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Bible Commentaries

Bridgeway Bible CommentaryBridgeway Bible Commentary

- Isaiah

by Donald C. Fleming

Old Testament Prophecy


In modern usage, the words ‘prophecy’ and ‘prophet’ are usually concerned with foretelling events. A prophet is a person who predicts (for example, a weather prophet). This was not the chief usage of the words in Old Testament times. Prophecy basically meant making known the will of God. A prophet was a spokesperson for God.

This definition of a prophet was well illustrated in the case of Aaron, who was Moses’ prophet. He was Moses’ spokesman. Moses was leader of the nation, but Aaron was the one who announced Moses’ directions to Israel (Exodus 4:10-16; Exodus 7:1-2). In the same way a prophet of God announced God’s will to the people (1 Kings 22:7-8; Jeremiah 1:7,Jeremiah 1:9; Ezekiel 3:4,Ezekiel 3:27; Amos 3:7).

The true prophet could be appointed only by God (Jeremiah 1:5,Jeremiah 1:9; Ezekiel 2:3-7; Amos 7:15), and was therefore known as a man of God (1 Samuel 2:27; 1 Samuel 9:6; 1 Kings 13:1-2), a messenger of God (Haggai 1:13), or a servant of God (2 Kings 17:23; Jeremiah 7:25). Sometimes he was called a seer (meaning ‘one who sees’), because he may have seen God’s message in a vision (1 Samuel 9:9,1 Samuel 9:18-19; Zechariah 1:7-8).

The prophetical books

A clear indication of the Israelites’ view of prophecy is seen in the way they arranged the books of the Old Testament. They divided their Bible into three portions, which they called the Law, the Prophets and the Writings. The Law consisted of the five books of Moses. The Prophets consisted of the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) and the Latter Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and the twelve so-called Minor Prophets). The Writings consisted of the miscellaneous other books.

From the composition of the Former Prophets group we see that the books that we call historical the Israelites called prophetical. The reason for this is that these books were written from the prophetic viewpoint (most of Israel’s historians were prophets; cf. 1 Chronicles 29:29; 2 Chronicles 9:29; 2 Chronicles 12:15), showing how God was working out his purposes in the lives of his people. In summary it might be said that in the Former Prophets God revealed himself in the history of the nation Israel, while in the Latter Prophets he revealed himself through the words of his spokesmen.

Because the Israelites had this understanding of prophecy, they excluded Chronicles from the Former Prophets and Daniel from the Latter Prophets. Chronicles was written from the priestly viewpoint rather than the prophetic. Daniel was written in the apocalyptic style rather than the prophetic. (In the type of literature known as apocalyptic, the revelations were based on dreams and visions, where weird animals, mysterious numbers and unnatural events were used symbolically to warn or encourage God’s people.)

Professional prophets

The prophets whose writings have been collected in the Bible (commonly referred to as the writing prophets) date from the eighth century BC, but prophets had been active in Israel long before the time of these men. As preachers and spiritual guides, they brought God’s message to his people (Judges 4:4; 1 Samuel 3:20; 2 Samuel 7:2).

In the time of Samuel there were many enthusiastic young prophets, but they were often guilty of uncontrolled behaviour that gave prophets a poor reputation (1 Samuel 10:5,1 Samuel 10:9-12; 1 Samuel 19:20-24; cf. 2 Kings 9:11; cf. Amos 7:14). In an effort to redirect this religious enthusiasm for Israel’s spiritual benefit, Samuel established a school of prophets at Ramah. This was followed by additional schools in other towns (1 Samuel 19:18-20; 2 Kings 2:3,2 Kings 2:5; 2 Kings 4:38).

When Israel’s religion was under threat because of the Baal worship introduced by Jezebel, the prophets Elijah and Elisha found many genuine followers of God in these schools. These young men (the ‘sons of the prophets’) maintained the worship of God in a nation that had largely sold itself to Baal (2 Kings 2:1-7,2 Kings 2:15; 2 Kings 4:38; 2 Kings 6:1).

By the time of the writing prophets about two hundred years later, many of those who passed through the schools of the prophets were more concerned with being religious professionals than with spiritually feeding God’s people. Few of the writing prophets appear to have been professionals. Their emphasis was that the true prophet had been called by God, not that he had received professional training (Jeremiah 1:4-8; Amos 7:14-15).

True and false prophets

Religion was an important part of Israelite life, and people often consulted prophets about their affairs. Consequently, prophets often lived and functioned near Israel’s public places of worship (1 Samuel 9:11-12; 1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Kings 13:1-2; 1 Kings 18:30; Jeremiah 35:4; Amos 7:12-13). Some of them were advisers to kings and officials, for through them God could give directions when leaders had to make important decisions (2 Samuel 7:1-3; 2 Samuel 24:11-12; 1 Kings 22:6-8; 2 Kings 19:1-7; Jeremiah 38:14-17).

Because the prophets received their income from the people to whom they ministered, many of them gave in to the temptation to prophesy the sorts of things that they knew their hearers wanted to hear. This guaranteed good rewards and stability in their jobs, but it brought condemnation from genuine believers. Because of this dishonesty and greed, they were known as false prophets (1 Kings 22:13-18; Jeremiah 6:13-14; Jeremiah 23:16-17; Micah 2:11; Micah 3:5-7,Micah 3:11; Zephaniah 3:4).

Although they were called prophets, these men were not God’s spokesmen. They were appointed by themselves, not by God. They spoke according to their own selfish desires, not according to the mind of God (Jeremiah 14:14; Jeremiah 23:21-22; Ezekiel 13:1-3,Ezekiel 13:17). Instead of rebuking the people for their sin, they maintained their popularity by assuring the people that God was pleased with them. Actually, the nation was heading for judgment, and the corruption of the prophets was one reason for that judgment (Jeremiah 23:11-17; Ezekiel 13:8-16,Ezekiel 13:22).

The test of a prophet, whether he was true or false, was not whether his predictions came true (for even the predictions of a false prophet might come true). The test was whether he led people in the ways of God (Deuteronomy 13:1-5; Jeremiah 23:21-22,Jeremiah 23:29-32; Hosea 9:7-8). Clearly, if a prophet made a bold assertion that his prediction would come true and it did not, he was a false prophet (Deuteronomy 18:22).

True prophets were concerned chiefly not with foretelling events, but with leading the people to repentance and faith (Micah 3:8; Micah 7:18; Zephaniah 2:1-3). They often opposed formal religious practices, not because the practices themselves were wrong, but because the people carried them out in the wrong spirit. Religious exercises were of value only if the people were godly in their attitudes and behaviour. They were no substitute for morality. People had to be humble before God and righteous in their dealings with their fellows if God was to accept their outward expressions of worship (Isaiah 1:12-17; Amos 5:21-24; Micah 6:6-8).

Current events and future hopes

Since the prophet’s main purpose was to bring God’s message to the people of his time, prediction was not an essential part of the message. However, it often played a part, because the God who is concerned about the present is the God who controls the future.

Therefore, as the prophets urged people to turn from their sins and obey God, they often spoke of events that would follow the people’s obedience or disobedience. The prediction was not just to satisfy curiosity about the future, but had an important moral purpose. It taught people how they should act now (Isaiah 1:18-20; Hosea 11:1-11; Hosea 14:1-7).

In relation to this it should be noted that predictions were usually conditional, even when the prophet did not mention the conditions in his prophecy. For example, a prediction of good may not have been fulfilled if the people were disobedient. A prediction of disaster may not have been fulfilled if the people repented (Jeremiah 18:7-10; Jeremiah 26:17-19; Jonah 3:4,Jonah 3:10).

Like all the godly in Israel, the prophets looked forward to that great day when God would punish evil, destroy all enemies, cleanse the earth and establish his righteousness in the world (Isaiah 24:17-23; Isaiah 32:1-4). The one who would rule in this golden age was known as the Messiah, meaning ‘the anointed one’ (cf. Psalms 2:1-7). (In Old Testament times kings, priests, and sometimes prophets were appointed to their positions by the ceremony of anointing. Holy oil was poured over the head of the person as a sign that he now had the right, and the responsibility, to perform the duties required by his position; cf. Exodus 28:41; 1 Samuel 10:1; 1 Kings 1:39; 1 Kings 19:16.)

The preachers of the Old Testament pictured the Messiah as a king, a conqueror and a saviour. They lived in the expectation that a king of the dynasty of David would reign in a worldwide kingdom of peace and righteousness (Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1-5; Isaiah 32:1; Jeremiah 23:5; Zechariah 6:12-13). But they spoke also of a prophetic figure whom they pictured as a servant, a sufferer and a victim (Deuteronomy 18:15,Deuteronomy 18:18; Isaiah 52:13-14; Isaiah 53:4-7; Zechariah 12:10). What they did not see was that both pictures applied to the same person. The Messiah who finally came was both a king and a servant, both a conqueror and a sufferer, both a saviour and a victim (cf. 1 Peter 1:10-12).

Another point that the prophets did not see was that this person would fulfil God’s purposes for humankind not all at once, but through two separate entrances into the world. The New Testament makes it clear that the promised Messiah was Jesus Christ (Matthew 11:2-6; Matthew 22:41-45; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 24:19,Luke 24:25-26; Revelation 5:5). The Messiah’s first coming began with Jesus’ birth and ended with his death, resurrection and ascension. At his second coming he will judge the world and lead his people into the era of the new heavens and the new earth (Hebrews 1:5-9; Hebrews 9:27-28; Revelation 19:11-16; Revelation 21:1-4).

Problems concerning time

This apparent inconsistency in relation to time is typical of all prophetic prediction. Within the one prediction there may be some parts fulfilled within the prophet’s lifetime, other parts fulfilled within a hundred years or so, and other parts still not yet fulfilled (e.g. Joel 2:24-32; Haggai 2:20-23).

The reason for this is that the prophet sees things from God’s point of view, and God does not live in the sort of time system that operates in the world of our experience (Jeremiah 23:22; Ezekiel 8:1-3; Ezekiel 11:24). The prophet sees and knows in a way that is different from that of the ordinary person. It is as if he steps out of the world of time into the world of eternity, where time as we know it does not exist (2 Peter 3:8; Revelation 1:8).

Consequently, the prophet may speak of events in language of the future, the present, or the past tense (e.g. Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 53:1-9; Jeremiah 51:52-57). In the course of history as ordinary people see it, events may be separated from one another by hundreds or even thousands of years, but in the message of the prophet they may not be separated at all. They may be mentioned together as if they happened almost at the same time (e.g. Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 61:1-9; Ezekiel 34:20-24; Malachi 2:17-4).

The language of prophecy

Early prophets such as Deborah, Samuel, Nathan, Elijah and Elisha have left little or no record of their prophecies. But the biblical accounts of their ministries show that they sometimes passed on their messages by means of stories and actions (2 Samuel 12:1-7; 1 Kings 11:29-31). In later times prophets frequently wrote down their messages as well as, or instead of, speaking them (Isaiah 30:8; Jeremiah 29:1,Jeremiah 29:25; Jeremiah 30:2; Jeremiah 36:1-4). Some also acted them (Isaiah 20:1-6; Jeremiah 19:1-3; Ezekiel 5:1-12).

Of the prophecies that have been written down, most are in the form of poetry. The reason for this is probably that poetry is better able to express a person’s deeper thoughts and feelings. It is also easier to memorize than prose, and this would help people in remembering and passing on the message (Isaiah 55:6-9; Joel 1:2-4; Amos 3:1-8).

Hebrew poetry has no rhyme or metre as in English poetry. Its style and rhythm come largely from its arrangement of words and sentences. The most common form is that in which the first line of a verse contains the main thought, and the following line (or lines) then adds weight to this thought either by repeating it in a slightly different form (Isaiah 30:3; Isaiah 32:3), by stating its opposite (Nahum 1:6-7; Habakkuk 2:4), or by adding some further explanation or contrast (Isaiah 55:2-3; Jeremiah 9:4-6; Hosea 8:7).

When reading the poetry of the prophets, we should be concerned not so much with the meaning of each separate phrase or line, as with the meaning of the verse (or verses) as a unit. We should also remember that poets create vivid word pictures and use exaggerated language to express their thoughts. They do not expect us always to interpret their words literally (Isaiah 40:12; Amos 9:13; Micah 4:4).



Isaiah lived during that period of Old Testament history when the Israelite nation was divided into two kingdoms. The division occurred about 930 BC, soon after the reign of Solomon (1 Kings 11:9-13; 1 Kings 12:16-20), and resulted in a northern kingdom of ten tribes and a southern kingdom of two tribes.

The northern kingdom continued to call itself Israel, though in fact it was the breakaway part of the nation. It dissociated itself from both the dynasty of David and the religion that centred on the temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:25-33). The early centres of administration were Shechem and then Tirzah, but within fifty years a new and well fortified capital was established at Samaria, and this was still the capital in the time of Isaiah.

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The southern kingdom called itself Judah, after the tribe that formed its major part. Jerusalem, which had been the capital of the entire nation in the time of David and Solomon, was now the capital only of Judah. The dynasty of David continued to rule in Jerusalem, but now it ruled only over the southern kingdom. The Jerusalem temple remained the centre of Judah’s religious life in spite of the false religion that repeatedly troubled the nation.

A prophet and a statesman

God’s servant Isaiah lived in Jerusalem, where he was an adviser to several kings of Judah. He was a person of importance, and over many years he used his position to try to influence Judah’s policies in both local and international affairs. His work began in the year of King Uzziah’s death (740 BC), and continued through the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah (Isaiah 1:1; Isaiah 6:1,Isaiah 6:8-9). According to traditional Jewish belief, he was executed during the reign of the wicked king Manasseh by being sawn in two (cf. Hebrews 11:37).

Much of the early part of Isaiah’s book is concerned with his attempts to persuade the ungodly Ahaz to trust in God instead of seeking military help from Assyria. The next portion of the book records his attempts to control the zeal of the good king Hezekiah, who was so keen to free Judah from Assyrian power that he too sought foreign military aid, in this case from Egypt.
Isaiah saw that Assyria and Egypt, along with many other nations among Judah’s neighbours, were opposed to Israel’s God, who was the one and only true God. The prophet therefore announced God’s judgments upon each of them in turn. But he saw also that Judah was rebellious against God. The nation was heading for a terrible judgment that would see the people taken into captivity in a foreign land. Through all these events, however, God would preserve the remnant, that minority of the people who remained faithful to him.
The final section of the book, which was probably written much later than the earlier parts, shows God’s purposes in preserving the remnant. From this faithful group would come the beginning of new life for God’s people. When the people acknowledged the justice of God’s punishment and received cleansing from past sins, they would return to their land and enjoy peace and prosperity once more. This future glory of Israel is described at length, with particular emphasis on the qualities of the messianic king who would rule and the worldwide blessing that his kingdom would bring.

Conditions of Isaiah’s time

With the long and prosperous reigns of Uzziah (or Azariah) in Judah and Jeroboam II in Israel, both kingdoms enjoyed expansion and progress (2 Kings 14:23-25,2 Kings 14:28; 2 Kings 15:1-7; 2 Chronicles 26:1-15). However, the prosperity brought with it severe religious, social, moral and political evils. The prophets of this time, Amos and Hosea, tirelessly denounced the moral and religious corruption of the people, and tried to defend the poor against the exploitation of the rich (Amos 2:6-7; Amos 3:10,Amos 3:15; Amos 6:4-6; Amos 8:4-6; Hosea 4:1-6; Hosea 6:6-10; Hosea 7:2-4; Hosea 12:7-9).

The work of these two prophets was soon strengthened by that of Isaiah, and a few years later by that of Micah. Although the four prophets carried out their work in different parts of Israel and Judah, and although each had his own emphasis, they all saw the same evils and announced the same judgment (cf. Isaiah 1:12-23; Isaiah 3:14-17; Isaiah 5:11-13; Isaiah 5:20-23; Micah 2:1-5,Micah 2:8-9; Micah 3:1-3,Micah 3:9-12; Micah 7:3).

Isaiah, being in a better position than the other three to influence the king, tried also to develop a greater concern for God’s standards in the government of the nation. He saw what was happening in Jerusalem, and knew that Judah was heading for inevitable judgment. Yet the troubles of Judah were inseparably linked with those of Israel, and much in Isaiah’s book relates also to the northern kingdom.

Political instability in Israel

When Jeroboam II died (753 BC), the northern kingdom Israel entered a time of political chaos as ambitious men fought to seize power. The new king reigned only six months before being murdered, but his assassin reigned only one month before suffering a similar fate at the hands of Menahem, who then became king (2 Kings 15:8-16).

Israel quickly lost its stability, and Assyria soon began to show interest in adding Israel to its rapidly expanding empire. Menahem survived only through buying the protection of the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III (also known as Pul). The Israelite army commander Pekah was opposed to this pro-Assyrian policy. When Menahem died and was succeeded by his son, Pekah murdered the new king and seized the throne for himself (2 Kings 15:17-26).

Israel and Syria attack Judah

Tiglath-pileser III now planned a complete military takeover of Israel. (God’s prophets had already predicted such a conquest; Hosea 10:5-8; Amos 7:17.) To strengthen the defence against Assyria, the Syrian (Aramean) king Rezin and the Israelite king Pekah entered into a joint defence agreement. They tried to persuade the Judean king Jotham and the succeeding king Ahaz to join them, but the Judean kings refused. Rezin and Pekah then attacked Ahaz, apparently with the aim of conquering Judah, putting their own king on the Judean throne, then forcing Judah to join their anti-Assyrian alliance. This attack took place in 735 BC (2 Kings 15:37; 2 Kings 16:5; Isaiah 7:1-2,Isaiah 7:6).

On learning that the Israelite-Syrian army was nearing Jerusalem, Ahaz panicked. Isaiah remained calm and urged the king to trust in God, assuring him that he had nothing to fear. Israel and Syria would not defeat Judah, but would themselves be conquered by Assyria. Ahaz had only to believe God (2 Kings 16:5; Isaiah 7:2-9; Isaiah 8:4). But Ahaz neither trusted God nor believed Isaiah. Instead he decided to ask Assyria to come and help him. Isaiah warned that this was a foolish move, because it would place Judah under Assyria’s control. Again Ahaz ignored the advice (2 Kings 16:7-8; Isaiah 8:5-8).

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In response to Ahaz’s request, Assyria attacked Syria and Israel. When Assyria conquered a country, its policy was to take the people captive into other parts of the Assyrian Empire and replace them with settlers from elsewhere. This helped to prevent rebellion breaking out in the conquered territory. Therefore, when Tiglath-pileser III conquered Syria, he carried off the people into captivity in Assyria (2 Kings 16:9). This happened in 732 BC and marked the end of the kingdom of Syria, as foretold by the prophets (Isaiah 17:1; Amos 1:4-5).

Tiglath-pileser continued his attack across the border of Syria and into Israel. He seized much of Israel’s eastern and northern territory, and carried off the inhabitants into captivity (2 Kings 15:29). This was the beginning of the end for Israel. The nation was finally conquered by Assyria and its people taken captive into foreign lands in 722 BC (2 Kings 17:1-6).

Judah’s new policies under Hezekiah

The Assyrians were now dominant in Palestine. In the north they had replaced former Israelite inhabitants with settlers from elsewhere (2 Kings 17:24), and in the south they had imposed a heavy tribute on the Judean king Ahaz (2 Kings 16:7-8). But when the young Hezekiah succeeded Ahaz in Judah, he set out on the bold task of freeing Judah from all Assyrian influence, whether military, political or religious.

Hezekiah’s first action was to reform Judah’s corrupt religion. He destroyed all idolatrous shrines, cleansed and rededicated the temple, reinstituted various festivals and ceremonies, and organized the priests and Levites according to the arrangements originally set out by David (2 Kings 18:1-6; 2 Chronicles 29:1-21).

It is doubtful, however, that Hezekiah’s reforms brought any lasting change in the lives of the people in general. Hezekiah is commended for the good work he did (2 Kings 18:5), but the prophets of the time, Isaiah and Micah, do not mention his reforms. They saw that, in spite of the renewed religious activity, people had not changed inwardly. They gave little evidence of genuine faith and repentance (Isaiah 1:11-20; Micah 6:6-8).

In relation to Assyria’s military and political dominance of Judah, Hezekiah was equally zealous for reform. But before he declared his new policy on foreign affairs, he fortified Jerusalem’s defences, strengthened the city wall and improved the city’s water supply as a precaution against possible siege (2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chronicles 32:5-6). Then, assured of military backing from Egypt, he revolted against Assyria by refusing to pay further tribute (2 Kings 18:7-8).

Isaiah opposed this dependence upon Egypt, just as during the reign of Ahaz he had opposed dependence upon Assyria. Judah’s need was not for military help from Egypt but for quiet faith in God (Isaiah 30:1-3,Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 31:1,Isaiah 31:3). In response to Hezekiah’s rebellion, Assyria attacked Jerusalem (701 BC; Isaiah 36:1-6). The book of Isaiah gives a lengthy account of events surrounding the attack and Jerusalem’s miraculous deliverance.

Captivity and return

After the account of Jerusalem’s deliverance from the Assyrian siege, there is a gap in the record of approximately 150 years. This gap occurs between Chapters 39 and 40, and forms a natural division in the book. In fact, Chapters 40-66 are so different in content and style from Chapters 1-39, that some biblical scholars suggest they were not written by Isaiah, but come from some person or persons of a later generation.
In brief, what happened during this intervening period was that Assyria was conquered by Babylon (612 BC), who then conquered Judah, carried the people captive to Babylon and destroyed Jerusalem (605-587 BC). The messages recorded in the latter section of Isaiah were intended originally for the Judean captives in Babylon.

During this time of the Judeans’ captivity, events foreseen by the prophet began to happen. In neighbouring Persia a man named Cyrus had risen to power, and one by one conquered most of the surrounding nations. Then, in 539 BC, he conquered Babylon, and immediately gave permission to the captive Jews to return to their land (Ezra 1:1-4). Many returned and immediately began to rebuild the temple, but because of delays through opposition it was not finished till 516 BC (Ezra 6:14-15).


The name Yahweh

In the Hebrew Bible a number of words are used for God, the most common of which are translated in English Bibles as ‘God’ (Hebrew: el or elohim) and ‘the LORD’. The latter of these two words, which is always printed in capitals, has a distinctive significance in the Old Testament. Where God is called ‘Lord’ (and the whole word is not in capitals), the Hebrew word is usually adon or adonai, a word that indicates God’s sovereignty as lord and master. But where he is called ‘LORD’ (in capitals) the Hebrew word is yahweh, the name of the Hebrews’ God.

There is some mystery concerning the origin and usage of this name. Israel’s ancestors knew God as Yahweh (Genesis 12:1; Genesis 26:2; Genesis 28:21; Genesis 49:18), but the people as a whole seem to have first understood the significance of the name only at the time of their escape from Egypt under Moses. God revealed himself to Moses as ‘I am who I am’ (Exodus 3:14; sometimes translated ‘I will be who I will be’), and Moses was to pass this revelation on to the people. In revealing himself in this way, God was providing an explanation of what the name Yahweh should have meant to his people. In the Hebrew language the word translated ‘I am’ is related to the name of God, Yahweh.

Originally the Hebrew language was written using consonants only. The absence of vowels was no problem, because readers knew how to put in the vowels as they read. The name of Israel’s God was written as YHWH (without vowels) but pronounced apparently as Yahweh. There can be no absolute certainty about this pronunciation, because there are no Hebrew records old enough to record it.
By the time the Hebrews had developed the practice of adding vowels to the written language, they no longer spoke the name YHWH. This, they claimed, showed their reverence for the holy name of God, but for many it was more a superstition. Whatever the reason for it, the practice developed that when the Hebrews read the Scriptures, instead of speaking the word YHWH, they used the word adonai (meaning ‘lord’ or ‘master’).
When, about 300 BC, a version of the Hebrew Bible added vowels to the consonants, it put the vowels of adonai to the consonants YHWH. This produced a new word, Jehovah, though the Hebrews still preferred to substitute adonai for YHWH when speaking. English translations of the Bible have usually avoided the pronunciation problem by using ‘the LORD’ (in capitals) instead of YHWH.

Names of nations

A common practice among the Old Testament prophets was to refer to countries by some representative feature, such as a king (Isaiah 14:4; Ezekiel 28:2), a god (Isaiah 46:1; Jeremiah 48:46), a river (Isaiah 8:7; Jeremiah 2:18), a mountain (Isaiah 1:27; Ezekiel 35:2), a tribe (Isaiah 7:2; Jeremiah 49:8), or a city (Isaiah 9:8-9; Jeremiah 49:3). The reader of the prophets will therefore find that the northern kingdom Israel is often called either by the name of its leading tribe, Ephraim, or by the name of its capital, Samaria. In the same way the southern kingdom Judah is sometimes called by the name of its capital, Jerusalem. Among foreign nations, those most commonly referred to by their capital cities are Assyria (called Nineveh) and Syria (called Damascus).

Names of Israelites

During the years of the captivity in Babylon and the subsequent reconstruction of Israel, it became increasingly common to refer to Israelites as Jews. The background to this change of usage goes back to the time of the divided kingdom.
When the people of the former northern kingdom (Israel) were taken captive to various countries by Assyria, they became absorbed into the nations where they lived and largely lost their national identity. But when the people of the former southern kingdom (Judah) were taken into captivity in Babylon, they retained their national identity. The people of Judah were called Judeans, which was later shortened to ‘Jew’.

After Persia’s conquest of Babylon, captives from Babylon returned to the ancient Israelite homeland. This meant that most of those involved in the rebuilding of Israel were Judeans, or Jews. But they were also Israelites, according to the meaning of the name that went back to the nation’s origins. There was no longer any division in Israel between north and south, and the names ‘Israelite’ and ‘Jew’, along with the ancient name ‘Hebrew’, were used interchangeably (Jeremiah 34:9; John 1:19,John 1:47; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Galatians 2:14).



Judah an unclean people


Judah in the reign of Ahaz


Messages for various nations


Final judgment and salvation


Hezekiah and the Assyrians


More about judgment and salvation


Historical appendix


Return from Babylon


The salvation of God’s people


Present shame and future glory

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