Attention!
For 10¢ a day you can enjoy StudyLight.org ads
free while helping to build churches and support pastors in Uganda.
Click here to learn more!

Bible Commentaries

Dr. Constable's Expository Notes

1 Samuel

- 1 Samuel

by Thomas Constable

Introduction

TITLE

First and Second Samuel were originally one book called the Book of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. The Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament (made ca. 250 B.C.) was the first to divide it into two books. The Septuagint translators titled these books 1 and 2 Kingdoms. That division has persisted ever since and has even been incorporated into subsequent editions of the Hebrew Bible (since A.D. 1517). The title "Samuel" was given by Jerome in his Latin translation, the Vulgate (ca. A.D. 400). The Jews gave the name "Samuel" to it because Samuel is the first major character in the book. Samuel anointed both Saul and David, so in this respect he was superior to both of them.

DATE AND WRITER

The writer did not identify himself as the writer in the book. Statements in the Book of Samuel imply that someone who had witnessed at least some of the events recorded wrote it. However someone, or more than one person, must have written most of it after Samuel’s death (i.e., 1 Samuel 25 -2 Samuel 24) and some of it even after the division of the kingdom following Solomon’s death (e.g., 1Sa_27:6). These features have made it difficult to date the book.

"Our guess is that the author was a high state official in frequent attendance at the court, enjoying the full confidence of David and his household, who served David throughout his reign in Jerusalem and also Solomon during the early years of his reign, and whose duties may have been connected with literary work." [Note: M. H. Segal, "The Composition of the Books of Samuel," Jewish Quarterly Review 55 (1964-65):334.]

Most conservative scholars prefer the view that Samuel may have written or been responsible for noting the record of earlier events in the book (chs. 1-24). Then some unidentifiable writer or writers put it in its final form later, perhaps soon after Solomon’s death. Critical scholars tend to believe it was the result of much more piecing together, and some of them date its final form as late as 500 B.C. [Note: For a refutation of this view, see Gleason L. Archer Jr., A Survey of Old Testament Introduction, pp. 284-85.] The Babylonian Talmud (ca. A.D. 500) attributed authorship of 1 Samuel 1-24 to the prophet Samuel, and the rest to Nathan and Gad. [Note: Baba Bathra 14b, 15a.] It is unlikely that Samuel wrote both books. [Note: See David M. Howard Jr., An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books, pp. 142-43.] One conservative estimate of the final date of composition is about 960 B.C. [Note: Eugene H. Merrill, "1 Samuel," in The Old Testament Explorer, p. 204.] Another guess is near 920 or 900 B.C. [Note: Roland K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament, p. 709.]

SCOPE

The Book of Samuel covers the period of Israel’s history bracketed by Samuel’s conception and the end of David’s reign. David turned the kingdom over to Solomon in 971 B.C. [Note: See Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, pp. 51-52.] David reigned for 40 and one-half years (2Sa_2:11; 2Sa_5:5). This means he came to power in 1011 B.C. Saul also reigned for 40 years (Act_13:21) so he became king in 1051 B.C. We can estimate the date of Samuel’s birth fairly certainly, on the basis of chronological references in the text, to have been about 1121 B.C. [Note: See Eugene H. Merrill, Kingdom of Priests, pp. 149-50.] Thus the Book of Samuel covers about 1121-971 B.C., or about 150 years of history.

The first part of 1 Samuel overlaps historically with the end of the Judges Period that we find in the Book of Judges. Apparently Samson was born just a few years before Samuel. Samson’s 20-year judgeship evidently began shortly before the battle of Aphek (1104 B.C.) at which time Eli died (1Sa_4:18). [Note: Leon J. Wood, Israel’s United Monarchy, p. 23, wrote that the battle of Aphek happened about 1075 B.C. Though Wood is helpful in many respects, I do not think his dates are as accurate as those of Merrill and Thiele.] It ended not many years before the battle of Mizpah (1084 B.C.) when the Philistine domination of Israel ceased temporarily (1Sa_7:13). Samuel’s ministry, therefore, probably ran concurrent with that of Samson until Samson died. Saul began to reign about 35 years after Samson died (i.e., 1051 B.C.). Samuel evidently lived about 30 years after that. [Note: Merrill, Kingdom of . . ., pp. 149-50.]

Old Testament History
EventsBiblical References
Creation to Israel’s move to EgyptGenesis 1-50
The ExodusExodus 1-18
Israel at Mt. SinaiExodus 19 -Numbers 10
The Wilderness WanderingsNumbers 11-21
Israel on the Plains of MoabNumbers 22 -Joshua 2
The Conquest and Division of CanaanJoshua 3-24
The Amphictyony (rule by judges)Judges 1 -1 Samuel 7
The Reign of Saul1 Samuel 8-31; 1 Chronicles 10
The Reign of David2 Samuel 1-24; 1 Chronicles 11-29
The Reign of Solomon1 Kings 1-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9
Old Testament History (cont.)
EventsBiblical References
The Divided Monarchy1 Kings 12 -2 Kings 17; 2 Chronicles 10-31
The Surviving Kingdom of Judah2 Kings 18-25; 2 Chronicles 32-36
The Return under ZerubbabelEzra 1-6
The Return under EzraEzra 7-10
The Return under NehemiahNehemiah 1-13

PURPOSE

A main purpose of the Book of Samuel seems to have been to record the establishment of kingship in Israel and to explain its theological significance. It deals with the Israelites’ initial request for a king, the establishment of that king (Saul), and the tragic results of that king’s reign. It then explains the consolidation of power under a second king (David), God’s promises to him, and his decline in his later years. The climax of the book comes in 2 Samuel 7, where God promises David an everlasting dynasty. The writer (or writers) clearly wanted to legitimatize the Davidic monarchy and dynasty. Whether and how the monarchy should be established are main subjects of 1 Samuel, and the question of who should be Israel’s king dominates much of 2 Samuel. [Note: Howard, pp. 141, 146-47.]

As with all the historical narratives of the Old Testament, the Holy Spirit’s purpose in giving us the books of 1 and 2 Samuel was not just to record events that transpired. It was primarily to teach spiritual lessons to the original readers, and to readers of all time, by revealing the causes and effects of various human responses to God’s grace. [Note: See Steven D. Mathewson, "Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming Old Testament Narratives," Bibliotheca Sacra 154:616 (October-December 1997):410-35, for help in preaching narrative portions of the Old Testament.] God guided the inspired writers of Scripture to teach theology as well as to record history. This is clear in all the so-called historical books of both Testaments. We can see this as we examine the reasons God selected the particular events and facts that He recorded for inclusion out of the mass of possible data that He could have set forth.

Scholars have disputed what it was that the writer chose to emphasize primarily in the Books of Samuel. Some have felt his unifying purpose was to demonstrate the sovereignty of God. [Note: E.g., Ludwig Kohler, Old Testament Theology, p. 94.] Some believe it was to show that God provides leadership for His people. [Note: Stanley D. Tucker, "The Theology of the Book of Samuel: A Study Of God’s Humiliation or Exaltation of Leaders," Biblical Viewpoint 12:2 (1978):152; and David F. Payne, I & II Samuel, p. 5.] Others have seen the purpose as something else. I believe those who see the record of what happens to individuals and nations, when they trust and obey God’s Word or fail to do so, have identified the primary purpose. [Note: E.g., Walther Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament, 1:26.]

For the Israelites, their commitment to obey the Mosaic Covenant out of trust in God, and gratitude for His calling them to receive His grace, would result in God blessing them (Deu_28:1-14). However if they despised His grace and departed from His will, as expressed for them in the Mosaic Covenant, He would curse them (Deu_28:15-68). Moses had explained God’s "blessing" in Deuteronomy. It included fertility for the Israelites personally as well as for their herds and crops, and it included the ability to defeat their neighbor enemies and to enjoy peace and prosperity. It also included other material and social advantages, as well as the enjoyment of an intimate spiritual relationship with God. God’s "curse," on the other hand, would be barrenness, defeat, oppression, and many other undesirable conditions.

In Samuel we have a record of how commitment to the will of God results in blessing for individuals, groups of individuals, and whole nations. This commitment should rest on an appreciation for God’s initiative in reaching out to undeserving sinners in grace. We also see how disregard for God’s Word, because of a failure to appreciate God’s grace, inevitably leads to blasting, a curse from God. These lessons are not new; the Books of Samuel are not emphasizing these things for the first time in Scripture. The Book of Joshua is a positive lesson that people who trust and obey God succeed. They even accomplish supernatural feats and prosper. The Book of Judges gives the other side of that coin. People who disregard God fail, become unproductive, suffer defeat, and sometimes die prematurely. The Books of Samuel continue the emphasis begun in Genesis and Exodus that Deuteronomy clarified, namely, that our response to God’s grace determines our destiny.

GENRE

The books of Samuel are mainly narrative (stories) with some poetic sections interspersed. The main genre is theological history.

"No book of the Bible has been the object of such intense interest to literary analysts as has Samuel." [Note: Tremper Longman III and Raymond B. Dillard, An Introduction to the Old Testament, p. 158.]

THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS

Longman and Dillard have identified several major themes in 1 and 2 Samuel, including the reversal of fortune, David as king, David as a man, and the Lord’s anointed. Some of the characteristic compositional techniques include: the repetition of key words, irony, and repetition. [Note: Ibid., pp. 159-61, 165.] Three important theological concerns of Deuteronomy play prominent roles in these books: the anticipation of a king for Israel, the anticipation of rest for Israel, and the anticipation of blessing for obedience and punishment for disobedience. [Note: Ibid., pp. 163-64.]

OUTLINE

I.    Eli and Samuel 1Sa_1:1 to 1Sa_4:1 a

A.    The change from barrenness to fertility 1Sa_1:1 to 1Sa_2:10

1.    Hannah’s deliverance ch. 1

2.    Hannah’s Son_2:1-10

B.    The contrast between Samuel and Eli’s sons 1Sa_2:11-36

1.    Eli’s sons’ wickedness 1Sa_2:11-17

2.    Hannah’s godly influence on Samuel and its effect 1Sa_2:18-21

3.    Eli’s lack of influence on his sons and its effect 1Sa_2:22-26

4.    The oracle against Eli’s house 1Sa_2:27-36

C.    God’s first revelation to Samuel 1Sa_3:1 to 1Sa_4:1 a

1.    Samuel’s call 1Sa_3:1-18

2.    Samuel’s ministry 1Sa_3:19 to 1Sa_4:1 a

II.    The history of the ark of the covenant 1Sa_4:1 to 1Sa_7:1

A.    The capture of the ark 1Sa_4:1-22

1.    The battle of Aphek 1Sa_4:1-11

2.    The response of Eli 1Sa_4:12-18

3.    The response of Phinehas’ wife 1Sa_4:19-22

B.    Pagan fertility foiled by God ch. 5

C.    The ark returned to Israel by God 1Sa_6:1 to 1Sa_7:1

1.    The plan to terminate God’s judgment 1Sa_6:1-9

2.    The return of the ark to Bethshemesh 1Sa_6:10-18

3.    The removal of the ark to Kiriath-jearim 1Sa_6:19 to 1Sa_7:1

III.    Samuel and Saul 1Sa_7:2 to 1Sa_15:35

A.    Samuel’s ministry as Israel’s Jdg_7:2-17

1.    Samuel’s spiritual leadership 1Sa_7:2-4

2.    National repentance and deliverance 1Sa_7:5-14

3.    Samuel’s regular ministry 1Sa_7:15-17

B.    Kingship given to Saul chs. 8-12

1.    The demand for a king ch. 8

2.    The anointing of Saul 1Sa_9:1 to 1Sa_10:16

3.    The choice of Saul by lot 1Sa_10:17-27

4.    Saul’s effective leadership in battle 1Sa_11:1-11

5.    The confirmation of Saul as king 1Sa_11:12 to 1Sa_12:25

C.    Kingship removed from Saul chs. 13-15

1.    Saul’s disobedience at Gilgal 1Sa_13:1-15

2.    Saul’s struggle against the Philistines 1Sa_13:16 to 1Sa_14:23

3.    Saul’s cursing of Jonathan 1Sa_14:24-46

4.    Saul’s limited effectiveness in battle 1Sa_14:47-52

5.    Yahweh’s final rejection of Saul ch. 15

IV.    Saul and David chs. 16-31

A.    David’s rise as the new anointed 1Sa_16:1 to 1Sa_19:17

1.    God’s selection of David for kingship ch. 16

2.    The reason for God’s selection of David ch. 17

3.    The results of God’s selection of David 1Sa_18:1 to 1Sa_19:17

B.    David driven out by Saul 1Sa_19:18 to 1Sa_20:42

1.    God’s deliverance in Ramah 1Sa_19:18-24

2.    Jonathan’s advocacy for David ch. 20

C.    David in exile chs. 21-31

1.    David’s initial movements chs. 21-22

2.    Saul’s pursuit of David ch. 23

3.    David’s goodness to two fools chs. 24-26

4.    The end of Saul’s reign chs. 27-31

(Continued in notes on 2 Samuel)

Bibliography

Ackroyd, Peter R. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English Bible series. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1971.

_____. "The Verb Love-’Aheb in the David-Jonathan Narratives-A Footnote." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_25:2 (April 1975):213-14.

Aharoni, Yohanan, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised ed., New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977.

Ahlstrom, G. W. "1 Samuel 1, 15." Biblica 60:2 (1979):254.

_____. "The Travels of the Ark: A Religio-Political Composition." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 43 (1984):141-49.

Albright, William F. The Archaeology of Palestine. 1949. Revised ed. Pelican Archaeology series. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1956.

_____. "What Were the Cherubim?" Biblical Archaeologist 1Sa_1:1 (1938):1-3.

"Annotated Bibliography on I Samuel." Biblical Viewpoint 1Sa_14:2 (November 1980):144-49.

Ap-Thomas, D. R. "Saul’s ’Uncle.’" Vetus Testamentum 11 (1961):241-45.

Archer, Gleason L, Jr. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Regency Reference Library series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.

_____. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised ed. Chicago: Moody Press, 1974.

Baldwin, Joyce G. 1 & 2 Samuel. Tyndale Old Testament commentaries series. Leicester, Eng., and Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1988.

Baltzer, Klaus. The Covenant Formulary. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

Barker, Kenneth L. "The Antiquity and Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives." In A Tribute to Gleason Archer, pp.131-39. Edited by Walter C. Kaiser Jr. and Ronald F. Youngblood. Chicago: Moody Press, 1986.

Baxter, J. Sidlow. Explore the Book. 6 vols. London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott, 1965.

Beck, John A. "The Narrative-Geographical Shaping of 1Sa_7:5-13." Bibliotheca Sacra 162:647 (July-September 2005):299-309.

Bentzen, Aage. "The Cultic Use of the Story of the Ark in Samuel." Journal of Biblical Literature 67 (1948):37-53.

Berghuis, Kent D. "A Biblical Perspective on Fasting." Bibliotheca Sacra 158:629 (January-March 2001):86-103.

Berlin, Adele. "Characterization in Biblical Narrative: David’s Wives." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 23 (July 1982):69-85.

Beuken, W. A. M. "1 Samuel 28 : The Prophet as ’Hammer of Witches.’" Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 6 (1978):3-17.

Billington, Clyde E. "Goliath and the Exodus Giants: How Tall Were They?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 50:3 (September 2007):489-508.

Birch, Bruce C. "The Choosing of Saul at Mizpah." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 37:4 (1975):447-54.

Blaikie, William G. The First Book of Samuel. 1887; reprint ed. Minneapolis: Klock and Klock, 1978.

Blenkinsopp, Joseph. "Kiriath-jearim and the Ark." Journal of Biblical Literature 88 (1969):143-56.

Block, Daniel Isaac. The Gods of the Nations: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern National Theology. Jackson: Evangelical Theological Society, 1988.

Boogaart, T. A. "History and Drama in the Story of David and Goliath." Reformed Review 38:3 (1985):204-14.

Brauner, Ronald A. "’To Grasp the Hem’ and 1Sa_15:27." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 6 (1974):135-38.

Bright, John A. A History of Israel. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1959.

Bruce, F. F. The Hard Sayings of Jesus. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1983.

Brueggemann, Walter. "1 Samuel 1 : A Sense of a Beginning," Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 102:1 (1990):33-48.

_____. First and Second Samuel. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching series. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1990.

Bury, J. B.; S. A. Cook; and F. E. Adcock, eds. The Cambridge Ancient History. 12 vols. 2nd ed. reprinted. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1928.

Campbell, Antony F. The Ark Narrative [1 Samuel 4-6; 2 Samuel 6]: A Form-Critical and Traditio-Historical Study. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1975.

_____. "Yahweh and the Ark: A Case Study in Narrative." Journal of Biblical Literature 98:1 (1979):31-43.

Carter, Leslie. Warring Faith. London: Victory Press, 1961.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1, 2 Samuel. The Communicator’s Commentary series. Dallas: Word Books, 1989.

Chaney, Marvin L. "Systemic Study of the Israelite Monarchy." Semeia 37 (1986):53-76.

Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. "Does God ’Change His Mind’?" Bibliotheca Sacra 152:608 (October-December 1995):387-99.

_____. "Does God Deceive?" Bibliotheca Sacra 155:617 (January-March 1998):11-28.

_____. "The Polemic against Baalism in Israel’s Early History and Literature." Bibliotheca Sacra 151:603 (July-September 1994):267-83.

_____. "Yahweh versus the Canaanite Gods: Polemic in Judges and 1 Samuel 1-7." Bibliotheca Sacra 164:654 (April-June 2007):165-80.

Claassen, W. T. "1Sa_3:19 - A Case of Context and Semantics." Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 8 (1980):1-9.

Clark, R. E. D. "The Large Numbers of the Old Testament." Journal of Transactions of the Victoria Institute 87 (1955):82-92.

Constable, Thomas L. "What Prayer Will and Will Not Change." In Essays in Honor of J. Dwight Pentecost, pp. 99-113. Edited by Stanley D. Toussaint and Charles H. Dyer. Chicago: Moody Press, 1986.

Craigie, Peter C. The Problem of War in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1978.

Crockett, William Day. A Harmony of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1973.

Darby, John Nelson. Synopsis of the Books of the Bible. 5 vols. Revised ed. New York: Loizeaux Brothers Publishers, 1942.

"David Won Against Goliath Because of Giant’s Eyesight?" Albuquerque, N.Mex., newspaper, May 1974.

Davies, P. R. "The History of the Ark in the Books of Samuel." Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 5 (1977):9-18.

Davis, John J. Biblical Numerology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1968.

Davis, John J., and John C. Whitcomb. A History of Israel. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1980.

Deem, Ariella. "’And the Stone Sank Into His Forehead’: A Note on 1 Samuel xvii 49." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_28:3 (1978):349-51.

Demsky, Aaron. "Geba, Gibeah, and Gibeon-An Historico-Geographic Riddle." Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 212 (December 1973):26-31.

de Vaux, Roland. Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Translated by John McHugh. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.

_____. The Bible and the Ancient Near East. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1967.

Dothan, Trude. "Ekron of the Philistines. Part I: Where They Came From, How They Settled Down, and the Place They Worshiped In." Biblical Archaelolgy Review 1Sa_16:1 (1990):26-36.

_____. The Philistines and Their Material Culture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982.

Driver, S. R. Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Books of Samuel. 1913; 2nd ed. revised, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Dumbrell, William J. Covenant and Creation. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1984.

Duplaix, Nicole. "Fleas: The Lethal Leapers." National Geographic 173:5 (May 1988):672-94.

Dyer, Charles H., and Eugene H. Merrill. The Old Testament Explorer. Nashville: Word Publishing, 2001. Reissued as Nelson’s Old Testament Survey. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001.

Eastwood, John H. "Hannah, the Woman Who Prayed." Presbyterian Journal, 9 February 1983, pp. 11, 18.

Edelmann, Diane. "Saul’s Battle Against Amaleq (1 Samuel 15)." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 35 (June 1986):71-84.

_____. "Saul’s Rescue of Jabesh-Gilead (1Sa_11:1-11): Sorting Story from History." Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 96:2 (1984):195-209.

Edwards, Gene. A Tale of Three Kings: A Study in Brokenness. Auburn, Maine: Christian Books, 1980.

Eichrodt, Walther. Theology of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Translated by J. A. Baker. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1961.

Eslinger, Lyle. Kingship of God in Crisis: A Close Reading of 1 Samuel 1-12. Bible and Literature monograph 10. Sheffield, Eng.: Almond, 1985.

_____. "Viewpoints and Point of View in 1 Samuel 8-12." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 26 (June 1983):61-76.

Eves, Terry L. "One Ammonite Invasion or Two? 1Sa_10:27 to 1Sa_11:2 in the Light of 4QSama." Westminster Theological Journal 44:2 (Fall 1982):308-26.

Fensham, F. Charles. "Did a Treaty Between the Israelites and the Kenites Exist?" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 175 (October 1964):51-54.

Finkelstein, Emunah. "An Ignored Haplography in Samuel." Journal of Semitic Studies 1Sa_4:4 (October 1959):356-57.

Fretheim,Terence E. "Divine Foreknowledge, Divine Constancy, and the Rejection of Saul’s Kingship." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 47:4 (October 1985):595-602.

Gaebelein, Arno C. The Annotated Bible. 4 vols. Reprint ed. Chicago: Moody Press, and New York: Loizeaux Brothers, Inc., 1970.

Gehrke, R. O. I and II Samuel. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968.

Geyer, John B. "Mice and Rites in 1 Samuel V-VI." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_31:3 (July 1981):293-304.

Gnuse, Robert Karl. The Dream Theophany of Samuel: Its Structure in Relation to Ancient Near Eastern Dreams and Its Theological Significance. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1984.

Goldman, S. Samuel. London: Soncino Press, 1951.

Gordon, Robert P. I & II Samuel: A Commentary. Library of Biblical Interpretation series. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, Regency Reference Library, 1986.

_____. "David’s Rise and Saul’s Demise: Narrative Analogy in 1 Samuel 24-26." Tyndale Bulletin 31 (1980):37-64.

_____. "Saul’s Meningitis According to Targum 1 Samuel XIX 24" Vetus Testamentum 37:1 (January 1987):39-49.

Gottwald, Norman K. The Tribes of Yahweh, A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B. C. E. London: S C M Press, 1980.

Graesser, Carl F. "Standing Stones in Ancient Palestine." Biblical Archaeologist 35:2 (1972):34-63.

Greenhow, Peter N. "Did Samuel Sin?" Grace Journal 1Sa_11:2 (1970):34-40.

Greenstein, Edward L. "’To Grasp the Hem’ in Ugaritic Literature." Vetus Testamentum 32:2 (April 1982):217-18.

Gunn, David M. The Fate of King Saul: An Interpretation of a Biblical Story. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement 14. Sheffield, Eng.: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 1980.

_____. "Narrative Patterns and Oral Tradition in Judges and Samuel." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_24:3 (July 1974):286-317.

_____. "Traditional composition in the ’Succession Narrative.’" Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_26:2 (1976):214-29.

Haley, John W. An Examination of the Alleged Discrepancies of the Bible. Reprint ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1958.

Harris, Scott L. "1 Samuel VIII 7-8." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_31:1 (January 1981):79-80.

Harrison, Roland K. Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1969.

Harton, George M., "Fulfillment of Deuteronomy 28-30 in History and in Eschatology." Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1981.

Hays, J. Daniel. "The Height of Goliath: A Response to Clyde Billington." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 50:3 (September 2007):509-16.

_____. "Reconsidering the Height of Goliath." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 48:4 (December 2005):701-14.

Heater, Homer, Jr. "A Theology of Samuel and Kings." In A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 115-55. Edited by Roy B. Zuck. Chicago: Moody Press, 1991.

_____ "Young David and the Practice of Wisdom." In Integrity of Heart, Skillfulness of Hands, pp. 50-61. Edited by Charles H. Dyer and Roy B. Zuck. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1994.

Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm. I and II Samuel. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976.

Hindson, Edward E. The Philistines and the Old Testament. Baker Studies in Biblical Archaeology series. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1971.

Hodges, Zane C. "The Salvation of Samuel." Grace Evangelical Society News 1Sa_9:3 (May-June 1994):1, 3-4.

_____. "The Salvation of Saul." Grace Evangelical Society News 1Sa_9:4 (July-August 1994):1, 3.

Hoffner, Harry A., Jr. "A Hittite Analogue to the David and Goliath Contest of Champions?" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 30 (1968):220-25.

Horner, Tom. Jonathan Loved David: Homosexuality in Biblical Times. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1978.

Howard, David M., Jr. An Introduction to the Old Testament Historical Books. Chicago: Moody Press, 1993.

_____. "The Transfer of Power From Saul to David in 1Sa_16:13-14." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 32:4 (1989):473-83.

Humphreys, W. Lee. "From Tragic Hero to Villain: A Study of the Figure of Saul and the Development of 1 Samuel." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 22 (February 1982):95-117.

_____. "The Rise and Fall of King Saul: A Study of an Ancient Narrative Stratum in 1 Samuel." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 18 (October 1980):74-90.

_____. "The Tragedy of King Saul: A Study of the Structure of 1 Samuel 9-31." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 6 (February 1978):18-27.

Janzen, J. Gerald. "’Samuel Opened the Doors of the House of Yahweh’ (1Sa_3:15)." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 26 (June 1983):89-96.

Jobling, David. "Saul’s Fall and Jonathan’s Rise: Tradition and Redaction in 1Sa_14:1-46." Journal of Biblical Literature 95:3 (1976):367-76.

Johnson, John E. "The Old Testament Offices as Paradigm for Pastoral Identity." Bibliotheca Sacra 152:606 (April-June 1995):182-200.

Josephus, Flavius. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Translated by William Whiston. Antiquities of the Jews. London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1866.

Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward Old Testament Ethics. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1983.

Kallai, Zechariah. "Judah and Israel-A Study in Israelite Historiography." Israel Exploration Journal 1Sa_28:4 (1978):251-61.

Keil, C. F. and Franz Delitzsch. Biblical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. Translated by James Martin. Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1960.

Kessler, Martin. "Narrative Technique in 1 Samuel 16, 1-13." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 32:4 (October 1970):543-54.

Kirkpatrick, A. F. The First Book of Samuel. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges series. Cambridge, Eng.: University Press, 1891.

Kitchen, K. A. The Bible In the World. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1977.

Klein, Ralph W. I Samuel. Word Biblical Commentary series. Waco: Word Books, 1983.

Kochavi, Moshe, and Aaron Demsky. "An Israelite Village from the Days of the Judges." Biblical Archaelolgy Review 1Sa_4:3 (1978):19-21.

Kohler, Ludwig. Old Testament Theology. Translated by A. S. Todd. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1957.

Laney, J. Carl. First and Second Samuel. Everyman’s Bible Commentary series. Chicago: Moody Press, 1982.

Lange, John Peter, ed. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures. 12 vols. Reprint ed., Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1960. Vol. 3: Samuel- Kings, by Chr. Fr. David Erdmann and Karl Chr. W. T. Bahr. Translated, enlarged, and edited by C. H. Toy, John A. Broadus, Edwin Harwood, and W. G. Sumner.

Lemche, Niels Peter. "David’s Rise." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 10 (November 1978):2-25.

Levenson, Jon D. "1 Samuel 25 as Literature and as History." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 40 (1978):11-28.

Longman, Tremper, III and Raymond B. Dillard. An Introduction to the Old Testament. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2006.

Luck, G. Coleman. "The First Glimpse of the First King of Israel." Bibliotheca Sacra 123:489 (January-March 1966):60-66.

_____. "The First Meeting of Saul and Samuel." Bibliotheca Sacra 124:495 (July-September 1967):254-61.

_____. "Israel’s Demand for a King." Bibliotheca Sacra 120:477 (January-March 1963):56-64.

Mackie, G. M. Bible Manners and Customs. New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1898.

Martin, John A. "Studies in 1 and 2 Samuel. Bibliotheca Sacra 141:561 (January-March 1984):28-42; 562 (April-June 1984):131-45; 563 (July-September 1984):209-22; 564 (October-December 1984):303-14.

Mathewson, Steven D. "Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming Old Testament Narratives." Bibliotheca Sacra 154:616 (October-December 1997):410-35.

Mavrodes, George I. "David, Goliath, and Limited War." Reformed Journal 33:8 (1983):6-8.

Mazar, Benjamin. "The Military elite of King David." Vetus Testamentum 13 (1963):10-20.

McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr. I Samuel. Anchor Bible series. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1980.

_____. "The Apology of David." Journal of Biblical Literature 99:4 (1980):489-504.

McFall, Leslie. "The Chronology of Saul and David." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 53:3 (September 2010):475-533.

McKane, William. I and II Samuel. London: SCM Press, 1963.

Mendelsohn, I. "Samuel’s Denunciation of Kingship in the Light of the Akkadian Documents from Ugarit." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 143 (October 1956):17-22.

Merrill, Eugene H. "1 Samuel." In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament, pp. 431-55. Edited by John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1985.

_____. "The Book of Ruth: Narration and Shared Themes." Bibliotheca Sacra 142:566 (April-June 1985):130-41.

_____. Kingdom of Priests. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1987.

_____. "Paul’s Use of ’About 405 Years’ in Act_13:20." Bibliotheca Sacra 138:551 (July-September 1981):246-57.

Meyer, F. B. David: Shepherd and King. Condensed Christian Books series. Westchester, Ill.: Good News Publishers, 1960.

_____. Samuel the Prophet. Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, n.d.

Milgrom, Jacob. "Of Hems and Tassels." Biblical Archaeology Review 1Sa_9:3 (May-June 1983):61-65.

Miller, J. Maxwell. "Saul’s Rise to Power: Some Observations Concerning 9:1-10:16; 10:26-11:15 and 13:2-14:46." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 36:2 (1974):157-74.

Miller, Patrick D., Jr. and J. J. M. Roberts. The Hand of the Lord: A Reassessment of the "Ark Narrative" of 1 Samuel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1977.

Miscall, Peter D.: A Literary Reading. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Monson, James M. The Land Between. Jerusalem: By the author, P.O. Box 1276, 1983.

Morgan, G. Campbell. Living Messages of the Books of the Bible. 2 vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1912.

Munn-Rankin, J. M. "Diplomacy in Western Asia in the Early Second Millennium B.C." Iraq 18 (1956):68-110.

The NET (New English Translation) Bible. First beta printing. Spokane, Wash.: Biblical Studies Press, 2001.

The New Bible Dictionary, 1962 ed. S.v. "Dagon," by Kenneth A. Kitchen.

Newsome, James D., Jr., ed. A Synoptic Harmony of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986.

Payne, David F. I & II Samuel. Daily Study Bible series. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1982.

Payne, J. Barton. "Saul and the Changing Will of God." Bibliotheca Sacra 129:516 (October-December 1972):321-25.

Pell, Peter J., Jr. First Samuel Bible Class Notes. Grand Rapids: Gospel Folio Press, n.d.

Pentecost, J. Dwight. Thy Kingdom Come. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications, Victor Books, 1990.

Pfeiffer, Charles F., and Howard F. Vos. The Wycliffe Historical Geography of Bible Lands. Chicago: Moody Press, 1967.

Ridout, Samuel. King Saul. Bible Truth Library series. New York: Loizeaux Brothers, n.d.

Roberts, J. J. M. "The Hand of Yahweh." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_21:2 (1971):244-51.

Rushing, Ronald Lee. "Phinehas’ Covenant of Peace." Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1988.

Sailhamer, John H. The Pentateuch as Narrative. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992.

Schwantes, Siegfried J. A Short History of the Ancient Near East. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1965.

Segal, M. H. "The Composition of the Books of Samuel." Jewish Quarterly Review 55 (1964-65):318-39; 56 (1965-66):32-50.

Sellers, Ovid R. "Sling Stones in Biblical Times." Biblical Archaeologist 1Sa_2:4 (1939):41-44.

Sewall, R. B. The Vision of Tragedy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1962.

Sharpe, Norvelle Wallace. "David, Elhanan, and the Literary Digest." Bibliotheca Sacra 86 (July 1929):319-26.

Shaviv, Shemuel. "Nabi and Nagid in 1 Samuel IX 1 - X 16." Vetus Testamentum 34:1 (January 1984):108-13.

Simon, Uriel. "Samuel’s Call To Prophecy: Form Criticism with Close Reading." Prooftexts 1Sa_1:2 (May 1981):119-32.

Smith, H. P. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel. International Critical Commentary series. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1904.

Smith, J. M. P. "The Character of King David." Journal of Biblical Literature 52 (1933):1-11.

Smith, Morton. "The So-Called ’Biography of David’ in the Books of Samuel and Kings." Harvard Theological Review 44 (1951):167-69.

Stek, John. The Former Prophets: A Syllabus. Unpublished, 1985.

Student Map Manual. Jerusalem: Pictorial Archive (Near Eastern History) Est., 1979.

Sturdy, John. "The Original Meaning of ’Is Saul Also Among the Prophets?’ (1 Samuel X 11, 12; XIX 24)." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_20:2 (April 1970):206-13.

Swindoll, Charles R. David: A Man of Passion and Destiny. Great Lives from God’s Word series. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1997.

Talmon, Shemaryahu. King, Cult, and Calendar in Ancient Israel: Collected Studies. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986.

Thiele, Edwin R. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1965.

Thomas, D. Winton. "A Note on noda’ in I Samuel XXII. 6." Journal of Theological Studies 1Sa_21:2 (October 1970):401-2.

Thomson, Clive A. "Samuel, the Ark, and the Priesthood." Bibliotheca Sacra 118:417 (July-September 1961):259-63.

Tidwell, N. L. "The Linen Ephod: 1 Sam. II 18 and 2 Sam. VI 14." Vetus Testamentum 1Sa_24:4 (October 1974):505-7.

Tsevat, Matitiahu. "Studies in the Book of Samuel." Hebrew Union College Annual 32 (1961):191-216; 33 (1962):107-18; 36 (1965):49-58.

Tucker, Stanley D. "The Theology of the Book of Samuel: A Study of God’s Humiliation or Exaltation of Leaders." Biblical Viewpoint 1Sa_12:2 (1978):152-59.

Unger’s Bible Dictionary, 1957 ed. S.v. "Armor, Arms."

Walters, S. D. "The Light and the Dark." In Ascribe to the Lord: Biblical and Other Studies in Memory of Peter C. Craigie, pp. 567-89. Edited by Lyle Eslinger and Glen Taylor. Sheffield, Eng.: Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 1988.

Wells, H. G. The History of Mr. Polly. New York: The Press of the Reader’s Club, 1941.

Wenham, John W. The Enigma of Evil: Can We Believe in the Goodness of God?. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1985.

_____. "Large Numbers in the Old Testament. Tyndale Bulletin 18 (1967):19-53.

West, Stuart A. "The Nuzi Tablets." Bible and Spade 1Sa_10:3-4 (Summer-Autumn 1981):70.

Whitelam, Keith W. "The Defence of David." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 29 (June 1984):61-87.

Wiebe, Donald W. "The Structure of 1 Samuel 3 : Another View." Biblische Zeitschrift 1Sa_30:2 (1986):256-58.

Wiseman, D. J. "Alalakh." In Archaeology and Old Testament Study, pp. 119-35. Edited by D. Winton Thomas. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.

_____. "’Is it peace?’-Covenant and diplomacy." Vetus Testamentum 32:3 (1982):311-26.

Wood, Leon J. Distressing Days of the Judges. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1975.

_____. "Ecstasy and Israel’s Early Prophets." Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 9 (Summer 1966):125-37.

_____. Israel’s United Monarchy. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.

_____. The Prophets of Israel. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1979.

_____. A Survey of Israel’s History. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1970.

Woudstra, Marten H. The Ark of the Covenant from the Conquest to Kingship. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1965.

_____. The Book of Joshua. New International Commentary on the Old Testament series. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1981.

Yamauchi, Edwin M. "Cultural Aspects of Marriage in the Ancient World." Bibliotheca Sacra 135:539 (July-September 1978):241-52.

Young, Edward J. My Servants the Prophets. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1952.

Young, Fred E. "First and Second Samuel." In The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, pp. 273-305. Edited by Charles F. Pfeiffer and Everett F. Harrison. Chicago: Moody Press, 1962.

Youngblood, Ronald F. "1, 2 Samuel." In Deuteronomy-2 Samuel. Vol. 3 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. 12 vols. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein and Richard P. Polcyn. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992.

_____. Faith of Our Fathers. Glendale, Calif.: Regal Books, 1976.