zesthe ) according to this world: but be ye transformed (metamorphoústhe ) by the renewing of your mind" (so the Revised Version (British and American)), paraphrased by Sanday and Headlam, "Do not adopt the external and fleeting fashion of this world, but be ye transformed in your inmost nature" (Comm . in the place cited.); 2 Corinthians 11:13 f, metaschēmatı́zomai , the King James Version "transformed," better the Revised Version (British and American) "fashioned," the reference being to "the fictitious, illusory transformation whereby evil assumes the mask of good" (Lightfoot, Commentary on Phil , 131); 1 Peter 1:14 , "not fashioning yourselves according to your former lusts," paraphrased by Lightfoot, "not falling in with the capricious guidance of the passions" (same place) . In Philippians 3:21 , the adjective súmmorphos is translated "fashioned" in the King James Version, but better "conformed" as in Revised Version (British and American).

(2) ρ Ο2 Εἶδοςπ , eı́dos , literally, "thing seen," "external appearance," "shape," is translated "fashion" in Luke 9:29 , of the glorified appearance of the transfigured Christ.

(3) Πρόσωπον , prósōpon , literally, "face," hence, look, appearance, James 1:11 , "The grace of the fashion of it perisheth."

(4) Τύπος , túpos , type, model, translated "fashion" in Acts 7:44 the King James Version (the Revised Version (British and American) "figure"), the Greek word being taken from the Septuagint of the quoted passage, Exodus 25:40 . The same phrase, katá tón túpon , in the parallel passage, Hebrews 8:5 , is translated "according to the pattern."

(5) In one instance the phrase "on this fashion," "in this manner," represents the Greek adverb οὕτως , hoútōs , "thus" (Mark 2:12 ).

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Fashion'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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