corner graphic   Hi,    
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to

Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
2 Kings 18



Verse 1

third year of Hoshea. Hoshea began in the twelfth year of Ahaz. Therefore Hezekiah began in the fifteenth year of Ahaz. Ahaz reigned sixteen years, but was deposed by Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:3, 2 Kings 17:4), who set up Hezekiah. Hezekiah rebelled (2 Kings 18:7), which shows he was under Assyria till then. See App-50.

Verse 2

Abi. In 2 Chronicles 29:1 it is "Abijah", but "Abi" may be the abbreviation of "Abijah", the "i" or "j" standing for "jah".

Verse 3

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

Verse 4

groves = "Asherah, singular. See note on Exodus 34:13, and App-42.

brasen serpent. Compare Numbers 21:9. Now 835 years old. (From 1452 to 617 = 835).

children = sons.

Nehushtan = a brass thing.

Verse 5

trusted = confided. Hebrew. batah. App-69.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

none like him: i.e. for trust in Jehovah. Same praise given of Josiah (2 Kings 23:25), but in a different respect.

Verse 6

and. This "and" is contained in some codices, two early printed editions, Syriac, and Vulgate. The Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) emphasizing the Figure of speech Synonymies, by which the phrases are heaped up to express Hezekiah"s goodness,

Verse 9

it came to pass. Compare 2 Kings 17:3-6.

Shalmaneser. Commenced the siege; Sargon, his successor, completed it after three years. Compare 2 Kings 17:5, 2 Kings 17:6, where we have the same interval as here. In Saigon"s own inscription he refers to the "tributes imposed upon them by the former king".

Verse 10

the end of three years. See note on 2 Kings 17:5.

they. Septuagint and Syriac read "he": i.e. Sargon. See note on 2 Kings 17:5, 2 Kings 17:6. Sargon took it after Shalmanoser"s death.

Verse 11

Halah. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "Halath".

Verse 12

Moses the servant of the LORD. See note on Deuteronomy 34:5.

Verse 13

the fourteenth year. This was the first invasion of Judah which Sennacherib"s inscription enlarges upon, but is only mentioned here. See note on 2 Kings 18:17. Compare Isa 36, Isa 37, and 2Ch 32.

all the fenced cities. Forty-six are mentioned in the inscriptions (see App-67).

Verse 14

sent. Sennacherib had not approached Jerusalem yet.

I have offended. See 2 Kings 18:7.

three hundred talents. The Assyrian inscriptions say 800, the exact equivalent of 300 Hebrew (silver) talents. See note on "twenty" (2 Kings 15:27).

Verse 15

treasures = treasuries. See note on Isaiah 39:2.

Verse 16

pillars, or supports.

it = them.

Verse 17

king of Assyria. Some suppose Sargon, and treat Sennacherib as a mistake here. But probably Sennacherib was the co-regent in the field. Compare Jerusalem"s being taken by Nebuchadnezzar, while Nabo-polassar was king in Babylon. So Belshazzar was co-regent with Nabonnedus at the taking of Babylon.

sent. The gift of verses: 2 Kings 18:14-16 did not prevent a further assault. Compromise seldom does.

Tartan. A title = commander-in-chief.

Rabsaris. A title = chief of the heads.

Rab-shakeh. A title = chief of the captains; possibly a political officer.

Lachish. Ten miles south-east of Jerusalem, on Sennacherib"s way to Egypt. See note on 2 Kings 19:8.

great host = heavy force.

against Jerusalem. See note on Judges 1:8.

upper pool. On east side of Jebus = Gihon.

Verse 18

household = palace.

Verse 19

Rab-shakeh said. See the references to this in Hezekiah"s "Songs of the degrees". Psalms 120:2, Psalms 120:3; Psalms 128:3, Psalms 128:4, and compare Isaiah 37:4. See App-67.

What confidence . . . ? Note the Figure of speech Erotesis (App-6), which the Rab-shakeh constantly uses. See verses: 2 Kings 18:18; 2 Kings 18:20; 2 Kings 20:22, 2 Kings 20:24, 2 Kings 20:25, 2 Kings 20:27, 2 Kings 20:33, 2 Kings 20:34, 2 Kings 20:35. Figure used for emphasis.

Verse 20

vain words. Hebrew word of lips = lip-words.

Verse 21

trustest, &c. A policy opposed by Isaiah (Isaiah 30:2; Isaiah 31:4).

bruised reed. Compare Ezekiel 29:6.

king of Egypt. Probably Shabako, the successor of So. See note on 2 Kings 19:9, and Compare 2 Kings 17:3, 2 Kings 17:4.

Verse 22

if ye say., Isaiah 36:7. If thou say. Spoken to one, but meant for all.

Verse 26

Syrian = Aramaic.

Verse 28

word = message. Some codices, with two early printed editions, Septuagint, and Syriac, read "words".

Verse 29

deceived raise false hopes. Note the (Lamed) here, as in the first occurrence (Genesis 3:13).

his hand = his [i.e. Asshurs king"s] hand. Some codices, with one early printed edition, and Vulgate, read "my hand".

Verse 31

Make [an agreement] = Get a blessing out of my coming. Literally. Make with me a blessing.

come out: i.e. capitulate.

Verse 32

a land. Note the Figure of speech Anaphora (App-6) for emphasis.

wine. Hebrew tirosh. see App-27.

deliver = rescue

Verse 34

Hamath. Compare 2 Kings 17:24.

Arpad. A city of Syria, north-west of Aleppo. Now identified with Tell Erfud.

Sepharvairn. On the Euphrates, north of Babylon. See note on 2 Kings 17:24.

Hena, and Ivah. Probably the names of gods or goddesses.

Samaria. See note on 2 Kings 17:5, 2 Kings 17:24. Hamath, Arpad, and Samaria are all mentioned in the inscriptions at Khorsabad. See note on 2 Kings 17:21.

Verse 35

without the LORD. Either said in pretence, or from having heard Jehovah"s prophecies (Compare 2 Kings 19:25 with Isaiah 10:5).


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.

Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Kings 18:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, December 1st, 2020
the First Week of Advent
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology