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by Gary H. Everett
STUDY NOTES ON THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
Using a Theme-based Approach
to Identify Literary Structures
By Gary H. Everett
THE EPISTLE OF GALATIANS
January 2013 Edition
All Scripture quotations in English are taken from the King James Version unless otherwise noted. Some words have been emphasized by the author of this commentary using bold or italics.
All Old Testament Scripture quotations in the Hebrew text are taken from Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: With Westminster Hebrew Morphology, electronic ed., Stuttgart; Glenside PA: German Bible Society, Westminster Seminary, 1996, c1925, morphology c1991, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All New Testament Scripture quotations in the Greek text are taken from Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (with Morphology), eds. Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (United Bible Societies), c1966, 1993, 2006, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
All Hebrew and Greek text for word studies are taken from James Strong in The New Strong's Dictionary of Hebrew and Greek Words, Nashville: Thomas Nelson, c1996, 1997, in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004.
The Crucifixion image on the book cover was created by the author’s daughter Victoria Everett in 2012.
© Gary H. Everett, 1981-2013
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form without prior permission of the author.
Foundational Theme The Doctrines of the New Testament Church
Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given,
that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ;
Structural Theme The Office of Jesus Christ as Head over the Church
Who gave himself for our sins,
that he might deliver us from this present evil world,
according to the will of God and our Father:”
Imperative Theme Allowing Christ to Have Preeminence in our Daily Lifestyle
Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free,
and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.
INTRODUCTION TO THE EPISTLE OF GALATIANS
Study Notes on the Holy Scriptures supports the view of the verbal, plenary inspiration of the biblical text of the Holy Scriptures, meaning that every word originally written down by the authors in the sixty-six books of the Holy Canon were God-breathed when recorded by men, and that the Scriptures are therefore inerrant and infallible. Any view less than this contradicts the testimony of the Holy Scriptures themselves. For this reason, the Holy Scriptures contain both divine attributes and human attributes. While textual criticism engages with the variant readings of the biblical text, acknowledging its human attributes, faith in His Word acknowledges its divine attributes. These views demand the adherence of mankind to the supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures above all else. The Holy Scriptures can only be properly interpreted by the guidance of the Holy Spirit, an aspect of biblical scholarship that is denied by liberal views, causing much misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the Holy Scriptures.
The Message of the Epistle of Galatians - It is one thing to be set free from the bondages of this world by God’s amazing grace when we are first saved, but a mature believer understands the struggle to stay free. There are many ways that we can be seduced and tempted back into following the course of this world. We all know Christians who have gone back into the world because of old bondages into which they returned. The epistle of Galatians teaches us that salvation is found exclusively through faith in Jesus Christ and nothing else, while showing us how to stay free from the bondages of this world so that we can live a Spirit-filled and a Spirit-led life. Therefore, some have called it the “Magna Carta of Christian Liberty.”  J. Vernon McGee also calls it “the manifesto of Christian liberty, the impregnable citadel, and a veritable Gibraltar against any attack on the heart of the gospel.” 
 Mark A. Copeland, “The Epistle to the Galatians,” (2009) [on-line]; accessed 17 June 2010; available from http://www.ccel.org/contrib/ exec_outlines/ga/ga_00.htm; Internet. The phrase “The Magna Carta of Christian Liberty” has been used as a subtitle as well for a commentary on Galatians. See Billy E. Simmons, Galatians: The Magna Carta of Christian Liberty (Dallas, Texas: Crescendo Book Publications, 1972).
 J. Vernon McGee, The Epistle to the Galatians, in Thru the Bible With J. Vernon McGee (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Pub., 1998), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), “Introduction.”
Such titles have been placed upon the epistle of Galatians because it makes one of the strongest declarations of salvation by faith in Jesus Christ alone, placing it at the center of a number of great revivals during the two thousand years of Church history. This small epistle became a mighty weapon of the Reformation period because of its liberating message. It restored to the Church its spiritual liberties in Christ. For example, when Martin Luther (1483-1546) needed fuel to launch his attack upon a corrupted Church, he relied heavily upon the epistle of Galatians, because it had transformed his life. J. B. Lightfoot says his commentary on Galatians “cost him more labour, and was more highly esteemed by him, than any of his works.”  For this reason, Martin Luther called it his “Katy von Bora” (an affectionate name given to his wife), saying that he was married to it.  John Bunyan (1628-88) testifies that Martin Luther’s commentary on Galatians was one of his most treasured books outside of the Holy Scriptures.  Luther’s commentary on the epistle of Galatians led to the conversion of John Wesley (1703-91) and Charles Wesley (1707-88) in 1738, which led to the rise of the Methodist movement and revivals in England and other places.  J. B. Lightfoot (1828-89) says the epistle of Galatians provides the “ground” to combat modern Rationalism, which “denies the divine origin of the Gospel.”  In a world that is constantly changing, as even church creeds change through the centuries, the message of Galatians reminds us that the Gospel of Jesus Christ will forever remain unchanged, transforming lives by bringing them to the eternal cross of Calvary.
 J. B. Lightfoot, Galatians, in The Biblical Illustrator, ed. Joseph S.Exell, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Pub. House, 1954), in Ages Digital Library, v. 1.0 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc., 2002), “Introduction.”
 Luther’s Works: Table Talk 54:20. See Martin Luther, Luther’s Works, vol. 54, trans. Theodore G. Tappert, ed. Helmut T. Lehmann (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1967), 20.
 John Bunyan writes, “I do prefer this book of Martin Luther upon the Galatians, excepting the Holy Bible, before all the books that ever I have seen, as most fit for a wounded conscience.” ( Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners 130) See John Bunyan, The Entire Works of John Bunyan, vol. 1, ed. Henry Stebbing (London: James S. Virtue), 19.
 William Holland records the following account of John Wesley’s conversion, saying, “After my return, in speaking with one of our society on the doctrine of Christ, as preached by him, and reading the eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, I was conscious that I was not in the state there described. I became very uneasy, made a diligent search for books treating of faith in Christ, and was providentially directed to Martin Luther's Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians. I carried it round to Mr. Charles Wesley, who was sick at Mr. Bray’s, as a very precious treasure that I had found, and we three sat down together, Mr. Charles Wesley reading the Preface aloud. At the words, ‘What, have we then nothing to do? No, nothing! but only accept of Him who of God is made unto us wisdom and righteousness and sanctification and redemption,’ there came such a power over me as I cannot well describe; my great burden fell off in an instant; my heart was so filled with peace and love that I burst into tears. I almost thought I saw our Saviour!” See John Wesley, The Journals of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M., vol. 1, ed. Nehemiah Curnock (London: Robert Culley, 1909), 475-476.
 J. B. Lightfoot, Galatians, in The Biblical Illustrator, ed. Joseph S.Exell, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Pub. House, 1954), in Ages Digital Library, v. 1.0 [CD-ROM] (Rio, WI: Ages Software, Inc., 2002), “Introduction.”
Introductory Material - The introduction to the epistle of Galatians will deal with its historical setting, literary style, and theological framework.  These three aspects of introductory material will serve as an important foundation for understanding God’s message to us today from this divinely inspired book of the Holy Scriptures.
 Someone may associate these three categories with Hermann Gunkel’s well-known three-fold approach to form criticism when categorizing the genre found within the book of Psalms: (1) “a common setting in life,” (2) “thoughts and mood,” (3) “literary forms.” In addition, the Word Biblical Commentary uses “Form/Structure/Setting” preceding each commentary section. Although such similarities were not intentional, but rather coincidental, the author was aware of them and found encouragement from them when assigning the three-fold scheme of historical setting, literary style, and theological framework to his introductory material. See Hermann Gunkel, The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction, trans. Thomas M. Horner, in Biblical Series, vol. 19, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Fortress Press, 1967), 10; see also Word Biblical Commentary, eds. Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker (Dallas, Texas: Word Incorporated, 1989-2007).
“We dare not divorce our study from understanding the historical setting of every passage of Scripture
if we are going to come to grips with the truth and message of the Bible.”
(J. Hampton Keathley) 
 J. Hampton Keathley, III, “Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah,” (Bible.org) [on-line]; accessed 23 May 2012; available from http://bible.org/seriespage/introduction-and-historical-setting-elijah; Internet.
Each book of the Holy Scriptures is cloaked within a unique historical setting. An examination of this setting is useful in the interpretation of the book because it provides the context of the passage of Scripture under examination. The section on the historical setting of the epistle of Galatians will provide a discussion on its historical background, authorship, date and place of writing, recipients, and occasion. The place and date of writing have been difficult to determine. Paul may have written to the Galatians during his first or second missionary journey; however, early Church tradition says the apostle wrote his epistle to the Galatians from Rome towards the end of his life. The epistle was occasioned by Judaizers who had visited the churches of Galatian and brought confusion over matters of Church creed.
I. Historical Background
The History of the Galatians Ancient historians tell us that the Roman province of Galatia ( Γαλάται ) was located in northern Asia Minor and was made up of three tribes (the Trocmi, the Tolistobogii, and the Tectosages) (Strabo, Geography 12.5).  The Galatians originated from a barbarian tribe called the Celts, with the word Γαλάται being a later form of Κελτοί or Κέλται .  Some of the Celts settled in France and became known as the Gauls.  A large group of the Gauls are said to have later left their homeland in Gaul during the fourth century B.C., traveling over the Alps and into northern Italy.  They continued to migrate southward and eastward into the Grecian peninsula and attacked Delphi in 280 B.C. (Justin 24:4)  Having been invited by Nikomedes I, king of Bithynia, they crossed over into Asia Minor to help him in a civil war.  Three of these migrating tribes eventually settled in north central Asia Minor and established three centers called Ancyra (modern Ankara), Pessinus and Tavium.  During this time of migration, the Gauls became known as “Gallo-Graecians,” which became corrupted into the word “Galatians” (Strabo, Geography 12.5).  Livy tells us that the Gauls continued to expand until they placed the entire region west of the Taurus River under tribute, and even dominated the Syrian kings for a period of time. Livy also tells us that they were a courageous and warring people that brought fear upon the populations around them ( History of Rome 38.16.1-15).  These Galatians were finally defeated by Attalus I, king of Pergamum in 230 B.C. ( History of Rome 38.17.15),  who restricted their confinement to a small northern region of Asia Minor, and thus, the region became known as Galatia. Rome soon grew to power and conquered this group in 189 B.C. under the Roman Consul Manlius Vulso ( History of Rome 38.12-27).  It was the first time that these war-like Gauls had been made subject to foreign powers. Because the Galatians submitted and cooperated with the Romans, such as participating in local wars, their territory was expanded and incorporated into the Roman province called Galatia in 25 B.C. This new province now included the districts of Lycaonia and Isauria as well as portions of Pisidia and Phrygia, and the cities of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Derbe and Lystra, which names we recognize from the book of Acts in Paul’s missionary journeys. Thus, the province of Galatia incorporated many ethnic groups and became the largest Roman province in Asia Minor. It was also one of the most densely populated parts of the known world at this time.
 The Geography of Strabo, vol. 2, in Bohn’s Classical Library (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), 319-321.
 Pausanias writes, “It was late before the name ‘Gauls’ came into vogue; for anciently they were called Celts both amongst themselves and by others.” ( Attica 4.1). See Pausanias: Description of Greece, vol. 1, trans. W. H. S. Jones, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1918), 19; J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 2; Henry Alford, The Greek Testament, vol. 3 (London: Gilbert and Rivington, 1865), 2.
 Julius Caesar, Commentaries on Gallic Wars 6.24. See Julius Caesar, Caesar’s Commentaries Gallic and Wars: With the Supplementary Books Attributed to Hirtius; Including the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish Wars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1872), 153.
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 4.
 Henry Alford, The Greek Testament, vol. 3 (London: Gilbert and Rivington, 1865), 2.
 Henry Alford, The Greek Testament, vol. 3 (London: Gilbert and Rivington, 1865), 2.
 Henry Alford, The Greek Testament, vol. 3 (London: Gilbert and Rivington, 1865), 2.
 The Geography of Strabo, vol. 2, in Bohn’s Classical Library (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1856), 319-321.
 Livy, vol. 11, trans. Evan T. Sage, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1928), 51-55.
 Livy, vol. 11, trans. Evan T. Sage, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1928), 59.
 Livy, vol. 11, trans. Evan T. Sage, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1928), 37-93.
Regarding this ethnic group of Gauls living in northern Asia Minor during and after the time of Christ, Jerome tells us that they retained their original native language until the fifth century A.D.  They spoke the Greek language as well. Thus, they were distinguished from the people around them. Albert Barnes tells us in his introduction to Galatians that Callimachus calls them “a foolish people” in his hymns,  and Hilary, himself a Gaul, calls them “Gallos indociles,” which may have led to Paul saying, “Oh, foolish Galatians” (Galatians 3:1). 
 See Jerome, Commentary on Galatians, Preface to book two ( PL 26 cols. 353-356). See also Jerome, in A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, vol. 6: Jerome: Letters and Select Works, eds. Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, Grand Rapids; Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company; Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1997 [electronic edition]), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2009), 497 (The Commentaries: Galatians).
 Callimachus writes, “…but already beside the temple behold the ranks of the foemen, and already beside my tripods the swords and cruel belts and hateful shields, which shall cause an evil journey to the foolish tribe of the Galatians.” See Callimachus and Lycophron, trans. A. W. Mair, and Aratus, trans. G. R. Mair, in The Loeb Classical Library, eds. T. E. Page, E. Capps, and W. H. D. Rouse (London: William Heinemann, 1921), 101.
 Albert Barnes, Galatians, in Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc., 1997), in P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000), “Introduction.”
Thus, this historical background helps us to understand that there was the Roman province called Galatia as well as a small, distinct ethic group living in the northern part of this province, who were themselves also called “Galatians.”
Paul’s Struggle With Judaism Among the Galatians - The Gospel found its first converts among the Jews, both in Palestine and among the Jewish Diaspora. As it found new frontiers among the Gentile population, the preachers of the Gospel had to reconcile its message with these Gentiles. They had to reexamine the importance and practice of the Mosaic Law and their Jewish system of worship; for much of it found little application among the Gentiles. Was the Gospel an extension of Judaism or an entirely new religion? Was circumcision still valid? Could Jews and Gentiles eat together, and if so, which foods did God not allow them to eat. Thankfully, God raised up Paul the apostle to explain this issue to the Jews as well as the Gentiles. The book of Galatians reveals this struggle among the early Christian converts as it transpired in the region of Galatia.
We find a supplement to this struggle in the early Church in Acts 15:1-29, which we may call the First Church council at Jerusalem. In this meeting, Paul and Barnabas defended the simple conversion and faith of the Gentiles without the need for circumcision, while other Jewish converts still clung to many of their ancient traditions. Paul had recently returned from his first missionary journey where he had evangelized the regions of Asia Minor and witnessed divine miracles and the outpourings of the Holy Spirit among the Gentiles. So, he well knew that God had accepted the Gentiles by their simple faith in Christ Jesus. At this council Paul explained that salvation came through faith alone in the Lord Jesus Christ, without any subsequent participation in the laws of Moses. After much deliberation James, the Lord’s brother and the first bishop of the church at Jerusalem, concluded the meeting by issuing a judgment that granted much liberty to the Gentiles. A compromise was made by saying that the Gentiles should only, “abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well.” (Acts 15:29) Otherwise, the Gentiles were free from all other Jewish practices. The parties agreed to this and went their ways. Paul immediately returned to the regions of Galatia on his second missionary journey to deliver this message as well as to follow-up on these new converts.
Sometime later Paul learned that certain legalistic Jews had come into the region and added certain laws and regulations to the Galatian churches. These Jews attacked Paul’s apostleship, as well as his Gospel and even accused the Churches of too much freedom in their lifestyles. As this caused some of these young Christians to fall from grace, Paul became filled with righteous indignation. With this tone he immediately wrote his epistle to the Galatians. This is why this epistle carries the strongest tone of any Pauline epistle, because their very salvation was at stake.
We have no direct evidence how the Galatians responded to Paul’s letter. However, from Paul’s comments in 1 Corinthians 16:1 and 2 Timothy 4:10 it appears that they received his message and continued to be a part of his ministry activity; for he took up a collection for the poor saints in Jerusalem from them. He later sent Crescens to the Galatians during the scope of his ministry to the churches he had established.
1 Corinthians 16:1, “Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.”
2 Timothy 4:10, “For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia.”
The Churches of Galatia After the Time of Paul - If we follow the Galatian churches into the centuries after Paul’s death, we find them in a climate of heresies. J. B. Lightfoot tells us that the churches in Asia Minor became “the nursery of heresy,” with the churches of Galatia becoming “the stronghold of the Montanist revival, which lingered on for more than two centuries.” There also arose the Ophites, the Manichaeans, and others during the centuries following. Amidst the quarrels of the fourth century the Galatian churches produced two stray bishops, Marcellus and Basilius, who disrupted the churches with their heresies. Lightfoot tells us that one Church father of this period denounced “the folly of the Galatians, who abound in many impious denominations.”  Thus, we find that this region produced problems that challenged the early Church for centuries. However, Lightfoot notes that the Galatian churches did produce some outstanding martyrs during the times of great persecutions. 
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 32-33.
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 33-35.
II. Authorship and Canonicity
In establishing the authorship of the New Testament writings, one must also deal with the issue of canonicity, since apostolic authority was the primary condition for a book to be accepted into the biblical canon of the early Church. This section will evaluate three phases in the development of the canonicity of the epistle of Galatians: apostolic authority, church orthodoxy, and catholicity. The first phase of canonization is called apostolic authority and is characterized by the use of the writings of the apostles by the earliest Church father in the defense of the Christian faith (1 st and 2 nd centuries). The second phase of canonization is called church orthodoxy and is characterized by the collection of the apostolic writings into the distinctive groups of the Gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the Catholic epistles, and their distribution among the churches as the rules of the Christian faith (late 2 nd century thru 3 rd century). The third phase of canonization is characterized by the general acceptance and use of the books of the New Testament by the catholic church, seen most distinctly in the early Church councils (4 th century).
A. Apostolic Authority - Scholars generally agree that the New Testament canon went through several phrases of development in Church history prior to its solidification in the fourth century. F. B. Westcott says the earliest phase is considered the apostolic age in which “the writings of the Apostles were regarded from the first as invested with singular authority, as the true expression, if not the original source, of Christian doctrine and Christian practice.” He says the “elements of the Catholic faith” were established during this period in Church history.  At this time, the early Christian Greek apologists defended the catholic faith during the rise of the heresies of the second century using the writings that carried the weight of apostolic authority. The Church clung to the books that were either written by the apostles themselves, such as Matthew, John, Peter, and Paul, or directly sanctioned by them, such as Mark and Luke, the assistances of Peter and Paul respectively, and the epistles of James and Jude, the brothers of the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, scholars believe apostolic authority was the primary element in selecting the canonical books. This phase is best represented by evaluating the internal evidence of the authorship of these New Testament books and by the external witnesses of the early Church fathers who declare the book’s apostolic authorship and doctrinal authority over the Church.
 Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co., 1875), 21. The Muratorian Canon (c. A.D. 200) alludes to the criteria of apostolic authority for the New Testament writings, saying, “The Pastor, moreover, did Hermas write very recently in our times in the city of Rome, while his brother bishop Pius sat in the chair of the Church of Rome. And therefore it also ought to be read; but it cannot be made public in the Church to the people, nor placed among the prophets, as their number is complete, nor among the apostles to the end of time.” ( Fragments of Caius 3.3) ( ANF 5); Corey Keating says, “In the first two centuries, ‘apostolic authority’ was the important factor in deciding to keep or reject a particular writing.” See Corey Keating, The Criteria Used for Developing the New Testament Canon in the First Four Centuries of the Christian Church (2000); accessed 15 April 2012; available from http://www.ntgreek.org/SeminaryPapers/ ChurchHistory/Criteria for Development of the NT Canon in First Four Centuries.pdf; Internet.
The fact that Paul declares himself the author of the epistle of Galatians, along with its internal characteristics that are distinctly Pauline, with its historical illusions that coincide with the book of Acts and other Pauline epistles, and with the fact that all of the church fathers universally accepted this epistle as genuine together make a case for Pauline authorship that no one has been able to tear down in the last two thousand years. Thus, internal and external evidence gives strong support to Pauline authorship for Galatians. Of all of Paul’s letters, his epistle to the Galatians has been the least challenged. This is because it bears so many unique marks of Paul’s life and ministry.
1. Internal Evidence - Internal evidence overwhelmingly supports Pauline authorship of the epistle to the Galatians. There are three traditional arguments for its authenticity: its declaration, its style, and its theology.
a) The Author Reveals His Identity - We have both direct and indirect identification of the author within the text of this epistle.
i) His Name is Paul - The opening salutation and a verse within the body of the epistle declares Pauline authorship.
Galatians 1:1, “Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)”
Galatians 5:2, “Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.”
This is typically of Paul who introduces his name in every one of his New Testament epistles and ascribes his apostolic authority to God’s will in a number of them ( Eph 1:1 ; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:1; Colossians 1:1). The fact that he refers to his apostolic office in this opening verse further confirms the letter as Pauline.
ii) His Indirect Identity The epistle to Galatians is full of first person statements that indirectly identify the author. He declares himself as “an apostle to the Gentiles” (Galatians 2:2; Galatians 2:8), and his personal testimonies allude to his ministry among the Gentiles (Galatians 1:13-24; Galatians 2:1-14). The author states that he is a Jew (Galatians 2:15). The text contains his lengthy testimonies of his conversion, his two trips to Jerusalem and his rebuke to Peter, which all fit the life and ministry of Paul the apostle (Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:14).
b) Its Style and Structure are Pauline - The style of Galatians appeals to Pauline authorship.
i) The salutation, thanksgiving, doctrinal exposition, application of that doctrine, closing remarks and benediction are all typical of the other Pauline epistles.
ii) The author often uses the first person singular throughout his letters with many personal references to events that he shares in common with the recipients of his epistles.
iii) The two-fold structure of this epistle is typical of all Pauline Epistles; with the first part emphasizing doctrine while the second part emphasizes practical application.
iv) There are many words and phrases that are clearly Pauline in the book of Ephesians.
v) This epistle contains the distinctive citations from the Old Testament as well as marks of adaptations of Old Testament language.
c) Its Doctrinal Themes are Pauline - The doctrinal positions taught within the epistle of Galatians are clearly Pauline with its characteristic emphasis upon justification by faith and the theology of the Cross. Although it contains some unique insights into the doctrines of the Church, there are sufficient references common to other epistles to distinguish it from the other New Testament writers.
2. External Evidence The Church fathers were in universal agreement as to the Pauline authorship of the thirteen epistles New Testament epistles authored under his name. Thus, external evidence supports Pauline authorship of the book of Romans without exception.
It is easy to see how canonicity is a testimony to Pauline authorship when we understand that the debates of the early Church fathers to accept the general epistles of 2 Peter , 2 and 3 John, and Jude was simply a debate about their authorship. Apostolic authorship meant that the works were authentic, and thus, authoritative. It was the writing’s apostolic authority that granted its inclusion into the New Testament canon. Therefore, canonicity was based upon apostolic authority, and this apostolic authority was based upon the authenticity of the writing, and its authenticity was based upon the fact that it was a genuine work of one of the apostles or one who was serving directly under that apostolic authority.
B. Church Orthodoxy - The second phase in the development of the New Testament canon placed emphasis upon Church orthodoxy, or the rule of faith for the catholic Church. F. B. Westcott says, “To make use of a book as authoritative, to assume that it is apostolic, to quote it as inspired, without preface or comment, is not to hazard a new or independent opinion, but to follow an unquestioned judgment.”  The early Church fathers cited these apostolic writings as divinely inspired by God, equal in authority to the Old Testament Scriptures. They understood that these particular books embodied the doctrines that helped them express the Church’s Creed, or generally accepted rule of faith. As F. B. Westcott notes, with a single voice the Church fathers of this period rose up from the western to the eastern borders of Christendom and became heralds of the same, unified Truth.  This phase is best represented in the writings of the early Church fathers by the collection of the apostolic writings into the distinctive groups of the Gospels, the Pauline epistles, and the Catholic epistles, and their distribution among the churches as the rules of the Christian faith (late 2 nd century thru 3 rd century). These collected works of the apostles were cited by the church fathers as they expounded upon the Christian faith and established Church orthodoxy. We will look at two aspects of the development of Church Orthodoxy: (1) the Patristic Support of Authenticity, Authority, and Orthodoxy and (2) Early Versions.
 Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan anc Co., 1875), 12.
 Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan anc Co., 1875), 331.
1. Patristic Support of Authenticity, Authority, and Orthodoxy - The external evidence unanimously supports Pauline authorship of the epistle to the Galatians. The early Church fathers make direct statements declaring Pauline authorship, as well as direct quotes, strong allusions and weak allusions. Direct quotes are word for word citations from this book, strong allusions are apparent paraphrases, and weak allusions are words or phrases that appear to come from this book. We have possible allusions to the epistle of Galatians in Clement, Ignatius, the Epistle of Barnabas, Polycarp, the epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus, and Justin Martyr. We find quotes from it in the writings of Tatian the Syrian, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and Gregory Nazianzen. Even certain early heretics, including the Ophites, made use of it. By the end of the second century, it was well attested to by the early Church fathers, as were all of the Pauline epistles. It was not until the eighteenth century that its authorship was brought into question by a liberal school of scholars. Thus, the epistle of Galatians was used by the Church fathers to establish Church orthodoxy.
Here are a few of the earliest allusions and quotes from the epistle of Galatians. 
 There are many other citations available from the early Church fathers that I have not used to support the traditional views of authorship of the books of the New Testament. Two of the largest collections of these citations have been compiled by Nathaniel Lardner (1684-1768) in The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, 10 vols. (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829, 1838), and by Jacques Paul Migne (1800-1875) in the footnotes of Patrologia Latina, 221 vols. (Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1844-55) and Patrologia Graecae, 161 vols. (Parisiis: Excudebat Migne, 1857-66).
a) Clement of Rome (A.D. 96) Clement of Rome makes a possible allusion to Galatians 1:4.
“On account of the Love he bore us, Jesus Christ our Lord gave His blood for us by the will of God; His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our souls. ” ( The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians 49)
Galatians 1:4, “Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:”
b) The Epistle of Barnabas (A.D. 70-100) - The Epistle of Barnabas discusses the meaning of circumcision as a spiritual application to the believer’s heart, similar to Paul’s discussion of true circumcision in Galatians 5:2-6. (See The Epistle of Barnabas 9) ( ANF 1).
c) Ignatius of Antioch (A.D. 35 to 107) Ignatius makes an allusion to Galatians 1:1.
“Having beheld your bishop, I know that he was not selected to undertake the ministry which pertains to the common [weal], either by himself or by men , or out of vainglory, but by the love of Jesus Christ, and of God the Father, who raised Him from the dead ; at whose meekness I am struck with admiration, and who by His silence is able to accomplish more than they who talk a great deal.” ( The Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians 1)
Galatians 1:1, “Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)”
d) Polycarp (A.D. 69 to 155) - Polycarp quotes from or alludes to the epistle of Galatians, and refers to Paul the apostle as the author.
“These things, brethren, I write to you concerning righteousness, not because I take anything upon myself, but because ye have invited me to do so. For neither I, nor any other such one, can come up to the wisdom of the blessed and glorified Paul . He, when among you, accurately and stedfastly taught the word of truth in the presence of those who were then alive. And when absent from you, he wrote you a letter, which, if you carefully study, you will find to be the means of building you up in that faith which has been given you, and which, being followed by hope, and preceded by love towards God, and Christ, and our neighbour, ‘ is the mother of us all .’ For if any one be inwardly possessed of these graces, he hath fulfilled the command of righteousness, since he that hath love is far from all sin.” ( The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 3:0)
Galatians 4:26, “But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.”
“Knowing, then, that ‘God is not mocked,’ we ought to walk worthy of His commandment and glory.” ( The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 5)
Galatians 6:7, “Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.”
“[This do] in the assurance that all these have not run in vain…” ( The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 9)
Galatians 2:2, “And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain.”
“…who shall believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, and in His Father, who “raised Him from the dead.” ( The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 12)
Galatians 1:1, “Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)”
e) Justin Martyr (A.D. 100 to 165) - Justin Martyr alludes to Galatians 4:9; Galatians 4:12; Galatians 5:20.
“Let the philosophers, then, own as their teachers the Persians, or the Sauromatae, or the Magi, from whom they have learned the impious doctrine of regarding as divine certain first principles, being ignorant of the great First Cause, the Maker of all things, and Creator of those very first principles, the unbeginning God, but reverencing ‘ these weak and beggarly elements ,’ as the apostle says, which were made for the service of man.” ( Second Apology 5)
Galatians 4:9, “But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage?”
“The Word exercises an influence which does not make poets: it does not equip philosophers nor skilled orators, but by its instruction it makes mortals immortal, mortals gods; and from the earth transports them to the realms above Olympus. Come, be taught; become as I am, for I, too, was as ye are .” ( Justin’s Hortatory Address to the Greeks 5)
Galatians 4:12, “Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as ye are: ye have not injured me at all.”
“These have conquered me--the divinity of the instruction, and the power of the Word: for as a skilled serpent-charmer lures the terrible reptile from his den and causes it to flee, so the Word drives the fearful passions of our sensual nature from the very recesses of the soul; first driving forth lust, through which every ill is begotten-- hatreds, strife, envy, emulations, anger, and such like .” ( Justin’s Hortatory Address to the Greeks 5)
Galatians 5:20-21, “Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like:”
f) The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus (early 2 nd c.) - The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus makes a possible allusion to Galatians 4:10.
“And as to their observing months and days, as if waiting upon the stars and the moon, and their distributing…” ( The Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus 4) ( ANF 1)
Galatians 4:10, “Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.”
g) Titan the Syrian (A.D. 110-172) Jerome, in his commentary on Galatians 6:8, cites Titan as quoting from this verse of Scripture.
“‘If any one sows to the flesh, of the flesh he shall reap corruption;’ but he sows to the flesh who is joined to a woman; therefore he who takes a wife and sows in the flesh, of the flesh he shall reap corruption.” ( Fragments) ( ANF 2) ( PL 26 col. 431B)
Galatians 6:8, “For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting.”
h) Irenaeus (A.D. 130 to 200) - Irenaeus quotes Galatians 3:19 as an epistle of Paul the apostle.
“From many other instances also, we may discover that the apostle frequently uses a transposed order in his sentences, due to the rapidity of his discourses, and the impetus of the Spirit which is in him. An example occurs in the [Epistle] to the Galatians, where he (Paul) expresses himself as follows: ‘Wherefore then the law of works? It was added, until the seed should come to whom the promise was made; [and it was] ordained by angels in the hand of a Mediator.’” ( Against Heresies 3.7.2)
Galatians 3:19, “Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.”
i) Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 150 to 215) - Clement of Alexandria quotes Galatians 3:24 and acknowledges Pauline authorship.
“For Paul says that it was given to be a ‘schoolmaster to bring us to Christ.’” ( The Instructor 1.11)
Galatians 3:24, “Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.”
He then cites from Galatians 6:10.
“And this was the meaning of that saying of prophecy, ‘If ye believe not, neither shall ye understand.’ ‘As, then, we have opportunity, let us do good to all, especially to the household of faith.’ And let each of these, according to the blessed David, sing, giving thanks.” ( The Stromata 1.1)
Galatians 6:10, “As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.”
j) Tertullian (A.D. 160 to 225) - Tertullian quotes the book of Galatians and attributes it to Paul.
“Concerning this expectation and hope Paul writes to the Galatians : ‘For we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.’ He says, ‘we wait for it,’ not we are in possession of it. By the righteousness of God, he means that judgment which we shall have to undergo as the recompense of our deeds. It is in expectation of this for himself that the apostle writes to the Philippians: ‘If by any means,’ says he, ‘I might attain to the resurrection of the dead. Not as though I had already attained, or were already perfect.’…. Even as he says to the Galatians : ‘Let us not be weary in well-doing: for in due season we shall reap.’” ( On The Resurrection of the Flesh 23)
“If, therefore, even ‘an angel from heaven should preach any other gospel’ (than theirs), he would be called accursed by us. The Holy Ghost had even then foreseen that there would be in a certain virgin (called) Philumene an angel of deceit, ‘transformed into an angel of light,’ by whose miracles and illusions Apelles was led (when) he introduced his new heresy.” ( The Prescription Against Heresies 6)
“ Paul , in his first epistle to the Corinthians, sets his mark on certain who denied and doubted the resurrection. This opinion was the especial property of the Sadducees. A part of it, however, is maintained by Marcion and Apelles and Valentinus, and all other impugners of the resurrection. Writing also to the Galatians , he inveighs against such men as observed and defend circumcision and the (Mosaic) law.” ( The Prescription Against Heresies 33)
k) Origen (A.D. 185 to 254) Origen quotes from the epistle of Galatians.
“For the expression, “The flesh lusteth against the Spirit,” they take to be applicable not to the flesh, but to this soul…” ( de Principiis 3.4.2)
Galatians 5:17, “For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.”
“And a little after, ‘But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.’ And any one who will take up the Epistle to the Galatians may learn how the passages relating to the marriages,’ and the intercourse with the maid-servants,’ have been allegorized.” ( Against Celsus 4.44)
Galatians 4:26, “But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.”
l) Gregory Nazianzen (A.D. 329 to 389) - Gregory Nazianzen, one of the Cappadocian fathers, supported Pauline authorship and quotes Galatians 1:10.
“Being perfected by the spirit, do not make the Spirit your own equal. If I yet pleased men, says Paul, I should not be the servant of Christ.” ( Orations 37.17)
Galatians 1:10, “For do I now persuade men, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.”
2. Manuscript Evidence Paul’s epistles are found in numerous early Greek manuscripts. One of the earliest manuscripts, the Chester Beatty codex (p46), which was probably written in Egypt near the end of the second century, contains eight Pauline epistles (Romans , 1 & 2 Cor, Gal, Eph, Phil, Col, 1 Thess) and the epistle of Hebrews.  It probably contained the entire Pauline corpus in its original collection. There are a number of third century manuscripts that contain portions of the Pauline corpus, and a number of fourth century manuscripts that originally contained the entire New Testament (Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Sinaiticus). These ancient manuscripts containing the collective body of Pauline epistles testify to the fact that the Church at large circulated these writings as a part of its orthodox faith.
 Philip W. Comfort, and David P. Barrett, eds., The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts (Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., c1999, 2001), in Libronix Digital Library System, v. 2.1c [CD-ROM] (Bellingham, WA: Libronix Corp., 2000-2004), “P46 (P. Chester Beatty II + P. Mich. Inv. 6238).”
3. Early Versions - The earliest translations of the New Testament, written when the canon was being formed, included the Pauline epistles;  the Old Latin (2 nd to 4 th c), the Coptic (3 rd to 4 th c), the Peshitta (4 th c), the Armenian (5 th c), the Georgian (5 th c), and the Ethiopic (6 th c).  The Pauline epistles would not have been translated with the other New Testament writings unless it was considered a part of the orthodox beliefs of the Church at large.
 Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (Oxford: University Press, 1968), 69-86.
 The Old Latin Bible manuscripts of the fifth century, Codex Bezae (Gospels, Acts, Catholic epistles), Codex Claromontanus (Pauline epistles), and Codex Floriacensis (Acts, Catholic epistles, Revelation) were used prior to Jerome’s Vulgate (beginning A. D. 382), and these Old Latin manuscripts testify to the canonization of the twenty-seven books of the New Testament at an early date. See Kurt Aland, Matthew Black, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger, M. Robinson, and Allen Wikgren, eds, The Greek New Testament, Third Edition (United Bible Societies, c1966, 1968, 1975), xxxi-xxxiv.
C. Catholicity - The third and final phase of New Testament canonicity placed emphasis upon the aspect of catholicity, or the general acceptance of the canonical books. F. B. Westcott says, “The extent of the Canon, like the order of the Sacraments, was settled by common usage, and thus the testimony of Christians becomes the testimony of the Church.”  This phase is best represented in the period of Church councils of the fourth century as bishops met and agreed upon a list of canonical books generally accepted by the catholic Church. However, approved canons were listed by individual Church fathers as early as the second century. These books exhibited a dynamic impact upon the individual believers through their characteristic of divine inspiration, transforming them into Christian maturity, being used frequently by the church at large. We will look at two testimonies of catholicity: (1) the Early Church Canons, and (2) Early Church Councils.
 Brooke Foss Westcott, A General History of the Canon of the New Testament (London: Macmillan and Co., 1875), 12.
1. Early Church Canons The thirteen Pauline epistles are found within the earliest Church canons and versions. Thus, they support the epistle of Galatians as a part of the body of Pauline epistles. It is listed in the two earliest canons. Tertullian (A.D. 160-225) tells us that Marcion the heretic accepted it in his Instrumentum (A.D. 140),  and it is found in The Muratorian Canon as one of Paul’s thirteen New Testament epistles (A.D. 180) ( Fragments of Caius 3: Canon Muratorianus 2) ( ANF 5). It is found in every canonical list thereafter. Eusebius (A.D. 260 to 340) includes them in his list of “acknowledged books.”  Athanasius gives us a canonical list includes them (c. 367).  Cyril of Jerusalem (A.D. 315-386) includes them in his list. 
 See Against Marcion 5.17.
 See Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.3.1-7; 3.24-25.
 Athansius, Festal Letters 39.5 (Easter, 367) ( NPF2 4)
 See Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures 4.36 ( NPF2 7)
2. Early Church Councils - The earliest major Church councils named the Pauline epistles as authentic writings; Nicea (c. 325-40), Hippo (393), Carthage (397), and Carthage (419). This would not have been done unless the church at large believed them to be canonical.
During the fourth century, the Roman emperor Constantine was converted to Christianity and ordered Eusebius to produce fifty copies of the Scriptures.  The production and distribution of these Bibles, along with the Church synods that followed, served to confirm the twenty-seven books of the New Testament as canonical and authoritative. The early Church traditions of authorship and authenticity became firmly embedded within their canonicity. Therefore, citations of the New Testament Scriptures and later manuscript evidence after this period of Church history only serve to repeat traditions that had already become well-known and established among the churches of the fourth century.
 Brooke Foss Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, fourth edition (London: Macmillan and Co., 1875), 422-426.
III. Date and Place of Writing
When we turn to the topic of the date and place of writing of the book of Galatians, we find that less is known about this issue than in any of the other Pauline epistles. One reason is that the date and place of writing depends upon one’s view of its destination, whether to the churches of northern or southern Galatia. An early date of writing would support the southern theory, because Paul was addressing churches founded during his first missionary journey, while a later date supports the northern theory because Paul did not evangelize this northern region until his second and third missionary journeys. The early Church fathers generally agreed that Paul wrote the epistle of Galatians from Rome, which requires a later date of writing.
A. Date of Writing - We note that Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians after the events recorded in Galatians 2:1-10, which refer to the Jerusalem Council. Scholars date this event around A.D. 48 to 50. In addition, Peter’s visit to Antioch as recorded in Galatians 2:11-14 probably took place after the council, within a few years’ time. We clearly see that Paul wrote his epistle while at liberty, and not while in prison. Thus, we can conclude that he wrote before his first Roman imprisonment. Since Paul was imprisoned in Acts 21:0, which is dated around A.D. 58, we can initially state that Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians within a nine-year period between A.D. 50 to 58 in which he made two missionary journeys planting and establishing churches.
The only remark within the epistle that has a temporal reference is found in Galatians 1:6, which says, “I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:” The phrase “so soon” suggests that Paul was writing them soon after having evangelized or visited them.
The Northern Galatian Theory - For those who adhere to a northern Galatian hypothesis, a later date is necessary. With this view in mind, we see in the book of Acts that Paul visited the region of Galatia during his second (Acts 16:6) and third (Acts 18:23) missionary journeys, which we date A.D. 50-52 and A.D. 53-57, respectively.
Acts 16:6, “Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,”
Acts 18:23, “And after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.”
A third possible reference to a visit to Galatia is made in Acts 19:1, where Luke tells us that Paul visited the “upper country” before moving down into Ephesus. This upper country could very likely refer to the upland plateau of the northern part of Asia Minor, which included the northern district of Galatia.
Acts 19:1, “And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples,”
Since Paul would have most likely written after the events in Acts 18:23, which took place at the beginning of his third missionary journey (A.D. 53-58), many scholars date Galatians during this third journey. Many scholars have been more particular and date this epistle during Paul’s early stay at Ephesus (perhaps A.D. 54), after having soon departed from the churches of Galatia, since Paul states in Galatians 1:6 that they had so soon departed from the Gospel. Others date this epistle after he left Ephesus and traveled into Macedonia and to Corinth. Lightfoot dates it after the writing of 2 Corinthians and before Romans, at the end of his third missionary journey, perhaps the winter 57 or spring 58, his argument based on the resemblances of these two other epistles. 
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 40-45, 48.
The Southern Galatian Theory - For those who adhere to a southern Galatian hypothesis, an earlier date is possible. This would mean that Paul visited the churches of Galatia during his first missionary journey (date A.D. 48-49), wrote to them immediately afterwards before attending the first Jerusalem Council; then he visited them again on his second missionary journey (50-52 AD.). This group of scholars would have to date the writing of Galatians around A.D. 50 while Paul was at Antioch, while others who support the Southern Galatian theory date it as late as Paul’s arrival in Corinth during his second journey. Thus, the time frame would be narrowed between A.D. 50-52.
If we turn to external evidence for a date of writing, it is interesting to note Nathaniel Lardner  and Albert Barnes,  who tells us that Tertullian  and Epiphanius  maintained that Galatians was the first epistle that Paul wrote, while Theodoret  and others believe it was written in Rome towards the end of Paul’s life. Chrysostom dates it before Paul’s epistle to the Romans.  Thus, we note that the issue of the date and place of writing of Galatians has been disputed since the early Church fathers.
 Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol. 6 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 7.
 Albert Barnes, The Epistle to the Galatians, in Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database (Seattle, WA: Hendrickson Publishers Inc., 1997), in P.C. Study Bible, v. 3.1 [CD-ROM] (Seattle, WA: Biblesoft Inc., 1993-2000), “Introduction: 3 The Date of the Epistle.”
 Some scholars, such as Nathaniel Lardner, believe Tertullian said that Galatians was one of Paul’s earliest epistles when he says, “Now they adduce the case of Peter himself, and the others, who were pillars of the apostolate, as having been blamed by Paul for not walking uprightly, according to the truth of the gospel that very Paul indeed, who, being yet in the mere rudiments of grace, and trembling, in short, lest he should have run or were still running in vain, then for the first time held intercourse with those who were apostles before himself. Therefore because, in the eagerness of his zeal against Judaism as a neophyte, he thought that there was something to be blamed in their conduct even the promiscuousness of their conversation but afterwards was himself to become in his practice all things to all men, that he might gain all, to the Jews, as a Jew, and to them that were under the law, as under the law, you would have his censure, which was merely directed against conduct destined to become acceptable even to their accuser, suspected of prevarication against God on a point of public doctrine.” ( Against Marcion 1.20) In other words, scholars believe Tertullian is saying here that Paul’s rebuke of Peter in his epistle to the Galatians reflects a younger and zealous, but not yet mature, Paul the apostle. Thus, Paul was young when he made this rebuke to Peter, and young when he wrote the epistle of Galatians. See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol. 6 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 7.
 In the Canon of Marcion that is cited by Epiphanius, the book of Galatians is listed first. Epiphanius writes, “Here are what he [Marcion] calls Epistles: 1. 2 Corinthians 4:0 Romans 5:0. Thessalonians. 6. Second Thessalonians. 7. Ephesians. 8. Colossians. 9. Philemon 1:10. Philippians. He also has parts of the so-called Epistle to the Laodiceans.” ( The Panarion of Ephiphanius of Salamis Heresy 42: Against Marcionites 9.4) See Epiphanius, The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamia Book 1 Sects 1-46, trans. Frank Williams (Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1987), 279. J. B. Lightfoot doubts if this Marcion’s list cited by Epiphanius is chronological. See J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 36. Perhaps the reason Galatians is list first by Marcion is not that it was written first, but rather, because of its content, as Tertullian notes, “The epistle which we also allow to be the most decisive against Judaism, is that wherein the apostle instructs the Galatians.” ( Against Marcion 5.2)
 Theodoret writes, “For he certainly wrote the others [epistles] from Rome. And first then, I think he wrote the one to the Galatians; for before the journey into Macedonia, he passed into the region of Phyrgia and Galatia, preaching the Gospel.” ( Preface in the Epistles of St. Paul) (author’s translation) ( PG 82 Chronicles 4:0 1C)
 In his prologue to his commentary on Romans, John Chrysostom lists the order of writing of the Pauline epistles. Regarding the epistle of Galatians, he writes, “And that to the Galatians seems to me to be before that to the Romans.” ( Prologue to Epistle of Romans) ( NPF1 11)
Modern scholars as well give a wide variety of assumptions as to the date and place of writing. Thus, we must conclude that it is impossible to give this epistle to the Galatians a precise date and place of writing.
B. Place of Writing The numerous suggestions by scholars as to the place of writing depends upon what date is chosen. Some say that Galatians was written while residing in Rome, as some printed copies and ancient Greek manuscripts declare in their subscription. Others suggest that it was written about the time Paul wrote his epistle to the Romans. Others suggest that Paul wrote it from the city of Ephesus, in which he resided for a number of years. Still others give it an early date by stating that Paul wrote it in Antioch after his first missionary journey. If Galatians 2:10 is a reference to Paul’s collection for the poor saints a Jerusalem, then we would be willing to accept Rome as the place of writing. However, there is actually no concrete proof within the text or in the writings of the book of Acts or of the early Church fathers to determine the place of writing.
Galatians 2:10, “Only they would that we should remember the poor; the same which I also was forward to do.”
The early Church fathers reflect the tradition that the epistle of Galatians was written from Rome.
1. Theodoret of Cyrrus (A.D. 393-466) - “For indeed he wrote the others from Rome. And on the one hand, I think he wrote the one to the Galatians; for before the journey into Macedonia, he passed through the region of Phyrgia and Galatia, preaching the Gospel. After a certain time in Macedonia, and in Achaia, and indeed having spent time in Asia, he then took off to Judea.” [ PG 82 Chronicles 4:0 1B-C] (author’s translation)
2. Euthalius (5 th c.) - In his argument to the epistle of Galatians, Euthalius writes, “This one he sent from Rome, having seen them and taught them.” ( PG 85 col. 760B) (author’s translation)
3. Pseudo-Athanasius (Synopsis of Sacred Scripture) (4 th -6 th c.) - In the Synopsis of Sacred Scripture, Pseudo-Athanasius (4 th -6 th c.) begins his summary of Galatians by saying, “This one he writes from Rome, having seen and taught them.” ( PG 28 col. 417C) (author’s translation)
4. Ebedjesu (d. 1318) Ebedjesu, the Syrian bishop, reflects medieval tradition by saying Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians from the city of Rome. 
 Ebedjesu writes, “Besides these there are fourteen epistles of the great Apostle Paul…the Epistle to the Galatians, written from Rome, and sent by the same person [Titus].” See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol. 4 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 321; George Percy Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals, vol. 2 (London: Joseph Masters, 1852), 362-363.
5. The Authorized Version (1611) - Euthalius, an unknown deacon of the fifth century, is believed to have provided the testimonies for the subscriptions to the Pauline epistles found in the Authorized Version (1611).  However, not all of these subscriptions match the comments of Euthalius (compare the differences in 1 and 2 Corinthians and 2 Thessalonians). Thus, the committee of the Authorized Version probably relied on various sources for their subscriptions. A subscription attached to this epistle of Galatians in the Authorized Version (1611) reads, “Unto the Galatians, written from Rome.” 
 Matthew George Easton, “Subscriptions,” in Easton’s Bible Dictionary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, c1897), in The Sword Project, v. 1.5.11 [CD-ROM] (Temple, AZ: CrossWire Bible Society, 1990-2008).
 The Holy Bible: A Facsimile in a reduced size of the Authorized Version published in the year 1611, ed. Alfred William Pollard (Oxford: The University Press, 1911).
We read in the opening verses of Paul’s epistle to the Galatians that he is addressing the “churches of Galatia,” so that his primary recipients are a particular group of churches in this region of Asia Minor that Paul probably founded, since he refers to his apostolic authority over them. However, the exact identity of these “Galatians” has been debated among scholars. Thus, the question is asked, “Just who were these people and what was their geographical location?”
The Churches of Galatia We know every little about the history of Paul’s visits to these churches in Galatia, and are only able to glean a few facts from the book of Acts and the epistle of Galatians. Regarding their identity, we immediately look for evidence within the text to see if these churches were a mixture of Jews and Gentiles, or largely one or the other. John Gill describes these churches as largely Jewish converts because of the many references to Jewish practices within the epistle.  For example, Paul includes them with himself as having been under the Mosaic Law, but are no longer under this “schoolmaster” and “tutors and governors” (Galatians 3:23-25; Galatians 4:1-3).
 John Gill, Galatians, in John Gill’s Expositor, in e-Sword, v. 7.7.7 [CD-ROM] (Franklin, Tennessee: e-Sword, 2000-2005), “Introduction.”
Galatians 3:23-25, “But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed. Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.”
Galatians 4:1-3, “Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all; But is under tutors and governors until the time appointed of the father. Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world:”
Paul also rebukes the Galatians for observing “days, and months, and times, and years” (Galatians 4:10), which reflects Jewish traditions.
Galatians 4:8-10, “Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods. But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements, whereunto ye desire again to be in bondage? Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years.”
However, Paul describes Gentile heathen idolatry among them when he says in Galatians 4:8 that they “knew not God” and “served them which were by nature no gods.” We have evidence that the Galatians were previously uncircumcised before conversion (Galatians 5:2-3; Galatians 6:2).
Galatians 5:2-3, “Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. For I testify again to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.”
Galatians 6:12, “As many as desire to make a fair shew in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer persecution for the cross of Christ.”
We can refer to Josephus, who testifies that a number of Jews resided in Ancyra in Galatia. He records the story of how a copy of a decree from Caesar Augustus was posted in the temple at Ancyra which protection for all Jewish worship.
“Caesar Augustus, high priest and tribune of the people, ordains thus: Since the nation of the Jews hath been found grateful to the Roman people, not only at this time, but in time past also, and chiefly Hyrcanus the high priest, under my father Caesar the emperor, it seemed good to me and my counselors, according to the sentence and oath of the people of Rome, that the Jews have liberty to make use of their own customs, according to the law of their forefathers, as they made use of them under Hyrcanus the high priest of the Almighty God; and that their sacred money be not touched, but be sent to Jerusalem, and that it be committed to the care of the receivers at Jerusalem; and that they be not obliged to go before any judge on the sabbath day, nor on the day of the preparation to it, after the ninth hour. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans. I give order that the testimonial which they have given me, on account of my regard to that piety which I exercise toward all mankind, and out of regard to Caius Marcus Censorinus, together with the present decree, be proposed in that most eminent place which hath been consecrated to me by the community of Asia at Ancyra. And if any one transgress any part of what is above decreed, he shall be severely punished.” This was inscribed upon a pillar in the temple of Caesar. ( Antiquities 16.6.2)
With this internal and external evidence, most scholars would agree that these Galatian churches were a mixture of Gentiles and Jewish converts, with the majority being Gentiles as were the other churches that Paul founded in Asia Minor and in Greece.
The Geographical Region of Galatia - Regarding the geographical region, the book of Acts tells us that Paul the apostle first visited the region of Galatia during the early part of his second missionary journey, before crossing over into Macedonia.
Acts 16:6, “Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,”
We have a record of Paul’s second visit to this region of Asia Minor at the beginning of his third missionary journey.
Acts 18:23, “And after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.”
From our study of the origin of the region of Galatia under “Historical Background,” we have learned that there was the Roman province called Galatia of Asia Minor as well as a small ethic group of people living in the northern part of this region who were also called Galatians. Thus, we must ask whom was Paul addressing in his epistle to the Galatians. Was he speaking to the northern group only, or was he including the churches in the southern Roman province of Galatia? There are scholarly arguments that support both views.
A. View One Paul was Referring to Galatia as a Northern, Geographical District of Provincial Galatia Made Up of Mostly an Ethnic Group Early Church tradition up until the nineteenth century supported the view that Paul’s epistle was addressing the churches he founded in the geographical district of Galatia, which was located in the northern part of the larger, Roman province of Galatia. Here are a list of arguments, discussed largely by Donald Guthrie: 
 Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grover, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990), 468-472.
1. The Earliest and Most Popular Use of the term “Galatia” was the Northern District of Galatia Some scholars feel that the popular use of the term “Galatia” during the early centuries of the Church referred to the ethnic, northern district, which had been overrun by Gauls. This was one reason the early Church so quickly and uniformly upheld the northern theory until modern times.
2. Luke’s Use of the Terms Phrygia and Galatia The early Church fathers also appear to have based their view that Paul was writing to the northern, ethnic Gauls upon Luke’s use of the two terms Phrygia and Galatia in the book of Acts. We find these terms used together in Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23, which state that Paul “had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia” (Acts 16:6) and that he “went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia” (Acts 18:23). The early Church fathers understood Paul to be referring to Phrygia and Galatia as two distinct districts within the Roman province of Galatia in both verses. They understood Luke to be using the word “Galatia” only when describing the progress Paul’s work beyond the southern Galatian province. As a result, they interpreted the use of the word “Galatia” in Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23 to be a reference to the northern ethnic group rather than to the larger Roman province of Galatia, since the district of Phrygia was included within it. It is, therefore, within this view of the context of Paul’s journeys in the book of Acts that the northern theory was upheld for nineteen centuries. This would make the most sense, because Paul did not evangelize the entire Roman province of Galatia in one short period. Rather, the book of Acts shows how Paul traveled throughout this large province during all three missionary journeys.
In contrast, the southern theory interprets these two passages in Acts as “the Phrygia-Galatic region”; that is, Luke intended on referring to the Roman province of Galatia as “the Phrygia-Galatic” region, since these were two large ethnic groups located within it. However, some scholars, such as J. B. Lightfoot, object to this “Phrygia-Galatic” interpretation by saying that Luke made a clear distinction between the cities of southern part of the Roman province of Galatia that Paul evangelized, such as Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch, during his first missionary journey, and between his references to Phrygia and Galatia as other districts within this large Roman province during his second and third missionary journeys. Lightfoot explains that Luke’s reference to Galatia did not include these southern cities because of the context of these passages. For example, we see that Luke refers to Pamphylia (Acts 13:13), Pisidia (Acts 13:14) and Lycaonia (Acts 14:6) as distinct, geographical locations also. When referring to towns Luke describes Antioch as a city of Pisidia (Acts 13:14), and Lystra and Derbe as cities of Lycaonia (Acts 14:6). Since Luke preferred to name the districts within the larger, Roman province of Galatia, it is logical to conclude that Luke would have continued to follow this method by referring to Phrygia and Galatia as other districts in this region also. 
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 18-20.
3. Paul’s Movements After Leaving Iconium (Acts 16:6 ) - In addition, Luke’s description of Paul’s second missionary journey implies that he traveled into the northern district of Galatia to plant churches. The word “traveled throughout” in Acts 16:6 implies that Paul did not quickly pass through Phrygia and Galatia, but rather, made a transit with preaching activity. This supports the view that Paul established churches in the northern district of Galatia. Another fact to consider in found in the phrase “having been forbidden to preach the word in Asia,” which necessitates that Paul travel northward and then westward into Mysia. Thus, Luke clearly describes Paul traveling into the northern district of Galatia while preaching the Gospel and very likely planting churches.
4. Northern Galatia Allows Two Visits by Paul In looking for the date of writing, some scholars suggest that Paul makes a reference to more than one visit to the Galatians within the text of the epistle of Galatians. For example, the two verses in Galatians 1:9, “as we said before,” and Galatians 4:16, “Have I become your enemy,” suggest that the Galatians had become Paul’s enemy at his second visit (Acts 18:23), whereas he was welcomed by them at his first visit. The phrase in Galatians 4:13, “I preached the gospel unto you at the first,” implies that Paul preached to them on more than one occasion. Thus, scholars feel that the northern theory more easily allows for Paul to make at least two visits to these people of northern Galatia (as recorded in Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23) before writing his epistle to them. If two visits, it is more likely that Paul would have founded churches in the northern region.
5. Northern Galatia Explains the Fickle Nature of the Gauls The northern theory helps explain the fickle nature of the Gauls as being warmhearted, but prone to vices, as reflected in the epistle of Galatians. J. B. Lightfoot tells us that ancient history describes them as being inclined towards drunkenness, niggardliness, strife, vainglory, anger, impulsiveness, and fickleness.  For example, Julius Caesar records the following description of the Gauls, saying, “Caesar, when informed of these matters, fearing the fickle disposition of the Gauls, who are easily prompted to take up resolutions, and much addicted to change, considered that nothing was to be intrusted to them .”  These characteristics are seen in the way that the Galatians joyfully received Paul and his message, but quickly rejected him and followed the Judaizers. However, we may argue that such characteristics are generally human and that this argument carries little weight. In addition, we must remember that a number of ethnic groups comprised the churches in Galatia.
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 13-17.
 Commentary on the Gallic Wars (4.5). See Julius Caesar, Caesar’s Commentaries Gallic and Wars: With the Supplementary Books Attributed to Hirtius; Including the Alexandrian, African, and Spanish Wars (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1872), 85.
6. The Epistle of Galatians Addresses a Largely Gentile Audience J. B. Lightfoot takes the view that Paul’s epistle to the Galatians addresses largely a Gentile audience, with a nucleus of Jewish converts.  The churches of southern, Roman Galatia would have consisted of a larger group of Jewish converts,  since Josephus records the settlement of a large number of Jews into Phrygia during the time of Antiochus.  Thus, if Paul were addressing southern Galatia, he would have more clearly addressed these Jewish converts. However, this view can be objected to by the fact that the epistle of Galatians also addresses Jews indirectly.
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 26-27.
 William Ramsay writes, “No settlements of Jews are known to have been made in North Galatia by the Greek kings, whereas large bodies of Jews were settled in the cities along the great line of communication through Lycaonia and Southern Phrygia by the Seleucid kings. Thus North Galatian Jewish settlements are later and sporadic.” Wm. M. Ramsay, A Historical Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, c1899, 1965), 169-170, 189-196.
 Josephus records this decree, saying, “Having been informed that a sedition is arisen in Lydia and Phrygia, I thought that matter required great care; and upon advising with my friends what was fit to be done, it hath been thought proper to remove two thousand families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon, unto the castles and places that lie most convenient.” ( Antiquities 12.3.4)
7. A Variation in Historical Evidence All scholars do agree that there is a lack of evidence about Paul’s work in the northern, ethnic district of Galatia within the book of Acts. J. B. Lightfoot notes that Paul’s description of his work with the Galatians within this epistle does not coincide with Luke’s account in the book of Acts. Thus, the conclusion is that Paul must be referring to an additional work not clearly described in Acts. Lightfoot believes that this would support a northern theory. 
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., 1881), 18-22.
B. View Two Paul was Addressing the Galatians as a Southern, Roman Province Which Included the Districts of Galatia, Lycaonia, Pisidia and part of Phrygia Many scholars today feel that the epistle to the Galatians addresses the churches that Paul established in the large Roman province called Galatia, which Paul describes so clearly during his first missionary journey. This is traditionally known as the Southern Theory. As we have already stated, the large southern, Roman province of Galatia included the districts of Lycaonia and Isauria, as well as portions of Pisidia and Phrygia, as well as the cities of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Derbe and Lystra, which names we recognize from the book of Acts in Paul’s missionary journeys. William Ramsay gave this view its strongest support during the late nineteenth century in his books The Church in the Roman Empire (1893) and Historical Commentary on Galatians (1899).  When Ramsay published his archaeological examinations of Paul’s travels in Asia Minor, he concluded that the book of Acts was referring to Galatia as the southern, Roman province. Thus, Ramsey was one of the earliest scholars to take the opinion that Paul was writing to the churches of the southern, Roman province. As a result, many scholars today have abandoned the traditional view because of his arguments. Here are a list of arguments, discussed largely by Donald Guthrie: 
 W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire Before A.D. 170 (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893); Wm. M. Ramsay, A Historical Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, c1899, 1965).
 Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grover, Illinois: Intervarsity Press, 1990), 468-472.
1. Geographical Reasons Suggest Southern Galatia - Based upon the description of Paul’s missionary journeys through these regions within the book of Acts, Ramsey determined that the cities listed in Paul’s missionary journeys were descriptive of the southern, Roman province of Galatia. If Paul’s objective were to establish churches in the major cities of Asia Minor, he would not have felt the need to travel into the northern region. Ramsey emphasizes his believe that Paul would have limited his journeys to areas where Roman control was effective, where Roman communications and infrastructures were available and where the Graeco-Roman culture held a strong influence.
Ramsey also concluded that if Paul had traveled to the northern, ethnic group of Gauls, he would have had to make a detour of about three hundred miles, which he says was unlikely because of the Roman road systems of the day. Luke’s description of Paul’s second missionary journey in the book of Acts takes him through the cities of Derbe and Lystra and then northward along a major Roman road that linked Syria with Greece, where Paul evangelized Phrygia and the region of Galatia. Having then been instructed by the Holy Spirit not to turn south into Asia or north into Bithynia, Paul and Timothy made their way west through Mysia to Troas. However, a journey through rough, mountainous terrain and into Turkey’s central plains to evangelize the northern Gauls appears unlikely.
In order to support these geographical conclusions, Ramsey and others have had to interpret the phrase “Phrygia and the region of Galatia” (Acts 16:6) as “the Phrygia-Galatic region,” seeing these two names as adjectives rather than proper names. This means that Paul was writing to churches in the part of Phrygia that was located in the Roman province of Galatia.
2. Comparison of the Use of the Term Galatia by Paul and Luke and Peter Another argument used by Ramsey and those of this view suggest that Paul was using the name “Galatia” differently in his epistle to them than Luke used it in the book of Acts. They suggest that Luke used local, ethnic titles, while Paul’s epistles used provincial titles when addressing churches. They use the examples of Paul’s references to the churches of Asia (1 Corinthians 16:19), of Achaia (2 Corinthians 1:1), of Macedonia (2 Corinthians 8:1), of Syria and Cilicia (Galatians 1:21) and of Judaea (1 Thessalonians 2:14), all of which are Roman titles. They refer to Peter’s use of the title Galatia in 1 Peter 1:1 as a Roman province, rather than an ethnic group.
1 Corinthians 16:19, “The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house.”
2 Corinthians 1:1, “Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, unto the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints which are in all Achaia:”
2 Corinthians 8:1, “Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit of the grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia;”
Galatians 1:21, “Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia;”
1 Thessalonians 2:14, “For ye, brethren, became followers of the churches of God which in Judaea are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they have of the Jews:”
1 Peter 1:1, “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,”
Unlike Luke, who freely used local, ethnic names of places, supporters of the Southern Theory note that Paul never used the names of cities, such as Lycaonia, Pisidia, Mysia, and Lydia, which were not Roman names. Thus, scholars conclude that Paul must also have used the Roman title for Galatia in writing to the churches in Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch rather than a reference to a particular ethnic group of Gauls in northern Turkey. However, Moffatt argues that Paul did use local titles when mentioning Syria and Cilicia in Galatians 1:21, which together form one Roman province.  However, we must note that Paul was describing his movements in this particular example, rather than the location of churches.
 James Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament, in The International Theological Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911), 94.
3. The Appropriateness of the Name Galatia to Describe Paul’s Churches in the Southern Area Ramsey argues that Paul’s use of the name Galatia would have been an appropriate description of the churches he had founded in the southern region of the Roman province of Galatia during his first missionary journey. These people had been under Roman rule for seventy-five years at the time of Paul’s writing and he argues that they would have easily accepted this title for themselves. However, other scholars suggest that these people of the south would have greatly resented being called “Galatians.”
4. The New Testament Writings Make No Mention of the Northern Gauls An additional argument used by Ramsey is to note that in no place in the New Testament writings or outside of it is there a reference to the Gauls or a church that Paul established in this northern region. In contrast, we have strong New Testament support of the founding of churches in the southern, Roman province of Galatia. With such an important controversy being dealt with in Paul’s epistle to the Galatians, supporters of the southern theory believe that other writers would have mentioned the churches involved. The fact that Luke makes no mention of any particular churches founded by Paul in the northern province of Galatia within the book of Acts supports a southern view. They argue that it is far more probable that Paul was writing to the churches of southern Galatia that Luke also gave much attention to in the book of Acts.
Moffatt counters this argument by noting that Luke also excluded much of Paul’s evangelistic work in places such as Syria, Cilicia and Dalmatia. Thus, Luke’s exclusion of the details of Paul’s work in northern Galatia is not difficult to imagine. 
 James Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament, in The International Theological Library (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911), 96-97.
5. Paul’s Collection of Delegates Contains No Representative from Northern Galatia - The fact that the list of Paul’s companions in Acts 20:4 lists no one from northern Galatia adds further support for the southern theory.
Acts 20:4, “And there accompanied him into Asia Sopater of Berea; and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and Gaius of Derbe, and Timotheus; and of Asia, Tychicus and Trophimus.”
However, we can counter this argument by noting that there are no delegates in this same list from Corinth or Philippi either. In addition, we do find evidence that there were churches from Galatia who participated in Paul’s collection for the saints.
1 Corinthians 16:1, “Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye.”
Thus, we must conclude that Acts 20:4 was not a delegate of men who were strategically appointed, but rather, particular men whom God raised up to travel with Paul for that season.
6. Jewish Legalists More Likely in the South Other scholars have added the argument that it would be more likely for the Jewish legalists, whom Paul refers to in his epistle to the Galatians, to have caused problems in the southern region where Paul was establishing churches than in the northern region where no church is referred to by name. In fact, the book of Acts gives us an account of Jewish opposition in the south region of Galatia.
7. Paul’s Reference to Barnabas in the Epistle of Galatians The fact that Paul refers to Barnabas on three occasions within his epistle to the Galatians (Galatians 2:9; Galatians 2:13; Galatians 4:10) suggests that these recipients were familiar with who he was. We do have an account of Paul and Barnabas evangelizing the southern, Roman province of Galatia during their first missionary journey. However, Barnabas did not accompany Paul during his second and third missionary journeys into Galatia (Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23). Such argument supports a letter to these southern churches rather than to the unknown churches in the north. Thus, we find support for southern Galatia.
Galatians 2:9, “And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.”
Galatians 2:13, “And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation.”
Colossians 4:10, “Aristarchus my fellowprisoner saluteth you, and Marcus, sister's son to Barnabas, (touching whom ye received commandments: if he come unto you, receive him;)”
We can counter this argument by noting that Paul mentions Barnabas to the church at Corinth (1 Corinthians 9:6), of which we have no record that they were familiar with this former companion of Paul.
1 Corinthians 9:6, “Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power to forbear working?”
8. Paul’s Reference in Galatians to the First Jerusalem Council as in Recorded Acts 15:0 and other Incidental Remarks In Galatians 2:1-10 Paul makes a reference to the first Jerusalem council recorded in Acts 15:0 when he tells the Galatians, “To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you.” The phrase “might continue with you” suggests that Paul had already evangelized the Galatians before embarking upon his second missionary journey. This could very likely refer to the work of Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey in southern Galatia. Scholars take other incidental details from Paul’s epistle as a reference to southern Galatia. For example, the phrase “angel of God” (Galatians 4:14) may be an allusion to the incident in Acts 14:12 where he and Barnabas were mistaken for Greek gods. The phrase “marks of Jesus” may be connected to Paul’s stoning in Acts 14:19. However, none of these supposed allusions carries sufficient force to warrant an argument for the southern theory.
Overall, a vast majority of scholars today have accepted the southern theory and abandoned the traditional northern theory. We can see why after the discussions of the pros and cons in this argument. An early date of writing would support the southern theory, while a later date supports the northern theory. Again, the later date carries the support of ancient tradition. However, my personal view is to side with ancient tradition on such issues.
Many of the early converts to Christianity were Jews. After their conversion, many of them continued in their same devout lifestyles of attending the synagogue, offering sacrifices and observing Mosaic rituals and dietary customs. When the Gentiles began to fill these early church assemblies, the issue of Old Testament requirements came into question. This is the setting for which we find Paul dealing with a controversy within the churches of Galatia.
We find within the text of the epistle of Galatians some insight into what occasioned Paul to write to these churches. We see that these converts from Galatian had been initially devoted to Paul the apostle with great zeal upon their conversion, for they saw him as an “angel of God” and “would have plucked out their own eyes, and have given them to him.” (Galatians 4:14-15) We also observe that they were quickly removed from him at a later date in Paul’s statement, “I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel:” (Galatians 1:6) The phrase “so soon” suggests that Paul was writing them soon after having evangelized them.
We know that people of Jewish background, which we call Judaizers, made their way into the church of Galatia at some point in its development. Probably Jewish converts, these people had instigated this trouble regarding circumcision (Galatians 5:1-12) and had challenged Paul’s authority as well as his message. Most believe that these instigators came from outside of Galatia (Acts 15:1). Thus, Paul felt compelled to confront these Jews who were causing the churches to go astray in their faith and jeopardizing their eternal souls. We can suppose that these Galatians had already received the decrees handed down by the first Jerusalem Council in Acts 15:0; however, these Judaizers had brought confusion into the churches over such matters.
This is the harshest of Paul’s letters, as he was so overwhelmed by the disturbing events in the churches of Galatia that he omitted his formal greetings and moves right to the issues at hand, beginning with a harsh rebuke.
The occasion of this letter is well summed up by the words of John Chrysostom:
“Some of the Jews who believed, being held down by the prepossessions of Judaism, and at the same time intoxicated by vain-glory, and desirous of obtaining for themselves the dignity of teachers, came to the Galatians, and taught them that the observance of circumcision, sabbaths, and new-moons, was necessary, and that Paul in abolishing these things was not to be borne. For, said they, Peter and James and John, the chiefs of the Apostles and the companions of Christ, forbade them not.” ( Commentary On the Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians 1:1-3)
LITERARY STYLE (GENRE)
“Perhaps the most important issue in interpretation is the issue of genre.
If we misunderstand the genre of a text, the rest of our analysis will be askew.”
(Thomas Schreiner) 
 Thomas R. Schreiner, Interpreting the Pauline Epistles, second edition (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, c1990, 2011), 11.
Within the historical setting of the early church, the authors of the New Testament epistles chose to write to various groups of believers using the literary style of the formal Greco-Roman epistle, which contains a traditional salutation, the body, and a conclusion. Thus, the New Testament epistles are assigned to the literary genre called “epistle genre,” In the introductory section of literary style, a comparison will be made of the Pauline epistles, as well as a brief look at the grammar and syntax of the epistle of Galatians.
VI. Comparison of Pauline Epistles
The Epistle of Galatians has a number of unique characteristics.
A. Comparison of Tone: A Stern Letter - There is sternness in the atmosphere of this entire letter, unlike any other Pauline epistle recorded in the New Testament. Paul gives them no words of praise, and no congratulations for things accomplished by them, and no requests for prayer. Instead, it was a time for some rebuke from their teacher. They had strayed like children, and had to be disciplined as such. Did not the Lord, our Savior, find a need to do the same with His disciples while on earth? Shortly after blessing Peter and promising to lay the foundation of the Church upon his confession (Matthew 16:17), Jesus rebukes Peter (Matthew 16:23). Jesus Himself could be both gentle and firm.
Matthew 16:17, “And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.”
Matthew 16:23, “But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan : thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.”
On several occasions, Jesus was firm with His disciples. Note:
Matthew 8:26, “And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith ? Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm.”
Matthew 15:16, “And Jesus said, Are ye also yet without understanding ?”
Matthew 16:8, “Which when Jesus perceived, he said unto them, O ye of little faith , why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread?”
Paul threatened to bring this air of correction to the church at Corinth.
1 Corinthians 4:21, “What will ye? shall I come unto you with a rod , or in love, and in the spirit of meekness?”
We read where Paul instructed Timothy to correct in the proper season:
2 Timothy 4:2, “Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke , exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.”
Thus, Paul was in order. We see a side of Paul that exists in many spiritual leaders, though not always seen.
B. Comparison of Style: The Absence of the Usual Opening Thanksgiving and Prayer As a result of Paul’s urgency to communicate to the Galatians and the sternness of his tone, the epistle of Galatians is the only Pauline epistle that omits the usual thanksgivings and prayers to his recipients.
C. Comparison of Style: The Uniqueness of Its Ending The epistle of Galatians has a unique ending in several respects. First, Paul points out that he wrote the ending of this letter with his own hand, perhaps to emphasize the importance of its message to them, and also, to verify beyond doubt its authenticity.
D. Comparison of Style: Highly Autobiographical Next to his second epistle to the Corinthians, Galatians is Paul’s most autobiographical letter. In it he reveals a great amount of details about his personal life that is found nowhere else in the New Testament writings.
E. Comparison of Style: A Balanced Letter - The epistle of Galatians is a balanced letter in the sense that it emphasizes both divine revelation from God (rhema) as well as practical teachings from the Word of God (logos). For example, in this epistle to the Galatians, Paul puts a tremendous amount of emphasis on the many revelations that he had received from the Lord. He referred to his salvation, his calling, and other landmarks in his ministry as occasioned by a divine visitation. Yet at the same time, Paul places the same balanced emphasis on faith in the Word of God and doctrine. Some ministers today place too much emphasis in either direction, and as a result they are not properly balanced. Some ministers may center their ministry on the operation of certain gifts of the Spirit, and not have a good balance of teaching and doctrine. Others may deny the gifts and miracles that are abundant in the church today, and only emphasis Bible preaching or teaching on how to put their faith and trust in God when they do not have a gift or sign to guide them. Both divine revelations and sole faith in the Holy Bible must be a balanced part of every believer's life, as we see in this epistle how it was in Paul's ministry.
Verses that emphasis his revelations:
1. Galatians 1:1, “Paul, an apostle, ( not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ , and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)”
2. Galatians 1:11-12, “But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ .”
3. Galatians 1:15-16, “But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace, To reveal his Son in me , that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:”
4. Galatians 2:1-2, “Then fourteen years after I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and took Titus with me also. And I went up by revelation , and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain.”
5. Galatians 3:5, “He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you , doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?”
Verses that emphasis faith alone in God's Word:
1. Galatians 1:8, “But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed.”
2. Galatians 3:7, “Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.”
3. Galatians 3:26, “For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.”
4. Galatians 5:6, “For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.”
VII. Grammar and Syntax
F. Grammar and Syntax: Frequently Used Words - We can often identify the theme of a book in the Scriptures by noticing the most commonly used words in the book. In the case of the epistle to the Galatians, we see the words, “grace, faith, liberty, and the Cross” used frequently. For example, the word “law’ is used thirty-two (32) times and the word “faith” is used twenty-one (21) times.
“Scholarly excellence requires a proper theological framework.”
(Andreas Kösenberger) 
 Andreas J. Kösenberger, Excellence: The Character of God and the Pursuit of Scholarly Virtue (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway, 2011), 161.
Based upon the historical setting and literary style of the epistle of Galatians, an examination of the purpose, thematic scheme, and literary structure to this book of the Holy Scriptures will reveal its theological framework. This introductory section will sum up its theological framework in the form of an outline, which is then used to identify smaller units or pericopes within the epistle of Galatians for preaching and teaching passages of Scripture while following the overriding message of the book. Following this outline allows the minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ to take his followers on a spiritual journey that brings them to the same destination that the author intended his readers to reach.
The fundamental purpose for the nine Church Epistles is doctrinal, for God used Paul to lay down the doctrines for the New Testament Church, as he built upon the foundational teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ. In addition to a doctrinal purpose, Paul’s epistles give practical instructions on how to apply the teachings of the New Testament Church to the believer’s daily conduct.
A. Apologetic and Doctrinal (Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 4:31 ): To Establish the Believers in the Christian Faith Concerning the Liberty of the Gospel of Jesus Christ - Paul’s primary purpose in writing his epistle to the Galatians was to establish them in the faith concerning their liberty in the Christian faith in light of the preeminence of Christ Jesus over the Church. However, Paul first was compelled to defend his apostolic authority over the church prior to establishing them in the Christian faith. After defending his apostolic authority over the Galatian churches, he confronted doctrinal error and established them in the faith of Jesus Christ.
1. Apologetic: To Defend His Apostolic Authority (Galatians 1:11-19 ; Galatians 2:1-14 ) One of the most obvious reasons that Paul wrote His epistle to the churches of Galatia was to defend his apostolic authority. We see this emphasis in the first two chapters of this epistle (Galatians 1:11-19; Galatians 2:1-14).
2. Doctrinal: To Confront Doctrinal Error (Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31 ) - Paul also wrote his epistle of Galatians to confront the doctrinal errors of the Judaizers. He did this by explaining the relationship of the Mosaic Law to the early Church and the redemptive work of Christ. We see this emphasis in the third and fourth chapters of this epistle (Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31).
Conclusion - The doctrinal purpose of the epistle of Galatians reflects the foundational theme of establishing the doctrines of the New Testament Church. The doctrinal teachings of the believer’s liberty in the Lordship of Jesus Christ reflect the secondary theme of the Epistle.
B. Practical and Hortatory: To Exhort the Churches to Walk in their Liberties in Christ (Galatians 5:1 to Galatians 6:18 ) In addition to a doctrinal purpose, Paul’s epistles give practical instructions on how to apply the teachings of the New Testament Church to the believer’s daily conduct.
Paul’s epistle to the Galatians was a call back into the liberties that they once enjoyed when they were first saved. Thus, this epistle has a practical and hortative note of exhortation. We see this message emphasized in Galatians 5:1 to Galatians 6:18.
Conclusion - The practical purpose of the epistle of Galatians reflects the third theme.
IX. Thematic Scheme
Introduction - Each book of the Holy Scriptures contains a three-fold thematic scheme in order to fulfill its intended purpose, which is to transform each child of God into the image of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:29). The primary, or foundational, theme of a book offers a central claim that undergirds everything written by the author. The secondary, or structural theme, of the book supports its primary theme by offering reasons and evidence for the central “claim” made by the author as it fully develops the first theme. Thus, the secondary theme is more easily recognized by biblical scholars than the other two themes because they provide the literary content of the book as they navigate the reader through the arguments embedded within the biblical text, thus revealing themselves more clearly.  The third theme is imperative in that it calls the reader to a response based upon the central claim and supporting evidence offered by the author. Each child of God has been predestined to be conformed into the image and likeness of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Scriptures, and they alone, have the power to accomplish this task. This is why a child of God can read the Holy Scriptures with a pure heart and experience a daily transformation taking place in his life, although he may not fully understand what is taking place in his life. In addition, the reason some children of God often do not see these biblical themes is because they have not fully yielded their lives to Jesus Christ, allowing transformation to take place by the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit. Without a personal relationship with the Holy Spirit, a child of God is not willing to allow Him to manage his life and move him down the road that God predestined as his spiritual journey. This journey requires every participant to take up his cross daily and follow Jesus, and not every believer is willing to do this. In fact, every child of God chooses how far down this road of sacrifice he is willing to go. Very few of men and women of God fulfill their divine destinies by completing this difficult journey. In summary, the first theme drives the second theme, which develops the first theme, and together they demand the third theme, which is the reader’s response.
 For an excellent discussion on the use of claims, reasons, and evidence in literature, see Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, The Craft of Research (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003).
A. Primary Theme (Foundational) of the Epistle of Galatians The Establishment of Church Doctrines - Introduction - The central theme of the Holy Bible is God’s plan of redemption for mankind. This theme finds its central focus in the Cross, where our Lord and Saviour died to redeem mankind. The central figure of the Holy Scriptures is the Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, the Cross is the place where man meets God and where we die to our selfish ambitions and yield our lives to the God who created all things. Therefore, the Holy Scriptures are not intended to be a precise record of ancient history. Rather, its intent is to provide a record of God’s divine intervention in the history of mankind in order to redeem the world back to Himself through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on Calvary.
Every book of the Holy Bible makes a central claim that undergirds the arguments or message contained within its text. For example, the central claim of the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 6:4, “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD,” to which all additional material is subordinate. The bulk of the material in the Old Testament is subordinate in that it serves as reasons and evidence to support this central claim. This material serves as the secondary theme, offering the literary structure of the book. In addition, the central claim calls for a response, which is stated in the following verse, “And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” (Deuteronomy 6:5) Such a response is considered the third, imperative theme that runs through every book of the Holy Scriptures.
This central claim is the primary, or foundational, theme and is often obscured by the weight of evidence that is used to drive the central message, which weight of evidence makes up the secondary theme; and thus, it contains more content than the primary theme. Therefore, the secondary themes of the books of the Holy Scripture are generally more recognizable than the primary theme. Nevertheless, the central claim, or truth, must be excavated down to the foundation and made clearly visible in order to understand the central theme driving the arguments contained within the book. Only then can proper exegesis and sermon delivery be executed.
1. The Central Themes of the New Testament Epistles: Sanctification of the Believer - There are twenty-one epistles in the New Testament, which the early Church recognized as having apostolic authority so that they were collected into one body, circulated among the churches, an eventually canonized. While the Gospels emphasize the redemptive work of the Lord Jesus Christ in the process justification of the believer, New Testament epistles emphasize the redemptive plan of the Holy Spirit as He works in the process of sanctification for each believer. Thus, the work of sanctification serves as the underlying theme of all twenty-one epistles. In addition, each one emphasizes a different aspect of this divine process of sanctification and they are organized together so that the New Testament is structured to reflect the part of our spiritual journey called sanctification In order to express this structure, each of these epistles have different themes that are woven and knitted together into a unified body of teachings which will bring the believer through the process of sanctification and ready for the rapture of the Church into a place of rest in the glorious hope revealed in the book of Revelation. Therefore, the New Testament epistles were collected together by topic by the early Church.
Of the twenty-one epistles, there are thirteen Pauline epistles and eight designated as General, or Catholic, epistles. We can organize these twenty-one epistles into three major categories: (1) there are epistles that emphasize Church doctrine, which are the nine Pauline epistles of Romans to 2 Thessalonians; (2) there are those that deal with Church order and divine service, which are 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus and Philemon;  and (3) there are those that stress perseverance in the Christian faith, which are Hebrews and the seven General Epistles.  Within Hebrews and the General Epistles, we note that the first three epistles exhort the believer to persevere under persecutions, which come from without the Church (Hebrews, James, 1 Peter), while the other five epistles emphasis perseverance against false doctrines, which come from within (2 Peter , 1, 2, 3 John, Jude).
 For the sake of developing thematic schemes, the epistle of Philemon will be grouped with the Pastoral Epistles as did the Church fathers.
 For the sake of developing thematic schemes, the epistle of Hebrews will be grouped with the General Epistles, although many of the early Church fathers followed the tradition of grouping it with the Pauline epistles.
2. The Central Theme of the Church Epistles: The Establishment of Church Doctrines Of the thirteen Pauline epistles, nine are addressed to seven particular churches. By the third century, the early Church fathers testified as to the emphasis that Paul placed upon church doctrine in his epistles. For example, Gregory of Nazianzus (A.D. 329 to 389) says that Paul wrote the Church epistles in order that the doctrines of the Church are “beyond question.”
“At this point of my discourse I am truly filled with wonder at the wise dispensation of the Holy Spirit; how He confined the Epistles of the rest to a small number, but to Paul the former persecutor gave the privilege of writing fourteen. For it was not because Peter or John was less that He restrained the gift; God forbid! But in order that the doctrine might be beyond question, He granted to the former enemy and persecutor the privilege of writing more, in order that we all might thus be made believers.” ( Lectures 10.18) ( NPF2 7)
Isidore of Pelusium (A.D. d. 450) calls Paul “the expounder of the heavenly doctrines.” ( Epistolarum 1.7) ( PG 78 col. 184C). In his preface to his commentaries on the Pauline Epistles, Theodoret of Cyrrus (A.D. 393-466) writes, “I know to be sure how I cannot escape the tongue of the fault-finders when attempting to interpret the doctrine of the divine Paul.” (author’s translation)  These nine “Church” epistles establish the doctrines of the New Testament Church. Thus, we may call the first nine Pauline epistles “Church Epistles.” In these epistles Paul builds his Church doctrine upon the foundational teachings laid down by Christ Jesus in the Gospels. We acknowledge that “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.” (2 Timothy 3:16) Thus, every book of the Bible will contain doctrine, but these other books do not “add” to Church doctrine; rather, they support the doctrine laid down in the Gospels by Jesus Christ and in these nine Pauline epistles. For example, in the Pastoral Epistles, Paul tells Timothy and Titus to teach sound doctrine (1 Timothy 1:10, 2 Timothy 4:3, Titus 1:9; Titus 2:1), a doctrine that is not contained within the Pastoral Epistles themselves. Therefore, Paul must be referring to doctrine that he taught to the churches, and most certainly doctrine that is contained within the Church epistles. Another example can be found in Hebrews 6:1-2, which refers to the six foundational doctrines of the New Testament Church, doctrines that are not contained within the epistle of Hebrews. This epistle, rather, exhorts us to persevere in the divine doctrine that has previously been laid down, and a doctrine that is most certainly contained within the Church epistles.
 Theodoret, Preface to Interpretation XIV Epistolarum Sancti Pauli Apostoli ( PG 82 Chronicles 3:0 6A).
In order to identify this New Testament doctrine, we must first go to the six foundational doctrines mentioned in Hebrews 6:1-2 in order to identify this doctrine. This passage tells us that everything Jesus Christ said and taught in the Gospels can be summed up in the six foundational doctrines of Christ listed in Hebrews 6:1-2.
Hebrews 6:1-2, “Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment.”
Here we find the six foundational doctrines of the New Testament Church, which were first laid down by Christ in the Gospels.
1. repentance from dead works
2. faith toward God
4. laying on of hands
5. resurrection of the dead
6. eternal judgment
If one were to go through the four Gospels, he would find that all of Christ’s teachings could be placed under one of these six doctrines. Later, the Heavenly Father used Paul to build upon these foundational doctrines through the Pauline epistles in order to establish the Church doctrinally. Before His departure, Jesus Christ told His disciples that He had many things to teach them, but they were not yet ready (John 16:12).
John 16:12, “I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.”
John 16:12 tells us that the message of the Gospel that Jesus Christ taught His disciples was still incomplete at the time of His departure. This implies that we should look to the Epistles to find its fullness. Therefore, it is upon these six foundational doctrines of Christ that Paul lays down the doctrines of the Church. Paul builds upon the two doctrines of repentance from dead works and faith toward God by teaching on the justification of the believer through the redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Paul builds upon the two doctrines of baptisms and of the laying on of hands by teaching on the work of sanctification by the Holy Spirit. Paul builds his eschatology that Jesus began in the Gospels in the two doctrines of resurrection of the dead and of eternal judgment by teaching on the future glorification of the Church, which falls under the divine foreknowledge and election of God the Father. Thus, the Church epistles can be grouped by the three-fold office and ministry of the Trinity.
B. Secondary Theme (Structural) of the Epistle of Galatians The Office of Jesus Christ (Justification) Our Deliverance Through Christ Jesus Allows Us to Walk in Liberty as New Creatures in Christ Introduction - The secondary themes of the books of the Holy Scriptures support the primary themes by offering reasons and evidence for the central “claim” of the book made by the author. Thus, the secondary themes are more easily recognized by biblical scholars than the other two themes because they provide the literary structure of the book as they navigate the reader through the arguments embedded within the biblical text, thus revealing themselves more clearly. For example, the central claim of the Pentateuch declares that the Lord God of Israel is the only God that man should serve, and man is to love the Lord God with all of his heart, mind, and strength, a statement found in the Shema of Deuteronomy 6:4-5, which is the foundational theme of the Old Testament. The books of Hebrew poetry provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his heart as its secondary theme. The books of the prophets provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his mind as its secondary theme, as he set his hope in the coming of the Messiah to redeem mankind. The historical books provide evidence to this claim by expounding upon how man is to love God with all of his strength as its secondary theme.
The central claim of the four Gospel writers is that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, which is the foundational theme of this division of the Holy Scriptures. In addition, each Gospel writer offers evidence as its secondary theme to support his claim. The Gospel of John offers the five-fold testimony of God the Father, John the Baptist, the miracles of Jesus, the Old Testament Scriptures, and the testimony of Jesus Christ Himself as its secondary theme. Matthew expounds upon the testimony of the Old Testament Scriptures as its secondary theme; Mark expounds upon the testimony of the miracles of Jesus as its secondary theme; Luke expounds upon the testimony of John the Baptist and other eye-witnesses and well as that of the apostles in the book of Acts as its secondary theme.
The central claim of the Pauline Church Epistles is that the Gospel of Jesus Christ alone how the power to redeem and transform man into the image of Jesus, which is the foundational theme of this division of the Holy Scriptures. The epistle of Romans supports this claim by offering evidence of mankind’s depravity and God’s plan of redemption to redeem him as its secondary theme. The epistles of Ephesians and Philippians expound upon the role of God the Father in His divine foreknowledge as their secondary theme; the epistles of Colossians and Galatians expound upon the role of Jesus Christ as the head of the Church as their secondary theme; the epistles of 1, 2 Thessalonians , 1, 2 Corinthians expound upon the role of the Holy Spirit in sanctifying the believers as their secondary theme.
The central claim of the Pastoral Epistles is that believers must serve God through the order of the New Testament Church. The epistles of 1, 2 Timothy expound upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a pure heart, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Titus expounds upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a renewed mind, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Philemon expounds upon how to serve the Lord within the Church with a genuine lifestyle, which is its secondary theme.
The central claim of the General Epistles is that believers must persevere in the Christian faith in order to obtain eternal redemption. The epistles of Hebrews, James, and 1 Peter modify this theme to reflect perseverance from persecutions from without the Church. The epistle of Hebrews expounds upon the High Priesthood of Jesus Christ, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of James expounds upon a lifestyle of perseverance through the joy of the Holy Spirit, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of 1 Peter expounds upon our hope of divine election through God the Father, which is its secondary theme. The epistles of 2 Peter , 1, 2, 3, John and Jude reflect perseverance from false doctrines from within. The epistle of 2 Peter expounds upon growing in the knowledge of God’s Word with a sound mind, which is its secondary theme. The epistles of 1, 2, 3 John expound upon walking in fellowship with God and one another with a pure heart, which is its secondary theme. The epistle of Jude expounds how living a godly lifestyle with our bodies, which is its secondary theme.
The Apocalypse of John, though not considered an epistle, emphasizes the glorification of the Church, giving believers a vision of the hope that is laid up before them as a source of encouragement for those who persevere until the end. The central claim of the book of Revelation is that Jesus Christ is coming to take His Bride the Church to Glory. The secondary theme supports this claim with the evidence of Great Tribulation Period.
1. The Secondary Theme of the Church Epistles - Within the nine Pauline “Church” epistles there are three epistles that serve as witnesses of the doctrine of justification through Jesus Christ (Romans, Galatians, Colossians); three serve as witnesses of the doctrine of sanctification by the Holy Spirit (Romans , 1 and 2 Thessalonians , 1 and 2 Corinthians); and three testify of the doctrine of glorification by God the Father (Romans, Ephesians, Philippians). Note that the secondary epistles of Thessalonians and Corinthians can be considered as one witness because they share the same theme with their primary epistles. Noting that the epistle of Romans reflects all three aspects of Church doctrine in his exposition of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the early Church fathers recognized the doctrinal preeminence of the epistle of Romans. For example, Theodoret of Cyrrus writes, “The epistle to the Romans has been placed first, as containing the most full and exact representation of the Christian doctrine, in all its branches; but some say, that it has been so placed out of respect to the city to which it was sent, as presiding over the whole world.” ( PG 82 Chronicles 4:0 4B)  In the same way that the Gospel of John serves as the foundational book of the Gospels as well as the entire New Testament, the epistle of Romans serves as the foundational epistle of the Church epistles because it carries all three themes that the other eight epistles will build upon.
 See Nathaniel Lardner, The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, vol. 5 (London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 1829), 17.
As mentioned above, Paul’s church doctrine builds upon the six-fold doctrine of Christ listed in Hebrews 6:1-2. This means that all of the Pauline church doctrine can be grouped within one of these six foundational doctrines of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. This is what Paul was referring to in 1 Corinthians 3:10-11 and Ephesians 2:20 when he said that he was laying the foundation of Church doctrine in which Jesus Christ Himself was the foundation.
1 Corinthians 3:10-11, “According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon. For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.”
Ephesians 2:20, “And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;”
Thus, Paul’s doctrine can be placed into three groups of doctrine: (1) the foreknowledge, calling and glorification of God the Father, (2) the justification by Jesus Christ His Son, and (3) the sanctification of the Holy Spirit (Romans 8:29). In fact, the six foundational doctrines of Hebrews 6:1-2 can also be placed under the same three-fold office and ministry of God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son and the Holy Spirit by placing two doctrines under each one. Therefore, we will find that the themes of each of the Pauline “Church” epistles finds itself grouped under Paul’s three-fold grouping of justification, sanctification and glorification, and this three-fold grouping is laid upon the six-fold foundation of:
1. Repentance from dead works Justification Jesus Christ
2. Faith toward God Justification Jesus Christ
3. The doctrine of baptisms Sanctification Holy Spirit
4. Laying on of hands Sanctification Holy Spirit
5. Resurrection of the dead Glorification God the Father
6. Eternal judgment Glorification God the Father
The doctrine of faith towards God builds upon the doctrine of repentance from dead works, which is the doctrine of Justification; for we must first repent of our sins in order to receive Christ’s sacrificial death for us. The doctrine of the laying on of hands builds upon the doctrine of baptisms, which is the doctrine of Sanctification. After partaking of the three baptisms (baptism into the body of Christ, water baptism, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit), we move into our calling and anointing through the laying on of hands. The doctrine of eternal judgment builds upon the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which is the doctrine of Glorification. These are the three parts of our redemption that are addressed by the six foundational doctrines that Jesus Christ laid down in the Gospels and Acts. Thus, Paul builds upon these three foundational doctrines of Christ within his nine “Church” epistles.
The epistle of Romans plays a key role in the Church Epistles in that it lays a foundation of doctrines upon which the other eight Epistles build their themes. A mediaeval proverb once said, “All roads lead to Rome.”  This means that anywhere in the ancient Roman Empire, when someone embarked on the Roman road system, if one traveled it long enough, it would lead him to the city of Rome. In a similar way, as all roads lead to Rome, so do all of Paul’s Church Epistles proceed from the book of Romans. In other words, the themes of the other eight Church Epistles build upon the theme of Romans. Thus, the epistle of Romans serves as a roadmap that guides us through the redemptive work of Jesus Christ and into the process of sanctification wrought by the Holy Spirit and finally into the Father’s eternal plan in the lives of mankind through His foreknowledge and divine election, which themes are further developed in the other eight Church Epistles. However, the epistle of Romans is presented largely from the perspective of God the Father divinely orchestrating His plan of redemption for all mankind while the other eight epistles place emphasis upon the particular roles of one of the God-head: the Father, Jesus Christ, or the Holy Spirit. The systematic teachings laid forth in the book of Romans serves as a foundation upon which the other eight epistles to New Testament churches are built. For example, the letter to the Ephesians places emphasis upon the Father’s divine election and equipping of the Church in order to fulfill the purpose and plan of God the Father upon this earth. Philippians emphasizes partnership as we give ourselves to God the Father in order to accomplish His will on this earth. The epistle to Colossians emphasizes the preeminence of Christ Jesus over the Church. Galatians emphasizes the theme of our deliverance and justification by faith in Jesus Christ alone. The theme of 1 and 2 Thessalonians emphasizes the sanctification of the whole man, spirit, soul, and body in preparing us for Christ’s Second Coming. 1 and 2 Corinthians take us to the Cross and shows us the life of sanctification as we live in unity with one another so that the gifts of the Spirit can manifest through the body of Christ, which serves to edify the believers. Paul deals with each of these themes systematically in the epistle to the Romans. Thus, these other eight Church epistles emphasize and expand upon individual themes found in the book of Romans, all of which are built upon the three-fold office and ministry of God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. For this reason, Romans serves as a foundation of the doctrine of Christ Jesus upon which all other New Testament epistles are built.
 The Milliarium Aureum was a monument erected in the central forum the ancient city of Rome by Emperor Caesar Augustus. All of the roads built by the Romans were believed to begin at this point and transgress throughout the Empire. The road system of the Roman Empire was extraordinary, extending east to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and west to the British Isles, and north into central Europe and south into northern Africa. See Christian Hülsen, The Roman Forum: Its History and Its Monuments, trans. Jesse Benedict Carter (New York: G. E. Stechert & Co., 1906), 79; Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds. The Apostolic Fathers With Justin Martyr and Ireneaus, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325, vol. 1 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1913), 1.
a) The Doctrine of the Office and Ministry of God the Father - The epistle of Ephesians is built upon the theme of God the Father’s office and ministry of orchestrating a divine plan of redemption for mankind. While Romans takes a broad view of the Father’s redemptive plan for all of mankind, Ephesians focuses entirely upon the role of the Church in this great plan. And in order for the believer to partake of this divine plan, the Father provides His spiritual blessings in heavenly places (Ephesians 1:3) so that we, the Church, might accomplish His divine purpose and plan on earth. Man’s role is to walk worthy of this calling (Ephesians 4:1) and to fight the spiritual warfare through the Word of God (Ephesians 6:10-13). The epistle of Philippians, which also emphasizes the work of God the Father, reveals how the believer is to serve God the Father so that He can fulfill His divine purpose and plan on earth. In this epistle the believer is to partner and give to support God’s servants who are accomplishing God’s purposes (Philippians 1:5) and in turn, God will provide all of his needs (Philippians 4:19). While Ephesians places emphasize upon the Father’s role in the Church’s glorification, Philippians emphasized the believer’s role in fulfilling the Father’s divine plan of redemption. Ephesians reveals how it looks in Heaven as the Father works redemption for the Church, and Philippians reveals how the Church looks when it is fulfilling the Father’s redemptive plan. Reading Ephesians is like sitting in Heaven while looking down upon earth and getting a divine perspective of the Father’s role in redemption, while reading Philippians is like sitting on the front row of a local church watching men work through the Father’s role in redemption. Thus, the epistle of Philippians is a mirror image of Ephesians.
b) Jesus Christ the Son - The epistle of Colossians reveals the Lordship of Jesus Christ over the Church and His preeminence over all Creation. Man’s role is to fulfill God’s will through the indwelling of Christ in him (Colossians 1:9; Colossians 4:12). The epistle of Galatians, which also emphasizes the work of Jesus the Son in our redemption, teaches us how Jesus Christ has delivered us from the bondages of this world (Galatians 1:4). Man’s role is to walk as a new creature in Christ in order to partake of his liberties in Christ (Galatians 6:15). While the epistle of Colossians emphasizes the role of Jesus Christ our Lord in our justification, Galatians emphasizes our role in having faith in Jesus Christ as our Savior. Colossians reveals how it looks in Heaven as Jesus the Son works redemption, while Galatians reveals how the Church looks when it is walking in the Lordship of Jesus Christ and giving Him preeminence in our daily lives. Reading Colossians is like sitting in Heaven while looking down upon earth and getting a divine perspective of the Son’s role in redemption, while reading Galatians is like sitting on the front row of a local church watching men work through the Son’s role in redemption. Thus, the epistle of Galatians is a mirror image of Colossians.
c) God the Holy Spirit The epistles of 1 and 2 Thessalonians teach us the office of the Holy Spirit, which is to sanctify the believer in spirit, soul and body (1 Thessalonians 5:23) in order to prepare him for the Second Coming of Christ Jesus (2 Thessalonians 1:10). The epistles of 1 and 2 Corinthians, which also emphasizes the work of the Holy Spirit in our redemption, reveals how the believer is to live a crucified life of walking in love and unity with fellow believers (1 Corinthians 16:13-16) in order to allow the gifts of the Spirit to work in and thru him as he awaits the Second Coming of Christ (1 Corinthians 1:7). While the epistles to the Thessalonians emphasize the role of the Holy Spirit in the process of sanctification, the epistles to the Corinthians emphasize our role in this process. 1 and 2 Thessalonians reveal how it looks in Heaven as the Holy Spirit works redemption, while 1 and 2 Corinthians show us how the Church looks when it is going through the difficult process of sanctification through the work of the Holy Spirit. Reading 1 and 2 Thessalonians is like sitting in Heaven while looking down upon earth and getting a divine perspective of the Holy Spirit’s role in redemption, while reading 1 and 2 Corinthians is like sitting on the front row of a local church watching men work through the Holy Spirit’s role in redemption. Thus, the epistles of Corinthians are a mirror image of the epistles of Thessalonians.
Finally, the epistle of Romans deals briefly with all three doctrines in systematic order as Paul the apostle expounds upon the Gospel of Jesus Christ (Romans 1:16-17) in order to establish the saints in the Christian faith (Romans 16:25-27).
d) Illustration of Emphasis of Two Roles in the Pauline Epistles We find a discussion of the important of the two-fold aspect of the writer and the reader in Booth-Colomb-Williams’ book The Craft of Research.  These three professors explain that when a person writes a research paper he must establish a relationship with the intended reader. He does this by creating a role for himself as the writer and a role for the reader to play. This is because conversation is not one-sided. Rather, conversation, and a written report, involved two parties, the reader as well as the writer. Thus, we see how God has designed the Pauline epistles to emphasize the role the writer, by which we mean divine inspiration, and the reader, who plays the role of a believer endeavoring to become indoctrinated with God’s Word.
 Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, The Craft of Research (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003), 17-25.
Perhaps a good illustration of this two-fold aspect of the Trinity’s role and perspective of redemption being emphasized in Ephesians, Colossian and 1 and 2 Thessalonians and man’s role and perspective being emphasized in Philippians, Galatians , 1 and 2 Corinthians is found in a dream that the Lord gave to me in the mid-1990’s. I was serving in my church Calvary Cathedral International in the ministry of helps as an altar worker. This meant that during each altar call we were to follow those who responded to the altar call back into a prayer room and pray with them. One Sunday morning the Lord gave me a dream in which I found myself in my local church during an altar call. As people responded and began to step out into the aisle and walk forward I saw them immediately transformed into children of light. In other words, I saw this transformation taking place in the spiritual realm, though in the natural we see nothing but a person making his way down the aisle. However, I saw these people transformed from sinners into saints in their spirits. I later made my way to church that morning, keenly aware of my impressionable dream a few hours ago. During church the altar call was made, people responded and I followed them into the prayer room along with the associate pastor and other altar workers. Suddenly, the associate pastor, Tom Leuther, who was over the altar work, received an emergency call and had to leave the prayer room. He looked at me and quickly asked me to lead this brief meeting by speaking to those who had responded and turn them over to prayer ministers. As I stood up and began to speak to these people I remembered my dream and was very aware of the incredible transformation that each one of them had made. Thus, Ephesians, Colossian and 1 and 2 Thessalonians discussion redemptive doctrine from a spiritual perspective while Philippians, Galatians , 1 and 2 Corinthians discuss doctrine from a natural, practical perspective, which we see being worked out in the daily lives of believers. In the natural we see a dirty sinner weeping before the altar, but with our spiritual eyes we see a pure and holy saint clothed in white robes.
2. The Secondary Theme of the Epistle of Galatians - In identifying the secondary theme of the New Testament epistles, we must keep in mind that most of Paul’s epistles are built on a format of presenting a central theme, or argument, that runs throughout the entire epistle. This central theme is usually found within the first few verses of each epistle, and often in the closing verses. The first part of the Pauline epistles gives the doctrinal basis for this argument, and the last part gives the practical side of living by this doctrine. So, it is with the epistle to the Galatians. Paul builds a general argument by developing a number of specific arguments. A reader must not lose sight of this general argument or central theme, as he interprets the specific arguments; for the major argument undergirds the minor ones.
The secondary, or structural, themes of each the New Testament epistles can be found in the open verses or passages of each book, and often in the closing verses. This is certainly the case with the epistle to the Galatians. Under the foundational theme of the doctrine of justification by faith in Jesus Christ, Galatians teaches us how Jesus Christ has delivered us from the bondages of this world (Galatians 1:4). Man’s role is to walk as a new creature in Christ in order to partake of his liberties in Christ (Galatians 6:15). The epistle of Galatians teaches us how to walk in the freedom that Christ Jesus has provided for us as new creatures in Christ we allow the Holy Spirit to lead us. This epistle leads us into a lifestyle of freedom as we serve the Lord. While the epistle of Colossians emphasizes the role of Christ Jesus in our justification, Galatians emphasizes our role in being set free by Jesus Christ. Colossians gives us a heavenly perspective of Christ Jesus as head of the church, while Galatians gives us an earthly, practical perspective as new creatures in Him. Note key verses that reveal the theme of this epistle:
Galatians 1:4, “Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world , according to the will of God and our Father:”
Galatians 5:1, “Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free, and be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage.”
Galatians 5:13, “For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty ; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.”
Galatians 6:14-15, “But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature.”
The first four chapters of Galatians teaches us about our liberties in Christ, and the last two chapters teach us how to walk as new creatures in Christ in order to experience these liberties.
J. B. Lightfoot recognized this secondary theme as central to the epistle of Galatians, saying, “…by dwelling on the work of redemption in connexion with the name of Christ (ver. 4), he protests against their doctrinal errors.” 
 J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 1910), 71.
C. Third Theme (Supportive) of the Epistle of Galatians - The Crucified Life of the Believer (Living a Life as a New Creature in Christ Walking in Freedom from the Bondages of this World) Introduction - The third theme of each book of the New Testament is a call by the author for the reader to apply the central truth, or claim, laid down in the book to the Christian life. It is a call to a lifestyle of crucifying the flesh and taking up one’s Cross daily to follow Jesus. Every child of God has been predestined to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:29), and every child of God faces challenges as well as failures in the pursuit of his Christian journey. For example, the imperative theme of the Old Testament is that God’s children are to serve the Lord God with all of their heart, mind, and strength, and love their neighbour as themselves (Deuteronomy 6:4-5).
The child of God cannot fulfill his divine destiny of being conformed into the image of Jesus without yielding himself and following the plan of redemption that God avails to every human being. This 4-fold, redemptive path is described in Romans 8:29-30 as predestination, calling, justification, and glorification. The phase of justification can be further divided into regeneration, indoctrination, divine service, and perseverance. Although each individual will follow a unique spiritual journey in life, the path is the same in principle for every believer since it follows the same divine pattern described above. This allows us to superimpose one of three thematic schemes upon each book of the Holy Scriptures in order to vividly see its imperative theme. Every book follows a literary structure that allows either (1) the three-fold scheme of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: or (2) the scheme of spirit, soul, and body of man; or (3) the scheme of predestination, calling, justification (regeneration, indoctrination, divine service, and perseverance), and glorification in some manner.
1. The Third Imperative Theme of the Church Epistles - Thus, the nine Church Epistles emphasis the office and ministry of God the Father, God the Son Jesus Christ, and God the Holy Spirit. Each of these epistles also reveals a central truth about our Christian life, or a secret truth, or a divine guiding principle, by which we can walk victorious in this life.
a) God the Father. According to Ephesians, the way that God the Father fulfills His divine plan through the Church is by our submission to one another (Ephesians 4:1-2; Ephesians 5:21) and praying in the Spirit (Ephesians 6:18); thus, the enemy of our divine destiny is putting on the old man and walking like the Gentiles in their futile minds (Ephesians 4:17). Philippians expands upon this central truth by explaining the secret to God supplying all of our needs when we take care of God’s servants first (Philippians 2:20); thus, the enemy to having our needs met is selfishness (Philippians 2:21).
b) Jesus the Son. According to Colossians the secret of walking in the fullness and riches and completeness of Christ is by setting our minds on things above (Colossians 3:1-2); thus, the enemy of a full life in Christ is minding these earthly doctrines (Colossians 2:20-23). Galatians expands upon this central truth by telling us the secret to walking in liberty from the bondages of this world is by being led by the Spirit (Galatians 5:16); thus, the enemy of our freedom is walking in the flesh, which brings us back into bondage (Galatians 5:17).
c) God the Holy Spirit. 1 Thessalonians reveals to us that the way we are motivated and encouraged to go through the process of sanctification is by looking for and waiting expectantly for the Second Coming of Christ; thus, the enemy of our sanctification is being ignorant of His Second Coming and pending judgment. 1 Corinthians expands upon this central truth of sanctification by telling us that the secret to walking in the gifts of the Spirit is by walking in unity within the body of Christ (1 Corinthians 1:10); thus, the enemy of walking in the gifts is strife and division (1 Corinthians 1:11).
d) Summary - All three of these doctrines (justification, sanctification and glorification) reveal the process that God is taking every believer through in order to bring him from spiritual death and separation from God into His eternal presence, which process we call divine election. God’s will for every human being is justification through the redemptive work of Jesus Christ on Calvary as He serves as our Great High Priest at the right hand of the Father, into sanctification by the Holy Spirit and into divine service through the laying on of hands, until we obtain glorification and immortality by the resurrection from the dead and are judged before the throne of God. If God be for us, who can be against us? Thus, the nine Church Epistles emphasis the office and ministry of God the Father, God the Son Jesus Christ, and God the Holy Spirit.
2. The Third Imperative Theme of the Epistle of Galatians - The third theme of each of Paul’s church epistles is an emphasis on how to apply the doctrinal truths laid down in the epistle to the Christian life. It is a life of crucifying the flesh and taking up our Cross daily to follow Him. In the epistle of Galatians, our crucified lifestyle is manifested as we walk as new creatures in Christ Jesus. For this is the way that we experience the deliverance from the bondages of this world. Although Jesus set us free by His death, burial and resurrection, we cannot partake of this freedom unless we live as new creatures in Christ Jesus. This is primarily done by being led by the Spirit of God. Every child of God has been predestined to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:29). The epistle of Galatians emphasizes one aspect of this conformity through the crucified life of faith and obedience in Him.
Figure 1 The Themes of the Pauline Church Epistles
X. Literary Structure
The literary structure of the epistle of Galatians must follow the thematic scheme of the book. It is important to note that such a breakdown of this book of the Holy Bible was not necessarily intended by the original author, but it is being used as a means of making the interpretation easier. It is hoped that this summary and outline can identify the underlying themes of the book, as well as the themes of its major divisions, sections and subsections. Then individual verses can more easily be understood in light of the emphasis of the immediate passages in which they are found. Here is a summary of the book of Galatians.
I. The Salutation (Galatians 1:1-5 ) - The Salutation Galatians 1:1-5 is called the salutation and is found in all thirteen of Paul’s New Testament epistles and is used as an introduction to his letters. Paul wrote his salutations as a signature of authenticity (2 Thessalonians 3:17) just like we place our signature today at the end of a document. He may have written entire epistles as indicated in Philemon 1:19. However, there are indications in six of his epistles that Paul used an amanuensis to write most of his letters (see Romans 16:22, 1 Corinthians 16:21, Galatians 6:11, Colossians 4:18, 2 Thessalonians 3:17, Philemon 1:19).
2 Thessalonians 3:17, “The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is the token in every epistle: so I write.”
The salutation of Galatians gives us the underlying theme of this great epistle (Galatians 1:1-5). Through Jesus Christ we have been delivered from the evil powers on this earth (Galatians 1:4) and the epistle of Galatians will take us on a journey of deliverance from the bondages of this world.
II. Explaining Our Liberties in Christ (Galatians 1:6 to Galatians 4:31 ) In Galatians 1:6 to Galatians 4:31 Paul explains our liberties in Christ Jesus. After rebuking the Galatians for their double-minded faith (Galatians 1:6-10) he reminds them of his divine calling which gave him the authority to proclaim the Gospel to the Gentiles (Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21). He then explains the role of the Mosaic Law within the revelation of the new covenant in Christ Jesus (Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31).
A. Opening Rebuke (Galatians 1:6-10 ) - In Galatians 1:6-10 Paul rebukes the Galatians for being brought back into bondage by embracing a false gospel. This false gospel was embraced because they were seeking to please men rather than God. Since Paul was dealing with Judaizers who were challenging Paul’s apostleship and message as well as attempting to bring these Gentiles under the Law of Moses, he launches a two-fold argument. He first explains his divine calling and authority (Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21) and then explains the relationship of the Mosaic Law to the Church (Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31).
B. The Defense of Paul’s Divine Calling as an Apostle to the Gentiles (Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21 ) - Paul opens this epistle to the churches of Galatia by stating that his divine calling was not orchestrated by man, but was entirely brought about by God’s divine interventions in his life. He now explains his opening statement at length by defending his apostleship in Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21. It is important to note that much of the material in this passage regarding Paul’s life is not found in any other place in the New Testament. We can divide this story into several sections. After rebuking the Galatians for their double-minded faith (Galatians 1:6-10) Paul then gives an account of his personal testimony as a witness of the truth of the freedom of the Gospel that he received by revelation from Jesus Christ (Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21). This testimony is a summary of Paul’s spiritual journey in light of the office and ministry of Jesus Christ setting him free from the bondages of this world. Paul could have told the churches of Galatia many other stories of his life and ministry. However, Paul picked out the key events that verified the authenticity of his apostleship, which were his supernatural conversion, his two visits to Jerusalem that sealed him as an apostle to the Gentiles and his zeal for the Gospel.
1. Paul’s Conversion and Gospel Came by Divine Revelation (His Justification) (Galatians 1:11-24 ) In Galatians 1:11-24 Paul places emphasis upon the fact that his conversion and justification through Jesus Christ came by divine revelation apart from any influence from the apostles at Jerusalem. He takes the time to explain how little contact he made with the apostles during his early years of ministry. He tells them about his conversion and explains how he received the Gospel directly by revelation alone (Galatians 1:11-24). Such a divine calling and impartation would place Paul on an equal footing with the other apostles. Paul discusses his extraordinary conversion experience and subsequent experiences after having come out of Judaism (Galatians 1:11-17), then his first, but brief, visit to Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18-19), and finally his zeal for the Gospel (Galatians 1:21-24). In the next passage, Paul will follow this argument by explaining how the apostles in Jerusalem have confirmed the accuracy of his Gospel (Galatians 2:1-10). We can imagine that Paul’s adversaries, the Judaizers, were saying that Paul’s Gospel was incomplete, or that Paul lacked the authority to deliver his message to the Galatians. Thus, Paul was dealing with both accusations. We can read much more details about Paul’s conversion in Acts 9:1-19; Acts 22:6-16; Acts 26:12-18.
a) Paul’s Divine Commission (Galatians 1:11-12 ) In Galatians 1:11-12 Paul states that he received a divine commission and instruction by direct revelation from Jesus Christ, something which no other apostle or person in the New Testament could declare. However, the twelve apostles of the Lamb also receive their commission directly from Jesus Christ while He was alive on earth prior to His Passion and Ascension.
b) Paul’s Former Life in Judaism (Galatians 1:13-14 ) - Few people knew the emptiness of the Jewish religion like Paul the apostle. As a Pharisee, he had experiences the depths of its ceremonies and pursuits for righteousness. He had now totally abandoned this religion, never to return and had replaced this religion with a deep and living relationship with the true God of the Jewish faith. The emphasis of these two verses is Paul’s zeal for his religion, even to the point of persecuting the Church.
It was necessary in some parts of Paul’s epistles to describe the Jewish religion from a positive light, as a people to whom were committed the oracles of God (Romans 3:1-2), and as the people of the covenants of promise (Ephesians 2:11-12). Now in Galatians 1:13-14 Paul has to reveal the negative aspect of the Jewish religion, as one of “traditions” motivated by zeal, rather than out of godly devotion.
Romans 3:1-2, “What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of circumcision? Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.”
Ephesians 2:11-12, “Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:”
c) The Father’s Foreknowledge of Paul (Galatians 1:15-16 ) - Within the first section of Paul’s spiritual journey in which he explains his conversion and justification through faith in Jesus Christ (Galatians 1:11-24) he refers to a previous event of how God the Father separated him from his mother's womb, and called him by His grace to reveal His Son to him so that he might preach Christ among the heathen (Galatians 1:15-16). Within the context of Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21, in which Paul is placing emphasis upon his divine calling, he explains his conversion and calling as a matter of divine providence, an event that God had planned before Paul’s birth. Thus, the emphasis in these two verses is God’s divine providence in his conversion.
d) Paul’s Stay in Damascus (Galatians 1:17 a) and Trip to Arabia (Galatians 1:17 b) - The book of Acts records Paul’s ministry during his first three years in Damascus (Acts 9:19-25). Scholars date Paul’s stay in Damascus around A.D. 37-39. How long he spent in Arabia is not known. After his return from this region, we are told that Paul preached Christ in the synagogues of Damascus. He continued this until the Jews plotted to kill him, whereby the disciples helped him escape over the city walls by night and Paul fled to Jerusalem. It was there that Barnabas stood with Paul and introduced him to the Church at Jerusalem. See find details to this story in Acts 9:19-25.
It is very common for the Lord to pull young Christians aside for periods of solitude. It is during these times that God teaches His children in order to prepare them for the work that He has called them to. Paul’s time in Arabia was not wasted time, but a time for the Lord to teach him the ways of God. It is very likely that Mount Sinai is located in Arabia and that this is the sacred site that Paul visited on this journey.
e) Paul’s First Visit to Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18-19 ) - Many scholars date Paul’s first visit to Jerusalem around A.D. 39, having been converted on the road to Damascus about A.D. 36. The emphasis in these two verses is the fact that Paul did not receive revelation about the Gospel of Jesus Christ from the apostles.
f) Paul Pauses to Confirm His Testimony (Galatians 1:20 ) In Galatians 1:20 Paul inserts a comment to confirm the testimony of his conversion.
g) Paul’s Stay in Syria (Galatians 1:21-24 ) - The book of Acts records Paul’s flight to Syria and Tarsus (Acts 9:30-31). Paul had been preaching the Gospel in Jerusalem and disputing with the Grecians. When they plotted to kill him, the disciples sent him forth to Tarsus via Caesarea. Scholars date Paul’s stay in Syria around A.D. 39-43, approximately 4-5 years.
Acts 9:28-31, “And he was with them coming in and going out at Jerusalem. And he spake boldly in the name of the Lord Jesus, and disputed against the Grecians: but they went about to slay him. Which when the brethren knew, they brought him down to Caesarea, and sent him forth to Tarsus. Then had the churches rest throughout all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied.”
2. Paul’s Gospel Approved by Church at Jerusalem (Sanctification: Doctrine) (Galatians 2:1-6 ) In Galatians 2:1-6 Paul emphasizes his pure doctrine it is identical with and accepted by the apostles at Jerusalem. In this passage he refers to his third trip to the church at Jerusalem, at which time the church heard his doctrine and accepted it.
3. Paul’s Calling Approved by Church at Jerusalem (Sanctification: Calling) (Galatians 2:7-10 ) In Galatians 2:7-10 Paul emphasizes his calling by telling the Galatians how the apostles acknowledged and confirmed his calling as an apostle to the Gentiles. They formally recognized Paul’s calling as an apostle to the Gentiles, who was now preaching the true Gospel.
4. Paul’s Steadfastness to the Gospel (Sanctification: Perseverance) (Galatians 2:11-21 ) In Galatians 2:11-21 Paul emphasizes his perseverance to stay true to the Gospel by giving the Galatians an illustration of how Peter the apostle compromised the Gospel by seeking to please men (Galatians 2:11-21). In Paul’s account of Peter’s fault he refers to “the truth of the Gospel” (Galatians 2:14) as the guideline for Christian conduct. When Paul says, “if I build again the things which I destroyed” (Galatians 2:18), he is referring to the fact that a believer can go back into bondage to the elements of this evil world. In Paul’s account of rebuking Peter, he is trying to illustrate to the Galatians how easily believers can become entangled again with the bondages and fears of this world as they seek to please men. This story reveals that Peter held Paul’s view of Gentile liberties. After this illustration Paul moves into the next phase of his apology in Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31 by explaining that justification comes only by faith in Jesus Christ.
a) Paul and Barnabas Return To Antioch (Galatians 2:11-14 ) In Galatians 2:11-14 we have the account of Paul’s stay in the church at Antioch. Whether this event took place between his first and second missionary (A.D. 51) journey or between his second and third (A.D. 54) is not indicated. The fact that Paul refers to Barnabas suggests that this event took place before they separated while preparing for Paul’s second journey. We see in Galatians 2:11-14 how Peter briefly returned to legalistic thinking, the ways of the Law (Judaism), although he knew Christ.
b) Salvation by Faith in Christ Jesus (Galatians 2:15-21 ) The message of Galatians 2:15-21, whether Paul was addressing Peter or the churches of Galatia, is the declaration that justification before God comes through faith in Jesus Christ, both for the Jews as well as the Gentiles.
C. The Defense of Paul’s Gospel (Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31 ) In Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31 Paul defends his Gospel of justification by faith in Jesus Christ alone. As a basis for this argument he explains to them how the faith that allowed them to receive the Holy Spirit was operated in the Old Testament through Abraham (Galatians 3:1-18). Paul then explains the meaning of the Mosaic Law in light of the New Testament Church (Galatians 3:19 to Galatians 4:7). Finally, he admonishes them to stand fast in their liberties in Christ (Galatians 4:8-31). Thus, Paul contrasts the difference between the New Testament, which establishes righteousness in our lives through the promise of the Spirit, and between the Old Testament Law, which failed to establish righteousness in any individual because of man’s weakness towards sin. In this three-fold defense Paul attempts to stir up their faith in Christ (Galatians 3:1-18), their understanding of Christ (Galatians 3:19 to Galatians 4:7), and their actions for Christ (Galatians 4:8-31), which applies to our spirit, mind and body.
1. The Promise: The Promise of the Spirit Comes by Faith (Galatians 3:1-18 ) In Galatians 3:1-18 Paul explains at length how they received the promise of the Holy Spirit. It was received by faith because of a promise made to Abraham. It came through the redemptive work of Christ Jesus because it was ratified by a covenant with Abraham.
a) The Promise Comes by Faith (Galatians 3:1-5 ) - Paul first tells the Galatians that they received the Holy Spirit by faith apart from their works. This event served as an outward testimony of their right standing before God.
b) The Promise Began in Abraham (Galatians 3:6-9 ) Paul now tells them why it comes by faith. He bases it upon the fact that Abraham was justified before God because of his faith in God’s promises and apart from his own works. Paul explains to the Galatians how they are the seed of righteous Abraham because of their faith in Christ, which righteousness is apart from the Mosaic Law, and thus, apart from their works. They are blessed with Abraham’s blessings because they are his spiritual descendants.
c) The Promise Comes Thru Christ (Galatians 3:10-14 ) - Paul then explains how these blessings reached the Gentiles through Christ’s redemptive work on Calvary. In this passage Paul explains that righteousness has always been imparted by faith in God’s promises, even under the Law of Moses. Since no Jew had fully obeyed every point of the Law, then they were left under its curse. But Christ paid the price for us by becoming a curse for us so that the blessings of Abraham might come to us.
d) The Promise Ratified by a Covenant (Galatians 3:15-18 ) - Finally, Paul explains how the promise comes through Jesus Christ. He says that the promise was established by God’s covenant with Abraham, while the curse of the Law was established by the Mosaic Law. Although the Law was established with a covenant, these blessed promises also were established by a covenant between God and Abraham and his seed, which was Christ. Thus, the Law, which came four hundred and thirty years later, could not disannul this promise.
2. The Law: Explaining the Law in Light of the New Covenant (Galatians 3:19 to Galatians 4:7 ) In Galatians 3:19 to Galatians 4:7 Paul explains the Law in light of the new covenant in Christ Jesus. He does this by using two illustrations from their culture, that of the house keeper attending the son, and that of the son as an heir.
a) The Illustration of the House Attendant (Galatians 3:19-29 ) - Paul then explains how the Law is to be interpreted in light of the New Covenant that we have in Christ Jesus. He first says that the Law was temporary and intended to lead us to Christ by revealing man’s sinful nature (Galatians 3:19-29). He takes an illustration from the Greek culture in order to make his explanation clear. In Paul’s day it was the custom of a house attendant to take the boys of nobility to school and turn them over to the school teacher. In the same way, the Law simply brought us to Christ, and is now no longer needed. The Law revealed man’s sinful nature in that no man living under the Law was able to follow it perfectly. Thus, it made us conscious of our sinfulness and of our need for forgiveness.
b) The Illustration of the Son as an Heir (Galatians 4:1-7 ) - Paul uses a second illustration from the Graeco-Roman culture in order to explain the diminished role of the Law in light of the New Covenant. The illustration in Galatians 4:1-7 explains our liberties by comparing slavery to a free man. This illustration draws from the culture of Paul’s day in which slavery was commonplace. The Gentiles believers could easily relate to such an illustration from their everyday lives. He takes his argument for their right standing before God further by explaining how the fullness of time has come and they are now sons of God and heirs through Jesus Christ. He does this by comparing Judaism to a son who is a minor and Christianity to a son who has reached the age of maturity (Galatians 4:1-7).
3. The Admonition to Stand Fast in their Liberties in Christ (Galatians 4:8-31 ) After explaining to the Galatians their liberties in Christ Paul admonishes them to walk in these liberties. He will give them an illustration of liberty and bondage from the story of Sarah and Hagar.
a) Personal Admonition (Galatians 4:8-20 ) Paul then rebukes the Galatians for retracting from their liberties in Christ (Galatians 4:8-11) and admonishes them to stand fast in these liberties and not return to the bondages of this world (Galatians 4:12-20).
b) Biblical Illustration of Christian Liberty: the Bondwoman and the Freewoman (Galatians 4:21-31 ) - In Galatians 4:21-31 Paul gives us an allegory from the Old Testament Law to explain that we are born of the free woman, and not to the bondwoman. Paul draws upon the biblical analogy of Sarah and Hagar in order to illustrate their heritage of freedom. He explains to them that they are the children of promise, as was the child of Sarah, while Judaism represents the children of bondage, which are the children of Hagar.
We are born in the spirit, not after the flesh. In the fourth chapter of Galatians Paul uses two illustrations to explain their liberties in Christ Jesus. He first uses the illustration of sonship as an heir of Christ (Galatians 4:1-11). Then in Galatians 4:12-20, Paul pleads for the heart of the Galatians to receive him above his competitors. Paul will then use the allegory of Sarai and Hagar to give them a second illustration of their freedom in Christ (Galatians 4:21-31). After giving a Greco-Roman illustration from their culture (Galatians 4:1-7) Paul then takes an illustration from the Hebrew culture, which was the comparison of Sarah and Hagar (Galatians 4:21-31). This illustration could be easily understood by those Jewish converts who were a part of the churches in Galatia.
Note how appropriate this illustration is since in John 8:33-47 the Pharisees claimed that their inheritance was in the lineage of Abraham, rather than in the faith of Abraham.
III. Exhortation to Walk in Liberty (Galatians 5:1 to Galatians 6:10 ) - After writing at length about his divine calling and the relationship of the Mosaic Law within the new covenant in Christ Jesus Paul then exhorts the Galatians to stand fast in their freedom and not to be entangled again with the yoke of bondage. In order to walk in this freedom in Christ Jesus, Paul gives them some guidelines to follow regarding the mental, spiritual and physical aspects of their lifestyle (Galatians 5:1 to Galatians 6:10).
A. Mental: Understanding Our Liberties (Galatians 5:1-15 ) Galatians 5:1-15 places emphasis upon our mental realm by helping the Galatians to understand their liberties in Christ Jesus. Paul first exhorts them to make a decision to stand fast in their liberties (Galatians 5:1) and not to have any other mindset (Galatians 5:10). Their freedom in Christ will be maintained by developing their mental understanding of their liberties and making a decision not to compromise in any area.
B. Spiritual: Walking in Our Liberties (Galatians 5:16-26 ) - Galatians 5:16-26 places emphasis upon the spirit realm where Paul explains how to walk in liberty by being led by the Holy Spirit. In this passage Paul explains the need to develop their inner spirit by learning how to be led by the Spirit and no longer yield to the lusts of the flesh (Galatians 5:16).
C. Physical: Helping Others to Walk in Their Liberties (Galatians 6:1-10 ) - Galatians 6:1-10 places emphasis upon the physical realm. In this passage Paul asks the Galatians to practice acts of love as they direct our bodies. They do this by supporting one another in this effort to maintain a Christian conduct (Galatians 6:1-10). They are to support the weak as well as the strong. They are to share one another’s burdens restoring the weak (Galatians 6:1-5) and supporting those who are mature and guiding others in the faith (Galatians 6:6). For in doing so, we are sowing to the spirit and reaping a spiritual harvest (Galatians 6:7-10).
IV. Conclusion (Galatians 6:11-18 ) - Paul closes his letter to the Galatians with a final reminder of his apostleship over them (Galatians 6:11-18). He reveals to them the selfish motive of his adversaries (Galatians 6:12-13) and compares it to his selfless motive (Galatians 6:14). He then gives a one sentence summary of his epistle by telling them that the important issue is not whether one is circumcised or not, but whether he is being molded and transformed into the image of Christ as a new creature (Galatians 6:15). He gives a final blessing to those who adhere to his doctrine (Galatians 6:16) and a final witness of his apostolic authority over them (Galatians 6:17) before his benediction prayer (Galatians 6:18).
XI. Outline of Book
The following outline is a summary of the preceding literary structure; thus, it reflects the theological framework of the epistle of Galatians: its purpose, its three-fold thematic scheme, and its literary structure. As a result, this outline offers sermon sections that fit together into a single message that can be used by preachers and teachers to guide a congregation or class through the epistle of Galatians. This journey through Galatians will lead believers into one aspect of conformity to the image of Christ Jesus that was intended by the Lord, which in this book of the Holy Scriptures is to prepare Christians to walk as new creatures in Christ Jesus, liberated from the bondages of this world and being led by the Holy Spirit.
I. Salutation Galatians 1:1-5
II. Explaining Our Liberties in Christ Galatians 1:6 to Galatians 4:31
A. Opening Rebuke Galatians 1:6-10
B. The Defense of Paul’s Apostleship Galatians 1:11 to Galatians 2:21
1. Paul’s Conversion (Justification) Galatians 1:11-24
a. Paul’s Divine Commission Galatians 1:11-12
b. Paul’s Former Life in Judaism Galatians 1:13-14
c. Paul’s Conversion (A.D. 36) Galatians 1:15-16
d. Paul’s Stay in Damascus (A.D. 37-39) Galatians 1:17
e. Paul’s First Visit to Jerusalem (A.D. 39) Galatians 1:18-19
f. Paul Pauses to Confirm His Testimony Galatians 1:20
g. Paul’s Stay in Syria (A.D. 39-43) Galatians 1:21-24
2. Paul’s Gospel (Sanctification: Doctrine) Galatians 2:1-6
3. Paul’s Calling (Sanctification: Calling) Galatians 2:7-10
4. Paul’s Steadfastness (Sanct: Perseverance) Galatians 2:11-21
a. Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch Galatians 2:11-14
b. Salvation by Faith in Christ Jesus Galatians 2:15-21
C. The Defense of Paul’s Gospel Galatians 3:1 to Galatians 4:31
1. The Promise of the Spirit Galatians 3:1-18
a. The Promise Comes by Faith Galatians 3:1-5
b. The Promise Began in Abraham Galatians 3:6-9
c. The Promise Comes Thru Christ Galatians 3:10-14
d. The Promise Ratified by Covenant Galatians 3:15-18
2. The Law Galatians 3:19-29
a. The Illustration of the House Attendant Galatians 3:19-29
b. Illustration of the Son as an Heir Galatians 4:1-7
3. The Admonition to Stand Fast Galatians 4:8-31
a. Personal Admonition Galatians 4:8-20
b. Biblical Illustration of Sarah & Hagar Galatians 4:21-31
III. Exhortation to Walk in Liberty Galatians 5:1 to Galatians 6:10
A. Mental: Understanding Our Liberties Galatians 5:1-15
B. Spiritual: Walking in Our Liberties Galatians 5:16-26
C. Physical: Helping Others to Walk in Liberty Galatians 6:1-10
IV. Conclusion Galatians 6:11-18
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the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29