Smith's Bible Commentary Smith's Commentary
Book Overview - Exodus
by Arend Remmers
Author and Time of Writing
What has been said to the book of Genesis also applies to Exodus. In Genesis Moses depended on the revelations of God and possibly on the accounts of his ancestors while he was mostly able to write down the happenings of Exodus to Deuteronomy by his own view and experience under the guidance of the Holy Spirit (compare Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 31:22; Deuteronomy 31:24).
In the New Testament Moses is mentioned several times as author of Exodus (for example Luke 20:37; Mark 7:10).
Between the happenings at the end of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus there are nearly 300 years.
Purpose of Writing
In the book of Exodus we find no longer exclusively the dealings of God with individuals mentioned. We are coming to know a redeemed people of God. The origin and redemption of God's earthly people Israel is described. Israel is delivered from the slavery in Egypt and is led on to the way into the promised land of Canaan. Therefore Exodus is the book of redemption. Its landmarks are the Passover and the passage through the Red Sea (see explanation in 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Corinthians 10:1-2).
After the exodus out of Egypt the people of Israel received the law of Jehovah and erected the tabernacle of congregation according to His command. Through that the new relationship between the people and Jehovah were fixed:
God was now dwelling amidst His people
Israel was able to approach God and to worship Him (by means of the offerings)
the Glory of the Lord was typically revealed.
The epistles to the Romans and Galatians can be compared with the Book of Exodus, there subjects being redemption and the relation of the Christian to the law.
The book of Exodus is especially rich in typical teachings. The following is of importance: Egypt is a picture of this present world (Galatians 1:4), the Red Sea is a picture of the death and resurrection of Christ and of the death of the old man with Christ (Romans 6:6). The stay in the desert describes the earthly circumstances in which the believer has to stand the test (John 17:14-15).
b) Date of Exodus out of Egypt
Most of today's scholars date the exodus of Israel in the 13th century BC, that is in the time of the 19th Dynasty (Ramses I. to Merenphthah, under whose reign the name of Israel is first mentioned in Egypt). This late date leaves much too little time for the period of conquest of the land and for the time of the judges. The different indications of time in the Bible also would be untrustworthy (see Jude 1:12; 1 Kings 6:1; Acts 13:20). But if we take the Biblical indications the time of the exodus can be dated to the year 1446 BC approximately.
Overview of Contents
I. Exodus 1-13 : Israel in Egypt
|Chapter||2||Moses' Birth, Upbringing and Flight to Midian|
|Chapter||3||God reveals Himself to Moses as Jehovah (Jahwe) at (Mount) Horeb|
|Chapter||4||God's Commission to Moses|
|Chapter||5||Moses speaks to Pharaoh|
|Chapter||6||God encourages Moses; Pharaoh hardens his heart|
|Chapter||7||1st Plague: Water turned into blood|
|Chapter||8||2nd Plague: Frogs; 3rd Plague: Lice (Gnats), 4th Plague: (Dog-) Flies|
|Chapter||9||5th Plague. Very grievous Murrain ; 6th Plague: Boils; God hardens Pharao's heart; 7th Plague: Hail|
|Chapter||10||8th Plague: Locusts; 9th Plague: Darkness|
|Chapter||11||Announcement of the 10th Plague and of Israel's Exodus|
|Chapter||12||Institution of the Passover and Killing of all Firstborn in Egypt|
|Chapter||13||Sanctification of the Firstborn of Israel and Beginning of the Exodus|
II. Exodus 14-18 : Israel's Journey to Mount Sinaï
|Chapter||14||Jehovah saves Israel at the Red Sea|
|Chapter||15||The Song of Redemption|
|Chapter||16||The Manna (John 6:31-59)|
|Chapter||17||The Water out of the Rock (1 Corinthians 10:4); Battle against Amalek|
|Chapter||18||Jethro's Advice for Moses|
III. Exodus 19-24 : Covenant and Giving of the Law at Sinaï
|Chapter||19||The Covenant of Jehovah with Israel|
|Chapter||20||The Ten Commandments|
|Chapter||21||The Law - Personal Rights|
|Chapter||22||The Law - Rights of Property|
|Chapter||23||The Law - Rights in Social and Religious Life|
|Chapter||24||The Covenant is concluded|
IV. Exodus 25-31 : Commandments for the Sanctuary and the Priesthood
|Chapter||25||The Heave-Offering; the Ark of Covenant, the Table and Candle-stick|
|Chapter||27||The Altar of Burnt Offering and the Court of Tabernacle|
|Chapter||28||Holy Garments for the Priests|
|Chapter||29||Hallowing of the Priests and the Continual Burnt Offering|
|Chapter||30||The Golden Altar of Incense; the Brazen Laver; the Oil of Holy Ointment and the Incense|
|Chapter||31||Bezaleel and Aholiab|
V. Exodus 32-34 : Israel's Departure and the Grace of God
|Chapter||32||The Golden Calf and the Broken Tables of Testimony|
|Chapter||33||Moses as Mediator|
|Chapter||34||The Second Law|
VI. Exodus 35-40 : The Building of the Sanctuary
|Chapter||36||The Building of the Tabernacle|
|Chapter||37||The Ark of Covenant; the Table; the Candle-stick and the Altar of Incense|
|Chapter||38||The Altar of Burnt Offering and the Court|
|Chapter||39||The Holy Garments for the Priests|
|Chapter||40||The Setting-Up of the Tabernacle|