the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes Bullinger's Companion Notes
by E.W. Bullinger
Joe JOEL. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK AS A WHOLE. ( Alternation .) Joel 1:1 . THE TITLE. Joel 1:2-3 . CALL TO HEAR. Joel 1:4-13 . JUDGMENTS. INFLICTED. Joel 1:14-20 ; Joel 2:1-17 . CALL TO REPENT. Joel 2:18 - Joel 3:21 . JUDGMENTS. REMOVED. For the Canonical order and place of the Prophets, see Appdx-1, and p. 1206 For the Chronological order of the Prophets, see Appdx-77. For the Formula of Prophetic utterance, see Appdx-82. For the Inter-relation of the Prophetic Books, see Appdx-78. For the Inter-relation of the Minor (or Shorter) Prophets, see p. 1206. For the References to the Pentateuch by the Prophets, see Appdx-92. Joel''s prophecy is updated. No references are made to time, because it looks onward to the time of the end, and the events that will usher in "the Day of the Lord". As Hosea was sent to guilty Israel, so Joel was sent to guilty Judah. Hosea''s "burden" relates to the end of the Northern Kingdom; Joel''s prophecy relates to the end of the Kingdom of Judah, and probably covers the last seven years of Jedekiah. In that case he would commence in the fifth year of Jehoiachin''s captivity, the very year that Ezekiel begins, and 100 years after Isaiah ends. If "Joel completed his prophecy before Amos collected his" (as alleged), then, in the period of Uzziah-Jeroboam II, which ended in 687 B.C., there is no historical background for Joel''s burning words concerning Judah and the great "Day of the Lord". Similar passages in Joel 3:16 and Amos 1:2 no more prove that Amos quoted from Joel than they prove that Joel quoted from Amos. The same may be said of Joel 1:15 and Isaiah 13:6 . In Joel''s summons to fasting and prayer, many as are the classes invited, no mention is made of the royal house; and, throughout his prophecy, no king of Judah is mentioned later than Jehoshaphat, and then only in connection with his "valley". But if the period covered by Joel be taken as from 488 to 477 B.C., then we have, as contemporaries: Jeremiah in Jerusalem; Joel in Judah; All prophesying together during the last seven years of the kingdom of Judah. Daniel in Babylon; Ezekiel in Babylonia and in the Land.