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Bible Commentaries

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges
Hebrews 11

 

 

Other Authors
Verse 1

1. Ἔστιν δὲ πίστις. “But faith is &c.” Since he has said “we are of faith to gaining of the soul,” the question might naturally arise, What then is faith? It is nowhere defined in Scripture, nor is it defined here, for the writer rather describes it in its effects than in its essence; but it is described by what it does. The chapter which illustrates “faith” is full of works; and this alone should shew how idle is any contrast or antithesis between the two. Here however the word “faith” means only “the belief which leads to faithfulness”—the hope which, apart from sight, holds the ideal to be the most real, and acts accordingly. It is not used in the deeper mystical sense of St Paul as equivalent to absolute union with Christ.

ὑπόστασις. “The assurance” or “the giving substance to.” Ὑπόστασις, as in Hebrews 1:3, may mean [1] that underlying essence which gives reality to a thing. Faith gives a subjective reality to the aspirations of hope. But it may be used [2] in an ordinary and not a metaphysical sense for “basis,” foundation; or [3] for “confidence,” as in Hebrews 3:14 (comp. 2 Corinthians 9:4; 2 Corinthians 11:17): and this seems to be the most probable meaning of the word here. St Jerome speaks of the passage as breathing somewhat of Philo (“Philoneum aliquid spirans”), who speaks of faith in a very similar way.

ἔλεγχος. “Demonstration,” or “test.”

οὐ βλεπομένων, i.e. τῶν ἀοράτων, which are as yet invisible, because they are eternal and not temporal (2 Corinthians 4:18; 2 Corinthians 5:7). God Himself belongs to the things as yet unseen; but Faith—in this sense of the word, which is not the distinctively Pauline sense (Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:26; Romans 3:25)—demonstrates the existence of the immaterial as though it were actual. The object of faith from the dawn of man’s life had been Christ, who, even at the Fall, had been foretold as “the seed of the woman who should break the serpent’s head.” The difference between the Two Covenants was that in the New He was fully set forth as the effulgence of the Father’s glory, whereas in the Old He had been but dimly indicated by shadows and symbols. Bishop Wordsworth quotes the sonnet of the poet Wordsworth on these lines:

“For what contend the wise? for nothing less

Than that the Soul, freed from the bonds of sense,

And to her God restored by evidence

Of things not seen, drawn forth from their recess,

Root there—and not in forms—her holiness.”


Verses 1-40

CH. 11. THE HEROES OF FAITH

The main task of the writer has now been performed, but the remainder of the Epistle had also a very important purpose. It would have been fatal to the peace of mind of a Jewish convert to feel that there was a chasm between his Christian faith and the faith of his past life. The writer wishes to shew that there is no painful discontinuity in the religious convictions of Hebrew converts. They could still enjoy the viaticum of good examples set forth in their O. T. Scriptures. Their faith was identical, though transcendently more blessed than that which had sustained the Patriarchs, Prophets, and Martyrs of their nation in all previous ages. The past history of the Chosen People was not discarded or discredited by the Gospel; it was, on the contrary, completed and glorified.


Verse 2

2. ἐμαρτυρήθησαν. Lit., “For therein the elders had witness borne to them.” Their “good report” was won in the sphere of faith. The elders—a technical Jewish term (זְקֵנִים)—means the ancient fathers of the Church of Israel (Hebrews 1:1).


Verse 3

3. Πίστει. In this chapter we find fifteen special instances of the work of faith, besides the summary enumeration in the 32nd and following verses.

νοοῦμεν. “We apprehend with the reason.” See Romans 1:20.

κατηρτίσθαι. “Have been established” (Hebrews 13:21; Psalms 73:16, LXX.).

τοὺς αἰῶνας. The word for “worlds” means literally ages (Hebrews 1:2), i.e. the world regarded from the standpoint of human history. The “time-world” necessarily presumes the existence of the space-world also. See Hebrews 1:2.

ῥήματι θεοῦ. “By the utterance of God,” namely by His fiat, as in Genesis 1; Psalms 33:6; Psalms 33:9; 2 Peter 3:5. There is no question here as to the creation of the world by the Logos, for he purposely alters the word λόγῳ used by the LXX. in Psalms 33 into ῥήματι.

εἰς τὸ μὴ ἐκ φαινομένων τὸ βλεπόμενον γεγονέναι. The true reading and literal translation are “so that not from things which appear hath that which is seen come into being,” a somewhat harsh way of expressing that “the visible world did not derive its existence from anything phenomenal.” The translation of the Peshito (“from those things which are not perceived”), of the Vulgate (“ex invisibilibus” and in d, e, f “ex non apparentibus”), seem to imply a reading ἐκ μὴ φαινομένων, which would be an interpretation of the unusual order, but hardly suit the Greek as it stands. In other words, the clause denies the pre-existence of matter. It says that the world was made out of nothing, not out of the primeval chaos. So in 2 Maccabees 7:28 the mother begs her son “to look upon the heaven and earth and all that is therein, and consider that God made them out of things that are not” (ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων). If this view be correct, the writer would seem purposely to avoid Philo’s way of saying that the world was made out of to τὰ μὴ ὄντα, “things conceived as non-existent,” by which he meant the “formless matter” (as in Wisdom of Solomon 11:17). He says that the world did not originate from anything phenomenal. This verse, so far from being superfluous, or incongruous with what follows, strikes the keynote of faith by shewing that its first object must be a Divine and Infinite Creator. Thus like Moses in Genesis 1 the verse excludes from the region of faith all Atheism, Pantheism, Polytheism, and Dualism.


Verse 4

4. Ἄβελ. Intending, so to speak, “to pluck only the flowers which happen to come within his reach, while he leaves the whole meadow full to his readers,” he begins to cull his instances from the world before the flood. His examples of faith fall into five groups. 1. Antediluvian (4–6). 2. From Noah to Abraham (7–19, including some general reflexions in 13–16). 3. The Patriarchs (20–22). 4. From Moses to Rahab (23–31). 5. Summary reference to later heroes and martyrs down to the time of the Maccabees (32–40).

πλείονα. Lit., “more” or “greater.”

παρὰ Κάϊν. This we learn from Genesis 4:5, but we are not told the exact points in virtue of which the sacrifice was superior. We may naturally infer that Abel’s was a more carefully-chosen and valuable offering, but especially that it was offered in a more sincere and humble spirit of faith and love.

ἐμαρτυρήθη. By God’s sign of approval (Genesis 4:4, LXX.). Hence he is called “righteous” in Matthew 23:35; 1 John 3:12. The Jewish Haggadah was that God had shewn His approval by fire from heaven which consumed Abel’s sacrifice.

μαρτυροῦντος ἐπὶ τοῖς δώροις. “Bearing witness to his gifts.”

διʼ αὐτῆς, i.e. by his faith.

ἀποθανὼν ἔτι λαλεῖ. Another reading (λαλεῖται, DEKL) is “though dead, he is still being spoken of.” But the allusion seems to be to “the voice of his blood” (Genesis 4:10), as seems clear from the reference in Hebrews 12:24. No doubt it is also meant that he speaks by his example, but there seems to have been some Jewish Haggadah on the subject, for Philo says “Abel—which is most strange—has both been slain and lives” (Opp. I. 200). He deduces from Genesis 4:10 that Abel is still unforgotten, and hence that the righteous are immortal.


Verse 5

5. μετετέθη. Lit., “was transferred (hence)” (Genesis 5:24; Sirach 44:16; Sirach 49:14; Jos. Antt. I. 3, § 4).

οὐχ ηὑρίσκετο. Genesis 5:24 (LXX. God. Alex.).

μεμαρτύρηται. “He hath had witness borne to him”; “Enoch walked with God,” Genesis 5:24 (LXX. “pleased God”).


Verse 6

6. ὅτι ἔστιν. The object of Faith is both the existence and the Divine government of God. “We trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe” (1 Timothy 4:10).

γίνεται. “And that He becomes (i.e. shews or proves Himself to be) a rewarder.”


Verse 7

7. χρηματισθείς. The same word is used as in Hebrews 8:5, Hebrews 12:25.

τῶν μηδέπω βλεπομένων. The participle with the art. is in the N. T. normally negatived by μὴ, except in oases of antithesis (like Romans 9:25) and in Ephesians 5:4 if τὰ οὐκ ἀνήκοντα be there the true reading. Here the μὴ indicates the subjective standpoint.

εὐλαβηθείς. Influenced by godly caution and reverence; the same kind of fear as that implied in Hebrews 5:7.

κατέκρινεν. His example was in condemnatory contrast with the unbelief of the world (Matthew 12:41; Luke 11:31).

τῆς κατὰ πίστιν. “Which is according to faith” (comp. Ezekiel 14:14). Noah is called “righteous” in Genesis 6:9, and Philo observes that he is the first to receive this title, and erroneously says that the name Noah means “righteous” as well as “rest.” St Paul does not use the phrase “the righteousness according to faith,” though he has “the righteousness of faith” (Romans 4:13). “Faith” however in this writer never becomes the same as mystic oneness with Christ, but means general belief in the unseen; and “righteousness” is not “justification,” but faith manifested by obedience. Throughout this chapter righteousness is the human condition which faith produces (Hebrews 11:33), not the Divine gift which faith receives. Hence he says that Noah “became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith,” i.e. he entered on the inheritance of righteousness which faith had brought him. In 2 Peter 2:5 Noah is called “a preacher of righteousness”; and in Wisdom of Solomon 10:4 “the righteous man.”


Verse 8

8. Ἀβραάμ. As was natural, the faith of “the father of the faithful” was one of the commonest topics of discussion in the Jewish Schools. Wordsworth (Eccles. Sonnets, XXVI.) speaks of

Faith, which to the Patriarchs did dispense

Sure guidance ere a ceremonial fence

Was needful to men thirsting to transgress.”

καλούμενος. If ὁ καλούμενος were the right reading it could only mean literally either “he who is called Abraham,” which would be somewhat meaningless; or “Abraham, who was called to go out.”

ἐξελθεῖν. From Ur of the Chaldees (Acts 7:4).

τόπον. Genesis 12:7.

ποῦ ἔρχεται. Strictly ποῖ would be required, but the adv. of rest is often thus joined to a verb of motion. The ἕρχεται is used graphically.


Verse 9

9. ὡς ἀλλοτρίαν. “I am a stranger and a sojourner with you” (Genesis 23:4). The patriarchs are constantly called πάροικοι, “dwellers beside,” “sojourners” (Genesis 17:8; Genesis 20:1, &c.).

ἐν σκηναῖς, i.e. in tents (Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:3, &c.).


Verse 10

10. τὴν τοὺς θεμελίους ἔχουσαν. “The city which hath the foundations,” namely, “the Jerusalem above” (Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:22; Hebrews 13:14; Revelation 21:2; Revelation 21:14). The same thought is frequently found in Philo. The tents of the Patriarchs had no foundations; the foundations of the City of God are of pearl and precious stone (Revelation 21:14; Revelation 21:19). There is perhaps a reference to Psalms 87:1, “Her foundations are upon the holy hills.” Mr Rendall too precariously infers a contrast with the foundations of the earthly Jerusalem, shaken by the Roman engines of war.

τεχνίτης καὶ δημιουργός. “Architect and builder.” This is the only place in the N. T. where the word δημιουργὸς occurs. It is found also in 2 Maccabees 4:1, and plays a large part in the vocabulary of Gnostic heretics, who believing in the inherent evil of matter spoke of the Demiurge as the Evil creator. But God is called the “Architect” of the Universe in Philo and in Wisdom of Solomon 13:1, “neither by considering the works did they acknowledge the workmaster.”


Verse 11

11. καὶ αὐτὴ Σάρρα. “Even Sarah herself.” Perhaps the “even” refers to her original weakness of faith when she laughed (Genesis 18:12; Genesis 21:2; comp. Romans 4:19). Dr Field thinks that these words may be a gloss, and that the verse refers to Abraham, since ἔτεκεν, “was delivered,” is not found in א, A, D.

εἰς καταβολὴν σπέρματος. For technical reasons the probable meaning is “for the founding of a family” (comp. the use of the word καταβολὴ in Hebrews 4:3, Hebrews 9:26 and “seed” in Hebrews 2:16, Hebrews 11:18).

τὸν ἐπαγγειλάμενον. Comp. Hebrews 10:23.


Verse 12

12. τὰ ἄστρα κ.τ.λ. Genesis 22:17; Deuteronomy 1:10.

τὸ χεῖλος. Comp. “labrum fossae” Liv. XXXVII. 37.


Verse 13

13. Κατὰ πίστιν. Lit., “According to faith.”

μὴ κομισάμενοι. They received the promises in one sense, as promises (Hebrews 11:17), but had not yet entered upon their fruition (comp. Hebrews 11:39; Hebrews 6:15, and Hebrews 9:15).

ἀσπασάμενοι. “Saluting them” (Genesis 49:18). “Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day; and he saw it, and was glad” (John 8:56).

παρεπίδημοι. Genesis 23:4; Genesis 47:9; 1 Chronicles 29:15; Psalms 39:12, &c.


Verse 14

14. ὃτι πατρίδα ἐπιζητοῦσιν. “That they are seeking further after a native land.” Hence comes the argument of the next verse that it was not their old home in Chaldea for which they were yearning, but a heavenly native-land.


Verse 15

15. εἰ μὲνμνημονεύουσινεἶχον ἄν. The tenses imply the meaning, “Assuming that they bore that land in continuous memory, they would at all times have had &c.” See Winer, p. 382. The reading μνημονεύουσιν for ἐμνημόνευον is very ill-supported; but it is the difficilior interpretatio; is found in Theodoret; and derives some sanction from the μνημονευουσαν of D.

ἀνακάμψαι. But they never attempted to return to Mesopotamia. They were home-sick not for that land but for heaven.


Verse 16

16. νῦν δέ. “But, as the case now is.”

ὀρέγονται. The word means, “they are yearning for,” “they stretch forth their hands towards.”

οὐκ ἐπαισχύνεται αὐτοὺς κ.τ.λ. “Is not ashamed of them, to be called their God” (Genesis 28:13; Exodus 3:6-15).

πόλιν. The “inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for us” (1 Peter 1:4). This digression is meant to shew that the faith and hopes of the Patriarchs reached beyond mere temporal blessings.


Verse 17

17. προσενήνοχενπροσέφερεν. Reverting to Abraham, whose faith [1] in leaving his country, [2] in living as a stranger in Canaan, he has already mentioned, he now adduces the third and greatest instance of his faithful obedience in being ready to offer up Isaac. Both tenses, “hath offered up” (perf.) and “was offering up” (imperf.), are characteristic of the author’s views of Scripture as a permanent record of events which may be still regarded as present to us. St James (James 2:21) uses the aorist.

ἀναδεξάμενος. Four verbs are used with reference to “receiving” the promises, ἀναδέχεσθαι (here), λαβεῖν (Hebrews 9:15), ἐπιτυχεῖν (Hebrews 11:33), κομίσασθαι (Hebrews 11:39). The word here used implies a joyous welcome of special promises. The context generally shews with sufficient clearness the sense in which the Patriarchs may be said both to have “received” and “not to have received” the promises. They received and welcomed special promises, and those were fulfilled; and in those they saw the germ of richer blessings which they enjoyed by faith but not in actual fruition.


Verse 18

18. πρὸς ὅν. Lit., “with reference to whom” (Isaac); or perhaps “to whom,” i.e. to Abraham.

κληθήσεται. Genesis 17:8; Genesis 17:19; Genesis 21:12, &c.


Verse 19

19. ὅθεν. The only place in this Epistle where ὅθεν has its local sense.

ἐν παραβολῇ. Lit., “in a parable.” For the use of the word see Hebrews 9:9. The exact meaning is much disputed. It has been rendered “as a type” (comp. Vulg. in parabolam), or “in a bold venture,” or “unexpectedly.” These views are hardly tenable. But how could Abraham have received Isaac back “in a figure” when he received him back “in reality”? The answer is that he received him back, figuratively, from the dead, because Isaac was typically, or figuratively, dead—potentially sacrificed—when he received him back. Josephus in narrating the event uses the same word (Antt. I. 13, § 4). But in this instance again it is possible that the key to the expression might be found in some Jewish legend. In one Jewish writer it is said (of course untruly) that Isaac really was killed, and raised again. The restoration of Isaac was undoubtedly a type of the resurrection of Christ, but it is hardly probable that the writer would have expressed so deep a truth in a passing and ambiguous expression.


Verse 20

20. εὐλόγησεν. It is true that the blessing of Esau when rightly translated, “Behold thy dwelling shall be away from the fatness of the earth and away from the dew of blessing” (Genesis 27:39), reads more like a curse; but the next verse [40] involves a promise of ultimate freedom, and Esau obtained the blessings of that lower and less spiritual life for which he was alone fitted by his character and tastes.

[καὶ] περὶ μελλόντων. The true reading seems to be “even concerning,” though it is not easy to grasp the exact force of the “even.”


Verse 21

21. ἕκαστον τῶν υἱῶν. “Each of the sons.” He made a marked difference between them (Genesis 48:17-19).

προσεκύνησεν ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον κ.τ.λ. In this verse there is an allusion to two separate events. The first is the blessing of Ephraim and Manasseh (Genesis 48:1-20); the other an earlier occasion (Genesis 47:29-31). In our version it is rendered “And Israel bowed himself upon the bed’s head” but in the LXX. and Peshito as here, it is “upon the top of his staff.” The reason for the variation is that having no vowel points the LXX. understood the word to be matteh, “staff,” not mittah, “bed,” as in Genesis 48:2. If they were right in this view, the passage means that Jacob, rising from his bed to take the oath from Joseph, supported his aged limbs on the staff, which was a type of his pilgrimage (Genesis 32:10), and at the end of the oath bowed his head over the staff in sign of thanks and reverence to God. The Vulgate (here following the Itala) erroneously renders it adoravit fastigium virgae ejus, Jacob “adored the top of his (Joseph’s) staff,” and the verse has been quoted (e.g. by Cornelius a Lapide) in defence of image-worship! Yet in Genesis 47:31 the Vulgate has “adoravit Deum, conversus ad lectuli caput.” Probably all that is meant is that, being too feeble to rise and kneel or stand, Jacob “bowed himself upon the head of his couch” in an attitude of prayer, just as the aged David did on his deathbed (1 Kings 1:47).


Verse 22

22. τελευτῶν, sc. τὸν βίον. The less common word for “dying” is here taken from the LXX. of Genesis 50:26.

περὶ τῶν ὀστέων αὐτοῦ. A sign of his perfect conviction that God’s promise would be fulfilled (Genesis 50:24-25; Exodus 13:19; comp. Acts 7:16).


Verse 23

23. ΄ωϋσῆςἐκρύβη. The “faith” is of course that of his parents, Amram and Jochebed.

τῶν πατέρων. This is implied in the LXX. of Exodus 2:2, but the Hebrew only says that his mother concealed him.

ἀστεῖον τὸ παιδίον. “That the child was fair.” In Acts 7:20 he is called ἀστεῖος τῷ θεῷ. In his marvellous beauty (see Philo, Vit. Mos.) they saw a promise of some future blessing, and braved the peril involved in breaking the king’s decree. The Hebr. word is simply טוֹב. Theophyl. ὡραῖον, τῇ ὄψει χαρίεν.

τὸ διάταγμα. To drown all male children (Exodus 1:22; Exodus 2:2). In D, E we have the interpolation (from Acts 7:23) πιστι μεγας γενομενος μωυσης ανιλεν τον αιγυπτιον κατανοων την ταπινωσιν των αδελφων αυτου.


Verse 24

24. υἱὸς θυγατρὸς Φαραώ. He refused the rank of an Egyptian prince. The reference is to the Jewish legends, which were rich in details about the infancy and youth of Moses. See Jos. Antt. II. ix–xi; Philo, Opp. II. 82; Stanley, Lect. on Jewish Church. The only reference to the matter in Scripture is in Exodus 2:10; Acts 7:22-25.


Verse 25

25. τῷ λαῷ τοῦ θεοῦ. Hebrews 4:9.

πρόσκαιρον. The brevity of sinful enjoyment is alluded to in Job 20:5, “The triumphing of the wicked is short, and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment.” The special sin would have been the very one to which the readers were tempted—apostasy.


Verse 26

26. τῶν Αἰγύπτου. The reading τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτου is less well supported. It is of course explicable by an ellipse of γῇ.

τὸν ὀνειδισμὸν τοῦ Χριστοῦ. “The reproach of the Christ” (comp. Hebrews 13:13; Matthew 5:11-12; 2 Corinthians 1:5; Romans 15:3; Philippians 3:7-11; Colossians 1:24). There may be in the words a reminiscence of Psalms 89:50-51, “Remember, Lord, the reproach of thy servants … wherewith thine enemies have reproached the footsteps of thine anointed.” By “the reproach of the Christ” is meant “the reproach which He had to bear in His own person, and has to bear in that of His members” (2 Corinthians 1:5). It is true that in no other passage of the Epistle does the writer allude to the mystical oneness of Christ and His Church, but he must have been aware of that truth from intercourse with St Paul and knowledge of his writings. Otherwise we must suppose him to imply that Moses by faith realised, at least dimly, that he was suffering as Christ would hereafter suffer.

ἀπέβλεπεν γάρ. Lit., “for he was looking away from it to.” What Moses had in view was something wholly different from sinful pleasure. The verb is found here only in the N. T.


Verse 27

27. κατέλιπεν Αἴγυπτον. This must allude to the Exodus, not to the flight of Moses into Midian. On the latter occasion, he distinctly did “fear the wrath of the king” (Exodus 2:14-15). It is true that for the moment Pharaoh and the Egyptians pressed the Israelites to depart, but it was only in fear and anger, and Moses foresaw the immediate pursuit.

μὴ φοβηθείς. “Because he did not fear.”

τὸν γὰρ ἀόρατον κ.τ.λ. The words have also been rendered, but less correctly, “He was steadfast towards Him who is invisible, as if seeing Him.”

τὸν ἀόρατον. “The blessed and only Potentate … whom no man hath seen, nor can see” (1 Timothy 6:16-17). Perhaps we should render it “the King Invisible,” understanding the word βασιλέα, and so emphasizing the contrast between the fear of God and the consequent fearless attitude towards Pharaoh.


Verse 28

28. πεποίηκεν. Lit., “he hath made,” or “instituted.” Another of the author’s characteristic tenses (see Hebrews 11:17). Ποιεῖν is also used for celebrating the passover (Deuteronomy 16:1, &c.).

τὴν πρόσχυσιν τοῦ αἵματος. “The effusion of the blood.” Exodus 12:21-23. The “faith” consisted primarily in believing the promises and obeying the command of God, and secondarily, we may believe, in regarding the sprinkled blood as in some way typical of a better propitiation (Romans 3:25). The word for sprinkling is not ῥαντισμός, as in Hebrews 12:24, but πρόσχυσις, which is found here only, but is derived from the verb used in Leviticus 1:5 (LXX.).

ὁ ὁλοθρεύων. The term is derived from the LXX. The Hebrew (Exodus 12:23) has mashchîth, “destruction.” Comp. 1 Chronicles 21:15; 2 Chronicles 32:21; 1 Corinthians 10:10; Sirach 48:21.


Verse 29

29. διέβησαν. They, i.e. Moses and the Israelites.

ἧς πεῖραν λαβόντες. “Of which sea (or “of which dry land”) the Egyptians making trial.”

κατεπόθησαν. Lit., “were swallowed up” (Exodus 14:15-28; Psalms 106:9-12).


Verse 30

30. Ἱερειχώ. Joshua 6:12-20.

ἕπεσαν. Neuters plur. sometimes take a plur. verb where the inanimate objects stand out in their plurality and separateness. Winer, p. 645.

ἐπὶ ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας. Ἐπὶ with the acc. denotes the period over which a thing extends, as in ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους, Acts 13:31.


Verse 31

31. πίστει. Joshua 2:9-11, “The Lord your God, He is God.”

ἡ πόρνη. So she is called in Joshua 2:1; James 2:25; and it shews the faithfulness of the sacred narrative that her name is even introduced as well as that of Ruth, a Moabitess, in the genealogy of our Lord (Matthew 1:5). The Targum softens it down into “innkeeper” and others render it “idolatress.” Her name was highly honoured by the Jews, who said that eight prophets—among them Baruch, Jeremiah, and Shallum, and the prophetess Huldah—were descended from her. Megillah, f. 14. 2.

τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν. “That were disobedient.”


Verse 32

32. τί ἔτι λέγω; The sense is the same whether we regard λέγω as the indicative (comp. John 11:47), or the deliberative subjunctive.

ἐπιλείψει μεὁ χρόνος. The future is sometimes used of a case merely conceivable, as in ἐρεῖ τις, dicat aliquis, 1 Corinthians 15:35. Comp. the Latin “longum est narrare.” The phrase is also found in Philo, De Somniis. The names of “the heroes of faith” here mentioned are drawn from the Books of Judges and Samuel, with a reference to the Books of Kings and Chronicles, and what is known of the history of the Prophets. There does not seem to be any special design in the arrangement of the pairs of names, though it is a curious circumstance that, in each pair, the hero who came earlier in time is placed after the other. In 32–34 we have instances of active, and in 35–38 of passive faith.


Verse 33

33. βασιλείας. The allusion is specially to the conquest of Canaan by Joshua, and to the victories of David (2 Samuel 5:17-25; 2 Samuel 21:15, &c.).

δικαιοσύνην. The allusion is somewhat vague, but seems to refer to the justice of Judges and Kings (1 Samuel 12:3-4; 2 Samuel 8:15; 1 Chronicles 18:14, &c.), and perhaps especially to the Judgement of Solomon. “To execute judgement and justice” belonged especially to the Princes of Israel (Ezekiel 45:9).

ἐπαγγελιῶν. If we compare the expression with Hebrews 11:13; Hebrews 11:39, we see that the primary reference must be to temporal promises (see Joshua 21:43-45, &c.); but they also obtained at least a partial fruition of spiritual promises also.

λεόντων. Samson (Judges 14:5-6), David (1 Samuel 17:34-35), Daniel (Daniel 6:22), Benaiah (2 Samuel 23:20).


Verse 34

34. πυρός. Daniel 3:25; 1 Maccabees 2:59.

μαχαίρης. David (1 Samuel 18:11; 1 Samuel 19:10, &c.), Elijah (1 Kings 19:2), Elisha (2 Kings 6:12-17), Jeremiah 26:24, &c.

ἀπὸ ἀσθενείας. Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:5), Samson (Judges 15:15; Judges 16:28-30), David (1 Samuel 17:42; 1 Samuel 17:51, &c.).

ἔκλιναν. This and the previous clause may refer specially to the Maccabees, though they also suit Joshua, the Judges, David, &c. The word παρεμβολὰς is the word used for “camp” in Hebrews 13:11; Hebrews 13:13; Revelation 20:9. It has both senses in the LXX. (Judges 4:16). The classic verb for “drove back” is found here only in the N. T. (κλίνω).


Verse 35

35. γυναῖκες. The woman of Sarepta (1 Kings 17:22), the Shunamite (2 Kings 4:32-36).

ἐξ ἀναστάσεως. Lit., “by resurrection.”

ἐτυμπανίσθησαν. Josephus calls the instrument of torture τροχός. The word means technically, “were broken on the wheel,” and the special reference may be to 2 Maccabees 6:18-30; 2 Maccabees 6:7, where the word is used to describe the tortures of Eleazar the Scribe, and of the Seven Brothers.

τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν. “The deliverance offered them” (2 Maccabees 6:20-21; 2 Maccabees 7:24).

κρείττονος. Not a mere resurrection to earthly life, like the children of the women mentioned, but “an everlasting reawakening to life” (2 Maccabees 7:9 and passim).


Verse 36

36. ἐμπαιγμῶν καὶ μαστίγων. “Seven brethren and their mother … being tormented with scourges and whips … and they brought the second for a mocking-stock … And after him was the third made a mocking-stock … And … they tortured and tormented the fourth in like manner” (2 Maccabees 7:1; 2 Maccabees 7:7; 2 Maccabees 7:10; 2 Maccabees 7:13, &c.). “And they sought out … Judas’ friends … and he took vengeance on them and mocked them” (1 Maccabees 9:26).

δεσμῶν καὶ φυλακῆς. Joseph (Genesis 39:20), Micaiah (1 Kings 22:26-27), Jeremiah (Jeremiah 20:2; Jeremiah 37:15), Hanani (2 Chronicles 16:10).


Verse 37

37. ἐλιθάσθησαν. Zechariah (2 Chronicles 24:20-21). Jewish tradition said that Jeremiah was stoned. See Matthew 23:35-37; Luke 11:51.

ἐπρίσθησαν. This was the traditional mode of Isaiah’s martyrdom. Hamburger, Talm. Wörterb. s.v. Jesaia. Comp. Matthew 24:51. The punishment was well known in ancient days (2 Samuel 12:31).

ἐπειράσθησαν. This would not seem an anticlimax to a pious reader, for the intense violence of temptation, and the horrible dread lest the weakness of human nature should succumb to it, was one of the most awful forms of trial which persecutors could inflict (see Acts 26:11), especially if the tempted person yielded to the temptation, as in 1 Kings 13:7; 1 Kings 13:19-26. There is no variation in the MSS., but some have conjectured ἐπρήσθησαν “they were burned.” In a recent outbreak at Alexandria some Jews had been burnt alive (Philo. in Flacc. 20), and burnings are mentioned in 2 Maccabees 6:11. The reason for the position of the word, as a sort of climax, perhaps lies in the strong effort to tempt the last and youngest of the seven brother-martyrs to apostatise in 2 Maccabees 7.

ἐν φόνῳ μαχαίρης. “They have slain thy prophets with the sword” (1 Kings 19:10). Jehoiakim “slew Urijah with the sword” (Jeremiah 26:23). The Jews suffered themselves to be massacred on the Sabbath in the war against Antiochus (1 Maccabees 2:38; 2 Maccabees 5:26).

ἐν μηλωταῖς, ἐν αἰγείοις. Elijah (1 Kings 19:13; 2 Kings 1:8). A hairy garment seems subsequently to have been a common dress among prophets, and it was sometimes adopted for purposes of deception (Zechariah 13:4). Clement in his Ep. ad Rom. i. 17 says that Elisha and Ezekiel also wore hairy garments.


Verse 38

38. οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος. The world was unworthy of them though it treated them as worthless. The Greek would also admit the meaning that they outweighed in value the whole world (see Proverbs 8:11, LXX.). The remark would be a striking source of consolation to Christians, on whom every epithet of hatred was exhausted and every disgraceful charge accumulated by their heathen adversaries. No small part of the task of the early Christian apologists consisted in shewing the baselessness and absurdity of the views respecting Christians which were held alike by the multitude, by rulers, and by philosophers.

ὄρεσιν καὶ σπηλαίοις. The Israelites in general (Judges 6:2). The prophets of the Lord (1 Kings 18:4; 1 Kings 18:13). Elijah (1 Kings 19:9). Mattathias and his sons “fled into the mountains” (1 Maccabees 2:28), and many others “into the wilderness” (id. 29). Judas the Maccabee (2 Maccabees 5:27). Refugees in caves (2 Maccabees 6:11). “Like beasts” (id. Hebrews 10:6). The catacombs were often used as places of refuge by the early Roman bishops and martyrs.

τῆς γῆς. Not “of the earth” but “of the land.” The writer’s historic view rarely extends beyond the horizon of Jewish history.


Verse 39

39. μαρτυρηθέντες διὰ τῆς πίστεως. “Having been borne witness to through their faith,” i.e. though they had this testimony borne to them, they did not see the fulfilment of the promises.

οὐκ ἐκομίσαντο. See Hebrews 11:17; Hebrews 11:33, Hebrews 6:15, Hebrews 9:15. They did not enjoy the fruition of the one great promise.


Verse 40

40. τοῦ θεοῦπροβλεψαμένου. Lit., “since God provided” (or “foresaw”) “some better thing concerning us.” The middle voice is used because it differs from the active by expressing a mental act; so too προορᾶσθαι, προϊδέσθαι. In one sense Abraham, and therefore other patriarchs, “rejoiced to see Christ’s day,” and yet they did but see it in such dim shadow that “many prophets and kings desired to see what ye see, and saw them not, and to hear the things which ye hear, and did not hear them” (Matthew 13:17), though all their earnest seekings and searchings tended in this direction (1 Peter 1:10-11).

ἵνα μὴ χωρὶς ἡμῶν τελειωθῶσιν. “Not unto themselves but unto us they did minister” (1 Peter 1:12). Since in their days “the fulness of the times” had not yet come (Ephesians 1:10) the saints could not be brought to their completion—the end and consummation of their privileges—apart from us. The “just” had not been, and could not be, “perfected” (Hebrews 12:23) until Christ had died (Hebrews 7:19, Hebrews 8:6). The implied thought is that if Christ had come in their days—if the “close of the ages” had fallen in the times of the Patriarchs or Prophets—the world would long ago have ended, and we should never have been born. Our present privileges are, as he has been proving all through the Epistle, incomparably better than those of the fathers. It was necessary in the economy of God that their “perfectionment” should be delayed until ours could be accomplished; in the future world we and they shall equally enjoy the benefits of Christ’s redemption.

 


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Bibliography Information
"Commentary on Hebrews 11:4". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/hebrews-11.html. 1896.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, October 17th, 2019
the Week of Proper 23 / Ordinary 28
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