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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Acts 27



Verse 1

when = as.

determined = decided. Greek. krino. App-122.

sail. Greek. apopleo. See Acts 13:4.

delivered = were delivering Greek. paradidomi. See Acts 3:13.

certain. Greek. tines. App-124.

other. Greek. heteros. App-124.

prisoners. Greek. desmotes. Only here and Acts 27:42. The usual word is desmios. See Acts 25:14

unto = to.

one, &c. = a centurion of an Augustan cohort, by name Julius.

centurion. Greek. hekatontarches. See Acts 10:1. Augustus". Greek. Sebastos. Compare Acts 25:21, Acts 25:25. More than one legion is said to have borne the name.

band = cohort Greek. speira. See Matthew 27:27.

Verse 2

entering into = having embarked upon. Greek. epibaino. See Acts 20:18.

ship. Greek. ploion. The usual word for "ship".

Adramyttium. A city in Mysia, in the province of Asia, at the head of the gulf of that name.

launched. Greek. anago. See Acts 13:13.

meaning = being about. According to the texts this does not refer to "we" but to the ship. It was on the return voyage to Adramyttium by the coasts of Asia.

sail. Greek. pleo. See Acts 21:3.

by, &c. = to the places against (Greek. kata) Asia.

Aristarchus. See Acts 19:29; Acts 20:4. He and Luke could only have been allowed on board as Paul"s servants.

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

Verse 3

next. Greek. heteros, as in Acts 27:1.

touched = landed. Greek. katago. See Acts 21:3.

Sidon. The great port of Phoenicia about 70 miles north of Caesarea. The wind must therefore have been favourable, south-south-west.

courteously = kindly. Greek. philanthropos. Only here. Compare App-135.

entreated . . . and = using. Greek. chraomai. Elsewhere translated "use".

gave . . . liberty. Greek. epitrepo. See Acts 26:1.

refresh himself = obtain (Greek. tunchano. See Acts 26:22) their care (Greek. epimeleia. Only here).

Verse 4

sailed under: i.e. under the lee (of Cyprus). Greek. hopopleo. Only here and Acts 27:7.

because. Greek. dia. App-104. Acts 27:2.

Verse 5

sailed over = sailed across. Greek. diapleo. Only here.

sea of, &c. = sea which is along (Greek. kata. App-104.) Cilicia, &c.

came = came down, or landed, as in Acts 18:22.

to = unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

Verse 6

centurion. Greek. hekatontarchos. See Acts 21:32.

Alexandria. Egypt was the granary of the ancient world, and this was a corn ship, bound for Italy. See Acts 27:38.

put us = caused us to embark. Greek. embibazo. Only here. A medical word, used of setting a dislocated limb.

therein = into (Greek. eis) it.

Verse 7

when, &c. = sailing slowly. Greek. braduploeo. Only here. After leaving the lee of Cyprus, the wind, hitherto astern, would now be on their port bow, and as ancient ships had not the same facility in tacking as modern ones, they could not sail as "near to the wind", not nearer than seven points, it is believed. But illustrations on coins, &c, show that the ancients understood quite well to arrange their sails so as to "beat to windward".

many = in (Greek. en) many (Greek. hikanos, as Acts 14:3, "long").

scarce were come = were come with difficulty. Greek. molis. Occurs in verses: Acts 27:8, Acts 27:16, Acts 27:18. Romans 5:7. 1 Peter 4:18.

over against. Greek. kata. App-104.

Cnidus. An important city, situated at the extreme south-west of Asia Minor. Referred to in 1 Macc. 15.23.

suffering. Greek. proseao. Only here. The simple verb eao Occurs several times. See verses: Acts 27:32, Acts 27:40, Acts 27:4.

Crete. Known also as Candia. Salmone was its eastern cape.

Verse 8

hardly. Greek. molis, as Acts 27:7.

passing. Greek. paralegomai. Only here and Acts 27:13. They had difficulty in weathering the point.

unto. Greek. eis. App-104.

The fair havens = Fair Havens. It bears the same name still.

Verse 9

spent = passed. Greek. diaginomai. See Acts 25:13.

sailing. Greek. ploos. See Acts 21:7.

now = already.

dangerous. Greek. episphales. Only here.

fast: i.e. the tenth day of the seventh month, the day of Atonement, about Oct. 1.

now already = already.

admonished Greek. paraineo. Only here and Acts 27:22.

Verse 10

Sirs. Greek aner. App-123. Compare Acts 7:26; Acts 14:15; Acts 19:25.

perceive. Greek. theoreo. App-133.:11.

voyage. Same as "sailing" in Acts 27:9.

will = is about to.

hurt. Greek. hubris. Only here, Acts 27:21. 2 Corinthians 12:10.

damage = loss. Greek. zemia. Only here, Acts 27:21. Philippians 1:3, Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:8.

lading = cargo. Greek. phortos. Only here; but the texts read phortion, as in Matthew 11:30; Matthew 23:4. Luke 11:46. Galatians 1:6, Galatians 1:5.

also of our lives = of our lives also.

lives. Greek. psuche. App-110.

Verse 11

Nevertheless = But.

centurion. He was in authority, being on imperial service.

believed. Greek. peitho. App-150.

master. Literally steersman. Greek. kubernetes. Only here, and Revelation 18:17.

owner, &c. = shipowner. Greek. naukleros. Only here.

spoken = said. Greek. lego.

by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

Verse 12

not commodious = not well situated. Greek. aneuthetos. Only here.

to winter in = for (Greek. pros) wintering (Greek. paracheimasia. Only here).

advised = gave their decision. Greek. boule. App-102.

depart. Same as "launch", Acts 27:2.

by any means = at least.

attain. Greek. katantao. See Acts 16:1.

Phenice. Now Lutro. At the western end of the island.

winter. Greek. paracheimazo. Only here, Acts 28:11. 1 Corinthians 16:6. Titus 3:12.

and lieth = looking. Greek. blepo. App-133.

toward = down. Greek. kata.

south west = south-west wind. Greek. lips. Only here.

north west = north-west wind. Greek. choros. Only here. The meaning is that the harbour looked in the same direction as that in which these winds were 15

borne along. blew, i.e. north-east and south-east, as in Revised Version.

Verse 13

blew softly. Greek. hupopneo. Only here.

Purpose. See Acts 11:23.

loosing. Greek. airo, to raise. Here it means to weigh anchor.

sailed . . . by. Same as "pass", Acts 27:8.

close. Greek. asson. Comp. of anchi, near. Only here.

Verse 14

But not long after. Literally But after not much (time).

arose against it = beat down from it (i.e. Crete).

arose. Greek. ballo. App-174. This verb is sometimes used intransitively.

against = down. Greek. kata. App-104.

tempestuous = typhonic. Greek. tuphonikos. Onlyhere.

Euroclydon. The texts (not the Syriac) read Eurakulon, which means north-north-east wind. But if so, it would hardly have been introduced by the words "which is called". It was evidently a hurricane, not uncommon in those waters, and called "Euroclydon" locally and by the sailors.

Verse 15

caught. Greek. sunarpazo. See Acts 6:12.

bear up into = face. Literally look in the eye of. Greek. antophthalmeo. Only here.

we let her drive. Literally giving her up (Greek. epididomi) we were driven (borne along, pass, of Greek. phero). The Authorized Version rendering is the exact nautical expression.

Verse 16

running under = having run under the lee of. Greek. hupotrecho. Onlyhere.

island. Greek. nesion, a small island, dim. of nesos (Acts 13:6). Only here.

Clauda. Clauda (some texts, Cauda) was due south of Phenice.

we had much work. Literally with difficulty (Greek. molis, Acts 27:7) were we strong (Greek. ischuo. See Acts 15:10).

come by = become masters of. Greek. perikrates. Onlyhere.

boat = skiff. Greek. skaphe. Only here, verses: Acts 27:30, Acts 27:32. The verb skapto, to dig, or hollow out, only in Luke 6:48; Luke 13:8; Luke 16:3.

Verse 17

taken up. Greek. airo. See Acts 27:13.

used. Greek. chraomai. See Acts 27:3.

helps. Greek. boetheia. Only here and Hebrews 4:16.

undergirding. Greek. hupozdnnumi. Only here. The process of passing a cable or chain round a ship to prevent her going to pieces is called "frapping".

lest. Greek. me. App-105.

fall. Greek. ekpipto. Occurs thirteen times; here: Acts 27:26, Acts 27:29, Acts 27:32; Acts 12:7. Mark 13:25. Romans 9:6, &c.

quicksands. Greek. surtis. Only here. There are two gulfs on the north coast of Africa, full of shoals and sandbanks, called Syrtis Major and Syrtis Minor. It may be the former of these, now Sidra, into which they were afraid of being driven.

strake sail. Literally having lowered the gear.

strake. Gr chalao. See Luke 5:4.

sail. Greek. skeuos. The great yard to which the sail was attached. Occurs twenty-three times. Always rendered "vessel", except here; Matthew 12:29. Mark 3:27 (goods). Luke 17:31 (stuff).

Verse 18

exceedingly. Greek. sphodros. Only here. The usual word is sphodros as in Matthew 2:10.

tossed with a tempest. Greek. cheimazomai. Only here. Compare Acts 27:12

next. Greek. hexes. See Acts 21:1.

lightened the ship = they began to jettison the cargo. Literally they were making a casting out. Greek. ekbole Only here.

Verse 19

we. The texts read "they, "which would mean the crew. but it would be superfluous to say of them, "with our own hands. "Luke means that everyone was pressed into the service, prisoners and all.

cast out. Greek. rhipto. See Luke 4:35.

with our own hands. Greek. autocheir. Only here. To emphasize the fact that all were called to help in this time of peril.

tackling. Greek. skeue. The yard, sail, and all the ships furnishings. Only here, but used in the Septuagint Jonah 1:5.

Verse 20

neither . . . nor. Greek. mete . . . mete.

in = for Greek. epi. App-104

appeared = shone. Greek. epiphaino. App-106

tempest. Greek. cheimon. Elsewhere translated "winter, "Matthew 24:20. Mark 13:18, John 10:22. 2 Timothy 4:21. Matthew 16:3 (foul weather). Compare Acts 27:18.

lay on us. Greek. epikeimai. See Luke 5:1, Luke 23:23. 1 Corinthians 9:16. Hebrews 9:10.

taken away. Greek. periaireo. Only here, Acts 27:40, 2 Corinthians 3:16, Hebrews 10:11.

Verse 21

after long abstinence. Literally much fasting having taken place (Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:49).

abstinence. Greek. asitia. Only here. Compare Acts 27:33 and Acts 27:38 (sitos).

should = ought to

hearkened. Greek. peitharcheo. See Acts 5:29

loosed. Greek. anago. See verses: Acts 27:2, Acts 27:4, Acts 27:12.

from. Greek. apo. App-104

gained = gotten, as Revised Version. Greek. kerdaino. Occ sixteen times. Always translated "gain, "save Philippians 3:1 (win). Only herein Acts. First occurance. Matthew 16:26.

harm. Same as "hurt" (Acts 27:10)

loss. Same as "damage" (Acts 27:10)

Verse 22

now. See Acts 4:29.

exhort. Same as "admonish" (Acts 27:9).

be of good cheer. Greek. euthumeo. Only here, Acts 27:25 and James 5:13.

loss = casting away. Greek. apobole. Only here and Romans 11:15.

any man"s life = a life.

among = out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

but = except. Greek. plen.

Verse 23

stood by. Greek. paristemi. Compare Acts 1:10.

the = an.

God. App-98.

serve Greek. latreuo. App-137and App-190

Verse 24

must Same as "should, "Acts 27:21.

be brought lo. Greek. idou. App-133

given = granted. Greek. charizomai. App-184

Verse 25

believe. Greek. pisteuo App-150

even as. Literally thus according to (Greek. kata. App-104) the manner in which

told = spoken to. Greek. leo App-121

Verse 26

Howbeit = but

cast Greek. ekpipto. Sam as "fall" (Acts 27:17).

island Greek. nesos. Elsewhere Acts 13:6; Acts 28:1, Acts 28:7, Acts 28:9, Acts 28:11. Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:14; Revelation 16:20.

Verse 27

driven up and down. Greek. diaphero = to carry hither and thither. Compare 13, 49. Mark 11:16. Then "to differ", as in the other occurances. Matthew 6:26; Matthew 10:31; Matthew 12:12. Luke 12:7, Luke 12:24. Romans 2:18. 1 Corinthians 15:41. Galatians 1:2, Galatians 1:6; Galatians 4:1. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:10.

Adria = the Adria. In Paul"s day this term included the part of the Mediterranean lying south of Italy, east of Sicily, and west of Greece. Josephus was on board a ship which foundered in the Adriatic Sea and was picked up by a ship of Cyrene, which landed him at Puteoli (Life, 3).

about. Greek. kata. App-104.

shipmen = seamen. Greek. nautes. Only here, Acts 27:30, and Revelation 18:17.

deemed = were supposing. See Acts 13:25.

they drew, &c. = some country was drawing near to them. Greek. prosago. See Acts 16:20.

Verse 28

sounded = having sounded. Greek. bolizo. Only here.

and = they.

fathoms. Greek. orguia. See App-51.

when, &c. = having proceeded. Greek. diistemi, to put, or stand, apart. Only here, and Luke 22:59 (literally one hour having intervened); Acts 24:51 (was parted).

Verse 29

lest = lest perchance.

upon. The texts read kata. App-104.

rocks = rough (Greek. trachus. Only here and Luke 3:5) places.

anchors nkura.

Only here, verses: Acts 27:30, Acts 27:40. Hebrews 6:19.

out of. Greek. ek. App-104.

stern. Greek. prumna. Only here, Acts 27:41, and Mark 4:38.

wished = were praying. Greek. euchomai. App-134.

for the day = that the day would come.

Verse 30

about = seeking.

when, &c = and had let down. Greek. chalao, as in Acts 27:17.

under colour = by pretence. Greek. prophasis. Else-where, Matthew 23:14. Mark 12:40. Luke 20:47. John 15:22. Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:18. 1 Thessalonians 2:5.

though they would have = being about to.

cast. Greek. ekteino. Elsewhere (fifteen times) translated "stretch" or "put forth".

foreship = bows or prow. Greek. prora. Only here and Acts 27:41.

Verse 31

Except = If. not. Greek. ean (App-118) me (App-105).

abide. Greek. meno. Seep. 1511.

cannot = a re not (Greek. ou. App-105) able to.

Verse 32

ropes. Greek. schoinion. Only here and John 2:15 (cords).

Verse 33

besought = was entreating. Greek. parakaleo. App-134.

take. Greek. metalambano. See Acts 2:46.

meat = food, or nourishment. Greek. trophe.

This day, &c. Literally Tarrying (or waiting) to-day, the fourteenth day.

tarried. Greek. prosdokao. App-183.

and continued = ye continue. Greek. diateleo. Only here.

fasting = without food. Greek. asitos. Only here. Compare Acts 27:21. Figure of speech Synecdoche. App-6.

taken. Greek. proslambano. See Acts 17:5.

nothing. Greek. mideis.

Verse 34

pray. Same as "besought", Acts 27:33.

is. Greek. huparcho. See Luke 9:48.

health = salvation. Greek. soteria. The verb sozo is frequently translated "heal". Matthew 9:21, Matthew 9:22. John 11:12 (do well). Acts 4:9; Acts 14:9.

there shall not, &c. Literally a hair of no one (Greek. oudeis) of you shall fall from his head

hair. Greek. thrix. Only occurs in Acts.

fall. The texts read "perish", as in Luke 21:18. Figure of speech Paroemia. App-6. Compare 1 Samuel 14:45. 2 Samuel 14:11. 1 Kings 1:52. Matthew 10:30.

from. Greek. apo, with texts. App-104.

Verse 35

when, &c. = having said these things, and taken bread, he.

gave thanks. Greek. eucharisteo. Only here and Acts 28:15 in Acts. First occurance. Matthew 15:36.

broken. Greek. klao. See Acts 2:46.

Verse 36

of good cheer. Greek. euthumos. Only here. The verb occurs verses: Acts 27:22, Acts 27:25.

Verse 37

in all. . . . two hundred, &c. Literally all the souls two hundred threescore and sixteen.

souls. Greek. psuche. App-110. Compare verses: Acts 10:22. Josephus says in the ship in which he was wrecked there were 600, of whom only eighty were saved. Compare Acts 27:22.

Verse 38

when, &c. Having been satisfied (Greek. korennumi. Only here and 1 Corinthians 4:8) with food (Greek. trophe, as in Acts 27:33).

lightened. Greek. kouphizo. Only here.

and cast out = casting out.

wheat. Greek. sitos.

Verse 39

knew = recognized. Greek. epiginosko. App-132.

land. Greek. ge. App-129.

discovered = perceived. App-133.

creek. Greek. kolpos, bosom. Here, Luke 6:38; Luke 16:22, Luke 16:23. John 1:18.

shore = beach.

the. Omit,

were minded = took counsel or planned. Greek. bouleuo.

it were possible = they might be able.

thrust in. Greek. exotheo. Only here and Acts 7:45.

Verse 40

taken up. Greek. periaireo. Same as in Acts 27:20.

committed. Greek. eao. Same as "let", Acts 27:32.

themselves = them, i.e. the anchors. They "slipped" the anchors.

loosed. Greek. aniemi, as in Acts 16:26. Ephesians 6:9. Hebrews 13:5.

rudder bands = lashings of the rudders.

rudder. Greek. pidalion. Only here and James 3:4. There were two great paddles, one on either side, used for steering.

bands. Greek. zeukteria. The tackle by which the paddles were lashed to the hull when the ship was at anchor. Only here.

hoised = hoisted. Greek. epairo. Generally take up, or lift up. Acts 1:9; Acts 2:14, &c.

mainsail = foresail. Greek. artemon. Only here. The mainsail had been thrown overboard (Acts 27:19).

wind. Literally the blowing. Greek. pneo. Elsewhere, Matthew 7:25, Matthew 7:27. Luke 12:55. John 3:8; John 6:18. Revelation 7:1.

made = were holding on. Gr. katecho. See 2 Thessalonians 2:6.

toward = for. Greek. eis. App-104.

Verse 41

And = But.

falling. Greek. peripipto. Only here, Luke 10:30. James 1:2.

where two seas met. Greek. dilhalassos. Only here. A sand bank formed by opposing currents.

ran . . . aground. Greek. epokello, but the texts read epikello, meaning the same. Only here.

ship. Greek. naus. Only here. Elsewhere the word for "ship" is ploion. It was no longer a ship, but a mere floating hulk.

forepart. Same as "foreship", Acts 27:30. Add "indeed".

stuck fast, and = having stuck fast. Greek. ereido. Only here.

remained. Greek. meno, as in Acts 27:31.

unmoveable. Greek. asaleutos. Only here and Hebrews 12:28.

hinder part = stern, Acts 27:29.

was broken = began to break up. Greek. luo. See Acts 13:43.

with = by, as in Acts 27:11.

violence. Greek. bia. See Acts 5:26.

waves. Greek. kuma. Only here, Matthew 8:24; Matthew 14:24. Mark 4:37. Jude 1:13.

Verse 42

counsel. Greek. boule. App-102. See Acts 27:12.

to kill = in order that (Greek. hina) they might kill.

any = any one. App-123.

of them. Omit.

should swim out, and = having swum out. Greek. ekkolumbao. Only here.

escape = make good his escape. Greek. diapheugo. Only here.

Verse 43

willing = purposing. Greek. boulomai. App-102.

save. Greek. diasozo. See Matthew 14:36.

kept = hindered.

purpose. Greek. boulema. App-102. Only here and Romans 9:19.

could = were able to.

swim. Greek. kolumbao. Only here. Compare Acts 27:42.

should, &c. = having first cast (themselves) overboard. Greek. aporrhipto. Only here.

and get. Literally should go forth. Greek. exeimi. See Acts 13:42.

to = upon. Greek. epi. App-104.

Verse 44

the rest. Greek. loipos: App-124.

some = some indeed.

boards = planks. Greek. sanis. Only here.

broken pieces: i.e. any kind of wreckage. Literally some of the things.

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

escaped all safe = all escaped safe (same as "save", Acts 27:43). In this chapter there are over fifty words, mostly nautical, found nowhere else in the N.T.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Acts 27:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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